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Stanford Uhiversity Petroleum Research Institute

Stanford, California 94305

ANALYSIS OF UNIT MOBILIiY RATIO WELL-TO-WELL TRACER FLOW

TO DETERMINE 2ESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY

SUPRI TR-36

BY
Maghsood Abbaszadeh-Dehghani and William E. Brigham

Work Performed for the Department of Energy


Under Contract No. DE-AC03-81SF11564
December 1982

DISCLAIMER

"This r e p o r t was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency


of t h e United S t a t e s Government.
N e i t h e r t h e United S t a t e s Government
nor any agency t h e r e o f , nor any of t h e i r employees, makes any w a r r a n t y ,
e x p r e s s or implied, o r assumes any l e g a l l i a b i l i t y of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
t h e accuracy, completeness, or u s e f u l n e s s of any i n f o r m a t i o n , a p p a r a t u s ,
product, or p r o c e s s d i s c l o s e d , o r r e p r e s e n t s t h a t its use would not
i n f r i n g e p r i v a t e l y owned r i g h t s .
Reference h e r e i n t o any s p e c i f i c
commercial product, p r o c e s s , o r s e r v i c e by t r a d e name, trademark,
manufacturer, o r otherwise, does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e o r imply i t s
endorsement, recommendation, o r f a v o r i n g by t h e United S t a t e s Government
o r any agency t h e r e o f .
The views and o p i n i o n s of a u t h o r s expressed
h e r e i n do not n e c e s s a r i l y s t a t e o r r e f l e c t t h o s e of t h e United S t a t e s
Government of any agency thereof."

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
LIST OF

TABLES....................................o....~a.**o.m*m~ooeooem

LIST OF

FIG~S............oo...oo.o~.o...........ooo.......~oo*o.***~oo*

Vi

ix

ABSTRACT.........................o.............oo..............oo.oo***se
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........o.o.o..oo~..o......o.oo.......oo**~oeoo**ooo*oe~

1.

INTRODUCTION........................................o...~.~...**oo~mo

2.

LITERATURE T U E V I E W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF TRACER DATA.......................

2.2

MECHANISM OF TACER FLOW.........................................

2.2.1

Convection...............................................

2.2.2

Hydrodynamic Dispersion..................................

2.3

2.4
3.

2.2.2.1

L i n e a r Flow.....................................

2.2.2.2

Non-Linear Flow.................................

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRACER FLOW............................

11

2.3.1

Petroleum Reservoirs.....................................

11

2.3.2

Underground Aquifers.....................................

13

2.3.3

Geothermal Reservoirs....................................

14

SU~RY.........................................................

METHOD OF S O L U T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1

3.2

3.3

PATTERN

P E ~ O ~ C E . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . o o o o o o o o o o . . ~ . * . o o . . . . . . . . . .

15
16
16

3.1.1

Steady Multi-Well Flow Theory............................

16

3.1.2

P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves...............................

18

3.1.3

C o r r e l a t i o n of P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves...............

20

3.1.4

P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves f o r Non-Unit M o b i l i t y Ratio..

26

TRACER FLOW I N HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS..............................

32

3.2.1

Mixing......T
...h.e.o.r.y.

33

3.2.2

Tracer Production Curves.................................

36

3.2.3

C o r r e l a t i o n of Tracer Production Curves..................

48

TRACER FLOW I N HETEROGENEOUS ~ S T E ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

3.3.1

Concept of Multi- Layered Modeling........................

55

3.3.2

Tracer Production Curves from Layered Systems............

57

3.3.3

Optimization Technique...................................

62

- iii -

........................................................
68
4.1 HISTORY AND DESIGN O F THE T E S T ..................................
68
4.2 ANALYSIS OF TRACER RESULTS ......................................
74
5 . CONCLUSIONS ..........................................................
83
6 . RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE.OW
......................................
85
NOMENCLATURE ............................................................. 86
REFERENCES ...............................................................
91
APPENDICES ...............................................................
96
A p p e n d i x A: DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH
CURVES FOR MOBILITY RATIO OF ONE ............................
96
A.l
STAGGERED LINE DRIVE ...................................
98
A.2
FIVE- SPOT..............................................
106
A . 3 DIRECT L I N E DRIVE ......................................
107
A.4
INVERTED SEVEN-SPOT ....................................
112
A.5
RELATING DERIVATIVES OF THE STREAM FUNCTIONS
TO THE STREAM FUNCTIONS ................................
120
A.5.1
Staggered Line D r i v e ............................
120
A.5.2
D i r e c t L i n e D r i v e ...............................
122
A p p e n d i x B: DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR PATTERN RECOVERY CURVES
AT VARIOUS MOBILITY RATIOS ..................................
125
A p p e n d i x C: EVALUATION OF THE L I N E INTEGRAL I N MIXING EQUATIONS ......... 136
C.l
STAGGERED L I N E DRIVE ...................................
136
C . 2 FIVE- SPOT ..............................................
140
C.3
DIRECT L I N E DRIVE ......................................
141
A p p e n d i x D: COMPUTER PR0G
S.
...........................................
146
D.l
PROGRAM TO ANALYZE A TRACER ELUTION CURVE .............. 146
D.2
PROGRAM TO COMPUTE PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVES OF A
DEVELOPED INVERTED SEVEN-SPOT FOR UNIT MOBILITY RATIO .. 177
D.3 PROGRAM TO COMPUTE PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVE OF A
DEVELOPED FIVE- SPOT AT
ARBITRARY MOBILITY RATIO ..... 182
4.

F I E LEDL . E

AN

.iv .

LIST OF TABLES
Table
3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Page
Values of Breakthrough
- and Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r a
Developed Five- Spot, M o b i l i t y R...a...tC..i..o.......=
.......l

25

Values of Breakthrough and Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r a


Developed I n v e r t e d Seven-Spot, Mobility R a t i o l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Values of Breakthrough and Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r


Developed Direct Line Drive P a t t e r n s , M o b i l i t y R a t i o = l . . . . . . . .

27

Values of Breakthrough and Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r


Developed Staggered Line Drive P a t t e r n s , Mobility R a t i o = l . . . . .

28

Values of Breakthrough and Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r a


Developed Five-Spot P a t t e r n a t Various Mobility Ratios..........

29

Breakthrough Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c i e s E x t r a c t e d from t h e


Higgins and Leighton's Match t o t h e Data Reported by
Douglas e t a l . (1959)......................................00~0.

32

C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r s on Tracer Peak Concentration and a / u f o r


Staggered Line Drive and D i r e c t Line Drive a t Various
d / a ~tios......................................................

52

Assumed and Computed Parameters of t h e Layers f o r t h e


T h e o r e t i c a l Staggered Line Drive, Example I...........

59

Assumed and Computed Parameters of t h e Layers f o r t h e


T h e o r e t i c a l Staggered Line Drive, Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

Computed Parameters of t h e Layers Using t h e Optimization


Technique with Various Number of Layers, Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

Computed Layer Parameters f o r F i e l d Test, Well D, Using t h e


Optimization Routine w i t h D i f f e r e n t Number of Layers...,........

77

Computed P e r m e a b i l i t i e s and Thicknesses of Layers f o r F i e l d


T e s t , Well D, with D i f f e r e n t Number of Layers...................

78

Computed Layer Parameters f o r F i e l d Test, Well A , Using t h e


Optimization Routine w i t h D i f f e r e n t Number of Layers............

81

Computed P e r m e a b i l i t y and Thicknesses of Layers f o r F i e l d


T e s t , Well A , with D i f f e r e n t Number of Layers...................

81

Computed Parameters of Layers f o r Well A w i t h Ten Layers


and Drainage Area of 40,800 f t 2

82

--

3.7

3.8
3.9
3.10
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

.................................

- v -

' _

LIST OF FIGURES
Page

Figure

2.1

2.2

E f f e c t of Rate and Type of Porous Medium on Mixing


e t.a l . , 1961)...............
C o e f f i c i e n t s (Brigham _

L o n g i t u d i n a l and L a t e r a l Mixing C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r
Various Sands ( a f t e r Blackwell, 1962)..............

Match t o Produced Tracer Concentration f o r Well A, Reported


by Smith and Brigham, a f t e r Baldwin (1966)......................

13

Front Location and Breakthrough Curve i n a Displacement of


Two F l u i d s which Do Not Mix.....................................

17

3.2

Convection E f f e c t s on t h e Breakthrough of a Slug of F l u i d B.....

17

3.3

P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves f o r Developed Systems,


Mobility Ratio = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r Developed P a t t e r n s ,


Mobility R a t i o = lo.......................

21

C o r r e l a t i o n of Developed p a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves,


Mobility Ratio = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Comparison of t h e Experimental Data from Various Developed


P a t t e r n s and t h e C o r r e l a t e d P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curve,
Mobility Ratio = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Comparison of C o r r e l a t e d P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curve and


Developed Five-Spot Data, M o b i l i t y R a t i o = l..........

23

C o r r e l a t i o n of Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves of Developed


P a t t e r n s , Mobility Ratio = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

C o r r e l a t i o n of Displacing F l u i d Cut vs Dimensionless Areal


Sweep E f f i c i e n c y , Developed P a t t e r n and M o b i l i t y R a t i o = l...

24

Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y Curves f o r a Developed Five-Spot


P a t t e r n a t Various M o b i l i t y R a t i o s (Assuming S t r e a m l i n e s are
Independent of Mobility Ratio)..................................

30

Breakthrough Curves f o r a Developed Five-Spot P a t t e r n a t


Various Mobility R a t i o s (Assuming Streamlines are
Independent of M o b i l i t y Ratio)..................................

30

Comparison of Laboratory Data and Computer Performance


C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r a Developed Five- Spot P a t t e r n
(Higgins and Leighton, 1962).................*.*................

31

F r a c t i o n a l Flow Curves Constructed from t h e Data Supplied


by Douglas -et a l . (1959).......................................

31

A General
...o
..........Flow
.....................P
..asa.g.e.

35

A Developed Staggered Line Drive w i t h Tracer Concentration


P r o f i l e i n a Streamtube.....................

37

Approximate Location of a Tracer Slug i n a Streamtube...........

39

2.3
3.1

3.4
3.5
3.6

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16

- vi -

Element Considered i n Computing Tracer Production Curves f o r


t h e Staggered Line Drive Pattern................................

44

Element Considered i n Computing Tracer Production Curves f o r


t h e Direct Line Drive...........................................

46

Dimensionless Tracer Concentrations v e r s u s Pore Volumes


I n j e c t e d , Staggered Line Drive, d / a = 1.5.......................

46

Dimensionless Tracer Concentrations v e r s u s Pore Volumes


I n j e c t e d , Developed Five-Spot..........................e.~e.oo~~

47

Dimensionless Tracer Concentrations v e r s u s Pore Voumes


I n j e c t e d , Developed Direct Line Drive, d / a = l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

Tracer Production Curves f o r D i f f e r e n t Developed and


Homogeneous P a t t e r n s a / a = 5
0
.........

48

P l o t of Dimensionless Maximum Tracer Concentrations v e r s u s


Peclet Number f o r Homogeneous Developed Patterns................

49

P l o t of Dimensionless Peak Pore Volume Locations v e r s u s


P e c l e t Number f o r Homogeneous Developed Patterns................

49

3.25

C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r s on Peak Concentrations.......................

50

3.26

C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r s on a / a t o C a l c u l a t e Peak Locations...........

51

3.27

Normalized Tracer Production Curves f o r a Homogeneous


Developed Five-spot.............................................

54

C o r r e l a t i o n of T r a c e r Production Curves f o r Homogeneous


Developed Patterns..............................................

54

3.29

Outcrops of Sandstone R e s e r v o i r s ( a f t e r Z e i t o , 1 9 6 5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

3.30

T r a c e r Response from a Four-Layered Developed Staggered


Line Drive, d / a = 1 , F i r s t Example..............................

60

Match Obtained Using t h e Deconvolution Routine and


Tracer C o r r e c t i o n Factors.......................................

61

Tracer Response from a Four-Layered Developed Staggered


Line Drive, d / a = 1 , and t h e Match Obtained Using t h e
Deconvolution Routine, Second Example...........................

62

Match Using t h e Optimization Routine w i t h Four L a y e r s ,


Second Example..................................................

65

Match Using t h e Optimization Routine w i t h Three L a y e r s ,


Second Example...................................os.............

66

Match Using t h e Optimization Routine w i t h Five L a y e r s ,


Second Example..................................................

66

Isopach Map of Loco Waterflood P i l o t Area


( a f t e r Martin _
e t.a l . , 1968).....................................

68

4.2

P a t t e r n C o n f i g u r a t i o n and R e s e r v o i r Data f o r t h e F i e l d Test.....

69

4.3

Isotherms of Average Sand Temperature During Hot Water


I n j e c t i o n ( a f t e r Martin -e t a l . , 1968)...........................

72

Tracer E l u t i o n Curves f o r F i e l d Test (Smith and Brigham, 1965)..

73

3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24

3.28

3.31
3.32

3.33
3.34
3.35
4.1

4.4

vii

4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4 09
4.10
4.11
4.12

A- 1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6
A-7
B- 1

c- 1
c-2

.................
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well D w i t h Five Layers .............
Analysis of -Tracqr Data f o r Well D with Seven Layers ............
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well D w i t h Nine Layers .............
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well D with Ten Layers ..............
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well A w i t h Five Layers .............
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well A with Seven Layers ............
Analysis of Tracer Data f o r Well A w i t h Ten Layers ..............
A Developed Staggered Line Drive. i n Z-Plane ....................
W-Plane Showing t h e Transformation ..............................
Well Locations f o r a Developed Staggered Line Drive
i n t h e W-Plane ..................................................
Coordinate System f o r a Developed Staggered Line Drive ..........
A Developed Direct Line Drive i n Z-Plane ........................
Coordinate System f o r a Developed Direct Line Drive .............
Coordinate System f o r an I n v e r t e d Developed Seven-Spot ..........
Front Location i n a Developed Five-Spot P a t t e r n a t an
A r b i t r a r y Mobility R a t i o ........................................
Dimensions f o r a Staggered Line Drive Considered i n t h e
Analysis of Mixing Line I n t e g r a l ................................
V a r i a t i o n of Mixing Line I n t e g r a l with Tracer Front Location
1......
f o r Various Streamlines of a Staggered Line Drive. d / a
Dimensions of a Developed Direct Line Drive Considered
i n t h e Analysis of Mixing Line I n t e g r a l .........................
Q u a l i t a t i v e Streamlines f o r Well D of t h e P i l o t

c-3

.v i i i .

74
75
76
76
77
79
80

80
98
99
100
102
107
109
114
126
136
139
141

ABSTRACT

This s t u d y h a s been c a r r i e d o u t i n two r e l a t e d s e c t i o n s .


In the f i r s t
s e c t i o n , e x a c t a n a l y t i c e q u a t i o n s have been d e r i v e d t o d e f i n e breakthrough
c u r v e s ( d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t v e r s u s pore volumes i n j e c t e d , or area swept
v e r s u s pore volume i n j e c t e d ) f o r d i f f e r e n t developed f l o o d i n g w e l l p a t t e r n s
f o r unit mobility r a t i o .
I n t h e d e r i v a t i o n of e q u a t i o n s , i t was assumed t h a t
t h e displacements were p i s t o n - l i k e w i t h no c a p i l l a r y and g r a v i t y effects. The
e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l s which d i f f e r
a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n s are v a r i o u s forms of
depending on t h e geometry of t h e p a t t e r n .
The e x a c t e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l solut i o n s f o r t h e breakthrough curves have been c o r r e l a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e curve by
d e f i n i n g a c o r r e l a t i n g parameter, we have c a l l e d t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s pore
volume.
Since breakthrough c u r v e s f o r t h e p a t t e r n s considered i n t h i s s t u d y
( f ive- spot , i n v e r t e d seven- spot , d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e , and s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e )
a l l c o r r e l a t e i n t o a s i n g l e curve, i t i s concluded t h a t t h e breakthrough
c u r v e s f o r any o t h e r r e p e a t i n g p a t t e r n s should a l s o l i e reasonably near t h i s
same c o r r e l a t i n g curve.
The f i r s t s e c t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s an e x t e n s i o n of an a n a l y t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of
p a t t e r n breakthrough c u r v e s f o r m o b i l i t y r a t i o o t h e r t h a n one.
In t h e
d e r i v a t i o n s , i t was assumed t h a t t h e s t r e a m l i n e s of a p a t t e r n d i d n o t change
w i t h m o b i l i t y r a t i o . The r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e breakthrough
areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s a t v a r i o u s m o b i l i t y r a t i o s were n e a r l y independent of
m o b i l i t y r a t i o s , w h i l e t h e p o s t breakthrough d a t a were d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h
mobility ratio.
I n each
The second p a r t d i s c u s s e s flow of a tracer s l u g i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s .
system, t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l mixing of t h e tracer s l u g i n a g e n e r a l s t r e a m t u b e of
t h e p a t t e r n has been formulated mathematically. A l i n e i n t e g r a l a l o n g a
streamtube was d e r i v e d which r e p r e s e n t s t h e l e n g t h of t h e mixed zone.
When
t h i s l i n e i n t e g r a l was s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e mixing e q u a t i o n , an e x p r e s s i o n f o r
t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of tracer a t any l o c a t i o n w i t h i n a streamtube r e s u l t e d .
Furthermore, t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s i n t e g r a t e d over a l l t h e s t r e a m l i n e s produced a
set of e q u a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g tracer production c u r v e s from homogeneous r e p e a t e d
patterns.
The s t u d y shows t h a t t h e e f f l u e n t tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n depends upon
t h e p a t t e r n geometry and s i z e , and t h e d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t of t h e formation.

Tracer production curves f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s considered have a l s o been


c o r r e l a t e d i n t o a set of curves depending on a l a , (a
d i s t a n c e between l i k e
wells, a = d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n was achieved by d e r i v i n g two
sets of c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s , one f o r tracer peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and a n o t h e r f o r
ala r a t i o .
As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n , a tracer r e s p o n s e from any
r e p e a t e d homogeneous p a t t e r n can be e s t i m a t e d from t h e response of a n
e q u i v a l e n t five- spot system by u t i l i z i n g t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s .

A computer program based on a non- linear o p t i m i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e was developed


which decomposes a d e t e c t e d tracer breakthrough p r o f i l e from a m u l t i l a y e r e d
system i n t o responses from i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r s .
The program computes p o r o s i t y t h i c k n e s s and f r a c t i o n a l p e r m e a b i l i t y - t h i c k n e s s f o r each l a y e r . The a l g o r i t h m

- ix -

u t i l i z e s t h e e q u a t i o n s of t h e five- spot p a t t e r n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e
developed c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s .
A f i v e - s p o t f i e l d example which has been
s u c c e s s f u l l y decomposed i n t o e e v e r a l l a y e r s is shown t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e of
t h i s research.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h i s work was provided by t h e
Department of Energy through t h e S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Petroleum Research
I n s t i t u t e , under C o n t r a c t No. DE-AC03-81SF11564.

- x -

INTRODUCTION

Reservoir heterogeneities play an important role in oil recovery by improved


In any fluid injection operation, high permeability
recovery techniques
streaks divert substantial quantities of the injected fluid.
This unequal
distribution of the injected fluid greatly reduces the volumetric sweep
efficiency of the reservoir and, hence, lowers the efficiency of the displacement processes. Therefore, detection of high permeability zones and channels
would be helpful in the understanding, design, operation, and interpretation
of injection projects.
A means to follow fluid movement in a reservoir would be an important tool in
determining the characteristics of a formation directly.
Radioactive and
chemical tracers provide the capability to achieve this purpose.
Information
on reservoir heterogeneity supplied by flow of tracers in a reservoir is
invaluable in the design of assisted recovery operations and also useful in
reservoir simulation studies.
This information, whether qualitative or
quantitative, is generally extracted from tracer breakthrough profiles
detected at the production wells. Often, tracer breakthrough profiles are a
summation of tracer responses from several layers which constitute the
formation. In practice, the number of the layers is unknown and only a tracer
breakthrough curve from a stratified system is available. This is a classic
inversion problem.
To analyze tracer breakthrough profiles, results must be
deconvoluted into the constituent layer responses. From the constructed layer
responses, it would be possible to compute important parameters for the layers
such as permeability, porosity, and thickness.

--

Several works (Brigham and Smith, 1965; Baldwin, 1966; and Yuen et al. 1979)
have been published on tracer flow which have attempted to obtain quantitative
information about the nature of reservoirs.
Each of these had limitations
which led to incorrectly defined reservoir parameters and also each of these
methods considered only fully developed five-spot patterns and unit mobility
ratio.
This study draws from these earlier works and was initiated to develop an
analysis for tracer tests which could be used for any repeated pattern within
the limitation of mobility ratio of one. To do this a mathematical description of tracer breakthrough curves for any developed homogeneous pattern is
required.
For the breakthrough curves to be precise, the analysis must
include a rigorous treatment of the mixing of tracer in the patterns. Also, a
correlation of these tracer production curves into a single curve (or a single
set of curves) could simplify the analysis.
Finally, a method which could
analyze tracer elution curves from stratified reservoirs without adopting
lengthy trial and error procedures could reduce the needed time for an
analysis.
With these points in mind, a new tracer analysis method has been
developed.

- 1-

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

I n t h e p a s t several decades, both r a d i o a c t i v e and chemical tracers have been


used as e f f e c t i v e t o o l s f o r e v a l u a t i o n of v a r i o u s s u b t e r r a n e a n f o r m a t i o n s such
as petroleum and geothermal r e s e r v o i r s and underground a q u i f e r s .
The tracer
tests conducted are u s u a l l y of two types:
1) well- to- well ( i n t e r w e l l ) tests
i n which a tracer is i n j e c t e d i n an i n j e c t i o n w e l l and d e t e c t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y
at a production w e l l ; or 2) s i n g l e w e l l tests i n which t h e tracer is i n j e c t e d
i n t o a w e l l and is allowed t o react w i t h t h e formation f l u i d b e f o r e being
produced from t h e same w e l l .
I n t h i s s t u d y , only t h e well- to- well tracer flow
tests are considered.
This c h a p t e r has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r main p a r t s .
In the f i r s t , l i t e r a t u r e
The
r e l a t e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of tracer tests is p r e s e n t e d .
second p a r t d i s c u s s e s t h e mechanism of tracer flow i n porous media.
In t h i s
p a r t , d i s p e r s i o n (mixing) i n l i n e a r and non- linear flow geometries is covered
a t l e n g t h . Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of tracer t e s t d a t a from v a r i o u s underground
The l a s t p a r t provides a summary
r e s e r v o i r s is p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h i r d p a r t .
t o t h i s chapter.
2.1

QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF TRACER DATA

The r e s u l t s of i n t e r w e l l tracer tests u s u a l l y have been i n t e r p r e t e d on a


q u a l i t a t i v e b a s i s . Therefore, only g e n e r a l i d e a s about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
t h e formation have been e x t r a c t e d from t h e tracer tests.
Strum and Johnson
(1951) v e r i f i e d t h e occurrence of c r e v i c e s and j o i n t - p l a n e p a r t i n g s i n t h e
Pennsylvanian Bradford Third Sand formation by q u a l i t a t i v e l y s t u d y i n g t h e
Three d i f f e r e n t
r e s u l t s of several t r a c e r t e s t s conducted i n t h i s sand.
tracers were used:
b r i n e , f l u o r e s c e i n and a s u r f a c e a c t i v e compound.
The
r e s u l t s v e r i f i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of d i r e c t i o n a l p e r m e a b i l i t i e s which had a l r e a d y
been measured from c o r e samples. Based on t h i s f i n d i n g , subsequent w a t e r f l o o d
w e l l p a t t e r n s were designed t o improve t h e swept volumes.

--

Carpenter e t a l . (1952) used boron i n t h e form of Borax and b o r i c a c i d as a


water s o l u b l e tracer t o f i n d t h e main f e a t u r e s of t h r e e o i l - b e a r i n g formations.
They concluded t h a t i n two of t h e f o r m a t i o n s , several channels were
p r e s e n t i n s t e a d of a s i n g l e "pipe-line" channel, and t h e t h i r d formation d i d
Their c o n c l u s i o n s were based upon t h e
n o t have channels or by- passing zones.
c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s of boron d e t e c t e d a t t h e p r o d u c e r s , and t h e e l a p s e d t i m e
between t h e i n j e c t i o n of t h e tracer and i t s appearance a t t h e producing wells.

