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APM

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Agile Project Management

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

What is true with most projects?


Around ____% of projects face Mgmt. problems

Time over run..


Scope creep
Premature closure
Poor quality (post project evaluation)
Cost escalation
Challenges of resource mismatch & utilisation
Recession and Project Failures

This
This years results show a marked decrease in project success rates,
with 32% of all projects succeeding which are delivered
on time, on budget, with required features and functions
says Jim Johnson, chairman of The Standish Group,
44% were challenged which are late,
over budget, and/or with less than the required features and
functions and 24% failed which are cancelled
prior to completion or delivered and never used.
.,"
,"

Chaos Report 2009


Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Findings from a TCS Study?

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Business response to failure

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Standish Group : IT Project Success

But Why?

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

So what are the limitations of conventional methods


PLAN

ERROR & UPDATION


RESULT
Huge delays in Projects

CAN WE PREDICT THE FUTURE?


Risk Analysis?

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Why?
Formulation Issues
Design Thinking

Management issues
CCPM
APM

What is APM?
Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Learn From ULCCS


What
How
Why?

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Strategies of the Wilderness

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

What is required?
Ability to deliver customer value
Dealing with inherent (project) unpredictability and
dynamism
Recognition and adaption to change.

agility

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Agility
Agility is the capability to balance

stability with flexibility


Order with chaos
Planning with execution
Optimization with exploration
Control with speed

. to deliver customer value reliably in the face of


uncertainty and change

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

But how?
Art of Fail Forward

Learnings from Toyota


Living systems are complex
complex,, in that they consist of
a great many autonomous agents interacting
Ignorance accountingwith each other in many ways
interaction of individual agents is governed by
Fallacy of controls The
simple, localized rules and characterized by
constant feedback
Breaking the post-mortem syndrome
Collective behavior is characterized by an overlaying
order,
order
, self
self-organization
organization,, and a collective
Breaking (mis)economies
of
scale
intelligence so unified that the group cannot be
Learning from nature described as merely the sum of its parts
Complex order, known as emergent order,
order, arises

Solution for complex problems


in colloboration
from the lies
system
itself, rather than from an external
dominating force

These complex, selfself-organizing Complex Adaptive


Systems (CAS) are adaptive in that they react
differently under different circumstances, and co
co-evolve with their environment

Agile (Project) Management Methodologies

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

The Agile Landscape


Agile Methodologies

eXtreme Programming
Kent Beck, Ward Cunningham, Ron Jeffries

Scrum
Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland

Crystal Methods
Alistair Cockburn

Feature Driven Development


Jeff DeLuca

Dynamic Systems Development Method


DSDM Consortium

Agile Management Frameworks

Agile Project Management


Jim Highsmith, Sanjiv Augustine

Agile Management
David Anderson

eXtreme Project Management


Rob Thomsett, Doug DeCarlo

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Key Agile Principles


Focus on Customer Value Align
project, product and team visions
to deliver better product quality
faster and cheaper.
Small Batches - Create a flow of
value to customers by chunking
feature delivery into small
increments.
Small, Integrated Teams - Intense
collaboration via face-to-face
communication, collocation, etc;
diversified roles on integrated,
self-organizing, self-disciplined
teams.
Small, Continuous Improvements
Teams reflect, learn and adapt to
change; work informs the plan.

Saji Gopinath

Delivering Customer Value


with Agile Project Management
The right product, at the right
time, for the right price.
Higher

Quality: Designed-tofit product with flexibility to


change.

Increased

Throughput:
Iterative and incremental project
and product chunks with
earlier value delivery.

Reduced

Waste: Lean, efficient


processes with lower costs and
higher productivity.

March 13,2015

Key Agile Practices


Key Agile Practices:
Practices:

Release Planning
Sprint Planning
Daily Scrum/Standup
Fixed--length sprints
Fixed
Sprint Review
Sprint Retrospective

Identify toptop-priority items and


deliver them rapidly using:
Small batches
Small integrated teams
Small, continuous improvements

Source : Sanjeev Augstine


Augstine(2008),
(2008), Intro to APM, PMI

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Adaptive Iterative Approach

Freeze Requirements

Requirements

Planning

Freeze Design

Design, Build,
Test

Specs

Complete

Revise Design
Revise Plans
Revise Requirements

Adaptive Approach
Saji Gopinath

Traditional
PM
March 13,2015

A Generalized Agile Process

Release
Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 Iteration Backlog
Feature 1 Feature 3b Feature 4b Feature 4c Feature 8
Feature 2 Feature 4a Feature 5 Feature 6 Feature 9
Feature 3a
Feature 7 .
Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Life Cycle Framework


