You are on page 1of 77

ARIC Arabic Class Notes

Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Topics
Parts of Speech English vs. Arabic
Arabic Alphabets
Arabic Vowel Signs
Indefinite & Definite

Noun Endings
The Nominal Sentence

Visiit http://AbdurRahman.Org/ for More Resources


1

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Mar. 1, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Initial version

Mar. 10, 2010

1.1

Zahid Naeem

Multiple Corrections (e.g., to , genetive to genitive)

There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah

Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Parts of Speech English vs. Arabic

English has eight parts of speech


1. Noun (A word which refers to a person, a place, or a thing, e.g. teacher, town, bus)
2. Pronoun (A word like he, they, and we used to replace a noun)
3. Adjective (A word that describes a noun, e.g. a tall man)
4. Adverb (A word that gives additional information about how, when or where an action takes
place, e.g. He walked slowly, They will arrive tomorrow)

5.
6.
7.
8.

Interjection (A word that is independent of other words and is used as is, e.g. hello and hi)
Verb (The action or doing word, e.g. sleep, eat, drink)
Conjunction (A word joining two clauses in a sentence, e.g. and, because, but)
Preposition (A word used to relate a noun or pronoun to some other part, e.g. of, at)

Arabic has only three parts of speech


1. Noun
2. Verb

3. Particle
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Parts of Speech English vs. Arabic

English

Arabic

Noun
Pronoun
Adjective

Noun

Verb

Adverb
Interjection
Verb
Conjunction
Preposition

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Particle

Arabic Alphabets

Arabic has 29 letters of alphabet


Consonants (have speech sound) : 28
Alif: serves two purposes

Elongates a consonant, e.g.

Act as a bearer of ( hamza), e.g.

10

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Arabic Vowel Signs

There are 3 short vowel signs in Arabic

Fathah (
) denoting a, e.g. da ()

Kasrah (
)denoting i, e.g. di ()

Dummah (
) denoting u, e.g. du ()

Absence of a vowel sign is denoted by Sukun () , e.g. notice in

Long vowels are formed by adding the associated letters to the short vowels

to elongate fathah, e.g. daa ()


to elongate kasrah, e.g. dii ()
to elongate dummah, e.g. duu ()

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Indefinite & Definite

)or definite ()
Like English, Arabic nouns can be indefinite (

An indefinite noun is indicated by , which doubles the vowel sign at the end
of the word, e.g.

A book
A chair -

A Definite noun is indicated by


prefixed to the noun. This also results in
eliminating the at the end of the word, e.g.


The book -

The chair -

and cannot coexist. So will be incorrect


Please note many proper nouns, e.g. , end with , but they are still
definite

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

Noun Endings

In Arabic, nouns have different endings to show their function in a sentence

)
These are called noun cases (

English
Name
Nominative

Accusative
Genitive

Arabic
Name

Ending
Vowel Sign

Function in a
sentence

Examples

Dummah

Subject

Fathah

Object of a verb

Kasrah

Possessor of a
thing, or comes
after a preposition
or an adverb

, ,,

, , ,

, , ,

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

)
The Nominal Sentence (

A sentence that starts with a noun


Has a subject ( ) and a predicate ()
The subject is always nominative ()

The predicate is always nominative () , if it is one word


The subject is mostly definite ()

)
The predicate is mostly indefinite (

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 1 (ver. 1.1)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes


Part 2 (ver. 1)

Topics
This ( ) vs. That ()
Solar vs. Lunar Letters
The Joining Hamza (
)


Examples from Quran (
, ,
)
What ( ) vs. Who (
)
Particle of Interrogation and Answer

Visiit http://AbdurRahman.Org/ for More Resources


1

This ( ) vs. That ()

Demonstrative pronoun ()

:

:

That is a door ()

Like all pronouns, these are definite


These are masculine , i.e. these are used when pointing to
masculine nouns
They have feminine counterparts will learn later

and are pronounced as and respectively,


but are written without the alif

This is a book ()
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)

Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2)

Of 28 consonant letters, 14 letters are called solar letters (



) and 14
are called lunar letters (

)

This distinction is only for pronunciation of words starting with these letters
when prefixed with ( the definite article)
Articulation of solar letters involves the tip of the tongue, e.g.,

, , , ,
Tip of the tongue plays no role for lunar letters, e.g., , , , ,
When is prefixed to a noun beginning with a solar letter, the of the is
assimilated to the solar letter, e.g., al-shamsu is pronounced as ash-shamsu
The assimilation is indicated by the shaddah on the first letter of the noun

