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AStudyOnCableSuspensionFootbridge

Dr. S.V. Itti, and Amar R. Chougule, Professor, MTech.


Student,Dept.ofCivilEngg.,KLESCET,Belgaum
TheGovernmentofKarnatakahastakentorestoreoneofthe
famous Gangambika Temple which is submerging over eight
months in a year under back water of Malaprabha dam. The
temple is situated in the central part of Malaprabha river
basin near MK Hubli of Belgaum district. To overcome the
difficulty for Devi darshan during its submergence a
footbridge is recommended on either side of the temple.
There are many systems for footbridges construction using
such as Rcc, steel, cable stayed cable suspensions, etc.
Looking at the site conditions and economy, it has been
recommendedtoprovideacablesuspensionfootbridge.This
also enhances the beauty of surrounding area. As per the
survey details, the cable suspension footbridge having
dimensionof4mwidthand90moverallspanatleftand75m
overall span at right has been proposed for accessibility. In
thepresentworktheanalysisofaleftsidecablesuspension
footbridge has been carried out by STAAD.Pro 2006 and the
various components of bridges are designed using the
programs written in excel spreadsheets. The parametric
studyhasbeencarriedoutfordifferentspacingofsuspenders
and sags of the cable. The study shows that the design is
economical and safe for 1.25m spacing of suspenders and
ratiospan/10assag.
Introduction

Cable suspension bridges are supported by two main steel cables. The deck is hung from
suspendercablesorsteelrods.Thecablesareanchoredintothestreambanksandaresupported
byintermediatetowersFigure1.Longerspancablesuspensionbridgesareusuallydesignedwith
astiffeningtruss.Thestiffeningtrusssupportsandstiffensthedeck.Cablesarethenaddedto
carry live loads. To reduce the bending moment in the towers anchor cables are provided. The
cableswillbehavingeitherguidedpulleysupportorrollersupportlikeasshowninFigure2.

FixingofDimensions

CivilEngg.DepartmentofourcollegehascarriedoutthecontoursurveyworkoftheGangambika
site.Planandelevationhavebeenpreparedaspertheclientrequirement.Thesizeofthebridge
isfixedasperthecontourmapFigure3andsiteconditions.Thesalientfeaturesofthesiteareas
follows:
Spanofthebridge=90m

Widthofthebridge=4m
Heightofthetower=12m
Thicknessofdeckslab=120mm
Gradeofconcrete=M35
Gradeofsteel=Fe415
The3DviewofthecablesuspensionfootbridgetakenupforpresentstudyisshowninFigure.4.

ModelingandAnalysis

This type of bridge comprises basically a deck slab reinforced with steel bars, stiffening girder,
cable system and the tower. Since concrete has a very low tensile strength, the tensile load is
transferredbythecablestotheanchorageblockoverthesupport.Theconcreteisassumedto
carryallthecompressivebendingstresses.TheloadsareconsideredasperIS:875partI,II,III
andtheircombinationshavebeentakenasperIS:875partVwhichare:
DL+LL
DL+LL+WX
DL+LL+WZ
DL+LLWX
DL+LLWZ
The bridge model was analyzed in STAAD.Pro 2006 and designed using excel spreadsheet. The
parametricstudyhasbeencarriedoutfordifferentspacingofsuspendersandcablesags.
Theresultsshowsthattheloadcombination(DL+LL+WLin+Z)iscritical,the3rdviewofthisload
combinationisgiveninFigure5.

ResultsandDiscussions

Theparametricstudyiscarriedoutintwofolds.
a)Varyingthespacingofsuspendersandkeepingthesagconstant.
b)Varyingthesagsandkeepingconstantspacingofsuspender.
a)Varyingthespacingofsuspendersandkeepingthesagconstant.

Todecideabouttheoptimumspacingofsuspenders,thebridgehasbeenanalyzedfordifferent
spacing of suspenders varies from 1m to 3m and keeping the sag (span / 10) constant. The
resultsaregiveninTable1aswellasintheformofgraphs(Figure6.andFigrue.7).Thisstudy
shows that, the minimum quantity of the bridge is at 2.25m suspenders spacing. But in the

theory, the cable analysis is being done with udl. Therefore


this analysis is more suitable if the suspenders spacing is
closer.Alsofromthereferences,thespacingofsuspendersis
optimumwhenitisbetween1.25mto1.75m,thereforeinthe
present work 1.25m spacing of suspenders has been
considered and further parametric study on variation of sag
hasbeencarriedout.
b)Varyingthesagsbykeepingconstantspacingofsuspender

Once again the bridge has been analyzed and designed for
varyingthesagsfrom7to10.5mandkeepingthespacingof
suspender1.25masconstant.TheresultsaregiveninTable2
as well as in the form of graphs (Figure. 8 and Figure 9 has
beenleftout).Theresultshowsthatratiothespan/10are
economicalindesign.
Conclusions

In all cases, the suspenders diameter is less than the


minimumrequiredvaluewhichis10mm.
The quantity of cable steel has larger variation with
respecttothespacingofsuspenders.
1.25mspacingofsuspendersandcablesagequalsspan/
10givestheeconomicaldesignoffootbridge.
References
TechnicalPapers

AdissertationsubmittedtotheSWISSFederalInstituteofTechnologyZurichforthedegreeof
DoctorofSciencesETHbyPietroPedrozzi
Steinman,D.B.ApracticalTreatiseonSuspensionBridgesbyJohnWileyandSons,Inc.,
NewYork.
WillardG.Bouricius,PhilipK.Wittman,DESIGNINGCANOPYWALKWAYS,BartBouricius,
Canopy Construction Associates, 32 Mountain View Circle, Amherst, MA 01002, FL 32835
5137,MA01002.
FOOTBRIDGES,AManualforConstructionatCommunityandDistrictLevel,I.T.TransportLtd.
ConsultantsinTransportforDevelopment.June2004.
Peters, Tom F., Transitions in Engineering: Guillaume Henri Dufour and the Early 19th
CenturyCableSuspensionBridges,Birkhauser,1987,ISBN3764319291.
ISCodes

IS4562000PlainandReinforcedConcreteCodeofPractice(FourthRevision)
SP16:1980DesignAidsforReinforcedConcretetoIS4562000
Books

Steinman,D.B.ApracticalTreatiseonSuspensionBridgesbyJohnWileyandSons,Inc.,
NewYork.
Niels J. Gimsing, Cable Supported Bridges Concept and Design, A Wily Interscience
Publication,technicaluniversityofDenmark.
Dr. B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain and Arun Kumar Jain2003, Reinforced Concrete
Structures(Vol.1),LaxmiPublications(P)Ltd.
Dr. Shah and Karve, Limit State Theory and Design of Reinforced Concrete, Structures
Publications.
NBMCWFebruary2009

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