A comprehensive l i s t of i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e from tracer tests was p r e s e n t e d


by Wagner (1977), who s t u d i e d t h e r e s u l t s of twenty tracer programs conducted
i n r e s e r v o i r s undergoing w a t e r f l o o d s , gas d r i v e s and water- solvent i n j e c t i o n
o p e r a t i o n s . His l i s t included t h e f o l l o w i n g items:

2 -

Volumetric sweep-The volume of f l u i d i n j e c t e d a t an i n j e c t i o n w e l l t o


breakthrough of t h e tracer a t an o f f s e t producer is i n d i c a t i v e of t h e
v o l u m e t r i c sweep- e f f i c i e n c y between t h a t p a i r of wells. A small breakthrough sweep e f f i c i 6 n c y i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a f r a c t u r e o r a t h i n ,
h i g h p e r m e a b i l i t y s t r e a k between t h e two w e l l s .
I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o f f e n d i n g injectors- - With d i f f e r e n t tracers i n j e c t e d
i n t o a f o r m a t i o n , a comparison of a r r i v a l times of tracers at t h e
p r o d u c t i o n wells can determine t h e i n j e c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e a r l y breakthrough i n s p e c i f i c producers. Remedial t r e a t m e n t of t h e i n j e c t o r s would
normally be necessary.
D i r e c t i o n a l flow trends-When d i f f e r e n t tracers are i n j e c t e d i n t o r e g u l a r
p a t t e r n s , t h e e x i s t i n g d i r e c t i o n a l flow t r e n d s are i d e n t i f i e d by e a r l y
tracer breakthrough at t h e producers l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l flow
direction.
D e l i n e a t i o n of flow barriers- Lack of response t o an i n j e c t e d tracer at a
production w e l l i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a b a r r i e r or a s e a l i n g f a u l t
between t h e p a i r of wells.
R e l a t i v e v e l o c i t i e s of i n j e c t e d fluids- When d i f f e r e n t f l u i d s tagged with
d i f f e r e n t : tracers are i n j e c t e d simultaneously or s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t h e same
w e l l , t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r r i v a l t i m e of t h e tracers a t t h e producers can be
used t o measure t h e r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t i e s of t h e i n j e c t e d f l u i d s .
This
i n f o r m a t i o n is u s e f u l i n determining t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f l u i d t o use f o r
m o b i l i t y c o n t r o l t o a c h i e v e a more uniform sweep i n t e r t i a r y o i l recovery
operations.
E v a l u a t i o n of sweep improvement treatments- The s u c c e s s o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s
of sweep e f f i c i e n c y t r e a t m e n t s can be e v a l u a t e d by comparing t h e breakthrough times of tracers b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t .

--

an implementation of Wagner's work, D'Hooge e t al. (1981) s i m u l t a n e o u s l y


i n j e c t e d f o u r r a d i o a c t i v e tracers (carbon- 14, cobalt- 57, cobalt- 60 and
t r i t i u m ) i n t o t h e West Sumatra formation (Pennsylvanian age s a n d s t o n e ) t o
t r a c k t h e movements of t h e i n j e c t e d f l u i d s .
A q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n a r r i v a l c u r v e s a t d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s provided
v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i r e c t i o n of flow, r e s e r v o i r d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , and
probable areas of poor sweep e f f i c i e n c y .
These i n v e s t i g a t o r s , however, d i d
n o t a n a l y z e t h e tracer e l u t i o n curves i n d e t a i l t o o b t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e
i n f o r m a t i o n about formation h e t e r o g e n e i t y .
2.2

MECHANISM OF TRACER FLOW

To perform d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s on i n t e r w e l l tracer breakthrough


c u r v e s , one must have a thorough knowledge of t h e mechanism of tracer movement
i n t h e formation.
I n g e n e r a l , t h e t r a n s p o r t of tracer material i n a porous
medium is s u b j e c t t o two phenomena--convection and hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n
(Bear, 1972).

- 3 -

~.

2.2.1

Convection

Convection i s used h e r e t o d e s c r i b e bulk movement of f l u i d s as governed by


This"-floc) r e s u l t s from p o t e n t i a l g r a d i e n t s imposed on t h e
Darcy's l a w .
system.
I n a r e s e r v o i r , t h e p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s are e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r by
d e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e flowing f l u i d s , or by p r o d u c t i o n and i n j e c t i o n
wells d r i l l e d i n t o a formation.
Convection depends mainly on t h e w e l l
arrangements and o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , such as flow rates of t h e w e l l s .
A
comprehensive survey of t h e work done on convection f o r d i f f e r e n t w e l l
p a t t e r n s was provided by Craig (1971).
2.2.2

Hydrodynamic D i s p e r s i o n

Hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n is composed of two parts- molecular d i f f u s i o n and


mechanical d i s p e r s i o n .
Molecular d i f f u s i o n r e s u l t s from component concent r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d between two m i s c i b l e f l u i d s , and i s independent
of flow v e l o c i t y . Mechanical d i s p e r s i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, is t h e r e s u l t of
movement of i n d i v i d u a l f l u i d p a r t i c l e s i n t o r t u o u s pore channels of a porous
medium.
On a microscopic l e v e l , d i s p e r s i o n r e s u l t s from v a r i a t i o n s i n
v e l o c i t y of tracer material as i t flows through t h e s e p a r a t i n g and r e j o i n i n g
pore passages.
I n two dimensional flow, a d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between
mechanical d i s p e r s i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of f l o w ( l o n g i t u d i n a l
d i s p e r s i o n ) , and t h a t o c c u r r i n g i n a d i r e c t i o n p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e mean f l o w
(transverse dispersion).

As a consequence of hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n , tracer material g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d s


and occupies an i n c r e a s i n g p o r t i o n of t h e flow domain beyond t h e r e g i o n i t
would occupy according t o f l u i d convection alone. The amount of s p r e a d i n g (or
mixing) depends on t h e d i s p e r s i v i t y of t h e porous medium and t h e geometry of
t h e flow system.
Considerable work, both t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l , has
been done t o s t u d y t h e phenomenon of d i s p e r s i o n (mixing) i n porous media f o r
v a r i o u s flow geometries.
2.2.2.1

L i n e a r Flow

Aronofsky and Heller (1957) p r e s e n t e d a mathematical a n a l y s i s of mixing


( d i s p e r s i o n ) t h a t o c c u r s between two m i s c i b l e f l u i d s as one f l u i d d i s p l a c e s
They solved t h e f o l l o w i n g
t h e o t h e r l i n e a r l y through a porous medium.
continuity equation f o r the f l u i d concentration:

a2 c
K2
ax

ac

ac

7F

v - ax =

C(x,O)

C("",t)

- 4-

..

Where,
C = c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d , mass f r a c t i o n
K = e f f e c t i v e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

v = microscopic v e l o c i t y , q/A4
The Aronofsky- Heller s o l u t i o n is:

The a u t h o r s showed t h a t t h e second term i n t h e b r a c k e t s was q u i t e small e x c e p t


a t small v a l u e s of x or l a r g e v a l u e s of K.
Aronofsky and Heller used t h i s s o l u t i o n t o a n a l y z e d a t a from m i s c i b l e f l o w
They were a b l e t o match
experiments t h a t were a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .
t h e d a t a r e p o r t e d by von Rosenburg (1956), as w e l l as d a t a provided by Koch
From t h e a n a l y s i s of von Rosenburg's d a t a , they d i s c o v e r e d
and Slobod (1957).
t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t , K, was a f u n c t i o n of f l u i d v e l o c i t y .
Furthermore, t h e K-values computed from von Rosenburg's d a t a when graphed
a g a i n s t flow rate on log- log graph paper r e s u l t e d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h a
s l o p e e q u a l t o 1.2.
From t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , Aronofsky and Heller concluded
t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o flow v e l o c i t y t o t h e
power 1.2.
Ogata and Banks (1961) independently solved t h e one- dimensional c o n v e c t i v e
d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n (Eq. 2-1) w i t h t h e same boundary c o n d i t i o n s considered by
Aronofsky and Heller, and o b t a i n e d a s o l u t i o n i d e n t i c a l i n form t o Eq. 2-2.
Ogata and Banks showed t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s corresponding t o Eq.
2-2 s o l u t i o n were not symmetrical about t h e plane of x = v t f o r small v a l u e s
of v x / K .
For v x / K > 500, a maximum e r r o r of 3% w a s i n t r o d u c e d by n e g l e c t i n g
t h e second term i n Eq. 2-2, and t h e corresponding c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s
became symmetric about t h e x = v t plane.
In o r d i n a r y experiments, e r r o r s of
t h e o r d e r of magnitude of experimental e r r o r s are i n t r o d u c e d i f a symmetrical
s o l u t i o n is assumed i n s t e a d of t h e a c t u a l asymmetrical one. This i m p l i e s t h a t
t h e second term can be n e g l e c t e d f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes.

--

Raimondi e t al. (1959) found t h a t mixing between m i s c i b l e f l u i d s w a s cont r o l l e d by two parameters: c o e f f i c i e n t of molecular d i f f u s i o n , and a c o n s t a n t
determined by s t r u c t u r e of t h e porous medium.
They concluded t h a t t h e
e f f e c t i v e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t was given by K = D' + av. I n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ,
D' is t h e a p p a r e n t c o e f f i c i e n t of molecular d i f f u s i o n w i t h i n t h e porous
medium. It i s less than t h e a c t u a l molecular d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t by product
of formation r e s i s t i v i t y f a c t o r and p o r o s i t y .
The term a is a c o n s t a n t which
depends on t h e s t r u c t u r e , pore s i z e and g r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e porous
medium. For c o n s o l i d a t e d Berea sandstone c o r e s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e s of a
were between 0.15 and 0.25 cm.
For packings of uniform s i z e p a r t i c l e s , a w a s
e q u a l t o E 2dp, where d
is t h e average g r a i n d i a m e t e r and c2 i s a
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s t a n t 08t h e packs which w a s found t o be e q u a l t o 0.68 f o r
uniform s p h e r e s .
The experiments showed t h a t molecular d i f f u s i o n was t h e
dominating f a c t o r a t low flow rates, and became n e g l i g i b l e a t high flow rates.
-

5 -

Handy (1959) designed a n experiment t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s of molecular


H e added
d i f f u s i o n on t h e mixing-zone s i z e f o r m i s c i b l e displacements.
methanol and s u c r o s e as double tracers t o t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d . Methanol has
a h i g h e r molecular d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t than s u c r o s e .
The methanol and
s u c r o s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s d e t e c t e d a t t h e o u t l e t end of t h e l i n e a r core
showed no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s a t two displacement rates: 0.5 f t l d a y and
16.5 f t / d a y .
This i n d i c a t e d t h a t molecular d i f f u s i o n was not an important
f a c t o r i n t h e mixing of d i s p l a c i n g and d i s p l a c e d f l u i d s i n t h e f r o n t a l
regions.
A thorough e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n i n l i n e a r
m i s c i b l e d i s p l a c e m e n t s was c a r r i e d o u t by Brigham e t a l . (1961). They s t u d i e d
t h e e f f e c t s of f l u i d v e l o c i t y , d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d , bead s i z e ( t y p e of porous
medium), v i s c o s i t y r a t i o of t h e f l u i d s and pack diameter on t h e amount of
hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n which they c a l l e d l e n g t h of mixed zone. Their conclus i o n was t h a t mixing phenomenon i n displacements w i t h f a v o r a b l e v i s c o s i t y
r a t i o could be e x p l a i n e d by:

--

w i t h an e f f e c t i v e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t o f :

The f i r s t term on t h e r i g h t hand s i d e of Eq. 2-4 is t h e a p p a r e n t molecular


d i f f u s i o n , which i s e q u a l t o t h e r a t i o of t h e molecular d i f f u s i o n constant:
d i v i d e d by t h e product of t h e formation r e s i s t i v i t y f a c t o r and p o r o s i t y of t h e
system.
The second term is t h e mechanical d i s p e r s i o n .
Constant a, known as
t h e d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t , depends on t h e n a t u r e of porous medium as w e l l as t h e
v i s c o s i t y r a t i o of t h e f l u i d s . For c o n s o l i d a t e d c o r e s , v a l u e s of a were found
t o be 10 t o 100 times greater than t h e v a l u e s of a f o r u n c o n s o l i d a t e d c o r e s .
This implied t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l mixing had o c c u r r e d i n c o n s o l i d a t e d c o r e s compared t o t h e packed beds.
The a u t h o r s a l s o discovered t h a t t h e e f f e c t of
molecular d i f f u s i o n on mixing was n e g l i g i b l e except at very low v e l o c i t i e s .
Their Fig. 5 is reproduced h e r e as Fig. 2.1, and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e p o i n t s
c l e a r l y . Brigham e t al., however, d i d n o t p r e s e n t t h e e f f e c t s of l a t e r a l
( t r a n s v e r s e ) d i s p e r s i o n on mixing.
Blackwell (1962) s t u d i e d both l o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e d i s p e r s i o n i n sandpacked columns.
H e found t h a t mixing i n both d i r e c t i o n s was dominated by
molecular d i f f u s i o n a t low rates, and by mechanical d i s p e r s i o n a t high rates.
However, mass t r a n s p o r t by molecular d i f f u s i o n w a s more important f o r t r a n s v e r s e mixing t h a n f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l mixing.
A t s u f f i c i e n t l y high rates,
t r a n s v e r s e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t s were found t o be smaller by a f a c t o r of about
24 compared t o t h o s e i n t h e flow d i r e c t i o n f o r both 20-30 mesh O t t a w a sand and
40-400 mesh s i l i c a sand.
Figure 7 of t h e i r paper is reproduced h e r e as Fig.
2.2, and shows t h e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r v a r i o u s packs.

- 6-

IO'
0
0
0
0
H
4

IO'

Buds
Buds
Beads
Buds
Berm 500 d
Torpedo 250 d

0.470
0.100
0.044
0.100

0.175
0.175
0.175
0.990
0.175
0.175

IO'

IO

10-

IO -I

1.0

IO'

lo2

lo3

Rv
D

Fig. 2.1:

EFFECT OF RATE AND TYPE OF POROUS MEDIUM ON MIXING


COEFFICIENT (Brigham e t a l . , 1961)

r"7

Fig. 2.2:

LONGITUDINAL DISPERSION
TRANSVERSE DISPERSION

IO4

IO0

IO'

IO

lo3

LONGITUDINAL AND LATERAL MIXING COEFFICIENTS


FOR VARIOUS SANDS ( a f t e r Blackwell, 1962)

- 7 -

Harleman and Rumer's (1963) exp r mental work showed that the longitudinal
mixing coeff c nt was K = g, ve.l, while the transverse mixing coefficient
The vejocity, v, is the microscopic average velocity along
was KT = a
the main f?ow direction.
The ratio of the dispersion constants %/aT was
18.3.
This was in good agreement with the value of 24 reported by Blackwell.
Although molecular diffusion was not reported in this study, the authors
speculated that the effects of molecular diffusion would be minimal.

.OY'.

Besides the diffusion model (error function type solutions) describing mixing
phenomenon, other models have also been presented to predict mixing in a
porous medium.
The simplest one is the mixing cell, or stirred-tank model,
presented by Aris and Amundson (1957).
In this model, the porous medium is
viewed as a series of cells or tanks connected to each other by tubes having
no volumes.
Complete mixing is assumed within each cell, resulting in a
uniform composition in each cell. For a small number of such cells in series,
the calculated concentration profile is asymmetrical.
However, for larger
numbers of cells, the concentration profile approaches the symmetrical normal
distribution curve computed from a diffusion model.
In some linear miscible flow experiments, especially those run with short
cores, a "talling" in the effluent concentration profile is observed and the
effluent profile is asymmetric. The degree of asymmetry is more pronounced in
consolidated porous media than in laboratory packed columns.
Usually, the
deviation is not serious and the diffusivity equations provide a good approximation to actual observations. However, several investigators have attempted
to explain the asymmetrical concentration profiles quantitatively.
Deans
(1963) considered the porous medium as a series of normal pores with frequent
dead-end passages, or stagnant zones distributed throughout the system. These
stagnant pockets store fluids, thereby elongate the mixing zone, and give a
To describe this phenomenon mathematitall to the concentration profile.
cally, Deans modified the mixing cell model to include mass transfer from the
flowing stream into the stagnant volumes. As a result, he produced a capacitance model which has three parameters: number of mixing cells (equivalent to
dispersion coefficient); amount of stagnant volume (1-f), f being the flowing
volume as a fraction of total pore volume; and a rate constant for the mass
transfer into the stagnant volumes. Because of the existence of three degrees
of freedom (three constants), the capacitance model fits experimental data
better than does a diffusion model which contains only one constant (the
dispersion coefficient, K).
Coats and Smith (1964) augmented the diffusion equation with Deans' modified
They used
mixing-cell model and produced a differential capacitance model.
the new model to match their data obtained from displacement of calcium
choloride solution by a sodium chloride solution In linear cores. The cores
were both consolidated and unconsolidated, and between 8 and 9 inches long.
The effluent concentration profiles from the consolidated cores exhibited
considerable asymmetry, while the unconsolidated cores yielded nearly symmetrical profiles.
Coats and Smith demonstrated that the differential
capacitance model matched the data significantly better than a simple
diffusion model.
This behavior was rationalized on the basis that the
capacitance model attributed a certain amount of mixing to dead end pore
volume effects, while the dispersion model considered only part of the mixing
generated in the experiments.
The degree of contribution of capacitance
effects could be estimated from a dimensionless group defined as a = K,L/v,
-

8 -

For
( K m = mass t r a n s f e r rate, L = l e n g t h of t h e s y s t e m and v = v e l o c i t y ) .
t h e i r l a b o r a t o r y experiments, "a" was a small number which i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e mixing by c a p a c i t a n c e e f f e c t s .
However, f o r f i e l d
cases, where "a" i s a l h - g e number (small v and l a r g e L ) , t h e c a p a c i t a n c e
e f f e c t s would be v i r t u a l l y a b s e n t and mixing would be c o n t r o l l e d almost
Thus, danger a r i s e s from a t t r i b u t i n g t h e
e n t i r e l y by a d i s p e r s i o n mechanism.
t o t a l mixing observed i n s h o r t l a b o r a t o r y c o r e s t o t h e d i s p e r s i o n mechanism
a l o n e , and s u b s q u e n t l y e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s t o f i e l d scale.
An e a s y
a l t e r n a t i v e would be t o u s e l o n g e r c o r e s i n t h e experiments designed t o s t u d y
d i s p e r s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s p e c i f i c porous medium.
Because it is o f t e n
i m p o s s i b l e t o r e t r i e v e long c o r e s from a formation, t h e r e s u l t s of experiments
conducted w i t h s h o r t c o r e s should be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .

A s p e c i f i c s t u d y of mixing i n s h o r t l i n e a r c o r e s w a s performed by Brigham


(1974).
For such systems, t h e boundary c o n d i t i o n s used i n s o l v i n g t h e
c o n v e c t i v e d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n (Eq. 2 - l ) , g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t a n t
s o l u t i o n s . However, by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t h e i n - s i t u c o n c e n t r a t i o n and
t h e flowing c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and a l l o w i n g f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e boundary
c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l , Brigham showed t h a t t h e r e s u l t s computed from v a r i o u s
forms of s o l u t i o n s t o t h e d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n were n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l .
The
s o l u t i o n given by Aronofsky and Heller and Ogata and Banks (Eq. 2-2) was found
t o g e n e r a t e v a l u e s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s which were i n good agreement w i t h o t h e r
s o l u t i o n s . The dead-end-pore models ( c a p a c i t a n c e and d i f f e r e n t i a l c a p a c i t a n c e
models) were found t o have been based on t h e i n - s i t u c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , while
Coats and Smith had used them t o match the flowing c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a .
Although Coats and Smith obtained good matches t o t h e i r experimental d a t a , t h e
parameters computed from t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c a p a c i t a n c e model would n o t p r o p e r l y
r e p r e s e n t t h e behavior of t h e same porous medium w i t h l o n g e r l e n g t h s . Brigham
a d j u s t e d Coats and Smith's s o l u t i o n (Eq. 28 i n t h e i r p a p e r ) t o c o n s i d e r t h e
d i f f e r e n c e between flowing and i n - s i t u c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .
He showed t h a t with
t h e new s o l u t i o n , t h e behavior of l a r g e systems might be computed c o r r e c t l y by
Brigham
parameters obtained from small c o r e s (Fig. 6 i n Brigham's paper).
concluded t h a t f o r l a r g e systems, t h e c o r r e c t e d c a p a c i t a n c e model behaves l i k e
t h e o r d i n a r y d i f f u s i o n model w i t h a somewhat g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e d i s p e r s i o n
c o n s t a n t , and t h a t t h e simple e r r o r f u n c t i o n s o l u t i o n (Eq. 2-3) t o t h e d i f f u s i v i t y equation y i e l d s s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s .
2.2.2.2

Non- linear Flow

The preceeding c o n s i d e r s mixing or d i s p e r s i o n i n l i n e a r systems where t h e flow


i s uniform and t h e average v e l o c i t y is c o n s t a n t . For o t h e r g e o m e t r i e s , f l u i d
v e l o c i t y is a f u n c t i o n of p o s i t i o n , and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e mixing c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i e s from p o i n t t o p o i n t .
Therefore, any s t u d y of mixing i n systems
t h a t do n o t e x h i b i t uniform flow must c o n s i d e r t h e dependence of d i s p e r s i o n on
velocity.
The v a r i n g d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t makes i t very d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t
i m p o s s i b l e , t o d e r i v e a n a l y t i c e q u a t i o n s t o d e s c r i b e mixing i n non-uniform
flow f i e l d s . Even f o r a simple geometry, such as a d i v e r g i n g r a d i a l flow, t h e
e x a c t a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n t o t h e c o n v e c t i v e d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n has n o t been
However, s e v e r a l
o b t a i n e d i n a u s a b l e form, a c c o r d i n g t o Bear (1972).
approximate s o l u t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e which d e s c r i b e mixing i n r a d i a l flow
systems w i t h good accuracy.
Raimondi et a l e (1959) d e r i v e d an approximate
s o l u t i o n based on t h e assumption t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e of d i s p e r s i o n becomes
small i n comparison t o l o c a l convection as t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d (or t r a c e r )
moves away from t h e s o u r c e ( i n j e c t i o n w e l l ) .
Raimondi's s o l u t i o n is:

--

9 -

where,

q = i n j e c t i o n rate

a = dispersion constant

D = apparent molecular d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t
I n t h i s s o l u t i o n , t h e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n C ( r , O ) = 0 is not s a t i s f i e d .
This
i m p l i e s t h a t t h e approximate s o l u t i o n assumes a f i n i t e amount of tracer mass
p r e s e n t i n i t i a l l y i n t h e porous medium.
Although t h i s e r r o r is l a r g e i n t h e
immediate v i c i n i t y of t h e i n j e c t i o n w e l l , i t is v i r t u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e at l a r g e r
d i s t a n c e s from t h e i n j e c t i o n w e l l .
Another appraximate s o l u t i o n f o r d i s p e r s i o n i n a r a d i a l l y d i v e r g i n g flow was
o b t a i n e d by Lau e t a l . (1959). The approach was based on t h e assumption t h a t
t h e growth of t h e l e n g t h of t h e mixed zone i n a r a d i a l m i s c i b l e displacement
w a s a l i n e a r sum of two e f f e c t s : one due t o d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d ( l o n g i t u d i n a l
d i s p e r s i o n ) , and t h e o t h e r due t o t h e geometry of flow (divergence of streamlines).
The d i s t a n c e e f f e c t s were o b t a i n e d from t h e mixing e q u a t i o n f o r a
l i n e a r system.
The geometry e f f e c t s were d e r i v e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n of
material b a l a n c e , n o t i n g t h a t t h e volume of t h e d i s p e r s e d zone had t o remain
The
c o n s t a n t a t a given p o i n t r e g a r d l e s s of t h e geometry of t h e system.
s o l u t i o n p r e s e n t e d by Lau e t a l . is:
_
I
-

--

where
is t h e average r a d i u s of t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d .
Raimondis s o l u t i o n
(Eq. 2-5), a l s o redu_cLes t o t h i s e q u a t i o n by u s i n g t h e material b a l a n c e relat i o n s h i p , Q t = 0.5 r , n e g l e c t i n g t h e molecular d i f f u s i o n term and assuming
2 r i n Eq. 2-5.
For systems i n which t h e s i z e of mixed zone is
that r +
small, t h e s e assumptions are r e a l i s t i c .