In writing, the is not assimilated, e.g.,


No such assimilation takes place for lunar letters, e.g., al-qamaru is pronounced
as al-qamaru ()

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)

)Solar vs. Lunar Letters (2 of 2

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1

The Joining Hamza (


)
The in ( the definite article) is called

If it is preceded by another word, it is not pronounced


E.g.,
( the house) is pronounced al-baitu and
( and the house) is pronounced
as wa l-baitu and not wa al-baitu

also appears words without the , e.g.,


( name)
( son)

To signify as
A

(Joining, uniting,
attaching)

, look for one of the following three conditions:

symbol on alif, as

Without any or symbol on alif

Completely omitted in writing, e.g.,

Both and in are not pronounced when a word starts with a solar letter and
is preceded with another word
E.g., is pronounced as wan-najmu and not wa al-najmu or wa an-najmu
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)


As opposed to

position in the sentence

, is always pronounced, regardless of its

is usually written with a symbol on (or below) the Alif, as follows:




Examples:

( one)
( when) ...

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)


(Cutting,
Discontinuing,
Separating)

, ,

)


( Examples from Quran

( Find solar letters




( ), lunar letters
) and instances
of
in Surah Al-Fatiha and

Lunar letter

Solar letter

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1

What ( ) vs. Who (

Meaning

What

Who

Usage

Used for irrational things


) , e.g. non-living
(
things, animals, plants
etc.

Used for rational beings


) . Three categories
(
include humans, jinns, and
angels.

Example

What is this? ()

Who is he? ()

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)

Particle of Interrogation and Answer


This is a house ()

Is this a house? ()

Prefixing to a statement turns it into a question


Used in this context is called
( particle of interrogation)

means no
means yes
and are called

( particles of answer)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 2 (ver. 1)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes


Part 3 (ver. 3)

Topics
Preposition (

& ) Genitive Case ()


)
Detached Pronoun (
Possessed & Possessor (
)

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Mar. 7, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Initial version

Mar. 14, 2010

Zahid Naeem


Added section for and more description for

Mar. 20, 2010 3

Zahid Naeem

Added more content for and

There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah

Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

Preposition (

& ) Genitive Case ()

Literal meaning of

is a particle of pulling
Examples of preposition (
) :
In
On
From
To

When a noun is preceded by a preposition, it is said to


be in genitive case ()
The house -
, In the house
A house - , In a house


got pulled to because
of the preceding



Same as

is a
( phrase) It looks like a
sentence but is not one

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

More Prepositions and Examples from Quran


(59:21) Had We sent down this
Quran on a mountain
(96:2) He created man from a
clot
(26:50) we shall but return to
our Lord
(97:1) We have indeed revealed
this (Message) in the Night of
Power
(2:119) And thou will not be
asked about the owners of hellfire
(2:284) To Allah belongs
whatever is in the heavens and
whatever is in the earth.
(2:153) O ye who believe! seek
help with patient perseverance
and prayer; for Allah is with
those who patiently persevere.

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

... On

From
To

In
About,

concerning


Belongs to,

for


By, at, in

Nominal Sentence with


Muhammad is in the mosque

the mosque

in

Muhammad

It is on a table

a table

on

It






ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)


Detached Pronoun (
Masculine
3rd

Singular

He, It

Dual

They (2)

Plural

They

Singular

She, It

Dual

They (2)

Plural

They

Singular

You

Dual

You (2)

Plural

You (>2)

Singular

You

Dual

You (2)

Plural

You (>2)

Singular

Plural

We

Person
Feminine

Masculine
2nd person
Feminine

1st

person

Masc. & Fem.

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)


Detached Pronoun (
Are never attached with any other word
Are always ( definite)

Are considered ( nominative case), even

though most of them do not have a

(dummah) ending
Are fixed in their case, i.e. their ending does not
change
In Arabic such nouns are called ( fixed)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

Possessed & Possessor


Used to convey a possession relationship between two nouns
Also referred to as
( Al-Idaafatu)

English uses of or s for such relationship, e.g. Book of Bilal or Bilals book
Made up of two parts:
Possessed (or possession)

Possessor

Possessor -

Is always ( genitive
case)

Can take ( tanwin) or

( the definite article)


( indefinite) or
Can be
( definite)
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

(of) Bilal

book

Bilals book

(of) the teacher

table

Possessed -

Can take any case ending,


as the need be
Never takes ( tanwin)
or ( the definite article)

Is ( definite) by
position

The teachers table

Examples of Valid

Different case endings for


Definite vs. indefinite

(of) the teacher

table

The teachers table

(of) the student

book

(of) the teacher

table

The students book

Noun after
is

always

Verily

Verily the teachers table

(of) a student

book

(of) the teacher

table

on

A students book
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

On the teachers table


9

10

Incorrect vs. Correct

cannot have

cannot have

cannot be

cannot be

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3

More on

Even though is

, it does not have


(kasrah) ending, because it is ( indeclinable).
Other similar examples:
( Whose pen?)

