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Aerodynamics

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Zheyan Jin

Aerodynamics

Zheyan Jin

School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics

Tongji University

Shanghai, China, 200092

Basic Information

Office: Room 109, Dongdalou Building

Phone: 86-21-65982651

Fax:

Email: zheyanjin@tongji.edu.cn

86-21-65983657

Office Hour:

Friday: 10:00-11:30AM

John D. Anderson

Fourth Edition

McGraw Hill

Grading

Homework: 20%

Report: 20%

Final60%

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the

motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object.

Aerodynamics is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with

much theory shared between them.

1.1 Importance of Aerodynamics

Wright Brothers

Wind Tunnel

In any case, as famous as we became for our "Flyer" and its system of

control, it all would never have happened if we had not developed our own

wind tunnel and derived our own correct aerodynamic data. - Wilbur Wright

1.1 Importance of Aerodynamics

Why dont they use sharp-pointed, slender reentry body shapes to reduce

the drag of supersonic vehicles?

To minimize aerodynamic heating

1.1 Importance of Aerodynamics

Smaller heating

of the air

Very high

speed flow

Large heating

of the body

Larger heating

of the air

Smaller heating

of the body

Very high

speed flow

(H. Julian Allen)

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

1.2 Some Fundamental Aerodynamic Variables

Fluid is used to denote either a liquid or a gas.

Hydrodynamics flow of liquids

Fluid Dynamics

Aerodynamics flow of air

The objectives of

Aerodynamics

on, and heat transfer to, bodies moving

through a fluid (usually air).

internally through ducts.

1.2 Some Fundamental Aerodynamic Variables

Pressure:

due to the time rate of change of momentum of the

gas molecules impacting on that surface.

Density:

Temperature:

the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the

fluid. In fact, if KE is the mean molecular kinetic

energy, then temperature is given by KE=3kT/2,

where k is the Boltzmann constant.

Velocity:

a vector physical quantity; both speed and

direction are required to define it.

1.2 Some Fundamental Aerodynamic Variables

y

2

dF f

V+dV

a

dy

1

Shear Stress:

dV

dy

lim(

V

b

dF f

dA

force per unit area, where the area of interest is

perpendicular to the y axis and has shrunk to

nearly zero at point 1.

,viscosity coefficient

dV/dy, velocity gradient

In reality, is a function of the temperature of the fluid.

1.3 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

Pressure distribution over the body surface.

Two sources:

Shear stress distribution over the body surface.

p

aerodynamic surface

1.3 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

M

V

A

c

A axial force component of R parallel to c

L N cos A sin

D N sin A cos

1.3 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

V

S= planform area

c

Area S

Dynamic pressure:

l = c = chord length

1

V2

2

CL

L

q S

CD

Pressure coefficient:

D

q S

Cp

CN

N

q S

p p

q

CA

A

q S

CM

M

q Sl

Cf

1.4 Center of Pressure

Questions: If the aerodynamic force on a body is specified in terms of a

where on the body should this resultant be placed?

Answer:

that it produces the same effect as the distributed loads.

N'

'

LE

A'

x cp

x cp

M 'LE

xcp

N'

1.4 Center of Pressure

When is small:

'

M LE

x cp '

L

sin 0

forces approach zero, the center of pressure

moves to infinity.

L'

M 'c/4

D'

c/4

Moment at the quarter-chord point:

c

'

M LE

L' M c' / 4

4

1.5 Dimensional Analysis: The Buckingham Pi Theorem

Questions: What physical quantities determine the variation of these

forces and moments?

Answer:

Dimensional analysis.

with the real physical world, each term must have the same dimensions.

For example, if

The above equation can be made dimensionless by dividing any one of the

terms, say, .

1.5 Dimensional Analysis: The Buckingham Pi Theorem

Buckingham Pi Theorem:

Let K equal the number of fundamental dimensions required to describe

the physical variables.( In mechanics, all physical variables can be

expressed in terms of the dimensions of mass, length, and time; hence,

K=3.) Let P1, P2, ., PN represent N physical variables in the physical

relation

f1 ( P1 , P2 , , PN ) 0

(N-K) dimensionless products (called products),

f 2 ( 1 , 2 , , N K ) 0

Where each product is a dimensionless product of a set of K physical

variables plus one other physical variable.

1.5 Dimensional Analysis: The Buckingham Pi Theorem

Buckingham Pi Theorem:

Let P1, P2, ., PK be the selected set of K physical variables. Then

1 f 3 (P1 , P2 , , PK , PK 1 )

2 f 4 (P1 , P2 , , PK , PK 2 )

N K f N - K (P1 , P2 , , PK , PN )

The choice of the repeating variables, P1, P2,,PK should be such that

they include all the K dimensions used in the problem. Also, the

dependent variable should appear in only one of the products.

1.5 Dimensional Analysis: The Buckingham Pi Theorem

Similarity Parameters:

Reynolds Number:

Re

V c

Mach Number:

M V / a

The ratio of flow velocity to the speed of sound.

Prandtl Number:

Pr c p / k

The ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.

1.6 Flow Similarity

Two flows will be dynamically similar if:

1. The bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically

similar for both flows.

2. The similarity parameters are the same for both flows.

1.7 Types of Flow

Aerodynamics

Continuum flow

Low-density and

free-molecule flow

Viscous flow

Inviscid flow

Incompressible flow

Compressible flow

Subsonic flow

Transonic flow

Supersonic flow

Hypersonic flow

1.7 Types of Flow

Continuum Versus Free Molecule Flow:

The mean distance that a molecule travels between collisions with

neighboring molecules is defined as the mean-free path .

1. Continuum Flow: If is orders of magnitude smaller than the

scale of the body measured by d, the molecules impact the body

surface so frequently that the body can not distinguish the individual

molecular collisions.

here the gas molecules are spaced so far apart that collisions with

the body surface occur only infrequently, and the body surface can

feel distinctly each molecular impact.

1.7 Types of Flow

Inviscid Versus Viscous Flow:

1. Inviscid Flow: does not involve friction, thermal conduction, or diffusion.

2. Viscous Flow: involve friction, thermal conduction and diffusion.

1.7 Types of Flow

Incompressible Versus compressible Flow:

1. Incompressible Flow: Mach number is smaller than 0.3.

2. Compressible Flow: Mach number is lager than 0.3.

Mach Number Regimes:

1. Subsonic:

M<1

2. Sonic:

M=1

3. Supersonic:

M>1

and/or chemically reacting effects begin to dominate the flow,

the flow field is called hypersonic.

Report

Research Progress on a Specific Topic of Aerodynamics

1. Fixed-wing Airplane

2. Rocket

3. Helicopter

4. Automobile

5. Birds

6. Insects

7. Sports

8. Civil Engineering

9. Trains

10. Turbines

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