--

Lau et a l . (1959) and Bentsen and Nielsen (1965) v e r i f i e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of


Bentsen and Nielsen conducted t h e i r experiments i n a
Eq. 2-6 experimentaly.
homogeneous s l a b of c i r c u l a r c o n s o l i d a t e d Berea sandstone which had a r a d i u s
of 91.4 c m and a t h i c k n e s s of 1.9 cm.
The v i s c o s i t y of t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d
was h i g h e r t h a n t h e v i s c o s i t y of t h e d i s p l a c e d f l u i d t o avoid v i s c o u s
fingering.
The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were measured i n - s i t u u s i n g t h e d i e l e c t r i c
c o n s t a n t s of t h e f l u i d s at each r a d i u s .

--

An e x t e n s i o n of Lau e t a l e s method was made by Baldwin (1966) t o d e s c r i b e


mixing i n convergent r a d i a l flow.
Baldwin w a s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n comp u t i n g t h e tracer e f f l u e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e from a developed f i v e - s p o t
p a t t e r n for a b a t c h of tracer i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e system. He d i v i d e d t h e f i v e s p o t flow domain i n t o a series of r a d i a l l y divergent- convergent flow t u b e s and

- 10 -

computed t h e tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n s e n t e r i n g t h e production well from each flow


tube. By t h i s method, he matched t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y determined tracer breakthrough curves reasonably w e l l .
Gelhar and C o l l i n s (1971) developed a g e n e r a l approximate a n a l y t i c s o l u t i o n
for l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s p e r s i o n i n s t e a d y flows w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n v e l o c i t y a l o n g
s t r e a m l i n e s . Their s o l u t i o n c o n t a i n s two i n t e g r a l s r e l a t e d t o v e l o c i t y . When
t h i s g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n was a p p l i e d t o a r a d i a l flow, i t generated t h e same
approximate s o l u t i o n as proposed by Raimondi e t a l . (1959).
A comparison of
r e s u l t s computed from Raimondi-type s o l u t i o n s w i t h those o b t a i n e d from numeri c a l s i m u l a t i o n of a r a d i a l m i s c i b l e flow was made t o determine t h e accuracy
of the approximate s o l u t i o n .
The comparison i n d i c a t e d t h a t Raimondi's
s o l u t i o n would y i e l d good r e s u l t s a f t e r t h e f r o n t had t r a v e l l e d a d i s t a n c e on
t h e o r d e r of 100 times t h e d i s p e r s i v i t y of t h e porous medium
> 100). I n
r e s e r v o i r s , t h i s c o n d i t i o n is e a s i l y m e t because t h e o v e r a l l scale of t h e f l o w
is much l a r g e r than t h e d i s p e r s i v i t y of t h e formation.
This i l l u s t r a t e s t h e
f a c t t h a t i n f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e approximate s o l u t i o n s u s u a l l y g e n e r a t e
acceptable results.
Although t h e s o l u t i o n given by Gelhar and C o l l i n s is a
g e n e r a l one, f o r complicated v e l o c i t y f i e l d s i t becomes d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e
t h e v e l o c i t y i n t e g r a l s . Therefore, more simple approximate s o l u t i o n s would be
more d e s i r a b l e f o r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s .

--

(r/a

Brigham (1973) d e r i v e d simple e q u a t i o n s t o d e s c r i b e mixing i n systems i n which


t h e width of t h e flow passage v a r i e d l i n e a r l y w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d .
Although t h i s might impose some r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of h i s
e q u a t i o n s , Brigham showed t h a t by breaking t h e flow system i n t o segments i n
which width was a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of d i s t a n c e , and by r e p e a t e d use of h i s
s o l u t i o n , mixing could be computed f o r a v a r i e t y of geometries.
Despite t h e
f a c t t h a t t h i s method c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l approximations, i t has a d e f i n i t e
The method is
advantage over numerical schemes and o t h e r complex s o l u t i o n s .
simple, f a s t and produces r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s .
The preceeding survey on hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n r e v e a l s t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s .
Molecular d i f f u s i o n and t r a n s v e r s e d i s p e r s i o n play n e g l i g i b l e r o l e s i n t h e
amount of mixing i n m i s c i b l e displacements.
An e q u a t i o n similar t o Eq. 2.6
can adequately d e s c r i b e mixing i n l i n e a r and non- linear flow geometries f o r
p r a c t i c a l purposes.
2.3

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA

The rest of t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on works which have d e a l t w i t h q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of tracer breakthrough p r o f i l e s from petroleum and geothermal
r e s e r v o i r s and underground a q u i f e r s .
2.3.1

Petroleum R e s e r v o i r s

Perhaps Wallick and J e n k i n s (1954) were t h e earliest i n v e s t i g a t o r s who t r i e d


t o e x t r a c t q u a n t i t a t i v e information about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a formation
from tracer o u t p u t d a t a .
They developed a t h e o r e t i c a l method t o compute t h e
r e s u l t s of a short- time tracer t e s t . I n t h i s , a p u l s e of tracer material was
i n j e c t e d under s t e a d y s t a t e flow c o n d i t i o n s i n t o one w e l l and w a s d e t e c t e d a t
a second well.
In t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s e r v o i r was assumed t o be homogeneous
and i n f i n i t e l y l a r g e .
The d i s p e r s i o n of tracer i n t h e formation was ignored,

11 -

meaning t h a t t h e tracer material d i d not mix with f l u i d s ahead or behind i t .


The t h e o r e t i c a l computation of tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n
w e l l was then achieved by computing t h e tracer t r a v e l times on v a r i o u s streaml i n e s of t h i s i s o l a t e d source- sink system.
Therefore, o n l y convection was
considered.
Wallick and J e n k i n s a p p l i e d t h e i r method t o a n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t s
of a f i e l d tracer t e s t i n which helium was i n j e c t e d w i t h a i r i n t o a r e s e r v o i r
undergoing i n - s i t u combustion.
The computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e w a s i n
q u a l i t a t i v e agreement w i t h t h e observed d a t a , and t h e average p e r m e a b i l i t y and
p o r o s i t y v a l u e s computed f o r t h e formation were r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o t h o s e
determined from c o r e d a t a .
Brigham and Smith (1965) performed a d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s on tracer
e l u t i o n c u r v e s f o r developed f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n s .
F i r s t , t h e y d e r i v e d an
e q u a t i o n t o compute t h e tracer response curves f o r a homogeneous developed
f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n f o r a s l u g of tracer i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e system. The d e r i v a t i o n of t h i s e q u a t i o n was accomplished by combining t h e tracer d i s p e r s i o n
e f f e c t s w i t h t h e areal sweep e f f e c t s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n . The d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s were e v a l u a t e d by approximating t h e flow f i e l d as r a d i a l flow t o
t h e p r o d u c t i o n w e l l and u s i n g t h e simple mixing e q u a t i o n (Eq. 2- 6) f o r r a d i a l
flow systems.
This approximation, however, introduced e r r o r s i n t h e computat i o n of d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s .
Brigham and Smith extended t h e t h e o r e t i c a l
a n a l y s i s t o developed five- spot p a t t e r n s with v e r t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e
permeability.
They modeled t h i s type of r e s e r v o i r as a s t a c k of noncommunicating homogeneous layers.
The o v e r a l l tracer breakthrough curve from
t h i s composite model was computed by v o l u m e t r i c a l l y adding t h e tracer a r r i v a l
c u r v e s from i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r s .
The model was a p p l i e d t o a n a l y z e tracer
breakthrough c u r v e s from a f i e l d test conducted i n a f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n .
The
To a r r i v e a t
computed tracer curves had t h e same t r e n d s as t h e f i e l d d a t a .
t h e s e matched c u r v e s , Brigham and Smith used t h r e e l a y e r s , and had t o vary t h e
p e r m e a b i l i t y and t h i c k n e s s of t h e l a y e r s by a t r i a l and e r r o r procedure. This
p r o c e s s was time consuming.
Baldwin (1966) a l s o analyzed t h e f i e l d tracer d a t a r e p o r t e d by Brigham and
He modeled t h e r e s e r v o i r w i t h twenty homogeneous, non-communicating
Smith.
l a y e r s w i t h p e r m e a b i l i t y of l a y e r s ranging from 34 t o 4200 md as determined
from c o r e d a t a .
Based on h i s e q u a t i o n s f o r r a d i a l l y convergent- divergent
flow, he c a l c u l a t e d a tracer response curve from t h i s layer- cake model.
Figure 8 of h i s paper i s reproduced h e r e as Fig. 2.3 t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e
results.
The match i s good f o r t h e e a r l y p o r t i o n of d a t a , but it d e v i a t e s
from t h e l a t e r d a t a a p p r e c i a b l y . Since t h e major p o r t i o n of tracer flow i s i n
t h e high permeable zones, t h e low p e r m e a b i l i t y v a l u e s used by Baldwin are not
important. In r e a l i t y , Baldwin's match i s w i t h fewer t h a n 20 l a y e r s .
Yuen e t a l . (1979) r e v i s e d Brigham and Smith's a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o i n c l u d e
t h e e T e x of diverging- converging flow on d i s p e r s i o n .
Based on t h e r e v i s e d
s o l u t i o n , a computer program was developed which would decompose an o v e r a l l
tracer curve from a m u l t i l a y e r developed five- spot p a t t e r n i n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i n g l a y e r responses, and compute $h and kh/Ckh of t h e l a y e r s .
The a l g o r i t h m
could handle f o u r l a y e r s .
As i n p u t , peak d a t a ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n and volume) of
tracer breakthrough curves from t h e l a y e r s were r e q u i r e d .
Yuen e t a l .
demonstrated t h a t peak l o c a t i o n s i n t h e o v e r a l l tracer e f f l u x curve d i d n o t
correspond e x a c t l y t o peak l o c a t i o n s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r responses.
Therefore, t h e peak d a t a f o r t h e l a y e r s had t o be determined by a t r i a l - a n d e r r o r procedure.

--

12

40

30

-I-

0
4

AMMONIUM THIOCYANATE TRACER


CALCULATED

z
a
z

a
I-

w 20V

z
s n
W

10-

n
0

a
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

VOLUME PRODUCED AFTER SLUG, BBLS


Fig. 2.3:

MATCH To PRODUCED TRACER CONCENTRATION FOR WELL A,


REPORTED BY SMITH AND BRIGHAM, AFTER BALDWZN (1966)

a l ' s work was modified by Brown and Brigham (1981) t o handle


larger
. t-This modified a l g o r i t h m was used t o a n a l y z e one of t h e
number of l a y e r s .
tracer breakthrough curves r e p o r t e d by Brigham and Smith (1965).
Several
matches were obtained with d i f f e r e n t numbers of l a y e r s , t h e b e s t match being
with ten layers.
The method is u s e f u l but cumbersome as it r e q u i r e s many
t r i a l s t o o b t a i n t h e optimum match f o r any chosen number of l a y e r s .

Yu

2.3.2

Underground Aquifers

Besides petroleum e n g i n e e r s , h y d r o l o g i s t s have a l s o been i n t e r e s t e d i n


d e f i n i n g a q u i f e r s i n adequate d e t a i l .
Halevy and N i r (1962) i n t r o d u c e d a
p u l s e of r a d i o a c t i v e Co60 i n t h e form of K ~ C O ( C N )i ~
n t o a f a i r l y homogeneous
a q u i f e r and c o n t i n o u s l y recorded a c t i v i t y of t h e water a t a pumped w e l l
l o c a t e d 250 meters from t h e i n p u t w e l l .
This t e s t d i f f e r e d from u s u a l i n t e r w e l l tracer tests because t h e i n j e c t e d b a t c h of tracer was n o t d i s p l a c e d by a
chase f l u i d .
I n s t e a d , t h e tracer flowed towards t h e pumped w e l l as a r e s u l t
of r e g i o n a l p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e pumping a c t i o n .
Since t h e
f l o w f i e l d was e s s e n t i a l l y r a d i a l , it was assumed t h a t produced tracer peak
c o n c e n t r a t i o n occurred a f t e r pumping a volume e q u a l t o t h e c y l i n d r i c a l pore
P o r o s i t y of t h e
volume between t h e o b s e r v a t i o n w e l l and t h e pumped w e l l .
a q u i f e r was subsequently c a l c u l a t e d from t h i s peak tracer volume.
This w a s
f e a s i b l e because formation t h i c k n e s s had a l r e a d y been determined from
This
geological data.
Halevy and N i r n e g l e c t e d d i s p e r s i o n of tracer.
s i m p l i f i c a t i o n d e t r a c t e d from t h e accuracy of t h e i r r e s u l t s .

- 13 -

A similar t e s t was conducted by Mercado and Halevy (1966) i n a s h a l l o w


s t r a t i f i e d aquifer.
The same r a d i o a c t i v e material was i n j e c t e d through a
d u a l l y completed observat,ion w e l l .
The tracer a r r i v a l curve i n d i c a t e d t h a t
t h e a q u i f e r was composed of f o u r d i s t i n c t l a y e r s .
The p e r m e a b i l i t y - t h i c k n e s s
product of l a y e r s and average p o r o s i t y of t h e formation were computed from an
a n a l y s i s based on t h e method i l l u s t r a t e d by Halevy and N i r (1962).
Tracer
d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s as w e l l as i n t e r a c t i o n of tracer response c u r v e s from
These assumptions are u n r e a l i s t i c , and
i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r s were n e g l e c t e d .
t h e r e f o r e reduce t h e accuracy of t h e r e s u l t s

Zaghi (1977) extended Wallick and J e n k i n s ' (1954) work f o r a case of n i n e


d o u b l e t s ( n i n e i n j e c t o r s and n i n e p r o d u c e r s ) unequally spaced i n a d i r e c t
l i n e - d r i v e f a s h i o n . He assumed t h a t t h e tracer d i s p e r s i o n w a s n e g l i g i b l e and
as a r e s u l t , t h e tracer had s h a r p i n t e r f a c e s w i t h t h e c o n t a c t e d f l u i d s ahead
and behind.
He developed a computer program t o c a l c u l a t e t h e breakthrough
c u r v e s both f o r t h e l e a d i n g and t h e t r a i l i n g edges of t h e tracer s l u g at t h e
The e f f l u e n t tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n curve a t each p r o d u c t i o n
production w e l l s .
w e l l w a s then t h e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e s e two breakthrough curves a t t h a t w e l l .
Although t h i s a n a l y s i s c o r r e c t l y i n c l u d e d t h e c o n v e c t i v e e f f e c t s i n t h e
t r a n s p o r t of tracer material, a n e g l e c t of t h e t r a c e r mixing e f f e c t s d i d not
g e n e r a t e a c c u r a t e tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n c u r v e s a t t h e wells.
Ivanovich and Smith (1978) i n c l u d e d d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s i n a n a l y z i n g tracer
d a t a from a p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of an underground a q u i f e r .
The procedure f o r
t h e t e s t was t h e same as t h e one r e p o r t e d by Halevy and Nir except t h e tracer
used was Br 82
The tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e d e t e c t e d a t t h e pumped w e l l
i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t responses had been superimposed on each
other.
A s t a t i s t i c a l model was used t o f i t t h e observed f i e l d d a t a w i t h two
one- dimensional d i s p e r s i o n e q u a t i o n s . A s a r e s u l t of t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e l a y e r s
had d i f f e r e n t d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t s , p e r m e a b i l i t i e s , p o r o s i t i e s and average
linear velocities.
The v e l o c i t i e s were considered t o be a l o n g t h e l i n e
j o i n i n g t h e i n p u t and t h e pumped w e l l s .

The main drawback i n t h i s a n a l y s i s was t h e u s e of an u n i d i r e c t i o n a l d i s p e r s i o n


e q u a t i o n i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l model.
For a r a d i a l drawdown, such as t h i s one,
t h e s t r e a m l i n e s are not l i n e a r and t h e a c t u a l amount of d i s p e r s i o n caused by
non-uniform v e l o c i t y f i e l d i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t p r e d i c t e d by one- dimensional
models

2.3.3

Geothermal R e s e r v o i r s

Geologic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of geothermal r e s e r v o i r s can a l s o be r e v e a l e d through


d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of tracer tests conducted i n geothermal formations.
Unlike
petroleum r e s e r v o i r s , most geothermal r e s e r v o i r s are h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d and t h e
f r a c t u r e s are connected t o each o t h e r forming a network of channels (Horne,
1981).
Short c i r c u i t i n g and e a r l y appearance of i n j e c t e d material a t t h e
p r o d u c t i o n wells are common.
A response from an i n j e c t e d p u l s e of tracer i s
g e n e r a l l y d e t e c t e d i n a matter of hours and t h e response curve u s u a l l y has a
s i n g l e peak w i t h a long t a i l .
Although methods developed t o a n a l y z e geothermal tracer d a t a are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of sedimentary
f o r m a t i o n s , t h e b a s i c i d e a s are t h e same.

14

Tester e t a l . (1979) concluded t h a t a tracer response curve from a hydrauli c a l l y f f a z u r e d g r a n i t i c geothermal r e s e r v o i r was a l s o a combination of
several r e s p o n s e s , each p r r i v i n g from a subzone of t h e formation.
A field
conducted w i t h a p a i r of i n j e c t i o n and production wells u s i n g B r a 2
test
and Irff as r a d i o a c t i v e tracers.
Tester e t a l . proposed a mathematical model
i n which t h e r e s e r v o i r was assumed t o be composed of several porous zones,
each zone being homogeneous but d i f f e r e n t i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from o t h e r s .
In
t h i s model, a two- dimensional c o n v e c t i v e d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n , w i t h d i s p e r s i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t s being p r o p o r t i o n a l t o f l u i d v e l o c i t y in each d i r e c t i o n , was
solved t o compute t h e tracer response p r o f i l e from a homogeneous l a y e r .
The
a n a l y s i s of tracer f i e l d d a t a was performed b a s i c a l l y by curve f i t t i n g t h e
observed f i e l d d a t a w i t h t h o s e computed from t h e model.
The curve f i t t i n g
p r o c e s s a u t o m a t i c a l l y g e n e r a t e d t h e parameters of t h e zones.

--

Horne and Rodriguez (1981) d e r i v e d an a n a l y t i c e x p r e s s i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e f l o w


Based on Taylor's (1953) classic
of tracers i n a s i n g l e f r a c t u r e d system.
work of c o n v e c t i v e d i s p e r s i o n i n p i p e flow, they o b t a i n e d a n e f f e c t i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r tracer flow i n a f r a c t u r e .
Horne and
Rodriguez matched a tracer response curve from a geothermal f i e l d w i t h t h e i r
model and computed t h e width and l e n g t h of t h e f r a c t u r e d i r e c t l y .
Although
t h e match d i d not i n c l u d e t h e t a i l end of t h e d a t a , it was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a
m u l t i p l e f r a c t u r e model similar t o Tester's (1979) multizone or Brigham and
Smith' (1965) m u l t i l a y e r model could be developed which would match a l l t h e
data closely.
2.4

SUMMARY

From t h e preceding l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y , it becomes e v i d e n t t h a t flow of tracers


i n any formation- - whether i t be a petroleum, a geothermal o r an underground
aquifer- - can reveal d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r e s e r v o i r which may o t h e r w i s e be u n a t t a i n a b l e .
This i n f o r m a t i o n can g e n e r a l l y be o b t a i n e d from a
d e t a i l e d mathematical a n a l y s i s of a tracer breakthrough curve. I n most of t h e
a n a l y s e s , t h e convective d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n has been solved i n some geometry
t o i n c l u d e d i s p e r s i o n of a tracer and some flow p a t t e r n has been assumed t o
t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e areal movement of t h e tracer. The accuracy of t h e
methods depends on how w e l l d i s p e r s i o n is d e f i n e d and whether t h e assumed
f l o w l i n e s are c l o s e t o t h e t r u e s t r e a m l i n e s . However, i n most of t h e p r e v i o u s
works, e i t h e r d i s p e r s i o n has n o t been formulated c o r r e c t l y (even sometimes
n e g l e c t e d ) o r t h e flow f i e l d has been approximated by t o o simple and unreal i s t i c flow geometries.
Methods developed t o a n a l y z e complex tracer breakthrough curves have o n l y been
These methods g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e a
f o r bounded ( r e p e a t e d ) f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n s .
d i r e c t and l e n g t h y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e computer i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e a good
match t o t h e tracer p r o d u c t i o n d a t a from f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n s .
In these
methods, d i s p e r s i o n of tracer has not been formulated a c c u r a t e l y .
No s t u d i e s
of tracer breakthrough c u r v e s f o r o t h e r p a t t e r n s have been r e p o r t e d .
It was
t h e purpose of t h l s s t u d y t o develop a method which would a d e q u a t e l y a n a l y z e
tracer breakthrough c u r v e s n o t only f o r developed five- spot p a t t e r n s but a l s o
It was a l s o t h e g o a l of t h i s
f o r o t h e r common developed f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s .
r e s e a r c h t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s technique be f r e e of cumbersome t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r
procedures.

- 15 -

._

b.

3.

METHOD OF SOLUTION

This s e c t i o n provides a mathematical a n a l y s i s of tracer flow i n s e v e r a l


bounded f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s f o r a m o b i l i t y r a t i o of u n i t y .
The s e c t i o n i s
d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main p a r t s .
I n t h e f i r s t , a n a l y t i c e q u a t i o n s are d e r i v e d
t o d e f i n e t h e performance of t h e f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s f o r immiscible d i s p l a c e ments w i t h u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o .
I n t h i s p a r t , an attempt has a l s o been made
t o extend t h e a n a l y t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r m o b i l i t y r a t i o s o t h e r t h a n one.
The
second p a r t covers t h e flow of a t r a c e r s l u g i n homogeneous r e s e r v o i r s .
T r a c e r d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s are mathematically superimposed on t h e immiscible
The
p a t t e r n breakthrough curves t o g e n e r a t e tracer production curves.
a n a l y t i c a l l y defined tracer production curves are c o r r e l a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e s e t
of curves which r e p r e s e n t s t r a c e r flow i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s .
The l a s t p a r t of
t h i s s e c t i o n s t u d i e s t r a c e r breakthrough curves from non-communicating,
s t r a t i f i e d reservoirs.
A technique developed t o analyze t r a c e r response
curves f o r t h e s e systems i s p r e s e n t e d .
3.1

PATTERN PERFORMANCE

The a r e a l movement of displacement f l u i d s is t h e prime f e a t u r e i n t h e recovery


I n g e n e r a l , t h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a t t e r n
performance of a p a t t e r n .
breakthrough curve, o r a r e a l sweep e f f i c i e n c y curve. This s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s
t h e a n a l y t i c a l d e r i v a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e s e curves f o r a v a r i e t y of
repeated flooding patterns.
3.1.1

Steadv Multi-Well Flow Theorv

A s was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e review, t h e t r a n s p o r t of t r a c e r s o l u t i o n s
i n any flow system is s u b j e c t t o convection and d i s p e r s i o n .
Convection
r e p r e s e n t s t h e g r o s s movement of f l u i d s i n t h e system.
Its e f f e c t s are
o b t a i n e d from displacements i n which s h a r p f r o n t s between t h e f l u i d s are
preserved.
To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , c o n s i d e r a five- spot p a t t e r n i n i t i a l l y
F l u i d B is i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n c o n t i n u o u s l y t o
f i l l e d w i t h f l u i d A.
d i s p l a c e f l u i d A with a s h a r p f r o n t . Figure 3.la shows t h e l o c a t i o n of f l u i d
B i n t h e system a f t e r i n j e c t i n g a d e f i n i t e volume of t h e f l u i d .
The breakthrough curve d e s c r i b i n g t h e f r a c t i o n of f l u i d B i n t h e producing stream a t a
production w e l l is given I n Fig. 3.lb.
As t h i s f i g u r e shows, t h e r e is no
p r o d u c t i o n of B u n t i l breakthrough, a f t e r which production of B rises s t e e p l y
and approaches 100% a s y m p t o t i c a l l y . This s i t u a t i o n corresponds t o t h e f i l l - u p
The shape of t h e curve i n Fig. 3.lb i s a
of t h e e n t i r e p a t t e r n by f l u i d B.
f u n c t i o n of two parameters: t h e geometry of t h e p a t t e r n , and t h e m o b i l i t y
r a t i o of t h e f l u i d s .

