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said muliani

iran-saqarTvelos urTierToba
I-VI saukuneebSi

saqarTvelo Tavisi saukeTeso geografiuli mdebareobis gamo


yovelTvis iyo Zlieri mezoblebis yuradRebis centrSi da saukuneebis
manZilze civiliziciaTa gzajvaredins da damakavSirebels warmoadgenda.
amis Sedegad qarTvelebi sxva erebisa da qveynebis kulturisa da
civilizaciis elementebs iTvisebdnen da amiT qarTuli sazogadoeba
mdidrdeboda. Tumca es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom qarTvelebi sxva
xalxebis gavlenis qveS eqceodnen, piriqiT, isini arasodes kargavdnen
TviTmyofadobas.
irans da saqarTvelos midielebis droidan, anu iranuli pirveli
ariuli dinastiidan, hqoniaT kavSirebi. albaT es iqneboda hovaxSaTras
dros, romelmac gaaZliera da gaafarTova iranis maSindeli mTavroba.
herodotes TqmiT, aqemenidebs kolxebi nebayoflobiT xarks uxdidnen
100 gogos da 100 biWis saxiT _ xuT weliwadSi erTxel. garda amisa,
kolxebs samxedro valdebulebac hqondaT nakisri sparselebis mimarT;
isini weliwadSi 300-500 talantamde vercxls uxdidnen iranelebs
gadasaxadis saxiT.
irans da saqarTvelos medianTa da aqemenianTa dros mWidro kavSirebi
hqondaT. rogorc akad. g. wereTeli brZanebs: Sua aziisa da amierkavkasiis
mier aqemenianTa imperiaSi ganviTarebuli administraciuli, sazogadoebriv-
politikuri da samarTlebrivi struqturebis gacnobas udidesi
mniSvneloba hqonda am regionebisaTvis.
pirveli saukuneebi iranSi parTiis dinastiiT iwyeba, romelic
daaxloebiT xuTi saukunis manZilze gagrZelda. am periodSi parTiam
aziidan, xolo romma evropidan somxeTis winaaRmdeg gailaSqres. maT mxari
auba saqarTvelos mefe farsmanma, romelmac daipyro somxeTi da iqaur
mmarTvelad Tavisi Zma mirdati dasva. pirvel saukuneSive qarTvelebma
alanebTan erTad araerTxel gailaSqres iranSi da iqidan didZali nadavli
gaitanes.
marTalia, qarTvelebi romaelTa da iranelTa winaaRmdeg medgrad
ibrZodnen, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom iransac da romsac
kulturuli TvalsazrisiT didi gavlena hqondaT qarTvelebze. didi xnis
manZilze, sanam farnavaz mefe anbans SemoiRebda, berZnul, iranul,
arameul mecnierebaSi iyvnen gawafulebi. amis damadasturebelia mcxeTis
maxloblad aRmoCenili orenovani Zegli (e.w. bilingva), romelic ekuTnis
mcxeTeli pitiaxSis _ zevaxis asuls, serafitas. Zegli berZnul da
arameul enebzea dawerili da ekuTvnis warmarTul epoqas. Zegli qarTul-
sparsul kavSirebzec mianiSnebs (sityva `faTiaxSi" niSnavs parTiis mefis
warmomadgenels).
sasanidTa dros saqarTvelos mniSvneloba ormagad gaizarda, maTi da
romis erToblivi interesebis gamo, Crdiloeli momTabare tomebis
Tavdasxmebisagan Tavdasacavad. mniSvnelovania isic, rom am periodSi
saqarTvelom miiRo qristianoba, rac sruliad ar moswonda zirovatrian
sasanidebs.
338 wels, rodesac jer nisibinis zavis vada jer kidev ar iyo
bolomde gasuli, iranis Sahma safur II-m daiwyo moqmedeba romaelTa
winaaRmdeg. qarTli am periodSi mokavSire iyo, Tumca misi aqtiuri
monawileoba brZolaSi ara Canda. 350 wels romaelebma elCi gagzavnes
mokavSireebTan uxvi saCuqrebiT, maT Soris mirianTan da arSakTan _
qarTlis da somxeTis mefebTan.
358 wels iranelebi SeiWrnen saqarTveloSi, qarTlis mefe saurmagi
taxtidan Camoagdes da varaz-bakuri dasves. meoTxe saukunis 70-ian wlebSi
iranelebma qarTlis samefo mTlianad daimorCiles. cixe-qalaq TbilisSi
ijda maTi moxele - pitiaxSi.
iranis gabatonebis Semdeg qarTlis mefeebi ibrZodnen
TavisuflebisaTvis da am miznis ganxorcielebas ramdenime maTgani Seewira
kidec.
iranelTa mizani iyo savsebiT moespoT is Sinagani damoukidebloba,
romelic SerCenodaT maT qveSevrdom amierkavkasiis qveynebs. iranelebma
gadamwyveti brZola gamoucxades qristianul eklesias. maTi mizani iyo
qristianuli religiis mazdeanuriT Secvla. Tavisi miznis misaRwevad
iranelebi moxerxebulad iyenebdnen dapyrobili qveynebSi arsebul
viTarebas. am periodSi qarTlsa da amierkavkasiis sxva qveynebSi
mimdinareobda feodalizacis procesi, rac gulisxmobs brZolas
centralur xelisuflebasa da centridanul Zalebs Soris. am procesSi
mefisa da adgilobrivi feodalebis interesebi miwebis mflobelobisa da
Tanamdebobebis dakavebis sakiTxebSi ar emTxvevoda erTmaneTs. amiT
isargebla iranma da SeZlo feodalTa nawilis gadabireba.
vaxtang mefis dros iransa da saqarTvelos Soris kavSiri gaizarda.
50-60-ian wlebSi vaxtang mefe iranelTa jarTan erTad ramdenime omSi
monawileobda Sua aziasa da indoeTSi. man dasavleTi da samxreT-
dasavleTi saqarTvelo SemoierTa. miuxedavad imisa, rom vaxtang mefe
daexmara irans, maT Soris momavalSi araerTi brZola gaimarTa da swored
502 wels, samgoris velze gamarTul omSi igi sasikvdilod daiWra da
maleve gardaicvala.
532 wels iransa da bizantias Soris dadebulma e. w. "uvado zavma"
iranis mdgomareoba ganamtkica. bizantiam scno iranelTa batonoba
aRmosavleT saqarTveloze, ris Semdegac gauqmda mefoba qarTlSi da
iranelTa mmarTveloba damyarda. pirvelad xosrom iranSi
administraciuli reorganizacia moaxdina da qveyana oTx vilaieTad, anu
kustakad dahyo. saqarTvelo miekuTvneboda afaxtaris, anu dasavleTis
kustaks.
qveynis marTva-gamgeobaSi iranelebma farTod moizides adgilobrivi
warCinebulebic. Sahebi cdas ar aklebdnen, rom dasayrdeni gaeCinaT did
aznaurebSi. maT erisTavebs memkvidreobiT daumtkices qarTlis mefeebisgan
odesRac samoxeled da droebiT micemuli qveynebi. qarTlis saTaveSi
mdgomi marzpanis rezidencia TbilisSi iyo. marzpani qarTlis uzenaesi
samoqalaqo da samxedro xelisufleba iyo. saqarTvelos qalaqebs anu
Sahrebs marzpanebi marTavdnen, romlebic kustakis ufross _ spaspets
emorCilebodnen.
eWvgareSea, rom irani Tavisi siZlieriT da simdidriT yovelTvis did
da mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenda saqarTveloze. saqarTveloc xan iranis,
xan ki iranis metoqis xelSi iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo am
qveynebTan SedarebiT Zalian mcire Zalas warmoadgenda, qarTvelebi
arasodes kargavdnen brZolis xaliss da survils sakuTari qveynis
gaTavisuflebisaTvis; yovelTvis gmirulad ibrZodnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom es
gavlenebi yovelTvis calmxrivi ar yofila da qarTvelebsac, TavianTi
SesaZleblobidan gamomdinare, hqondaT gavlena mezobel qveynebze, rac
momdevno saukuneebSi ufro cxadad da Rrmad moCans.