( Whose son?)

Whose book?
(of) who

book

Mosque of Allahs Prophet

Notice two sets of

.
is in
and it

.
is
in

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

(of) Allah

(of the) prophet

mosque

11

Examples from Quran -


(110:1) When comes the help of Allah
(114: 1) Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind
(24:35) Allah is the light of the heavens and the
earth
(7:73) This is the she camel of Allah
(48:29) Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

(6:127) For them is the home of safety


(40:55 & 77) Therefore have patience (O
Muhammad). Lo (surely, certainly)! The promise
of Allah is true

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

12

Nominal Sentences with

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah


(of) Allah

Messenger

Muhammad

The students pen is broken


broken

(of) the student

pen

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 3 (ver. 3)

13

ARIC Arabic Class Notes


Part 4 (ver. 5)

Topics
Gender Introduction
Substitute ()

)
Adverb (

Adjective ()

The Relative Pronoun (


)

)
The Past Tense Verb (

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Mar. 27, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Initial version

Apr. 4, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added Substitute and Adverb slides

Apr. 10, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added Adjective slides

Apr. 24, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added more slides for Adjective and the Past Tense Verb

May 1, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for The Relative Pronoun

There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah

Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Gender Introduction
All nouns in Arabic are either masculine or feminine
Usually a masculine noun can be changed to
feminine, by:

) at the end and,


1. Adding a ( closed ta

2. Putting a ( fathah) on the letter before


Two feminine nouns with a (open ta
)
ending

Not all feminine nouns have a or ending

Not all nouns ending with or


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

are feminine

Feminine: This ( ) vs. That ()

That is a car (
)

is pronounced as but is written without the alif

This is a watch (

)
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Gender of Body Members


Single members are
usually masculine

Double members are


usually feminine

( head)

( hand)

( nose)

( eye)

( mouth)

( leg)

( face)

( ear)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Gender and Nominal Sentence


must be the same and Gender of

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5

Substitute -

The house is new

This is new

This house is new


This house
(is) new

The house

This

A substitute ( ) is a definite noun ( ) following a

)
demonstrative pronoun (
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)


Adverb -

is a noun that indicates the place or time

acts like a
, so the noun following it is


can never be a ( subject), even if the sentence starts with it
Examples of Adverb of Place (

)

( over)

( in front)

( behind)

( under)

( here)
( there)
( between)

( near)

Examples of Adverb of Time (



)

( night)

( morning) ( noon)

( evening)

( yesterday)

( today)

( tomorrow)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)


Examples from Quran -
(16:88) Those who disbelieved and averted
[others] from the way of Allah - We will increase
them in punishment over [their] punishment for
what corruption they were causing.
(48:18) Allah was pleased with the believers when
they swore allegiance to you under the tree and
He knew what was in their hearts. Therefore, He
sent down tranquility upon them and rewarded
them with a victory close by.
(4:159) And there is none from the People of the
Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus
before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection
he will be against them a witness.
(18:23-24) And never say of anything, "Indeed, I
will do that tomorrow," . Except [when adding],
"If Allah wills." And remember your Lord when
you forget [it] and say, "Perhaps my Lord will
guide me to what is nearer than this to right
conduct."
(2:285) All of them have believed in Allah and His
angels and His books and His messengers,
[saying], "We make no distinction between any of
His messengers." And they say, "We hear and we
obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and
to You is the [final] destination."

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)






:






:


:
:


:





:
9

Adjective -
A noun that describes or
qualifies another noun is
called ( adjective)
A house

is also called

Adjective = =

A new

The noun being


described or qualified
is called

house

is also called

Noun Qualified =
=

In Arabic the ( adjective) comes after the .


In English, the adjective comes before the noun it qualifies

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Agreements between and


and
should be in agreement in the following:
1

Gender

Indefinite vs.
definite

This is a small boy

4
Number

The new teacher is in the class

Bilal is a new teacher

I am in a new house

This is a new house

Case

This is a small girl

That is a new student

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Those are new students

Nominal Sentence with



The sparrow is a small bird

The broken chair is in the room





I am in the secondary school





12

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5

References from Quran -

(5:15) Undoubtedly, there has to come to


you from Allah light and a luminous Book.