Five Phases

Envision

Saji Gopinath

Speculate

Iterative
delivery

Monitor
and
Adapt

Close

March 13,2015

Transitioning to APM
Agile Project Management

Traditional Project Management

Focus on customer satisfaction and


interaction

Focus on plans and artifacts

Response to change via adaptive


action

Change controlled via corrective


action

Progressive elaboration, rolling-wave


planning

Monumental up-front planning

Customer prioritized, time-boxed


delivery

Manager negotiated, scope-based


delivery

Commitment management via feature


breakdown structure

Activity management via work


breakdown structure

Collaboration on self-disciplined and


self-organizing teams

Top-down control

Minimal set of context-sensitive,


generative practices

Prescriptive, heavyweight methods

Essential, value-focused metrics

Non-value added controls

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Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Breaking the paradigms


Agile Development
Process

Waterfall
Development

Measure
of Success

Conformance to Plan

Culture

Command--and
Command
and--Control

Design

Big Design Up Front

QA

Tool Support

Saji Gopinath

Iterative Development

Iterative and
Incremental
Development

Parallel
Development

Acceptance
Test Driven
Development

Response to Change

Leadership /Collaborative

Continuous

Big Test on Backend

Continuous

Highly specific

Fully Integrated

March 13,2015

New Measures of Success


Agile Development
Process

Waterfall
Development

Measure
of Success

Conformance to Plan

Saji Gopinath

Iterative Development

Iterative and
Incremental
Development

Critical Path ------------------------Work Breakdown Structure


----------------------------------------% Complete of tasks -------------Serial functions -------------------Procedural process ----------------Fixed scope -------------------------

Parallel
Development

Acceptance
Test Driven
Development

Response to Change

Critical Chain
Feature Breakdown Structure
# of Features accepted
Parallel functions
Empirical time boxes
Fixed time and resources

March 13,2015

Culture of Discipline and Collaboration

Agile Development
Process

Waterfall
Development

Culture

Command--and
Command
and--Control

Saji Gopinath

Iterative Development

Iterative and
Incremental
Development

Culture of signsign-offs ----------------High--level plans = RollHigh


Roll-up of detailed
plans -----------------------Detailed Planning early -----------Protect the Project Scope ---------Demonstrate at End ----------------Weekly PM meetings --------------

Parallel
Development

Acceptance
Test Driven
Development

Leadership /Collaborative

Culture of learning
Gross estimates of backlog
create the highhigh-level plans
Detailed Planning in chunks
Protect the Iteration Scope
Demonstrate every Iteration
Daily StandStand-up meetings

March 13,2015

Continuous Design & Test


Agile Development
Waterfall
Development

Process

Iterative Development

Iterative and
Incremental
Development

Parallel
Development

Big Design Up Front

Design

Continuous

Big Test on Backend

QA

Saji Gopinath

Contract with Customer ---------Big Design sign off --------------Dreaded Integration phase ------Never miss Dev. Cmpt date ----Work in big phases --------------Testing squeezed -----------------

Acceptance
Test Driven
Development

Continuous

Partner with Customer


LPM Design Decisions
Continuous Integration
Never break the build
Work in small chunks
Low Features squeezed

March 13,2015

Agile Project Tooling


Agile Development
Waterfall
Development

Process

Tool Support

Saji Gopinath

Iterative Development

Iterative and
Incremental
Development

Highly specific

Focus on Individuals ------------Optimize the parts ---------------Integrate with batch update ----Manage large inventories -------Un--integrated with the WBS ---Un
Visibility through manual PM report -------------------------------

Parallel
Development

Acceptance
Test Driven
Development

Fully Integrated

Focus on the team


Optimize the whole
Tight integration
Manage rapid throughput
Manage the FBS
Real--time visibility up, down
Real
and across the team

March 13,2015

Four Paths to De-risking


(Consistently Responsive)

Culture of Discipline
High

Hierarchical

Agility &
Innovation

Low

High

Bureaucratic

Start--up
Start
Low

Saji Gopinath

Great
Organization

(Adapted from Collins GoodGood-to


to--Great Matrix of Creative Discipline, 2002)

March 13,2015

Four Paths to De-risking


(Consistently Responsive)