Consider a n o t h e r case i n which a s l u g of f l u i d B is i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e same


p a t t e r n and then followed by f l u i d A as shown i n Fig. 3.2a.
Because s h a r p
f r o n t s are assumed between B/A and A/B, t h e breakthrough curve f o r A d i s p l a c i n g B is i d e n t i c a l i n shape t o t h e curve i n Fig. 3.lb except t h a t i t l a g s

- 16 -

5:

0
d
0

C
d
U

:
Q

8r

b
Q

ri
rr)
01

rl

PI

..

d
0

In

en

- 17 -

by an amount e q u a l t o t h e volume of s l u g B. F i g u r e 3.2b shows t h e t h e o r e t i c a l


breakthrough curves f o r B d i s p l a c i n g A and f o r A d i s p l a c i n g B.
The breakthrough curve f o r f l u i d B i s t h e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e s e two curves. This i s
i l l u s t r a t e d as a shaded p r o f i l e i n Fig. 3.2b.
The peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( o r
f r a c t i o n ) of B produced from t h i s system i s c o n s i d e r a b l y less t h a n t h e concent r a t i o n f l o w i n g i n t h e r e s e r v o i r which i s 100 p e r c e n t .
The d i l u t i o n of B i s
t h e r e s u l t of convection o r areal sweep e f f e c t s .
For t h e case where B i s
m i s c i b l e w i t h A, d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s are imposed on t h e shaded curve, hence,
causing f u r t h e r d i l u t i o n .
The broken- line p r o f i l e i n t h e same f i g u r e shows
t h e breakthrough curve f o r f l u i d B from t h i s p a t t e r n w i t h d i s p e r s i o n
effects.
To conserve a material b a l a n c e , t h e areas under t h e s e two curves
must be equal.
I n e a r l y phases of t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t w a s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t any t h e o r e t i c a l
d e s c r i p t i o n of tracer flow i n p a t t e r n s must be r e l a t e d t o t h e p a t t e r n
breakthrough curves such as t h e one shown i n Fig. 3.lb. T h e r e f o r e , an a t t e m p t
was made t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curves a n a l y t i c a l l y f o r s e v e r a l
common, bounded, f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s a t a m o b i l i t y r a t i o of u n i t y .
3.1.2

P a t t e r n Breakthrounh Curves

Any mathematical d e s c r i p t i o n of f l u i d movement i n a flow system r e q u i r e s a


knowledge of a p o t e n t i a l f i e l d f o r t h a t system. For single- phase s t e a d y flow,
t h e p o t e n t i a l f i e l d can u s u a l l y be obtained e i t h e r from a s o l u t i o n of t h e
Laplace e q u a t i o n with a p p r o p r i a t e boundary c o n d i t i o n s , o r by a p p l i c a t i o n of
et a l .
t h e s u p e r p o s i t i o n p r i n c i p l e as i n d i c a t e d by Muskat (1949) and P r a t s -(1955).
G e n e r a l l y , i t i s s i m p l e r t o s o l v e t h e problem i n a complex p l a n e and
d e r i v e an e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e complex p o t e n t i a l of t h e geometry. T h i s express i o n can be decomposed i n t o a real p a r t and an imaginary p a r t . The real p a r t
i s the equation f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (proportional t o p r e s s u r e s ) ,
and t h e imaginary p a r t i s t h e stream f u n c t i o n . Morel-Seytoux (1966) p r o v i d e s
t h e complex p o t e n t i a l s f o r a v a r i e t y of f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s . Although he does
not g i v e t h e p r e s s u r e and stream f u n c t i o n s f o r a l l p a t t e r n s , t h e y can be
g e n e r a l l y d e r i v e d from t h e complex p o t e n t i a l s .
S i n c e stream f u n c t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e o r can be c o n s t r u c t e d for a v a r i e t y of
flow p a t t e r n s , i t is f e a s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e displacement of two f l u i d s i n
d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s mathematically.
The displacements are assumed t o be of
u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o and p i s t o n - l i k e .
F l u i d s are assumed i n c o m p r e s s i b l e and
g r a v i t y and c a p i l l a r y e f f e c t s are n e g l e c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l procedure
i s used t o d e r i v e t h e a n a l y t i c e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e breakthrough curve
( d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t v e r s u s pore volumes i n j e c t e d ) of any p a t t e r n :

1)

Compute t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r a p a r t i c l e t o t r a v e l from t h e i n j e c t i o n


w e l l t o a p r o d u c t i o n w e l l on a g e n e r a l s t r e a m l i n e of a p a t t e r n . T h i s i s
t h e breakthrough time f o r t h a t s t r e a m l i n e .

2)

M u l t i p l y t h e breakthrough time by t h e i n j e c t i o n rate and d i v i d e by t h e


p a t t e r n area t o o b t a i n t h e pore volumes i n j e c t e d a t breakthrough of t h a t
streamline.

- 18 -

3)

Compute t h e angle a t which t h e considered s t r e a m l i n e e n t e r s t h e product i o n w e l l or l e a v e s t h e i n j e c t i o n w e l l .


Divide t h i s a n g l e by t h e t o t a l
a n g l e s u b j e c t t o flow a t e i t h e r t h e production o r i n j e c t i o n w e l l t o
o b t a i n t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t a t t h e producing stream.
This calcul a t i o n i s c o r r e c t because f o r m o b i l i t y r a t i o of one, t h e t o t a l flow rate
of each f l u i d is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e t o t a l a n g l e from which each f l u i d
e n t e r s . t h e production w e l l .
The c a l c u l a t e d c u t corresponds t o t h e pore
volume determined i n item 2.

The mathematical f o r m u l a t i o n of breakthrough curves f o r f o u r bounded homogeneous patterns- - staggered l i n e d r i v e , f i v e - s p o t , d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e and


i n v e r t e d seven- spot- - are given i n Appendices A. 1 , A.2, A.3, A.4, respectively.
F i g u r e 3.3 shows breakthrough curves f o r t h e s e f o u r p a t t e r n s .
Staggered l i n e d r i v e and d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n s have d i f f e r e n t breakthrough curves depending on t h e i r d / a r a t i o s .
The r a t i o d / a r e p r e s e n t s t h e
r a t i o of t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e u n l i k e w e l l s (an i n j e c t o r and a producer) t o
t h e d i s t a n c e between l i k e w e l l s (two i n j e c t o r s o r two producers).
These r e s u l t s a r e u s e f u l i n computing o i l recovery from displacement p r o c e s s e s
wherein t h e assumption of u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o can be j u s t i f i e d . However, f o r
c a l c u l a t i o n s ; areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s pore volume of d i s p l a c i n g

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

--

D i r e c t Line Drive,

e.....

Five Spot

---

Ia! =

I n v e r t e d Seven Spot
Staggered Line Drive,

0.2

-da

= 1

0
0.5

1.5

1.0

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, VpD

Fig. 3.3:

PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVES FOR DEVELOPED SYSTEMS,


MOBILITY RATIO = 1

- 19 -

2.0

f l u i d i n j e c t e d would be more u s e f u l .
from t h e f o l l o w i n g ( C r a i g , 1971):
--.

Areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y may be computed

(1

- fD)

dVpD

= vpDbt +/"

(1

- fD)

dVpD

'pDbt
where,

EA

= areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y

fD = d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n stream
VpDbt = breakthrough pore volume o r breakthrough areal sweep
efficiency
VpD = d i s p l a c i n g pore volume corresponding t o c u t , fD

This i n t e g r a l corresponds t o t h e area above t h e curves i n Fig.


a l t e r n a t i v e l y given by:

3.3.

It i s

The i n t e g r a n d i s a f u n c t i o n of f D and t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are g i v e n


The r e s u l t s of i n t e g r a t i o n are shown i n
i n Appendix A f o r v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s .
3.4.
Fig.

3.1.3

C o r r e l a t i o n of P a t t e r n Breakthroueh Curves

For p a t t e r n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e same d e r i v a t i o n s
must be performed t o o b t a i n a breakthrough curve similar t o t h e c u r v e s i n Fig.
3.3. However, it would be d e s i r a b l e t o relate a l l p a t t e r n breakthrough curves
and f i n d a g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n which would be a p p l i c a b l e f o r a l l p a t t e r n s .
P r e v i o u s l y , Morgan (1977) I n c o n t i n u a t i o n of Morales' (1975) work concluded
t h a t t h e breakthrough c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s could p o s s i b l y be c o r r e l a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e curve f o r each m o b i l i t y r a t i o of displacement.
The
parameter t h a t was used i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s a d i m e n s i o n l e s s q u a n t i t y
d e f i n e d as:
PVD

'pD

- 'pDbt
- 'pDbt

(3-3)

The PVD term w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as dimensionless pore volume i n t h i s s t u d y .

20

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, V

Fig. 3.4:

PD

AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES FOR DEVELOPED PATTERNS,


MOBILITY RATIO = 1

Morgan was working with l i m i t e d experimental d a t a , he could not confirm


t h e accuracy of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n , although i t appeared t o be reasonably
accurate.
I n t h i s s t u d y , however, i t is demonstrated t h a t by u s i n g t h e
dimensionless parameter d e f i n e d by Eq. 3-3, a l l t h e a n a l y t i c a l l y d e f i n e d
p a t t e r n breakthrough curves c o l l a p s e i n t o v i r t u a l l y a s i n g l e curve as shown i n
Fig. 3.5.
Staggered l i n e d r i v e and d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n s w i t h v a r i o u s
d / a r a t i o s are a l l included i n t h i s s i n g l e c o r r e l a t i o n . A s i m p l e e q u a t i o n f o r
t h e curve i n Fig. 3.5 i s o b t a i n e d by a non- linear c u r v e - f i t t i n g method, as
follows :

Equation 3-4 y i e l d s a maximum e r r o r of 2% i n fD f o r a l l t h e curves, except f o r


very e a r l y p a r t s of t h e curves where t h e e r r o r is l a r g e .

comparison of t h e experimentally-measured d a t a w i t h t h e a n a l y t i c a l l y
computed and c o r r e l a t e d curve is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 3.6.
The d a t a f o r t h e
f i v e - s p o t , d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e and t h e s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e have been taken from
Dyes -e t al. (1954).
The d a t a f o r t h e i n v e r t e d seven- spot p a t t e r n are from
Guckert (1961). Figure 3.7 shows a comparison of r e s u l t s f o r a repeated f i v e s p o t p a t t e r n where s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e p o r t e d e i t h e r numerical o r
experimental d a t a f o r t h e performance of t h i s p a t t e r n (Fay and P r a t s , 1951;

- 21 -

1 .o

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0.5

1.o

1.5

F i g . 3.5:

1.0

2.5

2.0

VpDbt)

3.O

3.5

4 .O

VpDbt)

CORRELATION OF DEVELOPED PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVES,


MOBILITY RATIO = 1
I

0.8

fo0
-

0.6

0.4

Analytic

Five- Spot

I n v e r t e d Seven-Spot
d
D i r e c t Line D r i v e , a = 1

0
A

0.2

Staggered Line D r i v e , a = 1

0
0
0

0.5

1.0

"pD

3.6:

2.0

1.5

- 'pDbt)/(l

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

- 'pDbt)

COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA FROM VARIOUS DEVELOPED PATTERNS

AND THE CORRELATED PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVE, MOBILITY RATIO

22

= 1

1.0
I

0.8

0.6

0.4

0
A

Fay and Prats (Numerical)

Dyes et al. (Experimental)

0.2

I
0

I
0.5

Caudle and Witte (Experimental)


Craig et al. (Correlation)

-0-

Analytic

I
1.5

1.0

Dp'(

'
p
D
b
t
)
'

2.0

2.5

I
3.0

I
3.5

I
4.0

'pDbt)

Fig, 3.7 : COMPARISON OF THE CORRELATED PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVE AND


DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT DATA, MOBILITY RATIO = 1

Dyes -et al., 1954; and Caudle and Witte, 1959).


The dashed curve in this
figure has been obtained by differentiating the equation for the areal sweep
efficiencies reported by Craig _
et. al. (1955).
It is believed that the
deviations of data from the analytic curve are due to smearing of the
displacement fronts by capillary forces (immiscible displacements) or mixing
(miscible displacements).
Experimental errors also contribute to the
deviations.
The curves in Fig. 3 . 4 can also be correlated into a single curve. This
requires defining another parameter, called dimensionless areal sweep
efficiency, as follows:

where :
EAbt = breakthrough areal sweep efficiency = VpDbt
The correlation i s shown in Fig. 3.8. The equation for this curve obtained by
a non-linear curve-fitting routine is:
0.9273
- 0.74 13( PVD)
E m = l - e
(3-6)

- 23 -

1.0

0.8
n

W
I

0.6

rl
W

n
U

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.5

1.5

1.0

"pD
Fig.
- 3.8:

2.5

2.0

'pDbt)'(l

3.0

3.5

4 .o

'pDbt)

CORRELATION OF AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES OF DEVELOPED


PATTERNS, MOBILITY RATIO = 1

A c o r r e l a t i o n of f D and
i s provided i n Fig.
t o complete t h e set
of c o r r e l a t i o n s .
Also
shown i n t h i s f i g u r e i s
the correlation origin a l l y r e p o r t e d by Morgan
(1977).
Tables
3.1
through 3.4
give the
numerical v a l u e s of t h e
dimensionless pore volumes and t h e dimensionless areal sweep e f f i ciencies for different
p a t t e r n s . Comparison of
these values f o r t h e
v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s shows
t h e accuracy of t h e correlations.

28

The f a c t t h a t t h e breakthrough curves and areal


sweep curves f o r a l l t h e
p a t t e r n s s t u d i e d could
be condensed i n t o s i n g l e
curves is important f o r
rapid
calculation
of
r e c o v e r i e s by f l o o d i n g .

Fig. 3.9:

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 .o

CORRELATION OF DISPLACING F L U I D CUT VS


DIMENSIONLESS AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY,
DEVELOPED PATTERNS AND MOBILITY RATIO = 1

- 24 -

From t h e s e r e s u l t s , one could expect t h a t t h e g e n e r a l i z e d curves of Figs. 3.5


and 3.8 o r 3.9 would be v a l i d f o r any balanced p a t t e r n s .
Thus, one of the
c o r r e l a t e d curves could be used as a basis f o r post- breakthrough c a l c u l a t i o n
of recovery v e r s u s volume i n j e c t e d f o r f l o o d s without r e s o r t i n g t o complex
modeling c a l c u l a t i o n s .

Table 3.1
VALUES OF BREAKTHROUGH AND AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES FOR
A DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT, MOBILITY RATIO = 1

pvD

EA

D
-f - - - - - - -PD- - _ - - - - - - -- _ - - - - - -- - - - - - -

0.00

0.71777

0.00000

0.71777

0 .ooooo

0.05

0.71887

0.00391

0.71884

0.00378

0.10

0.72222

0.01576

0.72192

0.01471

0.15

0.72786

0.03573

0.72684

0.03215

0.20

0.73589

0.06419

0.73346

0.05559

0.25

0.74645

0.10164

0.74164

0.08457

0.30

0.75976

0.14880

0.75128

0.11872

0.35

0.77608

0.20661

0.76228

0.15700

0.40

0.79576

0.27634

0.77456

0.20123

0.45

0.81926

0.35961

0.78806

0.24905

0.50

0 A4720

0.45860

0.80270

0.30094

0.55

0.88038

0.57617

0.81844

0.35671

0.60

0.91993

0.71630

0.83522

0.41616

0.65

0.96742

0.88456

0.85299

0.47912

0.70

1.02514

1.08908

0.87170

0 34542

0.75

1.09666

1.34248

0.89130

0.61486

0.80

1.18789

1.66572

0.91173

0.68724

0.85

1.30986

2.09791

0.93291

0.76230

0.90

1.48714

2.72604

0.95475

0.83968

0.95

1.79710

3.82430

0.97709

0.91883

25

Table 3.2
VALUE OF BREAKTHROUGH AND AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES FOR A
1
DEVELOPED ItNERTED SEVEM-SPOT, MOBILITY RATIO

fD

pvD

EA

'

- - - - - - - - -PD- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1.4

0 .oo

0.74368

0 .ooooo

0.74368

0 .ooooo

0.05

0.74470

0.00390

0.74458

0.00350

0.10

0.74778

0.01592

0.74703

0.01305

0.15

0.75297

0.03616

0.75156

0.03072

0.20

0.76036

0.06499

0.75760

0.05447

0.25

0.77007

0.10290

0.76517

0.08382

0.30

0.78230

0.15061

0.77403

0.11838

0.35

0.79728

0.20905

0.78412

0.15775

0.40

0.81532

0.27942

0.79538

0.20168

0.45

0.83683

0.36337

0.80774

0.24990

0.50

0.86237

0.46299

0.82112

0.30214

0.55

0.89265

0.58116

0.83549

0.35818

0.60

0.92869

0.72175

0.85077

0.41781

0.65

0.97187

0.89025

0.86694

0.48087

0.70

1.02426

1.09467

0.88392

0.54713

0.75

1.08905

1.34744

0 .go168

0.61642

0.80

1.17153

1.66927

0.92014

0.68843

0.85

1.28162

2.72209

0.93925

0.76301

0.90

1.44137

2.72209

0.95894

0.83981

0.95

1.72088

3.81263

0.97908

0.91838

P a t t e r n Breakthrough Curves f o r Non-Unit Mobility R a t i o

Displacement of f l u i d s with unequal m o b i l i t i e s d i f f e r s from s i n g l e phase flow


( m o b i l i t y r a t i o e q u a l t o one) f o r two reasons. F i r s t , t h e o v e r a l l r e s i s t i v i t y
t o f l u i d flow depends on t h e l o c a t i o n of displacement i n t e r f a c e . This i m p l i e s
t h a t f o r a c o n s t a n t flow r a t e displacement, t h e p r e s s u r e drop between a n
i n j e c t i o n w e l l and a production w e l l v a r i e s c o n t i n u a l l y as t h e displacement
f r o n t advances towards t h e production w e l l .
For a f a v o r a b l e m o b i l i t y r a t i o
(M < l ) , t h e p r e s s u r e drop i n c r e a s e s while f o r an unfavorable m b i l i t y r a t i o
(M > 1) i t decreases. Second, p o t e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e d i s p l a c e d r e g i o n

26

8
0
?

m
m

U
m
0

I-

0
0
0

m
m

*a

m
m

n
&

>

I - m

\ D m
W
W
r l m

9 9
0

I-

O
Irl

OD

OD

I-

I-

rD

U
U
0

I-

OD

I-

rl

f-

I-

W
N
W

In

I-

0
0

rl

hl

I-

m
m
m

51
W

In

m
m
m

I-

I-

0
0
0
0

m
m
m
m

0
N

3
0

:
? ?

rl

W
W
rl

m
m

m
U

I-

rl

rl

U
0

rl

rl

rl
rl

OD
W
rl

OD

rl

m
N
U

OD

I-

I-

m
m

m
m
m

rl

N
N

I-

OD

I-

m
m
m

I-

I-

I-

II-

m
m

II-

0
0
N

m
m
m

N
m
U

I-

? ?
0

I-

I-

m
OD
m

m
0

rl

g
8
m
0
0

I-

I-

I-

2
N
U
m

d
rl

I-

f-

I-

rl

I-

rl

f-

:?
0

I-

d
U

OD

I-

'4
m
m

0
U
rD

OD
4

9
? ? ?
0
0
0

3
0

rl

ys

rl

m
m

II-

N
0

rl

rl

?
0

z!

m
m

m
W

3
rl
I-

rl

I-

m
m
m

OD

OD

rl
I-

m
m

rl

Y
7
0
0

rl

0
N

VI

9
9
0
0

rl

O
N

m
I-

U
N

I-

0
m
0

d
II-

ys

OD

N
N

I-

m
U

5:

In

- 27 -

II-

0:

rl

m
m

rl

I-

m
m

rl

W
W

rl

m
OD

0:

rl

am

rl

rl

rl

?
I4

In

rl

rl

I-

s:

I-

I-

0:

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and t h e non-invaded zone c o n t i n u o u s l y change with t h e movement of t h e d i s placement f r o n t .


As a r e s u l t of t h e s e v a r i a b l e p r e s s u r e f i e l d s , s t r e a m l i n e s
d e v i a t e from t h o s e of a s i n g l e f l u i d flow. The amount and n a t u r e of d e v i a t i o n
depends on t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e i n t e r f a c e .
I f t h e s h i f t of s t r e a m l i n e s from t h o s e corresponding t o a s i n g l e f l u i d flow is
assumed t o be minor, c a l c u l a t i o n s can be made t o p r e d i c t recovery performance
of p a t t e r n s f o r d i f f e r e n t m o b i l i t y r a t i o s . Appendix B p r e s e n t s t h e d e r i v a t i o n
of e q u a t i o n s f o r recovery performance of a developed five- spot p a t t e r n f o r
various mobility ratios.
The d e r i v a t i o n is based on f i x e d s t r e a m l i n e s and
p i s t o n - l i k e displacements.
Table 3.5 and Figs. 3.10 and 3.11 show t h e
As t h e s e f i g u r e s I l l u s t r a t e , t h e breakthrough areal sweep e f f i results.
c i e n c i e s c a l c u l a t e d using t h e s e assumptions are n e a r l y independent of m o b i l i t y
ratio.
This conclusion has a l s o been reached by Morel-Seytoux (19651, whose
mathematical approach is d i f f e r e n t from t h e one taken i n t h i s s t u d y .
The
independence of areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t m o b i l i t y r a t i o s i s i n
d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with experimental d a t a which show t h a t breakthrough areal
sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s are f u n c t i o n s of m o b i l i t y r a t i o (Dyes et a l . , 1954).
T h e r e f o r e , t h e assumption of no s t r e a m l i n e change w i t h m o b i l i t y r a t i o is
u n r e a l i s t i c and c a l c u l a t i o n s of p i s t o n - l i k e displacements based on t h i s
assumption g e n e r a t e erroneous results.
One of t h e methods t h a t has been e x t e n s i v e l y used i n approximate c a l c u l a t i o n
of w a t e r f l o o d and gas f l o o d performances is Higgins and Leighton's (1962)
streamtube method.
This method i s based on t h e assumption t h a t s t r e a m l i n e s
are independent of m o b i l i t y r a t i o and t h a t Buckley- Leverett theory can be
a p p l i e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e f l u i d displacement i n streamtubes comprising t h e flow
system.
The p r i n c i p l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e method was t h e good agreement
between t h e recovery v a l u e s computed from t h e i r method and t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a
r e p o r t e d by Douglas e t a l . (1959) f o r a r e p e a t e d five- spot w a t e r f l o o d i n a

--

Table 3.5
VALUES OF BREAKTHROUGH AND AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES FOR A
DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT PATTERN AT VARIOUS MOBILITY RATIOS

fD

0.5

PD

M I 1

EA

fD

0.7305
0.7707

0.10
0.20
0.30

0.1646
0.3437
0.4399
0.5410
0.6473
0.7591
0.0767
0.9253

0.7403
0.7946
0.0396
0.9017
0.9090
1.1204
1.3551
1.5300

0.0063
0.0301
0.0734
0.9133
0.9556
0.9732

0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.00

0.9749

1.9093

0.9910

0.90

PD

M-3

=A

0.7222
0.7359

0.7219
0.7335

0.7590
0.7950
0.0472
0.9199
1.0251
1.1079

0.7513
0.7746
0.8027
0.0352
0.0717
0.9117

0.7361
0.8123
0.0009

1.4071

0.9540

0.9430

- 29 -

0.1690
0.3164
0.4433
0.5537
0.6505

PD

0.7142
0.7305
0.7611
0.0106
0.0063
1.0002

EA

0.7137
0.7257
0.7442
0.7602
0.7973

1.1752
1.4619

0.0300
0.0603
0.9094

2.0190

0.9537

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.5

1.5

1.0

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, V

2.0

PD

AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY CURVES FOR A DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT


PATTERN AT VARIOUS MOBILITY RATIOS (ASSUMING STREAMLINES
ARE INDEPENDENT OF MOBILITY RATIO)

3.10:

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.5

1.0

2.0

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, V


PD

Fig. 3.11:

BREAKTHROUGH CURVES FOR A DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT PATTERN


AT VARIOUS MOBILITY RATIOS (ASSUMING STREAMLINES ARE
INDEPENDENT OF MOBILITY RATIO)

- 30 -

sand model.
F i g u r e 3.12, which
i s a r e p r o d u c t i o n of Fig. 1 i n
Higgins and L e i g h t o n ' s p a p e r ,
shows
the
c l o s e n e s s of
the
agreement.
S i n c e w a t e r f l o o d i n g is a Buckl e y - L e v e r e t t t y p e displacement
p r o c e s s , t h e pore volumes of o i l
produced i n F i g 3.12 are e q u a l
t o t h e product of areal sweep
efficiencies
and
displacement
e f f iciencies
Displacement eff i c i e n c y is d e f i n e d as
the
d i f f e r e n c e between average water
s a t u r a t i o n behind t h e f r o n t and
i r r e d u c i b l e water
saturation.
A t breakthrough, v a l u e s of d i s placement e f f i c i e n c i e s can be
o b t a i n e d from t h e f r a c t i o n a l
flow curves generated from relat i v e p e r m e a b i l i t y d a t a and o i l water v i s c o s i t y r a t i o s .
Figure
3.13 shows t h e f r a c t i o n a l f l o w

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
0

0.4
+I

2
2

0.2

0 Computed Values by

0.1

Higgins- Leighton

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED

curves constructed
f o r the four
o i l - w a t e r v i s c o s i t y r a t i o s used
i n t h e Higgins and Leighton
paper.
From t h e f r a c t i o n a l flow curves
and t h e recovery d a t a i n Fig.
3.12,
t h e breakthrough areal
sweep e f f i c i e n c y f o r each d i s placement
is
calculated
by
d i v i d i n g t h e computed breakthrough o i l recovery v a l u e by
t h e corresponding breakthrough
displacement e f f i c i e n c y .
Table
3.6 p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s .
As
t h i s t a b l e shows, t h e computed
breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s f o r v i s c o s i t y r a t i o s of
0.083 and 8.08 are p r a c t i c a l l y
t h e same and c l o s e t o t h a t f o r
u n i t mobility r a t i o , while the
sweep v a l u e s corresponding t o
h i g h e r v i s c o s i t y r a t i o s are even
h i g h e r and are t h u s i n e r r o r .
T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y seems t o be due
t o t h e low breakthrough d i s placement e f f i c i e n c i e s o b t a i n e d
from t h e f r a c t i o n a l flow curves.
Although a good reason f o r t h i s
d i s c r e p a n c y could not be found,
the
invalidity
of
BuckleyL e v e r e t t t h e o r y at high m o b i l i t y
r a t i o s might be a f a c t o r .