(68:4) And undoubtedly, you possess


excellent manners.

(44:17) and an honourable Messenger


came to them.

(1:6) Guide us in the straight path.


(45:10) And for them is a great torment.

(8:274) For them is forgiveness and


honourable provision.
(61:13) help from Allah and a near victory

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

:
:

:

13

Where is the ?
The Arabic is an easy language

The Arabic language is easy

Exercise
Make two additional sets of sentences on the above pattern.
Write their meaning and the analysis, as shown above.

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

14

or not
4

This book is new

A new book

This new book is heavy

The new book is heavy

Abbas is a merchant 6

The book is new

Exercise
Make two additional sets of sentences on the above pattern.
Write their meaning and the analysis, as shown above.
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

15

The Relative Pronoun -

is called the relative pronoun ()

It is translated as:
Who for all rational beings
Which for all irrational beings and things
It is used for masculine singular. Feminine and plural will come later
It is always followed by a description, which is known as

The man, who left the room, is a merchant

The book, which is on the table, belongs to the teacher

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)


16

as
The man is a merchant

The tall man is a merchant

The man, who left the room, is a merchant



17

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5

)
The Past Tense Verb (
Verb = Action =


Doer = Subject =
Base form of all Arabic verbs is in the past tense (
)

The base form of the verb always corresponds to the 3rd person
singular masculine pronoun, i.e. he ()

) is hidden ( ) within the base form of


The doer of the action (
the verb () . Notice the hidden he in

(He left)

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

18

Anatomy of The Past Tense Verb


Almost all Arabic verbs can be traced back to a three letter verb. The
remaining few exceptions are traced to a four letter verb.
To understand their structure, the three letter verbs are defined on
the pattern of as follows.

( 3

rd

(He left)

( 1

st

radical)

( 2

nd

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

radical)

radical)
19

Anatomy of The Past Tense Verb

Meaning
He left
He sat
He helped
He heard

He became noble

In the base form for all 3 letter past tense verbs:

and always have a


can have a , , or

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

20

Conjugation of The Past Tense Verb


This alif is called
( alif of

protection). It protects the from


being mistaken for the conjunction

(and). It is written but not pronounced

in this group are


All
either or have a
sukun on them, so this


group is called

This is
( ta of feminine)

in this group
All
have some vowel sign on
them so this group is
called

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5)

Suffix

He

They (2)
They (>2)
She
They (2)
They (>2)
You
You (2)
You (>2)
You
You (2)
You (>2)
I
We
21

Conjugation of The Past Tense Verb Examples


Suffix
He

)They (2
)They (>2
She
)They (2
)They (>2
You
)You (2
)You (>2
You
)You (2
)You (>2
I
We
22

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 4 (ver. 5

ARIC Arabic Class Notes


Part 5 (ver. 7)

Topics
)
Early Predicate and Late Subject ( )
Plural ()
Numbers ()

Diptotes (
)
Types of khabar (
)
Attached Pronoun (

Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Apr. 24, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Initial version

May 1, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added more notes on Attached Pronoun

May 8, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added Early Predicate and Late Subject ( )

May 15, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added Plural ( )slides

Jun. 19, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added a slide for plurals of irrationals and adjective for mudaf vs. mudaf
ilaihi

Jun. 26, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Numbers ()

Jul. 10, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for singular, dual and plural case endings, grammatical analysis
& Diptotes

Jul. 24, 2010

Zahid Naeem

Added slide for types of khabar

There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah

Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to arabic.aric@gmail.com

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

)
Attached Pronoun (
Muhammads book.

and are attached



pronouns (

His book
His




Your book

Your

book

book

) , when attached to a noun, is


always
and the noun it is attached to is

The attached pronoun in this case is always

An attached pronoun (

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

)
Attached Pronoun (
From Muhammad

From him

Him

and are attached



pronouns (

From


From them

Them

From

) , when attached to a


An attached pronoun (
(preposition), is always

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

) vs. Detached Pronoun ()


Attached Pronoun (

3rd Person

2nd person

1st person

( Attached Pronoun)
Singular
He, It

Masculine
Dual
They (2)

Plural
They

Singular
She, It

Feminine
Dual
They (2)

Plural
They

Singular
You

Masculine
Dual
You (2)

Plural
You (>2)

Singular
You

Feminine
Dual
You (2)

Plural
You (>2)

Singular
I

Masc. & Fem.