Culture of Discipline
High

Great
Organization

Hierarchical

Agile
Organization

Agility &
Innovation

Low

Waterfall

Agile
Development

Chaos

Solo Virtuosos

Bureaucratic

Start--up
Start
Low

Saji Gopinath

High

(Adapted from Collins GoodGood-to


to--Great Matrix of Creative Discipline, 2002)

March 13,2015

Four Paths to De-risking


(Consistently Responsive)

Culture of Discipline
High

Great
Organization

Hierarchical

Agile
Organization
Path 1 Agility
Agility &
Innovation

Low

Agile
Development

Waterfall
Path 3 Agility &
Discipline

High

Path 2 Discipline

Solo Virtuosos

Chaos
Bureaucratic

Start--up
Start
Low

Saji Gopinath

Path 4 Scaling & Extending


Agile

(Adapted from Collins GoodGood-to


to--Great Matrix of Creative Discipline, 2002)

March 13,2015

APM Principles
Foster alignment and cooperation
People are primary agents driving value, change, learning
and adaption
Shared vision keeps people aligned
Co-operation instead of competition (by aligning people)

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Principles
Encourage emergence and selfself-organizing
teams
Minimal, simple processes and practices
Optimal structure (self-organized) emerge from close
interactions between many people following simple rules

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Principles
Institute learning and adaption
Feedback is used for continuous learning, adaption and
improvement
Projects operate on their chaordic edge the edge
between chaos and order

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Organic team
Guiding vision
Simple rules
Open information
Light touch
Adaptive leadership

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Organic teams
Enabling connections and adaption through close
relationships on small flexible teams
Redundancy function
Generalizing specialists
Small teamsizes optimal communication channels

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Guiding vision
Keeping the team aligned and directed with a
shared mental model
A mental model is a mechanism for anticipation and
adaption
PMs maintain a good enough vision, which serves as
the mental model

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Simple rules
Establishing a set of simple, generative process
rules for the team
Stated and agreed upon at the outset
Changed if needed during the project

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Open Information
Providing free and open access to information
Obstacles to information exchange caused by
organization silos are identified and removed

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Light Touch
Applying intelligent control to foster emergent order
and maximal value
Increased control does not automaticaly decrease
uncertainty and increase order and value
Courage! You cant know everything in advance

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Adaptive Leadership
Steering the project by continuously monitoring,
learning and adapting
Continually observing and assessing practices, analyzing
and adapting them for desired results and implementing
them with maximum impact

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Definition

Planning

Execution

Termination

Revise Plans

Revise Definition

Classical Project Phases Modified to an Adaptive


Iterative Approach
Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Can traditional models address this?

Approach

Traditional project management

Adaptive project management

Project goal

Getting the job done on time, on budget, and within


requirements

Getting business results, meeting multiple criteria

Project plan

A collection of activities that are executed as planned


to meet the triple constraint

An organization and a process to achieve the


expected goals and business results

Planning

Plan once at project initiation

Plan at outset and re-plan when needed

Managerial approach

Rigid, focused on initial plan

Flexible, changing, adaptive

Project work

Predictable, certain, linear, simple

Unpredictable, uncertain, nonlinear, complex

Environment effect

Minimal, detached after the project is launched

Affects the project throughout its execution

Project control

Identify deviations from plan, and put things back on


track

Identify changes in the environment, and adjust the


plans accordingly

Distinction

All projects are the same

Projects differ

Management style

One size fits all

Adaptive approach; one size does not fit all

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Benefits from Implementing Agile


1.

Deliver benefits early (First Iteration is demonstrable)

2.

Avoid significant rework by only doing justjust-in


in--time detailed design

3.

Avoid deaddead-end design decisions by managing with LPM decisions and


trade--off matrix
trade

4.

Raise quality by moving testing forward in the process

5.

Become responsive by supporting scope adjustments every iteration

6.

Become reliable by instituting regular heartbeats to the team

7.

Increase estimating accuracy by working in small chunks

8.

Decrease risk by always having working software

9.

Increase throughput via realreal-time visibility

10.

Increase team moral by dropping the death marches.

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

How do you get to Agile?

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Managing Agile Projects


APM Practices

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Organic


Teams
Objectives:
Structure and build selfself-organizing agile teams based on
an organic CAS model
Integrate them effectively into the larger enterprise

Key Implications:
Skillful managers understand
the interdependence between
design and emergence. They
know that in todays turbulent
business environment, their
challenge is to find the right
balance between the
creativity of emergence and
the stability of design.