0.3

Fig. 3.12:

COMPARISON OF LABORATORY DATA


AND COMPUTER PERFORMANCE
CALCULATIONS FOR A DEVELOPED
FIVE-SPOT PATTERN (Higgins
and Leighton, 1962)

1.0

0.8
-3

0.6

3
H

0.4

0.2

Oil-Water
Viscosity Ratio

"
n

0.2

0.4

0.6

WATER SATURATION,

Fig. 3.13:

31

0.8

,s

FRACTIONAL FLOW CURVES


CONSTRUCTED FROM THE DATA
SUPPLIED BY DOUGLAS ET AL.
(1959)

1 .o

Table 3.6
BREAKTHROUGH AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCIES EXTRACTED FROM HIGGINS AND
LEIGHTON MATCHITO DATA REPORTED BY DOUGLAS ET AL. ( 1 9 5 9 )

--

~~~~

Oil-water v i s c o s i t y r a t i o

0.083

8.080

141

754

I r r e d u c i b l e water s a t u r a t i o n

0.125

0.087

0.087

0.087

Average water s a t u r a t i o n behind f r o n t

0.895

0.600

0.340

0.245

Breakthrough displacement e f f i c i e n c y

0.770

0.513

0.253

0.158

Pore volume o i l produced at breakthrough

0.600

0.380

0.210

0.140

Breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y

0.770

0.740

0.830

0.880

Wu ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e accuracy of t h e Higgins and Leighton method both a t


breakthrough and a f t e r breakthrough. H e conducted s e v e r a l displacement experiments on a quadrant of a five- spot sand model i n which water d i s p l a c e d o i l a t
different viscosity ratios.
The same computer program developed by Higgins
and Leighton was used t o match t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l recovery d a t a .
Fractional
f l o w curves needed f o r t h e program were prepared from t h e pre- determined
From t h e
r e l a t i v e p e r m e a b i l i t y curves on a l i n e a r c o r e with t h e same sand.
a n a l y s i s , Wu concluded t h a t :
1 ) breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s computed by t h e streamtube method a t v a r i o u s m o b i l i t y r a t i o s were not d i f f e r e n t
from each o t h e r , i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s experimental o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t confirmed a
s t r o n g v a r i a t i o n of areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s w i t h m o b i l i t y r a t i o ; and 2) p o s t breakthrough o i l r e c o v e r i e s computed from t h e streamtube program c l o s e l y
approximated t h e experimental d a t a . No reasons f o r t h i s were given.
D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Higgins and L e i g h t o n ' s method g e n e r a t e s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l
v a l u e s f o r breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s at a l l m o b i l i t y r a t i o s , t h e
method appears t o a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e recovery performance of BuckleyL e v e r e t t - t y p e displacements.
The main reason f o r t h i s seems t o be t h a t t h e
e f f e c t of displacement e f f i c i e n c y on recovery c a l c u l a t i o n s is more important
t h a n t h e e f f e c t of areal sweep.
On t h e o t h e r hand, i n p i s t o n - l i k e d i s p l a c e ments, such as m i s c i b l e displacements i n which t h e displacement e f f i c i e n c y i s
100 p e r c e n t , c a l c u l a t i o n of p a t t e r n breakthrough curves based on f i x e d streaml i n e s w i l l not generate accurate r e s u l t s .
Because of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , t h e
computation of tracer flow i n t h i s s t u d y was only performed f o r u n i t m o b i l i t y
rat i o .
3.2

TRACER FLOW IN HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS

Besides p a t t e r n sweep e f f i c i e n c y (areal e f f e c t s ) , mixing due t o d i s p e r s i o n


A mathematical
i n f l u e n c e s breakthrough h i s t o r y of a tracer from a p a t t e r n .
d e s c r i p t i o n of mixing i n a g e n e r a l flow passage is provided i n t h e f i r s t p a r t
of t h i s s e c t i o n .
The second p a r t u t i l i z e s t h i s mixing e q u a t i o n t o d e r i v e

32

e x p r e s s i o n s f o r tracer production curves from v a r i o u s systems.


Lastly, a
t e c h n i q u e i s p r e s e n t e d which c o r r e l a t e s tracer p r o d u c t i o n curves i n t o a s i n g l e
s e t of curves.
--_

3.2.1

'.

Mixing Theory

When one f l u i d m i s c i b l y d i s p l a c e s a n o t h e r f l u i d i n a porous medium, a t r a n s i t i o n zone (mixed r e g i o n ) i s formed between them a t t h e r e g i o n of c o n t a c t . The
e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e mixed zone is due t o a phenomenon known as hydrodynamic
dispersion.
I n g e n e r a l , hydrodynamic d i s p e r s i o n c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s :
mechanical d i s p e r s i o n and molecular d i f f u s i o n . Mechanical d i s p e r s i o n r e s u l t s
from t h e movement of i n d i v i d u a l f l u i d p a r t i c l e s which t r a v e l at v a r i a b l e
v e l o c i t i e s through t o r t u o u s pore channels of t h e porous medium.
T h i s random
f l u i d movement i n i r r e g u l a r flow p a t h s s p r e a d s t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d i n t o t h e
d i s p l a c e d f l u i d , thereby g e n e r a t i n g a blended r e g i o n between them. The amount
of s p r e a d i n g depends on t h e d i s p e r s i v e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e porous medium. The
p r o p e r t y of porous medium t h a t is a measure of i t s c a p a c i t y t o cause
I n general, dispersivity is
mechanical d i s p e r s i o n is c a l l e d d i s p e r s i v i t y .
c o n s i d e r e d t o have two components :
one i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of mean flow
( l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s p e r s i o n ) and one p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of mean f l o w
(transverse dispersion).
For p r a c t i c a l purposes, however, t r a n s v e r s e
d i s p e r s i o n has a small e f f e c t on t h e amount of mixing between f l u i d s compared
t o l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s p e r s i o n , as w a s i l l u s t r a t e d by Blackwell (1962), Harleman
and Rumer ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and Sauty (1980).
The second component of hydrodynamic dispersion- - namely , molecular d i f f u s i o n - o c c u r s on a macroscopic l e v e l as a consequence of n e t c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s
a c r o s s s u r f a c e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e average flow d i r e c t i o n . It i s caused by
t h e random movement of t h e d i f f e r i n g molecules.
This molecular d i f f u s i o n
c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e growth of t h e mixed r e g i o n as w e l l .
However, it has been
v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t of molecular d i f f u s i o n on mixing is n e g l i g i b l e u n l e s s
et a l . , 1959; Handy,
t h e displacement t a k e s p l a c e a t low v e l o c i t i e s (Raimondi -1959; Brigham _.e t a l . , 1961; and Blackwell, 1962).
T h e r e f o r e , i n most pract i c a l m i s c i b l e f l u i d flow through porous media, l o n g i t u d i n a l mechanical
d i s p e r s i o n i s t h e major f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g a mixed zone between t h e f l u i d s .
The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of each f l u i d i n t h e mixed zone can be computed as a
f u n c t i o n of p o s i t i o n if t h e flow geometry and t h e d i s p e r s i v i t y of porous
For s t a b l e m i s c i b l e displacements ( i n t h e absence of
medium are known.
v i s c o u s f i n g e r i n g ) , e q u a t i o n s i n c l o s e d form are a v a i l a b l e which d e s c r i b e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e f l u i d s .
These e q u a t i o n s have been d e r i v e d f o r nona d s o r b i n g , non-decaying and non- reactive m i s c i b l e f l u i d s .
Aronofsky and
Heller (1957) and Ogata and Banks (1961) p r e s e n t e x a c t s o l u t i o n s f o r l i n e a r
displacements (Eq. 2- 2), w h i l e Ogata (1958) g i v e s a n e x a c t e q u a t i o n f o r a
d i v e r g i n g r a d i a l flow.
Ogata's s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s a very d i f f i c u l t i n t e g r a l .
However, t h e s e e x a c t s o l u t i o n s can be reduced t o more simple forms, provided
t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l dimensions of t h e flow systems are l a r g e r t h a n t h e d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t of a porous medium, and t h a t t h e molecular d i f f u s i o n e f f e c t s
are n e g l i g i b l e . The dimensionless group which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s
known as t h e P e c l e t number.
It i s d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o of the displacement
f r o n t p o s i t i o n t o t h e d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t of t h e porous medium. For a l i n e a r

33

uniform displacement w i t h a P e c l e t number of : / a > 100 (Sauty,


r e s u l t i n g e q u a t i o n is:
,_

1980),

the

(3-7)

where :
C = c o n c e n t r a t i o n at l o c a t i o n x
Co = i n i t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d

x = f r o n t l o c a t i o n corresponding t o C = 0.5 Co

a = l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t , l e n g t h u n i t , same as x

e r f c = complementary e r r o r f u n c t i o n = 1

- erf

et a l .
The corresponding approximate e q u a t i o n f o r r a d i a l flow is g i v e n by Lau -(1959) and Raimondi -e t al. (1959).
The s o l u t i o n is a c c u r a t e when t h e P e c l e t
number i s g r e a t e r t h a n 100 ( ; / a > loo), as was shown by Gelhar and C o l l i n s
(1971) and Sauty (1980):
I

For most f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e c o n d i t i o n of P e c l e t number g r e a t e r t h a n 100


i s u s u a l l y achieved because of t h e d i s t a n c e s involved.
Theref o r e , t h e
f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n can be viewed as a g e n e r a l d e f i n i n g e q u a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e
mixing i n d i f f e r e n t flow geometries w i t h p r a c t i c a l accuracy (Brigham, 1973):

-C
cO

-1 e r f c

( s k t

(3-9)

where :
s = l o c a t i o n corresponding t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n C

-s *

l o c a t i o n of t h e f r o n t corresponding t o C = 0.5C0

s.

T h i s corresponds $0 t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n term2in s t a t i s t i c s . For l i n e a r


flow, u = 2ad and f o r r a d i a l flow, u = 2ag/3, as are deduced by
comparing Eqs. 3-7 and 3-8 w i t h Eq. 3-9, r e s p e c t i v e l y .

u = measure of t h e l e n g t h of t h e mixed zone computed at

I f u is known f o r a system, Eq. 3-9 can be used t o compute t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n


of t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e system. Hence, it is o n l y
n e c e s s a r y t o d e r i v e an e x p r e s s i o n f o r u i n a g e n e r a l flow geometry. T h i s can
be accomplished by n o t i n g t h a t i n a n a r b i t r a r y flow passage, such as Fig.
3.14, t h e growth of t h e l e n g t h of t h e mixed zone i s a f f e c t e d by two f a c t o r s as
t h e f l u i d moves from p o i n t A t o p o i n t B:

1)

The movement of

f l u i d through porous media


t r a v e l l e d , t h e l o n g e r t h e mixed zone); and

34

( t h e longer t h e distance

s = L
s -

Fig. 3.14:

2)

A GENERAL FLOW PASSAGE

The change of geometry of


narrower t h e mixed zone).

t h e flow p a t h ( t h e wider t h e p a s s a g e ,

T h e r e f o r e , t h e t o t a l change i n a i s (Lau et al.,


Brigham, 1973) :
d a = dos

da

1959; Baldwin,

the

1966; and
(3-10)

where, das is t h e change due t o movement along p a t h s and d a is t h e change


due t o t h e geometry of t h e passage.
Equation 3-10 is similae' t o t h e superp o s i t i o n p r i n c i p l e i n which independently computed e f f e c t s are added t o each
o t h e r t o produce a combined e f f e c t .
I n computing e i t h e r of t h e changes i n a , t h e o t h e r must be t r e a t e d as a
constant.
I n t h i s m a n n y , dos i s computed from t h e mixing e q u a t i o n f o r a
l i n e a r system f o r which u = 201s. D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h i s e x p r e s s i o n :
dos =

a ds
-

(3-11)

The geometry e f f e c t s are o b t a i n e d by n o t i n g t h a t t h e volume of t h e mixed zone


a t any l o c a t i o n must remain c o n s t a n t , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e shape of t h e system a t
that position.
Since the, mixed zone i s u s u a l l y small compared t o t h e flow
p a t h , then aw = c o n s t a n t , where w i s t h e width of t h e flow channel a t t h a t
position. Differentiating t h i s relationship:
wda

crdw

(3-12)

then :
(3-13)

35

S i n c e t h e width of t h e passage is i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e v e l o c i t y of
f l u i d a t t h a t p o i n t , Eq. 3-13 i n terms of v e l o c i t y becomes:
du

u dv
-

(3-14)

S u b s t i t u t i n g Eqs. 3-11 and 3-14 i n Eq. 3-10, one g e t s :

a ds
do = - + -

u dv

M u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s by 2a/v

(3-15)

and r e a r r a n g e :

-2u -du
2
V

2u2 dv
3

2a d s
2

I -

(3-16)

Or:

ds

(3-17)

I n t e g r a t i n g between p o i n t A and p o i n t B:

(3-18)

If t h e r e is no mixing a t t h e e n t r y i n i t i a l l y , t h e n uA = 0 a t s = 0 and:

(3-19)

This is t h e g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n f o r u which is a p p l i c a b l e f o r flow passages of


any geometry. For example, i n z a d i a l flow i n which ds = d r , v ( s ) = q / 2 n r , and
v(s) 5 q / 2 z r , it foLJows t h a t u = 2ay/3. For s p h e r i c 9 flow, ds = d r , v ( s ) =
q / 4 n r , V ( S ) = q / 4 n r , t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r u2 becomes u = 2ar/5,
Thts is t h e
same r e l a t i o n s h i p as Gelhar and C o l l i n s (1971) r e p o r t e d , if r + r .I 2 r i s used
i n t h e i r equation.
3.2.2

Tracer Production Curves

I n t h i s s e c t i o n , e q u a t i o n s are d e r i v e d which p r e d i c t tracer breakthrough


c u r v e s from s e v e r a l homogeneous f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n s f o r a s l u g of tracer
injected i n t o the patterns.
I n t h e development of t h e e q u a t i o n s , the
f o l l o w i n g assumptions are made:

36

1)

O r i g i n a l l y , t h e r e is only one m b i l e f l u i d i n t h e system.

2)

Tracer material i s m i s c i b l e with t h e f l u i d s both ahead and behind.

3)

Tracer s l u g has t h e same m o b i l i t y as t h e d i s p l a c e d and t h e d i s p l a c i n g


f l u i d s ( u n i t mobility r a t i o displacements).

4)

T r a c e r does not adsorb on t h e formation rock nor does i t react w i t h


e i t h e r t h e formation f l u i d o r t h e formation matrix.

5)

Dispersion of tracer can be d e s c r i b e d by t h e g e n e r a l approximate mixing


e q u a t i o n (Eqs. 3-9 and 3-19).

6)

Tracer s l u g s i z e is small compared t o t h e volume of t h e p a t t e r n .

7)

A s t e a d y - s t a t e flow c o n d i t i o n is e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o and d u r i n g tracer


injection.

The flow of d i f f e r e n t f l u i d s with t h e same m o b i l i t y is e s s e n t i a l l y e q u i v a l e n t


Because i n single- phase s t e a d y - s t a t e flow only one
t o a single- phase flow.
p r e s s u r e f i e l d i s imposed on t h e e n t i r e system, t h e s t r e a m l i n e s and t h e
i s o p o t e n t i a l l i n e s f o r t h e s y s t e m are u n a f f e c t e d by t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e d i s placement f r o n t s .
Such flow systems can be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l unvarying
streamtubes and f l u i d flow i n each can be s t u d i e d . As an example, c o n s i d e r a
r e p e a t e d f l o o d i n g p a t t e r n such as a s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e (as shown i n Fig.
3.15).
Assume t h a t a s l u g of t r a c e r
w i t h an i n i t i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n Co i s

Fig. 3.15:

A STAGGERED LINE DRIVE PATTERN WITH TRACER


CONCENTRATION PROFILE I N A STREAMTUBE

37

i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n , followed by a chase f l u i d t o d i s p l a c e it through


t h e formation. The tracer s l u g w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e streamtubes t h a t
comprise t h e p a t t e r n volume. I n any streamtube, mixing w i l l occur at both t h e
l e a d i n g edge and t h e ' - t r a i l i n g edge of t h e s l u g , hence d i l u t i n g t h e tracer s l u g
as it moves down t h e tube. The amount of mixing o c c u r r i n g at each edge can be
computed by assuming t h a t t h e tracer s l u g behaves as though i t was continuous
a t t h a t edge. Mathematically, t h e mixings at t h e edges are given by Eq. 3-9
w i t h u d e f i n e d by Eq. 3-19. A t any p o i n t i n t h e streamtube, t h e sum of t h r e e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s - - t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , chase f l u i d c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and formation
f l u i d concentration- - is e q u a l t o t h e i n i t i a l tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n , Coo Thus:

c - c0 - c b - c a

(3-20)

where:
C = c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t r a c e r
Ca = c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f l u i d ahead of t h e s l u g (formation f l u i d )
Cb = c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f l u i d behind t h e s l u g (chase f l u i d )

From mixing e q u a t i o n s , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f l u i d ahead of t h e s l u g i s d e f i n e d


as :

(3-21)
and behind t h e s l u g :

(3-22)

Combining Eqs. 3-20, 3-21 and 3-22, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e of t h e tracer


s l u g is expressed by:

(3-23)
where :
8

= l o c a t i o n corresponding t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n C

-s = l o c a t i o n
-s1 = l o c a t i o n
2

of t h e f r o n t at t h e l e a d i n g edge
of t h e f r o n t at t h e t r a i l i n g edge

u1 = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n computed a t t h e l e a d i n g edge
u2 = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n computed a t t h e t r a i l i n g edge

- 38 -

Since a d s o r p t i o n and r e a c t i o n ( o r decay) of t h e t r a c e r material are assumed


n e g l i g i b l e , t h e volume of t r a c e r s l u g w i t h i n t h e streamtube remains c o n s t a n t
a t any t i m e during t h e i n j e c t i o n process.
However, t h e u n d i l u t e d width of
t r a c e r is a f u n c t i o n of p d s i t i o n ; hence, t h e width is a f u n c t i o n of t h e width
of t h e streamtube a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . The u n d i l u t e d width of tracer is d e f i n e d
as :

AS=S

- S

(3-24)

If t h e tracer s l u g is small compared t o t h e s i z e of t h e streamtube (which is


u s u a l l y t h e case), then Eq. 3-23 may be w r i t t e n as:

-C = Aa si +mO

[F(s

As
-T
)-

As

F(S

+ T)]

dF
-As ds

(3-25)

where,

(3-26)

Theref o r e ,

(3-27 )

Equation 3-27 i m p l i e s t h a t maximum _tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a streamtube occurs


at point
For small s l u g s i z e , s can be viewed as t h e f r o n t l o c a t i o n i n an
immiscible displacement of the o r i g i n a l formation f l u i d by t h e chase f l u i d
alone. The u is computed a t s and i t is given by Eq. 3-19.

s.

The computation of t r a c e r
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from Eq.
calcula3-27 r e q u i r e s
t i o n s involving distances
along
the
streamtubes.
However, i t i s more convenient t o replace the
d i s t a n c e terms w i t h t h e i r
equivalent
volumetric
terms i n Eq. 3-27. This
is
conversion
process
accomplished by approximating t h e a c t u a l locat i o n of t h e t r a c e r s l u g
i n t h e streamtube by a
r e c t a n g l e as shown I n
Fig. 3.16.
The approximation is j u s t i f i e d s i n c e
t h e s l u g s i z e is small.

PRODUCTION WELL

FLOW
c

F i g . 3.16:

39

APPROXIMATE LOCATION OF A TRACER


SLUG IN A STREAMTUBE

From Fig. 3.16, t h e e q u a t i o n r e l a t i n g t h e d i s t a n c e terms t o volumes is:


1-

'.
(S

where,

S)wh (pSw = V

-V

(3-28)

width of t h e streamtube a t v o l u m e t r i c l o c a t i o n
t h i c k n e s s of t h e streamtube

(p = p o r o s i t y

S, = d i s p l a c e d f l u i d s a t u r a t i o n i n t h e s y s t e m
V = d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of streamtube up t o l o c a t i o n s

V = d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of streamtube up t o l o c a t i o n

The width of t h e streamtube a t


p o i n t by:

i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v e l o c i t y of f l u i d a t t h a t

(3-29)

where,
v = microscopic v e l o c i t y , darcy v e l o c i t y d i v i d e d by p o r o s i t y
q = i n j e c t i o n r a t e i n t o t h e streamtube

S u b s t i t u t i n g Eq. 3-29 i n t o Eq. 3-28:

- -s - V- (V - v)

(3-30)

S i m i l a r l y , t h e u n d i l u t e d width of t r a c e r , As, is r e l a t e d t o t h e volume of t h e


This is:
tracer s l u g i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e streamtube, Vtr.

S u b s t i t u t i o n of Eqs.
f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s in:

3-19, 3-30 and 3-31 i n t o Eq. 3-27 and f u r t h e r s i m p l i (3-32)

where,

(3-33)

- 40 -

Equation 3-32 d e f i n e s
s t r e a m t u b e i n terms of
tracer i s computed by
s t r e a m t u b e f o r V. For

t h e tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t any l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e
volumes. A t t h e p r o d u c t i o n w e l l , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of
s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e t o t a l d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of t h e
t h i s case, a t any t i m e , t:

v -v

- t)

= q(tbt

(3- 34)

where t b t i s t h e breakthrough t i m e of t h e i n j e c t e d f l u i d i n t h e streamtube.


The times, t b t and t , may be o b t a i n e d from material balance c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as
follows:

t =- P
Qt

(3-35)

(3- 36)
where,
= t o t a l volume of chase f l u i d i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n a t t i m e t

Vp

Vpbt = volume of chase f l u i d n e c e s s a r y t o i n j e c t i n t o t h e p a t t e r n i n o r d e r


t o g e t breakthrough from t h e streamtube under s t u d y
qt = t o t a l i n j e c t i o n rate i n t o t h e p a t t e r n
Theref o r e ,

v - v- = -Q
qt

('pbt

( 3-37)

I n terms of p a t t e r n d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volumes, Eq. 3-37 reduces t o :

(3-38)
where,
= d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volumes i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n at breakthrough
of t h e streamtube under s t u d y = Vpbt/A4hsw

'pDbt

VPD

= d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volumes i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n = Vp/A$hSw

A = area of t h e p a t t e r n

41

S i m i l a r l y , t h e amount of tracer i n j e c t e d i n t o a streamtube is p r o p o r t i o n a l t o


flow rate i n t h e tube. This means t h a t :

(3- 39)
Tracer
where VTr i s t h e t o t a l volume of tracer i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n .
volume i n a streamtube can a l s o be expressed i n terms of d i s p l a c e a b l e pore
volume of t h e p a t t e r n :
= p_ A+hS F

w r

(3- 40)

where,
Fr

'Tr
A W w

(3- 41)

F i s t h e t r a c e r s l u g volume i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n e x p r e s s e d as a f r a c t i o n
of t h e d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of t h e p a t t e r n .
S i n c e t h e flow around w e l l b o r e s is e s s e n t i a l l y r a d i a l , t h e p o t e n t i a l s i n t h e