Plural
We

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

( Detached Pronoun)

) vs. Detached Pronoun ()


Attached Pronoun (

Always ( definite)
Are ( fixed)

Always
( genitive) or

( accusative)

Can be attached to a noun,


verb or a particle

This is called
( ya-ul
mutakallim) Ya of the first
person
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

Always ( definite)
Are ( fixed)

Always
( nominative)

) as
( Attached Pronoun

His
)Their (2 mas.
)Their (>2 mas.
Her

)Their (2 fem
)Their (>2 fem
Your
)Your (2 mas.
)Your (>2 mas.
)Your (fem
)Your (2 fem
)Your (>2 fem
My
Our

The

changes
to a
when it
is followed by an
attached pronoun.

The last letter of the

when gets a

. A

attached to

on the last letter

would have made the


pronunciation difficult.

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

) with Special Nouns


( Attached Pronoun

between Notice the extra

and
. By same

token Muhammads father


will be

are 2 of the 4 special

. nouns, which take this extra


Will learn the other two later.

does not The rule for extra


apply when these nouns are
followed by

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

) as
( Attached Pronoun

at the end of
(ya) when it is changes to a
The

followed by an attached
pronoun.
to Also notice the change from

for the attached pronoun.


Same is true for

+ =
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

) as
( Attached Pronoun


10

The preposition gets a


when it is followed by an
attached pronoun, with one
exception; see below.

The preposition retains its

when it is attached to
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

vs.
Past Tense Verb Suffix vs.


11

Past Tense Verb Suffix

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

Early Predicate and Late Subject (

The man is in the house

( phrase), e.g.
( prepositional
phrase) or
( adverbial
phrase) can never be

(subject), even though a


sentence may begin with it.

A man is in the house

A garden is in front of the masjid





ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

12

Plural (
) ending,
e.g. ->

Has an tun (
) ending,

Has an na (

e.g. ->

Sound Masculine Plural

Sound Feminine Plural

Sound Plural

The singular word stays


intact in the plural, e.g.

->


Plural

Some nouns have


multiple plural
forms, e.g.,
has
two plural forms
1) and 2)

Broken Plural

The singular word is broken to create the plural,


e.g.
->
, -> . Broken plurals have
many patterns, as explained later.
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

13

Patterns of Broken Plural

14

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

Patterns of Broken Plural

)
15


( Diptote

We will learn more patterns later


)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

Plural Demonstrative Pronouns



) (

This is a teacher

This is a (female) teacher


These are teachers
This is a book
These are books

There are exceptions to these rules, which we will learn later

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

16

Treatment of vs.

Plurals

This is a new student


These are new students

This is a new book


These are new books

This is a new teacher


These are new teachers

This is a new watch


These are new watches

Is the door of the house open? Yes, it is open.


Are the doors of the house open? Yes, they are open


.




.

In classical Arabic, sometimes broken plural for rational being is also treated as feminine singular.
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

17

for


The new teachers book

The teachers new book


and
always come together, so the for either one of them
must come after

The case ending of the
or

tells us if it is for
Note the
is definite if its
is definite, so its must also be

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

18

Numbers -
Numbers ( singular: ) in
Arabic are fully declinable nouns
The noun being counted with a
number is called
The rules for the and the

change after every few


numbers


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)

19

Rules for Numbers 1 to 10

20

Numbers 1 - 2
Both 1 and 2 follow the noun as
and the adjective, so the

follow all the rules of

Numbers 3 - 10

( Number

Comes before the


Is
) (hence no tanwin or

) ( Noun being counted


Is

(hence
)
Is
is and The gender of
opposite
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

Case Endings for Singular, Dual and Sound Plural

( )

21

)
(

( )

( )

)
(

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )


( )


( )

( )

)
(

( )

( )

( )

( )

)
(

)
(

( )

( )

( )

( )

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8

)My Class - Grammatical Analysis (Book 1, Ch. 21


this

my school

its doors

open

now

in

the school

classes

many

this

our class

and

it

class

spacious

big

22

it

near

from

the masjid

it

school

it has

three

doors

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8


The Diptote



literally means indeclinable
Impermissible, prohibited

Inflection, declension

Diptote (
) is category of nouns and adjectives
1. Which never get a tanwin and
2. Their genitive (
)case is represented by fathah ()

Compare diptotes to regular nouns (a.k.a Triptotes), which


1. Get a tanwin, when theyre indefinite and
2. Decline to kasrah ( ) in their genitive (
)case

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8)


Diptote -

Triptote -

23

( Types of News
)

One word

24

Phrase

Sentence



)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 5 (ver. 8