View agile teams as organic CAS


Recognize the difference between formal and informal
team structures and structure agile teams accordingly
Mold groups of individuals into highhigh-performance agile
teams
Integrate these teams into the larger agile enterprise

Fritjof Capra
Capra,, The Hidden
Connections

45

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Flexible Formal Structure


Traditional Silos
Product
Owner

Integrated
Agile Team

PM

Designer

BA

Tester

Release
Manager
Capacity
Planner

Architect
BA

The Core Project Team


ideally consists of 5-9
(7 plus or minus 2)
members.

Developer

BA

Designer

DBA

Developer

Core Project
Team

Prod.

Tester

Developer
Tech
Ops

PM

Extended
Project Team

Product
Owner

Security

Business
Sponsor

Saji46
Gopinath

March 13,2015

Encourage Diversified
Roles
Define roles holistically so that team members can develop
into Generalizing Specialists (or Versatilists
Versatilists):
):
Generalizing Specialist
Someone with one or more specialties who actively seeks to gain new
skills in existing specialties, as well as in other areas.

A generalizing specialist is more than just a generalist.


A generalist is a jackjack-of
of--all
all--trades but a master of none,
whereas a generalizing specialist is a jackjack-of
of--all
all--trades
and master of a few
Scott Ambler
47

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Guiding


Objective:
Vision
Create a shared vision or mental model for
driving behavior on agile projects. The
Guiding Vision is an aggregate of three
component visions: team vision,
vision, project
vision and product vision

A shared vision is not


an idea it is, rather,
a force in peoples
hearts, a force of
impressive power.
Peter Senge
Senge,, The
Fifth Discipline

48

Saji Gopinath

Key Implications:
Evolve team vision to drive team behavior
Create project vision to drive project
behavior
Facilitate product vision to drive project
evolution
March 13,2015

Design a Product Vision


Box
Front Cover:
Product Name
Graphic
3 4 Key Features (compelling reason to
buy)

Back Cover:
Detailed Features/Benefits
Operating Requirements (constraints,
standards, etc.)

49

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Simple


Rules
Objective:
Implement a set of simple, adaptable methodology
rules that allow agile teams to deliver business
value rapidly and reliably

Key Implications:
"Simple, clear purpose
and principles give rise
to complex, intelligent
behavior. Complex rules
and regulations give rise
to simple, stupid
behavior."

Assess the environment to determine its


characteristics
Identify and implementing a simple set of
methodology rules that is congruent with the
environment
Hone the discipline needed for continuous and
consistent application of the simple rules

Dee Hock, Birth of


the Chaordic Age

50

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Assess the Status Quo


Is the organizations environment stable or turbulent?
What kind of strategic planning does it do?
How is technology leveraged?
What is the evident culture?
Is the organization structure bureaucratic or is it
organic?
How does staff view management?

51

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Customize Methodology
How--To Rules:
How
Rules: Key features of the process

Feasibility, Project Discovery


Release and Iteration Planning
Product and Iteration Backlogs
Tracking via Burndown charts
Team collocated in team rooms
Core team dedicated to project

Boundary Rules: To define allowable action

Estimation done only by performers


Prioritization done only by product owners

Priority Rules: To rank work opportunities

Priorities always decided in Sprint Planning Meetings

Timing Rules: To define and synchronize delivery pace

3-Week Sprints

Exit Rules: To minimize sunk costs

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Sprint Reset allowable in extreme circumstances

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Open


Information
Objective:
Create an open flow and exchange of information among
project team members, and among other associated
external groups

Key Implications:
All life uses
information to organize
itself into form.
Margaret Wheatley,
Wheatley,
Leadership and the
New Science

53

Saji Gopinath

Reorganize team facilities and seating to institute agile


information sharing practices
Analyze the time taken to exchange information with
external groups to identify and reduce the information
cycle time
Structure conversations on the project team so as to
generate transforming exchanges of information among
project team members

March 13,2015

Encourage Information
Radiators

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Collocate Team Members


Effective collaborative
workspaces need:
Common area for
collaboration and community
Caves for privacy

Phone calls
Emails
Web surfing
Other individual tasks

Open drafts of
information

55

Saji Gopinath

Source: The Complex Adaptive Workplace


http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/mcn/pdf_files/part5_4.pdf

March 13,2015

Daily Standup Meeting


Each participant answers 3 questions:
1

What did you do yesterday?

What will you do today?

Whats in your way?