immediate v i c i n i t y of a w e l l b o r e can be expressed by 4 = c h ( r ) + c2 where
1
c1 and c2 are c o n s t a n t s .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e v a l u e s of t h e s e c o n s t a n t s can be
determined from t h e flow r a t e and t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e a t a wellbore. Because
a b s o l u t e v a l u e s of p o t e n t i a l s and flow rates do not a f f e c t t h e n a t u r e of
tracer flow, f o r mathematical convenience, t h e c o n s t a n t s c1 and c are chosen
T h e r e f o r e , 4 = h ( r f and conset o be e q u a l t o one and z e r o , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
q u e n t l y , t h e s t r e a m l i n e s are d e f i n e d i n accordance w i t h t h i s l a t t e r p o t e n t i a l
e q u a t i o n as shown i n Appendix A. From Darcy's Law:

(3- 42)

Using t h i s e x p r e s s i o n f o r qt i n Eqs. 3-40 and 3-39 and s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e


subsequent e x p r e s s i o n s i n t o Eq. 3 - 3 2 , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t i s o b t a i n e d :

T h i s I s a g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n which d e s c r i b e s tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n any


p a r t i c u l a r streamtube, (I)), a t a p r o d u c t i o n w e l l f o r any r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n .
Equations f o r s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s can be deduced from t h i s e q u a t i o n if
e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e I i n t e g r a l (Eq. 3- 33) f o r t h e s e p a t t e r n s are a v a i l a b l e .
D e r i v a t i o n of e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e I i n t e g r a l f o r t h e developed s t a g g e r e d l i n e
d r i v e , f i v e - s p o t and d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n s h a s been provided i n
Appendices C . l , C.2 and C . 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
With t h e a i d of t h e s e appendices,
t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s which d e f i n e tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l streamt u b e , ($), of t h e s e s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s are obtained.

- 42 -

Staggered Line Drive:


Staggered l i n e d r i v e s y s t e m s d i f f e r from each o t h e r by
t h e i r d / a r a t i o s , where d i s t h e d i s t a n c e between u n l i k e w e l l s ( i n j e c t o r p r o d u c e r ) , and a i s t h e d i s t a n c e between l i k e wells (two i n j e c t o r s o r two
producers).
From Appendix C . l and Fig. C-1, t h e following r e l a t i o n s h i p s are
obtained :
A=2da
K'(m)
2K(m)

(3-44

dP a

(3-45)

and,
(3-46)

S u b s t i t u t e Eqs. 3-44, 3-45, 3-46 i n Eq. 3-43, and r e a r r a n g e :

( 3-37 1

The term VpDbt($) d e f i n e s t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curve and is given by Eq.


A-35 i n Appendix A.l with IT term i n t h a t equation r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e a m l i n e
$.
The term Y($) i s obtained from Eq. C-21 i n Appendix C.l.
The five- spot i s a s p e c i a l case of a staggered l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n
Five- Spot:
when d / a = 1/2. For t h e five- spot:
K(m) = K'(m)

= 1.8540747

Equation 3-47 s i m p l i f i e s t o :

For t h i s p a t t e r n ,
respectively.

VpDbt($)

0.645776 a

Y($)

and Y($)

are

- "pD )

a ('pDbt(')
given

by

Eqs.

A-49

(3-48)

and

C-23,

Direct l i n e d r i v e systems are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r


Direct Line Drive:
d / a r a t i o s . From Appendix C.3:
A=2da

- 43 -

(3-44

(3- 45)
and,

(3- 46)
Therefore:

(3- 47)
The VpDbt($) term i s given by Eq. A-73 and Y($)

i s given by Eq. C-58.

Note t h a t f o r t h e s e p a t t e r n s , e x a c t l y t h e
same form of
equation describes tracer
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n a streamtube a t t h e prod u c t i o n w e l l . Only t h e Y($) term which i s
r e l a t e d t o t r a c e r d i s p e r s i o n , and VpDbt,
which r e p r e s e n t s t h e convection of t r a c e r ,
are d i f f e r e n t
Theref o r e , i t i s s p e c u l a t e d
t h a t o t h e r p a t t e r n s w i l l a l s o have t h e same
form as Eq. 3-47 but with d i f f e r e n t express i o n s f o r t h e Y and VpDbt terms.

For any pore volume of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d ,


V D, injected itlto a pattern, there i s
t t a c e r flow from a l l t h e streamtubes t o t h e
Therefore,
the
output
production w e l l .
t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n from t h e p r o d u c t i o n
w e l l of a homogeneous p a t t e r n is t h e sum of
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from t h e streamtubes. A t t h e
l i m i t , t h e summation reduces t o an i n t e g r a l
and t h e streamtubes become s t r e a m l i n e s . The
f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t s e v a l u a t i o n of t r a c e r prod u c t i o n curves from t h e p a t t e r n s considered
i n t h i s study.

Fig. 3.17:

ELEMENT CONSIDERED
I N COMPUTING TRACER
PRODUCTION CURVES
FOR THE STAGGERED
LINE DRIVE PATTERN

Due t o symmetry, o n l y 1/8 of a s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e


Staggered Line Drive:
p a t t e r n is c o n s i d e r e d , as shown i n Fig. 3 . 1 7 .

E f f l u e n t tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n ,

E,

from t h i s system is t h e n given by:

8
qt

44

(3- 49)

Because of unit mobility ratio displacement, flow rates in the streamtubes are
constant and equal t o each other. At the limit, when the streamtubes approach
the streamlines:
(3- 50)

9, = 2 nq
&

Substitution for C($)/Cofrom


yields:

Eq. 3-47 and qt from Eq. 3-50 and simplification

(3- 51)

where

is a dimensionless quantity defined as:


(3-52)

Five-Spot:
to :

For this pattern, Eq. 3-51 with K(m) = K'(m)

= 1.854074 reduces

CD = 0.577266

The term

ED is

(3-53)

defined by Eq. 3- 52.

Direct Line Drive: For a direct line drive, 1 / 4 of the pattern must be
considered, as shown in Fig. 3.18.
For this system, the effluent concentration integral is:

(3- 54)

qt

is given by Eq. 3-47 and qt by Eq. 3- 50.

where C($)/Co

112

G K'(m)

cD

[-

K(m) K' 2 (m) a

a ('pDbt(')

l
r
2
6

vm

Therefore:

- 'PD)~]
d$
(3-55)

- 45 -

i s due t o t h e l a r g e r amount of mixing t h a t


o c c u r s f o r small v a l u e s of Peclet numbers.
Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s e curves i s
t h a t they a l l e x h i b i t t r a c e r production a t
v a l u e s l e s s than 0.85.
This number i s

0.20

I un

0.15

0.10

0.05

1 .o

0.5

PORE VOLUHES INJECTED, V

F i g . 3.19:

1.5

PD

DIMENSIONLESS TRACER CONCENTRATIONS VS PORE VOLUMES INJECTED,


DEVELOPED STAGGERED LINE DRIVE, d / a = 1 . 5

46

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

1 .o

PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, V

QD

DIMENSIONLESS TRACER CONCENTRATIONS VS PORE VOLUMES INJECTED,


DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT

Fig. 3.20:

0.20

0.15

'D

0.10

0.05

"

0
0

1 .o

0.5
PORE VOLUMES INJECTED, V

Fig. 3.21:

QD

DIMENSIONLESS TRACER CONCENTRATIONS VS PORE VOLUMES INJECTED,


DIRECT LINE DRIVE, d/a = 1

47

0.20

1 DIRECT LINE DRIVE,


d/a = 1

0*15

2 FIVE- SPOT
3

STAGGERED LINE DRIV

d/a = 1.5

--- BREAKTHROUGH AREAL


SWEEP EFFICIENCY

0.10

0.05

0
0

Fig. 3 . 2 2 :

1 .o

0.5

1.5

TRACER PRODUCTION CURVES FOR DIFFERENT DEVELOPED AND


HOMOGENEOUS PATTERNS, a l a = 500

t h e same g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
A comparison of t r a c e r p r o d u c t i o n curves
from t h e s e t h r e e p a t t e r n s f o r a / a = 500 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 3 . 2 2 . Again,
tracer p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r s b e f o r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l breakthrough a r e a l sweep
e f f i c i e n c y of t h e p a t t e r n s ; t h e curves spread as t h e r e s u l t of d i s p e r s i o n .

3.2.3

C o r r e l a t i o n of Tracer Production Curves

I n t h e previous s e c t i o n , i t was shown t h a t t h e tracer p r o d u c t i o n curve from a


p a t t e r n was a f u n c t i o n of P e c l e t number, a/a. T h e r e f o r e , f o r each p a t t e r n , a
s e t of tracer response curves was o b t a i n e d w i t h a l a as a parameter.
In t h i s
s e c t i o n , t h e sets of tracer p r o f i l e s from v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s are c o r r e l a t e d i n t o
a s i n g l e set of curves (a/a being t h e parameter) which r e p r e s e n t s t h e tracer
p r o d u c t i o n curves from r e p e a t e d homogeneous p a t t e r n s .
The f o l l o w i n g approach w a s taken t o accomplish t h e c o r r e l a t i o n . The peak d a t a
(maximum tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and corresponding pore volumes) of tracer prod u c t i o n curves f o r d i f f e r e n t systems were p l o t t e d v e r s u s a/a. F i g u r e 3.23 i s
t h e graph of dimensionless maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and Fig. 3.24 is t h e graph
of peak dimensionless volume l o c a t i o n where t h e maximum tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n
occurs.
The o r d i n a t e of t h e l a t t e r f i g u r e i s t h e same dimensionless volume
parameter t h a t was used t o c o r r e l a t e t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curves i n
I n both of t h e f i g u r e s , t h e d a t a f o r every system y i e l d a
Section 3 . 1 . 3 .
s t r a i g h t l i n e on log- log paper. A v e r t i c a l s h i f t of l i n e s i n Fig. 3 . 2 3 and a
h o r i z o n t a l s h i f t of l i n e s i n Fig. 3.24 c o r r e l a t e d t h e r e s p e c t i v e s e t s of l i n e s
The f i v e - s p o t system was chosen as a
i n t o a s i n g l e l i n e f o r each f i g u r e .
r e f e r e n c e f o r c o r r e l a t i o n i n both of t h e f i g u r e s .
The amount of s h i f t of

- 48 -

1.00

. . ...

I I W .

. . . ....

PECLET NUMBER. a/a

PLOT OF DIMENSIONLESS MAXIMUM TRACER CONCENTRATIONS VS PECLET


NUMBER FOR HOMOGENEOUS DEVELOPED PATTERNS

Fig. 3.23:

0.10

0.01

lo2

lo3

lo5
PECLET NUMBER. a/a

Fig. 3.24:

PLOT OF DIMENSIONLESS PEAK PORE VOLUME LOCATION VS PECLET NUMBER


FOR HOMOGENEOUS DEVELOPED PATTERNS

- 49 -

t h e s e l i n e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e five- spot l i n e s produced two sets of correct i o n f a c t o r s : one f o r maximum tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and t h e o t h e r one f o r a / a
t o c a l c u l a t e t h e peak, l o c a t i o n . The c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s , which are i n t h e form
of m u l t i p l i e r s , are shown,in F i g s . 3.25 and 3.26. The t a b u l a t e d v a l u e s of
t h e s e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s are provided i n Table 3.7.
I f the correction factors
from t h e s e two f i g u r e s are a p p l i e d t o t h e peak d a t a of a t r a c e r breakthrough
curve from a f i v e - s p o t s y s t e m , they produce t h e peak d a t a for t h e p a t t e r n

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

F i g . 3.25:

CORRECTION FACTORS ON PEAK CONCENTRATIONS

- 50 -

2.0

2.5

3.0

..

corresponding t o the selected c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s .


may be used f o r the conversion:

The f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s

(3-56)
pat t e r n
where, fm i s the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r on the peak concentration ( F i g . 3 . 2 5 ) .

1.2

1.0

0.8
e

(d

z
0

5&

0.6

2
L

ru

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

d
a

Fig. 3.26:

CORRECTION FACTORS ON a/a TO CALCULATE PEAK LOCATIONS

- 51 -

Table 3.7
CORRECTION FACTORS ON TRACER PEAK CONCENTRATION AND a/a FOR
STAGGERED LINE -DRIVE AND DIRECT LINE DRIVE AT VARIOUS d/a RATIOS

STAGGERED LINE DRIVE

-d

DIRECT LINE DRIVE

f
m

0.75

1.13

1.09

0.092

1.06

1.00

1.36

1.22

0.173

1.03

1.25

1.76

1.37

0.280

1.07

1.50

2.26

1.52

0.410

1.17

1.75

2.76

1.68

0.536

1.27

2.00

3.26

1.83

0.665

1.39

2.25

3.78

1.99

0.790

1.50

2.50

4.28

2.14

0.915

1.62

2.75

4.79

2.30

1.040

1.74

3.00

5.30

2.46

1.165

1.85

3.25

5.81

2.63

1.294

1.95

3.50

6.12

2.78

1.420

2.06

Substituting for

f
m

from Eq. 3-52 and s i m p l i f y i n g :

max
pattern

(g)
pattern

(e)

( 3-57)

5-spot

The c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r on P e c l e t number, f

( F i g . 3.26),

r e l a t e s a / a values:

(+)pattern

= fp

(T)5-spot

- 52 -

(3-58)

Finally :

( cmax) p a t t e r n

(3-59
(cmax)5-sp0t

Pore volumes corresponding t o peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are a l s o c o n v e r t i b l e ,


because maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n s occur a t t h e same d i m e n s i o n l e s s pore volumes,

i.e.:
pD,max

- "pDbt

pD,max

- 'pDbt

(3-60)
S-SpOt

O r , equivalently:

p
'D
('PD,max)

,max

- p'

Dbt

- 'pDbt

pattern

(' - 'pDbt

pattern

(3-61)

+ ('pDbt)
pattern
where, VpDbt i s t h e a r e a l sweep e f f i c i e n c y expressed as a f r a c t i o n .

Having been a b l e t o c o r r e l a t e one p o i n t from each curve--namely, t h e maximum


p o i n t of t h e tracer breakthrough p r o f i l e from v a r i o u s systems- - the a n a l y s i s
was extended t o c o r r e l a t e t h e tracer breakthrough curves over t h e i r e n t i r e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n v e r s u s volume range. To do t h i s , f i r s t , t h e tracer breakthrough
p r o f i l e s of systems were normalized by d i v i d i n g t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n v a l u e s by
t h e maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r each curve. An example of t h i s f o r a developed
f i v e - s p o t system is shown i n Fig. 3.27.
Second, t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s on a / a
i n Fig. 3.26 were u t i l i z e d t o c o r r e l a t e t h e normalized curves of d i f f e r e n t
p a t t e r n s i n t o one curve.
To accomplish t h i s , t h e volume c o o r d i n a t e used on
t h e a b s c i s s a was t h e same dimensionless pore volume f u n c t i o n t h a t was found
u s e f u l i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of p a t t e r n breakthrough curves d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n
3.1.3.
F i g u r e 3.28 shows a p a r t i c u l a r c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d when comparing a
f i v e - s p o t with a/a = 700 t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e ( d / a = 1, a / a =
1201, and t h e e q u i v a l e n t s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e ( d / a = 2, a / a = 2280).
The
v a l u e s of a/a f o r t h e l a t t e r two p a t t e r n s were computed u s i n g Eq. 3-58 w i t h
The c o r r e 0.17 and f p = 3.26, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o b t a i n e d from Fig. 3.25.
fP
l a t i o n i s e x c e l l e n t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e peak. A t smaller and l a r g e r pore
volumes, i t i s somewhat poor, b u t s t i l l adequate as w i l l be s e e n later. Due
t o t h e low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t each end of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r s
by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n are small a t t h e volume extremes.

- 53 -

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
3.0

Fig. 3.27:

NORMALIZED TRACER PRODUCTION CURVES FOR A HOMOGENEOUS


DEVELOPED FIVE- SPOT

ala

700

120
2280

-1

F i g . 3.28:

CORRELATION OF TRACER PRODUCTION CURVES FOR HOMOGENEOUS


DEVELOPED PATTERNS

- 54 -

For any value of ala and for different geometries, the actual curves can be
related to a five-spot system by using the parameters in the coordinates of
Fig. 3.28, and the correction factors on Fig. 3.25 and 3.26 as follows:
(3- 62)

max

max

pattern

Substitute for maximum concentrations from Eq. 3-59:

'pattern

f m 6

(3- 63)

'S-spot

The pore volumes at which the concentrations in Eq. 3-63 occur are obtained
from the dimensionless pore volume abscissa coordinate of Fig. 3.28.
The
relationship is similar to Eq. 3-61 and subsequently is given by:

c--vpDbt
)
'pDbt

(
'
p
D
)

pattern
=

5-spot

- 'pDbt)

pattern ('pDbt)
+

pattern
(3- 64)

By using Eq. 3-58, different patterns can be correlated into an equivalent


five-spot pattern; thereafter, breakthrough curves can be computed from the
five-spot tracer breakthrough profile through Eqs. 3-63 and 3-64 only.
3.3

TRACER FLOW IN HETEROGENEOUS SYTEMS

This section focuses on the mathematical description of tracer movement in


non-uniform reservoirs. The non-uniformity of a reservoir is represented with
a stratified model.
3.3.1

Concept of Multilayered Modeling

Reservoirs often are sedimentary deposits laid down in a body of water over a
long period of time. After deposition, they undergo further physical and
chemical changes. As a result of the non-uniform nature of deposition and
secondary alteration, heterogeneities develop within the reservoirs.
The
severity of the heterogeneity depends on the lithology and the external forces
acting upon the system. In general, sandstone reservoirs tend to be more
uniform than limestone or carbonate reservoirs.
Levorsen (1956) details
sedimentary basins including the origin of heterogeneities i n each basin.
Hutchinson (1959) presents an excellent review on reservoir inhomogeneity.
Since the sediments are deposited areally, it is expected that some lateral
uniformity exists over wide ranges of a reservoir. However, a variation is
anticipated in the vertical direction due to differences in the depositional

- 55 -

time and environment.


This scheme
of deposition indicates that the
sediments are generally laid down in
layers which are fairly haiform in
lateral direction but differ with
elevation.
For many sandstone
reservoirs, this type of heterogeneity is a fair representation of
the reservoir.
The fact that the
permeabilities measured in the vertical direction are frequently a
small fraction of the horizontal
penneabilit ies
emphasizes
the
validity of this representation.
Figures 3.29a and b show outcrops of
sandstone reservoirs.
These pictures illustrate that formations are
often composed of layers. In some
cases, thin layers of shale or silt
are deposited between the sand
layers and prevent interlayer fluid
transport. However, in other cases
there is no barrier between the
layers and hence, unrestricted or
partially
restricted
cross-flow
occurs between the layers.
Sometimes, cross-bedding , pinching out
and local non-uniformities within
the layers distort the homogeneity
and the continuity of the layers.
Despite physical limitations, reservoirs can often be simulated as
though they are composed of p a r a l l x
layers with no interlayer communication. Based on this model, several
reservoir engineering calculations
can be made.
Dykstra and Parsons
(1950) presented a method for calculating reservoir vertical coverage
in waterflooding operations using
this concept. Their method has been
found to match the results of many
waterflood operations.
Elkins and
Skov (1962) matched the performance
of two gas-condensate cycling projects and an enriched gas-drive
project with a multi-strata model.
Fitch and Griffith (1964) also
matched the performance of an LPG
slug miscible drive in an isolated
five-spot pilot test by using a
stratified model with no cross-flow

Fig* 3o2ga

Marine Sandstone Deposit


with Thin Subunits of Sand

Fig. 3.29b

Channel Sandstone Deposit


Exhibiting Highly Irregular
Bedding

Fig. 3.29:

- 56 -

OUTCROPS OF SANDSTONE
RESERVOIRS (after Zeito,
1965)

between t h e l a y e r s .
The s t r a t a d e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e p i l o t was o b t a i n e d from
core data.
Based on a s t r a t i f i e d model, Hearn (1971) developed t h e o r e t i c a l
p s e u d o - r e l a t i v e - p e r m e a b i l i t y curves f o r a r e s e r v o i r which i n c l u d e d v e r t i c a l
p e r m e a b i l i t y v a r i a t i o n . T,he pseudo- relative- permeability curves converted t h e
s t r a t i f i e d r e s e r v o i r i n t o a mathematically- equivalent, two- dimensional homogeneous system w i t h pseudo p r o p e r t i e s .
T h i s model was shown t o match t h e
performance . of a w a t e r f l o o d i n g o p e r a t i o n conducted i n a c a r b o n a t e r e s e r v o i r .
There was v e r t i c a l communication among t h e l a y e r s of t h i s r e s e r v o i r .
Cross- flow between t h e l a y e r s o c c u r s as a r e s u l t of t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a
v e r t i c a l p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t between t h e l a y e r s .
One o r more of t h r e e f o r c e s
may cause v e r t i c a l p r e s s u r e g r a d i e n t s t o develop.
These are g r a v i t y ,
c a p i l l a r y and v i s c o u s f o r c e s . I n m i s c i b l e d i s p l a c e m e n t s , v e r t i c a l d i s p e r s i o n
a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e amount of cross- flow.
I n a m i s c i b l e displacement of
If
f l u i d s w i t h e q u a l d e n s i t i e s , t h e r e are no g r a v i t y and c a p i l l a r y f o r c e s .
t h e f l u i d s a l s o have t h e same v i s c o s i t y ( m o b i l i t y r a t i o e q u a l t o o n e ) , no
v i s c o u s f o r c e s w i l l be p r e s e n t a c r o s s t h e l a y e r s . A m i s c i b l e displacement i n
which t h e s e f o r c e s are absent w i l l t h e o r e t i c a l l y produce similar r e s u l t s i n a
s t r a t i f i e d system w i t h no b a r r i e r between t h e l a y e r s , and i n a system i n which
impermeable l a y e r s prevent cross- flow.
However, t h e systems which e x h i b i t
cross- flow can a l s o be modeled by a h y p o t h e t i c a l system w i t h no cross- flow.
This was i l l u s t r a t e d by F i t c h and G r i f f i t h (1964), who matched t h e r e s u l t s of
a m i s c i b l e t e s t by a s t r a t i f i e d model w i t h no cross- flow. The t e s t w a s conducted i n l a b o r a t o r y layered- prototypes without b a r r i e r s between t h e l a y e r s a t
a m o b i l i t y r a t i o of about twenty. The s u c c e s s of s t r a t i f i e d r e s e r v o i r models
i n matching performance of m i s c i b l e and immiscible displacements i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h i s concept of modeling i s o f t e n r e a s o n a b l e .
S i m i l a r l y , t h e flow of tracers i n heterogeneous r e s e r v o i r s can be modeled by a
s t r a t i f i e d system.
S i n c e t h e tracer material i s m i s c i b l e w i t h both t h e
d i s p l a c i n g and d i s p l a c e d f l u i d s , and has t h e same d e n s i t y and v i s c o s i t y as
t h e s e f l u i d s , cross- flow can occur o n l y as a r e s u l t of l a t e r a l d i s p e r s i o n .
However, t h e e f f e c t s of l a t e r a l d i s p e r s i o n are much smaller t h a n l o n g i t u d i n a l
d i s p e r s i o n , as has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . T h e r e f o r e , f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s ,
t h e r e s u l t s of tracer flow i n a s t r a t i f i e d r e s e r v o i r , w i t h o r w i t h o u t b a r r i e r s
between t h e l a y e r s , would be similar.

3.3.2

Tracer Production Curves from Layered Systems

To compute tracer response curves from l a y e r e d systems, t h e f o l l o w i n g assumpt i o n s are made:


1)

The i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r s are homogeneous (uniform p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y


throughout each l a y e r ) ;

2)

There is no cross flow between t h e l a y e r s ;

3)

The d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t , a, is t h e same f o r each l a y e r ;

4)

Water s a t u r a t i o n is c o n s t a n t and is t h e same i n each l a y e r ; and

5)

The m o b i l i t y r a t i o of t h e displacement is e q u a l t o u n i t y .

- 57 -

The j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e t h i r d assumption stems from two f a c t s :


1) f o r the
f o r m a t i o n s w i t h t h e same sedimentary d e p o s i t o r i g i n s , d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t s do