SAID MULIANI

IRANO-GEORGIAN RELATIONSHIPS IN A.D. I-VI CENTURIES

Because of its geographic location Georgia has always been in the center of
attention of her neighboring countries. For centuries it presented the connecting
crossroads of civilizations. Owing to this fact the Georgians adopted cultural elements of
various nations and countries to enrich their society. However, they were not submissive
to the foreign influences and always maintained their identity.
Iran and Georgia had been related since the Median epoch and these relationships
became stronger during the Achaemenid Empire.
Iran and Rome exerted their cultural influence on Georgia for long periods. Before
Parnavaz introduced the Georgian alphabet Georgians were well versed in Greek, Iranian
and Aramaic scholarships. This is approved by the bilingual inscription excavated in the
vicinity of Mtskheta written in Greek and Aramaic languages belonging to the heathen
epoch. The monument also suggests the Georgian and Persian contacts.
During the Sassanid Empire the importance of Georgia increased two-fold because
of the joint interests of Iran and Rome to defend their lands from the raids of the northern
tribes. It is also noteworthy that Georgia embraced Christianity during this period.
Iranians declared a full-scale war on Christianity. To achieve her aim Iran made
extensive use of the situations in the subjugated countries.
During the reign of King Vakhtang Georgia’s contacts to Iran became more
efficient, although the relations remained tense.
No doubt, Iran exerted great influence on Georgia with its strength and wealth.
Georgia fell under almost permanent control either of Iran or Iran’s vying countries.
However, Georgians never gave up the wish to fight for the liberation of their country
and underwent heroic battles. It must be also noted here that Georgians also exercised
more or less influences on their neighbors that became evident during the subsequent
centuries.