These are not status sessions for the manager


They are team member commitments in front of the
team
Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Light


Touch
Objective:
Manage agile teams with a style that allows team
autonomy and flexibility, and a customer value focus
without sacrificing control

Key Implications:
Intelligent control appears as
uncontrol or freedom. And for
that reason it is genuinely
intelligent control. Unintelligent
control appears as external
domination. And for that reason
it is really unintelligent control.
Intelligent control exerts
influence without appearing to
do so. Unintelligent control tries
to influence by making a show
of force.
Lao Tzu,
Tzu, Book of Ethics

Saji Gopinath

Establish decentralized control that defers decision making


for frequently occurring, less critical events to the team
Manage the flow of customer value from one creative
stage to another
Recognize team members as wholewhole-persons and treat
them accordingly
Focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses to leverage
peoples uniqueness.

March 13,2015

Build on Personal
Strengths
Applying it to Others:

Each person is unique and has unique strengths


and weaknesses whole persons
Great managers recognize that trying to
standardize human behavior is futile, and dont
waste their time trying to change people
dramatically
Rather than focus on weaknesses, they build on
the personal strengths of their team members
and help them become more of who they
already are

Applying it to Yourself:

58

Find out what you dont like doing and stop doing
it
"The point is to feel authentic, selfself-assured or
creative
More info: http://www.marcusbuckingham.com

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

APM Practice Adaptive


Leadership
Objectives:
Track and monitor the project for timely and relevant
feedback
Institute systemic procedures for learning and
adaptation
Help the Agile Manager maintain a leadership presence
that animates the team

It is not the strongest


of the species that
survive, nor the most
intelligent, but the one
most responsive to
change.

Key Implications:
Track and monitor APM practices to ensure their proper
application and desired outcomes
Learn and adapt continuously according to the
feedback obtained
Embody leadership that inspires and energizes the
team.

Charles Darwin,
Darwin, The
Origin of Species

59

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Get Team Feedback Daily


How to use the PlusDelta Team Feedback
tool:

Automated unit
testing

Take a few minutes daily to get your


team to provide feedback on the
project

Customers highly Testing team


satisfied
availability

Record it in a tabular format on


whiteboard or flipchart
Place the things that are working in
the Plus column, and those that
need improvement in the Delta
column

6am Daily
Standup

Retrospectives
have improved
process

Build cycle time

Estimates are
stabilizing

Product Owner
availability

Leave it up as an Information
Radiator that is a constant reminder

60

Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015

Resources
Online Discussion Groups

Agile Project Management, http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/agileprojectmanagement/


Scrum Development, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/scrumdevelopment/

User Groups

Italian Agile Movement, http://www.agilemovement.it/index.php?newlang=ita


Agile Alliance User Group List, http://www.agilealliance.org/show/1641

Articles

1-Page Introduction to Agile Methods, http://www.lithespeed.com/resources/1


http://www.lithespeed.com/resources/1--Page
Page--Intro
Intro-to--Agile.pdf
to
The New Methodology,
Methodology, http://www.martinfowler.com/articles/newMethodology.html
Getting Started with Agile Delivery,
Delivery,
http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=230943&authenticated=1
So, Hows that Agile Initiative Doing?,
Doing?,
http://www.gantthead.com/article.cfm?ID=230943&authenticated=1
Agile Project Management: Emergent Order through Visionary Leadership,
Leadership,
http://www.ccpace.com/Resources/documents/AgileProjectManagement.pdf
The LeanLean-Agile PMO: Using LeanLean-Thinking to Accelerate Agile Delivery,
Delivery,
http://www.cutter.com/project/fulltext/summaries/2006/10/index.html

Saji61
Gopinath

March 13,2015

Resources (continued)
Blogs

Books (continued)

Lean Software Development An Agile


Toolkit, Mary and Tom Poppendieck
Lean Thinking and Lean Solutions,
Solutions, Womack
and Jones
Agile Software Development with Scrum,
Scrum, Ken
Schwaber and Mike Beedle
Agile Estimating and Planning,
Planning, Mike Cohn
User Stories Applied, Mike Cohn

http://lithespeed.blogspot.com
http://www.leadinganswers.com
http://www.agileadvice.com

Web Sites

http://www.lithespeed.com/resources.htm
http://www.agilealliance.org
http://www.apln.org
http://www.scrumalliance.org

Books

Agile and Iterative Development: A Managers


Guide,, Craig Larman
Guide
Managing Agile Projects,
Projects, Sanjiv Augustine
Agile Project Management,
Management, Jim Highsmith
Agile Software Development,
Development, Alistair Cockburn
Fearless Change,
Change, Linda Rising and Mary Lynn
Manns

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Saji Gopinath

March 13,2015