n o t vary a p p r e c i a b l y w i t h i n t h e same producing zones of f o r m a t i o n s ; and 2)
tracer breakthrough 'curvet do n o t depend s t r o n g l y on d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t s .
The f i f t h assumption is v a l i d
T h i s can be s e e n from e i t h e r Fig. 3.19 o r 3.23.
f o r t h e tracer tests run i n gas r e s e r v o i r s o r watered- out r e s e r v o i r s ( p r i o r t o
t e r t i a r y o p e r a t i o n s ) wherein t h e f l u i d flowing ahead of t h e tracer s l u g i s
e s s e n t i a l l y water, and t h e chase f l u i d i s a l s o water.
I n secondary recovery
w a t e r f l o o d i n g i n r e s e r v o i r s w i t h high connate- water s a t u r a t i o n , t h e f l u i d bank
ahead of t h e tracer s l u g w i l l be mainly water. Hence, t h e assumption of u n i t
I n almost a l l gas c y c l i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e
m o b i l i t y r a t i o would be a p p l i c a b l e .
assumption of u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o is v a l i d .
I n a l a y e r e d system, t h e o v e r a l l tracer o u t p u t curve i s a combination of
responses from t h e c o n s t i t u e n t l a y e r s .
The i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r responses are
p r e d i c t a b l e and c o r r e l a t a b l e by t h e a n a l y s i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s
sections.
However, t h e tracer a r r i v a l time a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n w e l l and t h e
tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d from each l a y e r are f u n c t i o n s of t h e
p o r o s i t y , p e r m e a b i l i t y and t h i c k n e s s of each l a y e r .
Because of t h e u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o assumption, any material i n j e c t e d i n t o a m u l t i l a y e r e d system i s
d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e l a y e r s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o conductances, kh.
I f VT i s t h e
t o t a l volume ( i n b a r r e l s ) of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d i n j e c t e d , t h e n t h e pore volume
i n j e c t e d i n t o l a y e r j is:

Ckh

A Sw

(3-65)

A t t h e producing w e l l b o r e , t h e tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s t h e v o l u m e t r i c sum of


tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from t h e l a y e r s . This i s given by:

(3- 66)

where :

n = number of l a y e r s

= tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n flowing from l a y e r j i n t o t h e w e l l b o r e , cornputed at pore volume (VpD)


j
From Eq. 3-52 f o r l a y e r j :
C,

(3-67)
where Fr i s t h e tracer s l u g s i z e i n j e c t e d i n t o l a y e r j i n terms of f r a c t i o n
of t h e pdre volume of l a y e r j. It i s t h u s g i v e n by:

"Tr
=- (kh) j
jrj
Ckh A (Oh) Sw =
j

- 58 -

j
$ Ckh
j

'Tr

AS,

(3-68)

and

-C

is the dimensionless concentration from layer j calculated at VPD =

?
'
This dimensionless concentration is given by one of the Eqs. 3-51, 33-55, depending on the type of pattern.
If thickness, porosity and

(V
53'?#

permeability of the layers are known, the tracer concentration profiles for
various patterns can be constructed.
Conversely, the decomposition of a
tracer production curve from a multilayered system into the constituent layer
responses can yield the layer parameters. Yuen et al. (1979) presented a
method for the decomposition of overall tracer response curves from developed
five-spot systems.

--

To study the flow of tracer in layered systems, a hypothetical four-layered

staggered line drive with d/a = 1 was considered. The area of the system was
90,000 ft2, the Peclet number was a/a
2000, and the total tracer injected
into the system was 10 ft3. Also, the system was considered to be of unit
thickness with a porosity of 0.25 and an initial water saturation of 60
percent. Table 3.8 shows the assumed parameters of the layers. The calculated tracer response from this system is presented in Fig. 3.30.
There are
four distinct peaks in this figure which are widely separated from each
other. A computer algorithm, based on the Yuen et ale's (1979) method, was
prepared which would deconvolve the overall tracer profile into the constituent layer responses, and thus evaluate the porosity thickness and fractional
permeability thickness products of the individual layers from the input peak
data (concentration and volume).
The computer program would then regenerate
the entire tracer production profile based on the computed layer parameters.
This program will be referred to as "deconvolution routine" in this study.
Table 3.8 shows the computed results using the deconvolution routine based on
exact equations for a staggered line drive system. The corresponding computed
tracer curve was close to the original profile.

--

Table 3.8
ASSUMED AND COMPUTED PARAMETERS OF THE LAYERS FOR THE THEORETICAL
STAGGERED LINE DRIVE, EXAMPLE 1

ASSUMED

COMPUTED
PARAMETERS
USING EQUATIONS
FOR
STAGGERED LINE DRIVE,

PARAHETERS

d/a = 1

LAYER

kh
Ckh

COMPUTED PARAHETERS
USING EQUATIONS OF
EQUIVALENT 5-SPOT SYSTEM

kh
Ckh

kh
Ckh

1.0134

0.4

1.00601

0.39824

1.00197

0.39664

1.1403

0.3

1.13376

0.29921

1.13944

0.30071

0.5068

0.1

0.51094

0.101 13

0.52816

0.10454

SUM

2.9455

1.0

2.9307 1

0.99608

2.94787

0.99819

--------------___-_-----------------

- 59 -

20

15

10
K

4""
5

15

25

35

45

V O L W INJECTED, MBBLS

Fig. 3.30:

TRACER RESPONSE FROM A FOUR-LAYERED STAGGERED


LINE DRIVE, d / a = 1, "FIRST EXAMPLE"

The c o r r e l a t i n g technique developed f o r t r a c e r production curves was a p p l i e d


t o t h i s m u l t i l a y e r e d system.
The s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e was converted i n t o an
e q u i v a l e n t f i v e - s p o t using Eq. 3-58 with f p = 1.36 obtained from Fig. 3.26.
This changed t h e value of a / a from 2000 t o 1470.
Next, t h e deconvolution
r o u t i n e was modified t o combine t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e f i v e s p o t system w i t h t h e c o r r e l a t i n g Eqs. 3-63 and 3-64. This modified v e r s i o n of
t h e deconvolution r o u t i n e was used, with a p p r o p r i a t e m u l t i p l i e r s and breakthrough a r e a l sweep e f f i c i e n c i e s , t o decompose t h e o r i g i n a l t r a c e r curve i n
The r e g e n e r a t e d p r o f i l e based on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n is seen i n Fig
Fig. 3.30.
3.31.
The match i s good w i t h only s l i g h t divergence i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e
l o c a l minima.
This divergence was expected because t h e o r i g i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n
was not p e r f e c t at l a r g e r and smaller v a l u e s of pore volumes. The parameters
The c a l c u l a t e d
of t h e l a y e r s computed by t h e program a r e shown i n Table 3.8.
v a l u e s of $h and kh are c l o s e t o t h e v a l u e s used t o g e n e r a t e t h e d a t a .
I n t h e second h y p o t h e t i c a l example, t h e same f o u r - l a y e r s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e
system w a s considered. This time t h e parameters of t h e l a y e r s were changed t o
o b t a i n peaks near each o t h e r .
Table 3.9 p r e s e n t s t h e s e l e c t e d parameters of
As
the layers.
The tracer response from t h i s system i s shown i n Fig. 3.32.
b e f o r e , t h e deconvolution r o u t i n e was used w i t h t h e i n p u t observed peak d a t a
t o g e n e r a t e a match t o t h i s curve. The r e s u l t i n g match, shown in Fig. 3.32,
is not a s a t i s f a c t o r y one.
Yuen e t a l . (1979) have i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t when
peaks a r e near each o t h e r , t h e observed peak l o c a t i o n s do not correspond t o
t h e e x a c t peak l o c a t i o n s from t h e i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r responses. The i n d i v i d u a l

--

- 60 -

15

ul

10

E.

0-

-.

ORIGINAL CURVE
MATCHED CURVE

-..

0100

5 -

5
VOLUME INJECTED, MEBLS

MATCH OBTAINED USING THE DECONVOLUTION ROUTINE AND TRACER


CORRELATION PARAMETERS

Fig. 3.31:

Table 3.9

ASSUMED AND COMPUTED PARAMETERS OF THE LAYERS FC#R THE THEORETICAL


STAGGERED LINE DRIVE, EXAMPLE 2

COMPUTED PARAMETERS USING


OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

ASSUMED PARAMETERS
LAYER

"

kh
Ckh

h,
ft

k,
md

4h

kh
Ckh

ft

k,
md

h,

____________________------------_---1

0.315

0.15

1.26

119.05

0.314996

0.149998

1.26

119.05

1.000

0.40

4.00

100.00

0.999957

0.399984

4.00

100.00

0.6875

0.25

2.75

90.91

0.687447

0.249983

2.75

90.91

0.6000

0.20

2.4

83.33

0.600065

0.200024

2.40

83.33

2.6025

1.00

2.602466

0.999989

____________________-_------------_-SUM

* The

~~

k and h v a l u e s i n t h i s t a b l e have been computed for 4 = .25 and


Ckh = 1000 m d - f t .

- 61 -

20

. . .

VOLUME INJECTED, MBBLS

Fig. 3 . 3 2 :

TRACER RESPONSE FROM A FOUR-LAYER DEVELOPED STAGGERED LINE DRIVE


(d/a
= 1) AND THE MATCH OBTAINED USING THE DECONVOLUTION ROUTINE,
. "SECOND EXAMPLE"

tracer response curves interfere with each other and, hence, shift the
location of the observed peaks from their corresponding layer peaks. Brown
and Brigham (1981) have shown a method of handling this shift using a trialand-error procedure for each peak.
This usually requires many trials to
achieve a desirable match and can be tedious for large systems. In this
study, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem.
4.3.3

Optimization Technique

Non-linear optimization (or multiple regression analysis) is a powerful technique in fitting data by a set of variables. This procedure is also known as
a non-linear least-squares method for curve fitting. The idea is to minimize
the objective function F:
N

(3-69)
where :

c;

observed concentration at sample point i


overall concentration computed at sample point i

N = number of data points or number of observed concentrations


i = an observation point

- 62 -

For a m u l t i l a y e r system, t h e i n j e c t e d tracer


d i v i d e d i n t o l a y e r s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the kh of
t o t a l volume ( i n barrels) i n j e c t e d a t t h e t i m e
volumes i n j e c t e d i n t o - l a y e r j a t t h i s time from

and d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d w i l l be
each l a y e r .
If (VT)i i s t h e
p o i n t i is observed, t h e pore
Eq. 3-65 are:

The o v e r a l l tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n being produced a t t h e t i m e of o b s e r v a t i o n


p o i n t i i s t h e sum of tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n s being s u p p l i e d by each l a y e r .
T h i s concept is considered i n Eq. 3-66 and i s given by:

(3-71)

where
i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n flowing t o t h e w e l l b o r e from l a y e r j a t t h e
t i m e ar3d) i n j e c t i o n volume a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o i n t i.
This c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s
computed from Eq. 3-67 as f o l l o w s :
(3- 72)

(e

where F
i s given by Eq. 3-68 and
) . , dimensionless c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n
= ( V P D l j , i Diathe e q u a t i o n f o r tracer p r o d u c t i o n
l a y e r j,is c a l c u l a t e d a t V
curves from homogeneous pat!Erns.
From Eqs. 3-51, o r 3-53, o r 3-55 ( f o r t h e p a t t e r n of i n t e r e s t ) , and Eqs. 3-68
and 3-70 through 3-72, i t can be concluded t h a t Ei i s only a f u n c t i o n of
k /(4jZkh), (kh)j/Zkh, (VT)i,
and t h e number of l a y e r s .
The f u n c t i o n a l form

i$ :
(3-73)
where I i s a f u n c t i o n given by combining Eqs. 3-51, o r 3-53, o r 3-55 ( f o r t h e
p a t t e r n s ) w i t h Eq. 3-70 and 3-72. Denoting:
(3-74)
and,
(3-75)

- 63 -

Equation 3-73 becomes :

(3-76)
The s u b r o u t i n e VARPRO a t t h e S t a n f o r d Center f o r I n f o r m a t i o n Technology ( C I T )
can minimize t h e f u n c t i o n F given i n Eq. 3-69 when
i s i n t h e form of Eq.
i
3-76. T h i s s u b r o u t i n e r e q u i r e s i n i t i a l estimates on non- linear p a r a m e t e r s ,
with no requirements on i n i t i a l estimates f o r l i n e a r parameters,
In
xj
case of i n t e r e s t h e r e , t h e i n i t i a l estimates on Z can be o b t a i n e d e a s i l y from
Eq. 3-70 by assuming t h a t t h e observed l o c a t i o n df peaks i n t h e tracer breakthrough curve correspond t o t h e l o c a t i o n of peaks from i n d i v i d u a l l a y e r
responses. T h i s is given by t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n :

(3-77)
where :

(T'

,max)

= volume corresponding t o t h e j t h peak in t h e observed tracer

profile, bbls

p
' D ,max = pore volume corresponding t o t h e peak l o c a t i o n i n t r a c e r
response from a homogeneous system. This can be o b t a i n e d
from Fig. 3.24 combined with breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y e q u a t i o n s provided i n Appendix A f o r d i f f e r e n t
patterns
A computer program has been developed which u t i l i z e s t h e s u b r o u t i n e VARPRO t o
perform t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n . The i n p u t d a t a f o r t h i s program are as f o l l o w s : N
d a t a p o i n t s from t h e o v e r a l l t r a c e r p r o f i l e , number of l a y e r s expected ( n )
where n is smaller t h a n N, and n l o c a t i o n volumes corresponding t o peaks i n
t h e observed t r a c e r breakthrough curve.
The program computes n non- linear
parameters and n l i n e a r parameters w i t h t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e e r r o r s . From t h e s e
p a r a m e t e r s , $h and kh/Ckh of each l a y e r are computed as f o l l o w s :

xj
Ckh

2
j

(3-78)

(3-79)
Based on t h e above computed parameters,
tracer breakthrough curve.

t h e program r e g e n e r a t e s t h e e n t i r e

The t r a c e r p r o f i l e i n Fig. 3.32 was analyzed u s i n g t h i s o p t i m i z a t i o n technique.


Twenty d a t a p o i n t s and f o u r l a y e r s were chosen.
The r e s u l t of t h i s
There is v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between
o p t i m i z a t i o n i s shown i n Fig. 3.33.
t h e o r i g i n a l p r o f i l e and t h e matched curve. The important p o i n t h e r e is t h a t

- 64 -

20

. . , .

. . . .

. . . .

VI

3
w

VI vo

VOLUME INJECTED, MBBLS

F i g . 3.33:

MATCH OBTAINED USING THE OPTIMIZATION ROUTINE WITH FOUR LAYERS,


"SECOND EXAMPLE"

Fig. 3.33 was obtained i n one r u n , and no t r i a l runs were necessary.


Table
3 . 9 shows t h e numerical v a l u e s of t h e parameters of t h e l a y e r s computed by t h e
program.
The r e s u l t s are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h e i n p u t d a t a .
I f the
l a y e r s are assumed t o have t h e same p o r o s i t y , and i f average conductance of
t h e system is known, t h e t h i c k n e s s e s and p e r m e a b i l i t i e s of t h e l a y e r s can be
computed. Table 3.9 a l s o shows t h e computed p e r m e a b i l i t y and t h i c k n e s s of t h e
l a y e r s f o r uniform p o r o s i t y of 0.25 and Ckh of 1000 md-ft.
TO s t u d y t h e effect of assuming a smaller number of l a y e r s or a g r e a t e r number
of l a y e r s on t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e p r o f i l e i n Fig. 3.32 was optimized u s i n g t h r e e
and f i v e layers. The r e s u l t s are shown in Figs. 3.34 and 3.35, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Both f i g u r e s have t h e same area under t h e curve f o r t h e a l g o r i t h m m a i n t a i n s a
m a t e r i a l balance.
For t h e f i v e - l a y e r case, t h e program produced two peak
l o c a t i o n s t h a t were very c l o s e t o each o t h e r (19,394 b b l s and 19,399 b b l s ) ,
implying t h a t t h e two l a y e r s belonging t o t h e peaks are a c t u a l l y only one
l a y e r and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e system is composed of f o u r l a y e r s .
Figure 3.34
shows t h a t with t h r e e l a y e r s t h e a n a l y s i s did n o t produce a good match. T h i s
i n d i c a t e s t h a t more l a y e r s are r e q u i r e d f o r a better match. Table 3.10 i l l u s trates t h e results of t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n w i t h t h r e e and f i v e l a y e r s . Also shown
i n t h i s t a b l e are t h e computed v a l u e s of p e r m e a b i l i t i e s and t h i c k n e s s e s f o r
e q u a l v a l u e s of p o r o s i t y i n t h e l a y e r s . Since two of t h e l a y e r s i n Table 3.10
have v i r t u a l l y t h e same p e r m e a b i l i t y , i t is concluded t h a t t h e s y s t e m is
a c t u a l l y composed of only f o u r l a y e r s .
Again, t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s
are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l with t h e i n p u t d a t a .

- 65 -

VOLUME INJECTED, HBBLS

Fig. 3 . 3 4 :

MATCH OBTAINED USING THE OPTIMIZATION ROUTINE W I T H THREE LAYERS,


"SECOND EXAMPLE"

VOLUME INJECTED, HBBLS

Fig. 3.35:

MATCH OBTAINED USING THE OPTIMIZATION ROUTINE W I T H FIVE LAYERS,


"SECOND EXAMPLE"

- 66 -

Table 3.10
COMPUTED PARAMETERS OF THE LAYERS USING THE OPTIMIZAZION
TECHNIQUE W I T H VARIOUS NlMBER OF LAYERS, EXAMPLE 2

COMPUTED PARAMETERS
WITH FIVE LAYERS

COMPUTED PARAMETERS
WITH THREE LAYERS
LAYER

kh
Ckh

h,
ft

md

0.62362

0.24942

2.49

99.99

0.37630

0.15055

1.51

100.01

0.68738

0.24996

2.75

90.91

0.60014

0.20005

2.40

83.33

2.60243

0.99998

10.00

$h

Ckh

h,
ft

md

$h

1.17024

0.46375

4.68

681.02

0.94361

0.32965

3.77

87.34

kh

k,

k,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUM

3.45202

0.95404

9.80

*The

k and h values i n t h i s t a b l e have been computed for 4 = .25 and


Ckh = 1000 md-ft.

The o p t i m i z a t i o n computer program developed i n t h i s s t u d y generated e x c e l l e n t


matches t o t h e o r e t i c a l t r a c e r curves from m u l t i l a y e r e d p a t t e r n s .
The match
o b t a i n e d w i t h fewer than t h e a c t u a l number of l a y e r s was not good, while t h a t
obtained w i t h an e x c e s s i v e number of l a y e r s was e x c e l l e n t . The program a l s o
produced t h e c o r r e c t number of l a y e r s whenever more l a y e r s were used t h a n
This proved t h a t t h e program was capable of a n a l y z i n g
should have been.
t h e o r e t i c a l tracer curves.
However, i t remains t o t e s t t h e p r a c t i c a l use of
the method on f i e l d tracer response curves.

- 67 -

4.

FIELD EXAMPLE

A f t e r s u c c e s s f u l a n a l y s i s of t r a c e r responses from h y p o t h e t i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d
m u l t i - l a y e r e d systems, t h e s t u d y was d i r e c t e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s of f i e l d d a t a .
The f o l l o w i n g example was t a k e n from t h e paper by Brigham and Smith (1965).
4.1

HISTORY MD DESIGN OF ?HE TEST

The system considered was an unbalanced, i n v e r t e d f ive- spot p i l o t p a t t e r n


l o c a t e d i n t h e Loco F i e l d i n Oklahoma.
The r e s e r v o i r had been under waterf l o o d i n g s i n c e e a r l y 1950.
I n 1959, hot water i n j e c t i o n began.
The p i l o t
l o c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d i n an a r e a t h a t had been d e p l e t e d beyond t h e economic
l i m i t by c o n v e n t i o n a l w a t e r f l o o d i n g .
Beside t h e p i l o t i n j e c t i o n w e l l , seven
o t h e r i n j e c t o r s had been also o p e r a t i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e p i l o t area as
Ehown i n Fig. 4.1.
Martin e t al. (1968) p r e s e n t t h e g e o l o g i c a l d a t a on t h e
s t r u c t u r e of t h e r e s e r v o i r and t h e p i l o t area i n p a r t i c u l a r .

--

Fig. 4.1 : ISOPACH MAP OF LOCO WATERFLOOD PILOT AREA


( A f t e r Martin e t a l . , 1968)
7-

A t r a c e r program was i n i t i a t e d
i n 1962 t o measure t r a v e l
times and breakthrough char-

260 BIJPD

a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h i s pis3 o t
Prior t o the test, the inject i o n and production r a t e s were
s t a b l e and remained c o n s t a n t
d u r i n g most of t h e t e s t . Flow
r a t e s and information regardi n g t h e p a t t e r n and r e s e r v o i r
are shown on Fig. 4.2.
Because of o p e r a t i n g problems,
t h e i n j e c t i o n pump was s h u t
d o m on t h e 1 8 t h day of t h e
p r o j e c t through t h e 21st day.
Water i n j e c t i o n W B S then resumed a t 600 BWPD, e q u a l t o
the i n j e c t i o n rate p r i o r t o
t h e s h u t down.
T o t a l product i o n r a t e from t h e f o u r w e l l s
was 800 BWPD, implying t h a t
t h e p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s produced
200 BYPD from o u t s i d e of t h e
p a t t e r n a r e a . This amount w a s
n o t enough t o balance t h e
patterrz completely.
For a n
i s o l a t e d five- spot p a t t e r n t o
a c t as though i t i s c o n f i n e d ,
i t 2s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e prod u c t i o n r a t e from each w e l l be
e q u a l t o t h e i n j e c t i o n rate.

160 BWPD

INJECTOR

B
140 BWPD

240 BWPD

PATTERN AREA

2.5 acres

DISTAKCE BETWEEN PRODUCERS, a

330 f t

TOTAL TRACER INJECTED

200 lbs

&o hundred pounds of ammonium


= 12 f t
NET PAY THICKNESS
t h i o c y a n a t e and 150 pounds of
potassium i o d i d e were d i s = lS00 md
AVERAGE PERMEABILITY
s o l v e d i n approximately t e n
b a r r e l s of water and i n j e c t e d
= 0.26
AVERAGE POROSITY
i n t o t h e formation as tracers.
The volume of t r a c e r s used was
= 0.55
AVERAGE WATER SATURATION
chosen on t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i s .
Analytical
measuring
tech= 0.05 ft
MIXING CONSTANT, c1
n i q u e s imposed a requirement
of a minimum 25 ppm peak concentration
to
define
the
tracer
breakthrough
curves
Fig. 4.2:
PATTERN CONFIGURATION AND
RESERVOIR DATA FOR THE F I E L D T E S T
adequately. This r e q u i r e d peak
c o n c e n t r a t i o n w a s doubled as a
s a f e t y f a c t o r . Hence, t h e t e s t
was designed f o r a 50 ppm peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
For d e s i g n purposes, t h e
p a t t e r n was assuiiled t o be a homogeneous, developed f i v e - s p o t with h = 12 f t ,
Cp -- 0.26 and k = 1500 md.
The d i s p e r s i o n c o n s t a n t , a, measured from
l a b o r a t o r y m i s c i b l e displacements on l i n e a r c o r e s from t h e formation was found
t o be e q u a l t o 0.05 f t . Equation 23 i n t h e paper by Brighan and Smith (1965)

69

showed t h a t t h e amount of tracer r e q u i r e d was about 150 pounds.


To compensate
f o r d i l u t i o n caused by flow from o u t s i d e t h e p a t t e r n , t h i s amount w a s
i n c r e a s e d by 800/600 which r e s u l t e d i n 200 pounds of tracer requirement.
Since l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s .f or i o d i d e was more p r e c i s e , t h e d i l u t i o n e f f e c t s
for t h i s tracer were n e g l e c t e d , and only 150 pounds of potassium i o d i d e were
used.
The f o u r producing wells were sampled every t h r e e hours f o r nine days,
every f o u r .hours f o r e i g h t days, every s i x hours f o r six days, and d a i l y f o r
twelve days t o d e f i n e tracer breakthrough curves adequately.
Detailed
i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e sampling procedure is provided i n Smith and Brigham (1965).
The amount of tracer r e q u i r e d t o r e s u l t i n a 50 ppm peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n from a
homogeneous, developed five- spot p a t t e r n was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e
a n a l y s i s developed i n t h i s study.
The r e s u l t was d i f f e r e n t from Brigham and
Smith's designed v a l u e of 150 pounds.
This was expected s i n c e Brigham and
Smith had n o t formulated t h e tracer d i s p e r s i o n e f f e c t s c o r r e c t l y .
From Eqs.
3-41 and 3-52:

Fr

Tr
A 4hS

(4-2)

Mass of t r a c e r is r e l a t e d t o volume by:

mT =

'
0

T'

'Tr

where,
mT = mass of tracer, pounds

Vn: = volume of tracer s o l u t i o n


Co = i n i t i a l t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , mass f r a c t i o n
pT =

d e n s i t y of tracer s o l u t i o n = d e n s i t y of water

From Eqs. 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3, t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r mT is:

70

(4-3

For A = 2.5 acres, t h e value of a is equal t o 330-ft and hence, a / a = 330/0.05


= 0.07.
Therefore,
= 6600. From Fig. 3.23 for t h i s 5-spot p a t t e r n , C
D , max

50

-6
)(62.4)(2.5

10

43560)(0.26)(12)(0.55)

The t i m e t o appearance of t h e peak f o r t h e assumed homogeneous p i l o t


computed from Fig. 3.24 f o r a/a = 6600 as follows:
V

pD, max

- VpDbt =

0.043

Therefore,

For a developed five- spot p a t t e r n , VpDbt = 0.7178.


'pD,

is

max = 0.73

The volume of f l u i d i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e system a t t h e peak:

max

= A +hS V
w pD, max
= (2.5

43560)(0.26)(12)(0.55)(0.73)/5.615

= 24,300

bbls

Time t o t h e peak:

tph

V
max
injection rate

24300
600

40.5

days

I f t h e system i s s t r a t i f i e d and t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y of the most permeable l a y e r


is known, t h e t i m e a t which t h i s l a y e r reaches a peak is e s t i m a t e d from:
t

PP

= t
Ph

(2)

where,
tpp = t i m e t o peak of t h e most permeable l a y e r

t p h = t i m e t o peak of t h e homogeneous system


kp = p e r m e a b i l i t y of t h e high permeable l a y e r

kh

p e r m e a b i l i t y of the homogeneous system

- 71 -

(4-5)

The c o r e d a t a from t h e w e l l s l o c a t e d i n t h e p i l o t area had r e v e a l e d a possib i l i t y of a t h i n , high- permeability s t r e a k w i t h p e r m e a b i l i t y of 5000 md.


Theref o r e ,

PP
The t i m e of 12 days can be viewed as an approximate time f o r tracer breakthrough from t h i s p i l o t .
A t t h e completion of t h e
tracer t e s t , t h e r e were
unequal amounts of tracer
flow from Wells A, C and
D,
w i t h a b s o l u t e l y no
tracer product i o n from
Well B d u r i n g t h e t e s t
period.
This implied
t h a t t h e r e was l i m i t e d
communication between t h e
i n j e c t o r and Well B. This
fact
is
substantiated
f u r t h e r by a s t u d y of
wellhead temperatures of
t h e wells d u r i n g t h e h o t
water i n j e c t i o n p e r i o d i n
which t h e temperature of
Well
B
remained
near
65OF.
Figure 4.3 shows
t h e isotherms of average
sand temperature f o r t h e
pilot.
This f i g u r e was
t a k e n from Martin
&.
(1968).

100O F

D 160T

ISOTHERMS OF AVERAGE SAND TEMPERATURE


Fig. 4.3:
DURING HOT WATER I N J E C T I O N
The tracer e l u t i o n curves
( a f t e r M a r t i n e t a l . , 1968)
for potassium i o d i d e and
ammonium t h i o c y a n a t e were
similar f o r each w e l l ,
b u t not e x a c t l y t h e same.
These are shown i n Fig. 4.4. By i n t e g r a t i n g t h e
areas under t h e s e c u r v e s , Smith and Brigham (1965) concluded t h a t 40 p e r c e n t
of ammonium t h i o c y a n a t e and 44 p e r c e n t of potassium i o d i d e were recovered from
This o b s e r v a t i o n suggested t h a t e i t h e r t h e r e was
t h e t h r e e producing wells.
l i t t l e a d s o r p t i o n of t h e tracers i n t h e formation or t h e a d s o r p t i o n of each
tracer was n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l . The former a l t e r n a t i v e is t h e more l i k e l y . Furthermore, t h e r e is an u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e i o d i d e d a t a due t o presence of background i o d i d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n both t h e i n j e c t e d and t h e f o r m a t i o n water.
Because of t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , only t h i o c y a n a t e d a t a is considered i n t h i s
study.
Since t h e i n j e c t i o n was down for about f o u r days near t h e end of t h e
test, o n l y e a r l y p o r t i o n s of t h e tracer breakthrough curves from Wells A and D
are analyzed i n d e t a i l , For t h i s p e r i o d , Well C d i d n o t e x h i b i t s u b s t a n t i a l
tracer production as is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 4.4b.

- 72 -

F i g . 4.4a

WELL ' C "


TRACER CONCENTRATION

------

AMMONIUM TMIOCYANATE
POTASSIUM IODIDE

INJECTION
DOWN

Fig. 4 . 4 b
W

_..~

PROWCTlON AFTER TRACER IWJLCTION

WELL ' 0 '

- 3- as
z
0

TRACER CONCENTRATION

--------

AMMONIUM TMIOCYANATE
POTASSIUM IODIDE
AMMONIUM ION

F i g . 4.4c
t

F i g . 4.4:

TRACER ELUTION CURVES FOR FIELD TEST (Smith and Brigham, 1965)

- 73 -

4.2

ANALYSIS OF TRACER RESULTS

The t h e o r e t i c a l model t o a n a l y z e tracer breakthrough curves developed i n t h i s


s t u d y is based on developed p a t t e r n s where a complete balance between t h e
amount of i n j e c t i o n and production i s e s t a b l i s h e d . I n t h i s p i l o t p a t t e r n ,
however, t h e o f f s e t wells produced a t unequal rates r e s u l t i n g i n unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n j e c t e d f l u i d s towards t h e producing wells.
Furthermore, none
of t h e w e l l s r e c e i v e d l / 4 of t h e produced f l u i d from t h e c e n t r a l i n j e c t o r .
This i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e inj e c t e d material could have
taken
low v e l o c i t y r o u t e s
along streamlines extending
qA
qB
beyond t h e bounds of t h e f i v e oI - I I l l - - - - - - - - - - -0
-I
s p o t . Figure 4.5 shows q u a l i I
I
t a t i v e l y the streamlines f o r
I
I
Well D of t h e p i l o t . The area
I
I
d r a i n e d by t h e w e l l does n o t
I
I
I
correspond t o one q u a r t e r of
I
t h e five- spot p a t t e r n .
I
I

The t h e o r e t i c a l model can be


used t o a n a l y z e t h i s unbalanced p a t t e r n i f assumptions
r e g a r d i n g t h e flow l i n e s and
t h e amount of f l u i d i n j e c t e d
i n t o each d r a i n a g e area can be
made.
Because the main port i o n of t r a c e r flow is through
the
shortest
streamtubes,
tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from t h e
extended streamtubes are small
due t o d i l u t i o n by t h e t i m e
fluids
reach
a production
well
This i n d i c a t e s t h a t
of
t h e flow
approximation
l i n e s of t h e unbounded f i v e s p o t p a t t e r n by t h o s e of a
developed one i s reasonable.

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I

0-

------

qC

W
c.c

F i g . 4 . 5 : QUALITATIVE STREAMLINES FOR


Distribution
of
i nj ect ed
WELL D OF THE PILOT
f l u i d s among t h e f o u r prod u c e r s was c a l c u l a t e d by t h e
f o l l o w i n g procedure.
Since
Well C d i d n o t produce tracer, it was assumed t h a t o n l y 50 BWPD w a s moving
towards t h i s w e l l .
This assumption can be j u s t i f i e d from a h e a t balance on
The remaining 550 BWPD was d i v i d e d among
Fig. 4.3 from Martin e t a l . (1968).
t h e o t h e r t h r e e wells according t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n rates: Well A--225 BWPD,
Well C--120 BWPD, and Well E - 2 0 5 BWPD.
The i n j e c t e d tracer was d i s t r i b u t e d
among t h e d r a i n a g e areas a t a q u a n t i t y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e assumed rates flowi n g towards t h e wells. For example, for Well A t h e amount of tracer w a s e q u a l
The area d r a i n e d by e ch
t o (225 BWPD) x (200 l b s ) / ( 6 0 0 BWPD) = 75 pounds.
w e l l however, was assumed t o be one q u a r t e r of t h e p a t t e r n area (27,225 f t ).
Although t h i s assumption i n t r o d u c e s some e r r o r i n t h e computation of a b s o l u t e
v a l u e s of t h e l a y e r parameters, t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s ( t o each o t h e r ) of l a y e r
parameters w i l l remain v i r t u a l l y unchanged as w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r .

--

- 74 -

As a r e s u l t

of flow from o u t s i d e t h e p a t t e r n , t h e t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s had


been d i l u t e d and t h e corresponding produced volumes had been i n c r e a s e d .
T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t r a c e r d a t a , t h e e f f e c t of flow from o u t s i d e of
For
t h e p a t t e r n on t h e produced t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n curves was considered.
Well D , t h e observed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were m u l t i p l i e d by 2 4 0 / 2 0 5 , and t h e
volumes were divided by 2 4 0 / 2 0 5 . For Well A , t h i s f a c t o r was 2601225.

The o p t l m i z a t i o n r o u t i n e was used t o analyze t h e


T h i r t y f o u r d a t a p o i n t s from t h e tracer
Well D.
routine.
Figure 4 . 6 shows t h e match when only
i n p u t peak-volumes and t h e f i n a l peak-vol.umes

30

25

20

tracer production curve from


curve were i n p u t e d i n t o t h e
f i v e layers were used.
The
computed by t h e r o u t i n e are

0 FIELD

15

10

2000

DATA

COWUTED CURVE

....

COMPUTED PEAKS

2500

VOLUME PRODUCED, BBLS

Fig. 4 . 6 :

ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL D WITH FIVE LAYERS

shown on t h i s f i g u r e .
The shape of t h e computed curve shows t h a t more l a y e r s
should improve t h e match.
F i g u r e 4.7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e new match u s i n g seven
layers.
For t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e peak volumes wsre chosen a t t h e computed
l o c a t i o n s i n Fig. 4.6 and t h e a d d i t i o n a l two peaks were s e l e c t e d a t 3050 bbls
and 2200 b b l s .
The match w i t h seven l a y e r s shows an improvement over t h e
The a n a l y s i s was continued w i t h n i n e and ten l a y e r s ,
match w i t h f i v e layers.
each t i m e u t i l i z i n g t h e computed peak- locations from t h e p r e v i o u s match and
a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l peaks i n t h e p o s i t i o n s where t h e greatest divergence w a s
observed between the f i e l d d a t a and t h e match.
F i g u r e s 4.8 and 4.9 a r e t h e
The l a t e r p o r t i o n of t h e
matches w i t h nine and t e n l a y e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
f i e l d d a t a could not be matched very w e l l as shown i n t h e s e f i g u r e s . This i s
b e l i e v e d t o be due t o i n a c c u r a c y of t h e f i e l d d a t a c l o s e t o t h e shut-down
time.
Table 4.1 shows t h e r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s i s w i t h d i f f e r i n g numbers of

75

FIELD DATA

COWUTED CURVE

....

COHEUTED PEAKS

00

VOLUME PRODUCED, BBLS

F i g . 4.7:

ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL D WITH SEVEN LAYERS

FIELD DATA

COMPUTED CURVE

....

COMPUTED PEAKS

00

VOI.UME PRODUCED, BRLS

F i g . 4.8:

ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL D WITH NINE LAYE9S

35

30

25

E
PI

20

15
V

z
0

10

0
2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

VOLUME PRODUCED, BELS

Fig. 4 . 9 :

ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL D WITH TEN LAYERS

Table 4.1
COMPUTED LAYER PARAMETERS FOR F I E L D TEST, WELL D, U S I N G THE
OPTIMIZATION ROUTINE WITH DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LAYERS
~.

F I V E LAYERS
LAYER

SEVEN LAYERS

N I N E LAYERS

kh
Lkh

TEN LAYERS

kh
Zkh

kh
Zkh

9h

kh
Zkh

9h

0.035312

0.033734

0.015658

0.016360

0.011562

0.012167

0.011410

0.012009

0.106529

0.092838

0.047419

0.043769

0.015575

0.015031

0.013782

0.013344

0.106198

0.082195

0.084410.

0.072963

0.041926

0.038131

0.034880

0.031938

0.094516

0.066012

0.052945

0.041998

0.078987

0.068042

0.070605

0.061395

0.088629

0.055505

0.058256

0.043471

0.052492

0.041585

0.026728

0.022284

0.087285

0.060604

0.057068

0.042590

0.047820

0.037617

0.087122

0.054503

0.084869

0.058990

0.053306

0.039756

0.075888

0.047784

0.084649

0.058840

0.021086

0.012465

0.075661

0.047642

Oh

____-___-____________--------------------------

77

Table 4.2
COMPUTED PERMEABILITIES AND THICKNESSES OF LAYERS FOZ FIELD
TEST, WELL D, WITH DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LAYERS

FIVE LAYERS

SEVEN LAYERS

NINE LAYERS

TEN LAYERS

M Y ER
h,ft

k,md

h,ft

k,md

h,ft

k,md

h,ft

k,md

0.1358

4471

0.0602

4890

0.0445

4925

0.0439

4926

0.4097

4078

0.1824

4320

0.0599

4516

0.0530

4531

0.4085

3622

0.3248

4044

0.1613

4257

0.1342

4285

0.3635

3267

0.2036

3712

0.3038

4032

0.2716

4070

0.3409

2931

0.2036

3843

0.2019

3708

0.1028

3902

0.3357

3249

0.2195

3493

0.1839

3682

0.3351

2928

0.3264

3253

0.2050

3490

0.2919

294 7

0.3256

3253

0.0811

2767

0.2910

2947

0.0810

2768

____-___----------------------------

10

-*
The

k and h v a l u e s i n t h i s t a b l e have been computed f o r @ = .26 and


Ckh = 18000 md-ft.

I n a l l t h e c a s e s , t h e sum of tjh and t h e sum of kh/Ckh are almost t h e


layers.
If l a y e r s are
same. This i s due t o c o n s e r v a t i o n of mass by m a t e r i a l balance.
assumed t o have t h e same p o r o s i t y and i f an average v a l u e f o r kh of t h e s y s t e a
is known, t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r m e a b i l i t y and t h i c k n e s s of each l a y e r can a l s o be
computed.
Table 4.2 p r e s e n t s t h e computed p e r m e a b i l i t y and t h i c k n e s s of t h e
layers f o r an a v e r a g e p o r o s i t y of 0.26, and a v e r a g e p e r m e a b i l i t y t h i c k n e s s
p r o d u c t of 18,000 md-ft.
I n o r d e r to improve t h e match as much as p o s s i b l e , an a t t e m p t was made t o
Each time t h i s was t r i e d ,
o p t i m i z e t h e d a t a by u s i n g more than t e n l a y e r s .
This was found t o be due t o f a i l u r e i n a
t h e r o u t i n e f a i l e d t o converge.
b u i l t - i n m a t r i x m a n i p u l a t i o n i n t h e VARPRO r o u t i n e .
It appears t h a t t h e d a t a
cannot be matched w i t h more t h a n t e n l a y e r s .
I n any case, t h e match w i t h t e n
layers, being t h e f i n a l match f o r Well D, i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y one. It is worth
mentioning t h a t it rook o n l y a s m a l l number of i t e r a t i o n s i n t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n
r o u t i n e t o arrive a t t h e s e matches w i t h d i f f e r e n t number of l a y e r s . U s u a l l y ,
t h e number of i t e r a t i o n s d e c r e a s e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of l a y e r s .

- 78 -

For example, t h e match with t e n l a y e r s was generated w i t h only t h r e e i t e r a tions.


It was a l s o found t h a t t h e i n i t i a l estimates r e q u i r e d by t h e r o u t i n e
( i n p u t peak volumes) sometimes were important i n determining convergences.
This w a s more important w i t h a h i g h e r number of l a y e r s .
The t r a c e r breakthrough curve f o r Well A was a l s o matched w i t h t e n l a y e r s
u s i n g t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n r o u t i n e . For t h i s example, f o r t y - f o u r d a t a p o i n t s were
chosen from t h e tracer breakthrough curve.
F i g u r e s 4.10, 4.11 and 4.12 show
t h e matches w i t h f i v e , seven, and t e n l a y e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Again, t h e
q u a l i t y of t h e matches between 4,000 and 4,500 b b l s is caused by t h e
Table 4.3
shows
i n a c c u r a t e f i e l d d a t a near o r d u r i n g t h e shut-down p e r i o d .
$h and kh/Ckh for t h e l a y e r s , as determined by t h e program.
For a uniform
p o r o s i t y of 0.26 for t h e e n t i r e system and average kh of 18,000 md, t h e
c a l c u l a t e d p e r m e a b i l i t i e s and t h i c k n e s s e s of t h e l a y e r s are g i v e n i n Table
4.4.
Comparisons of Tables 4.1 and 4.3 o r Tables 4.2 and 4.4 show t h a t t h e
t e n l a y e r s f o r each quadrant are somewhat: d i f f e r e n t for each quadrant.
The
d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e formation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a l c u l a t e d are due t o independent
I n o t h e r words, t h e behavior of
modeling of each quadrant of t h e p a t t e r n .
Well D corresponds t o behavior of a w e l l i n a t e n - l a y e r s t r a t i f i e d f o r m a t i o n
w i t h t h e parameters given i n Table 4.1, while f o r Well A, t h e behavior w i l l be
p r e d i c t e d by a n o t h e r t e n l a y e r formation w i t h parameters of Table 4.3.

40
35

30

PI

25

20

15

FIELD DATA
COMPUTED CURVE

.... COMPUTED PEAKS

10

0
2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

VOLUME PRODUCED, BBLS

Fig. 4.10:

ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL A WITH FIVE LAYERS

4500

40

...

..

.. ...-

..

VOLUME PRODUCED, BBLS

Fig. 4.11: ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL A WITH SEVEN LAYERS

40
35

30

25
20

15

....

10

FIELD DATA
COMPUTED DATA

COMPUTED PEAKS

VOLUME PRODUCED, BBLS

Fig. 4.12: ANALYSIS OF TRACER DATA FOR WELL A WITH TEN LAYERS

- 80 -

T a b l e 4.3
COMPUTED LAYER PARAMETERS FOR FIELD TEST, WELL A, USING THE
OPTIMIZATION ROUTINE WITH DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LAYERS

FIVE LAYERS

SEVEN LAYERS

LAYER
4h

kh
zkh

TEN LAYERS

......................................
1

0.059200

0.048826

0.032384

0.027887

0.003501

0.003406

0.106992

0.079197

0.062602

0.049838

0.014466

0.012830

0.127590

0.086185

0.088567

0.064821

0.033026

0.027410

0.108782

0.067011

0.114285

0.077143

0.044046

0.035187

0.133239

0.073089

0.080341

0.050052

0.085634

0.062662

0.066540

0.038455

0.104723

0.070947

0.101029

0.054634

0.045561

0.029158

0.055029

0.033550

0.061547

0.035315

.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.096968
. . . . . .0.052357
.
0.535732

SUM

0.354308

0.545748

0.36283

0.545301

0.362822

T a b l e 4.4
COMPUTED PERMEABILITIES AND THICKNESSES OF LAYERS FOR FIELD TEST,
WELL A, W I T H DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LAYERS
~~

~~

FIVE LAYERS

SEVEN LAYERS

TEN LAYERS

LAYER

. . . . .h,ft
. . . . .k.s.d. . . . . .h,ft
. . . . .k.,.d . . . . . .h,ft
. . . . .k , d
1

0.2277

3860

0.1246

4030

0.0135

4553

0.4115

3464

0.2408

3726

0.0556

4151

0.4905

3163

0.3406

3425

0.1270

3884

0.4184

2883

0.4396

3159

0.1725

3672

0.5125

2567

0.3090

2916

0.3294

3425

0.2559

2704

0.4028

3171

0.3886

2530

0.1752

2995

0.2117

2853

0.2367

2685

10

0.3730

2527

To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t of d r a i n a g e areas on t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e tracer d a t a
of Well A was recalc l a t e d u s i n g an e s t i m a t e d d r a i n e d area of 40,800 f t2
r a t h e r t h a n 27,225 f t as used before.
This v a l u e was computed by d i v i d i n g
t h e p a t t e r n area i n t o segments p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amounts of f l u i d s moving
towards t h e wells, as has been suggested by Deppe (1961). The match based on
t h i s d r a i n a g e area and t e n l a y e r s was v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to Fig. 4.12.
Table
4.5 p r e s e n t s t h e parameters of t h e l a y e r s computed from t h i s match.
The
p e r m e a b i l i t y v a l u e s a l l are g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e i n Table 4.3 by a f a c t o r of
40,800/27,225 = 1.5
( r a t i o of t h e assumed d r a i n a g e areas); however, t h e
r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of p e r m e a b i l i t i e s i n Tables 4.2 and 4.5 are i d e n t i c a l .

I n summary, t h e tracer i n t e r p r e t a t i o n method developed in t h i s s t u d y can


p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s e r v o i r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Although
t h e method is f o r developed p a t t e r n s , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o a n unbounded,
The approxiunbalanced f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n was i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n .
mations made i n a n a l y z i n g t h e f i e l d d a t a produced e r r o r s on t h e computed
v a l u e s of r e s e r v o i r parameters,
However, a method similar t o t h e one
p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y can be developed t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e a c t u a l flow f i e l d
of t h e p i l o t p a t t e r n w i t h t h e tracer mixing e q u a t i o n s , and thereby g e n e r a t e
more p r e c i s e r e s u l t s .
Table 4.5
COMPUTED PARAMETERS OF LAYERS FOR WELL A WITH TEN LAYERS
AND DRAINAGE AREA OF 40,800 FT2

0.009530

0.012830

0.0371

6220

0.022038

0.027410

0.0848

5821

0.029925

0.035187

0.1151

5503

0.057142

0.062662

0.2198

5132

0.069879

0.070947

0.2688

4752

0.030402

0.029158

0.1169

4488

0.036720

0.033550

i3.1412

4276

0.041069

0.035315

0.1580

4024

CONCLUSIONS

1,

Equations were derived which describe the concentration of a tracer slug


in a general streamtube for any flow system with mobility ratio of one.
In the derivation of these equations, the mixing coefficient was assumed
to be proportional to fluid velocity which was a function of location in
The proportionality constant is the longitudinal
the streamtube.
dispersion constant of the porous medium.
Transverse dispersion and
molecular diffusion were assumed to be negligible.

2.

By integrating individual streamtube-tracer concentration expressions over


several developed patterns, analytic expressions were obtained which
define the tracer breakthrough curves for each of these homogeneous
developed patterns.

3.

The study shows that the tracer breakthrough curves from a homogeneous
system depend upon the geometry, pattern size, and dispersion constant of
the formation rock.

4.

In the derivation of equations for effluent tracer concentrations from


patterns, it was also necessary to derive expressions for pattern breakthrough curves from developed patterns.
Exact analytical equations were
obtained in the form of elliptic integrals which describe several pattern
breakthrough curves for a mobility ratio of unity. Results for different
patterns were reduced into a single curve by defining a simple correlatlng
parameter, which we have called the dimensionless pore volume.
Because
the breakthrough curves for various developed patterns considered in this
study correlate as a single curve, it is concluded that the breakthrough
curve for any repeating pattern should also lie on this same correlation.

5.

An attempt was made to define analytically pattern breakthrough curves for


mobility ratios other than one. It was assumed that the streamlines were
independent of mobility ratio.
For a developed five-spot, the analysis
generated nearly identical values for breakthrough areal sweep efficiencies at any mobility ratio.
This result is in direct conflict with
experimental observations. Hence, the assumption of no streamline change
with mobility ratio is.unrealistic.

6.

Tracer breakthrough curves from several patterns were also correlated as a


single set of curves using the Peclet number, a/a, as a parameter.
The
correlation was achieved by obtaining two sets of correction factors--one
Pbr a/a to determine peak-locations, and another for peak concentration.
These correction factors convert all the patterns studied into equivalent
five-spot systems.

7 , A computer program was developed which analyzes tracer breakthrough Curves

from stratified reservoirs, and computes porosity thicknesses and fractional permeability thicknesses of the layers, The algorithm utilizes a
non-linear least-squares routine as an optimization technique to minimize

- 83 -

t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between observed tracer d a t a and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


and, hence, g e n e r a t e s an optimum match f o r a given number of l a y e r s . A l s o
i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e a l g o r i t h m are t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s developed i n
c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e tracer curves.
As i n p u t , t h e program r e q u i r e s t h e
e s t i m a t e d number of l a y e r s , volume of t h e produced f l u i d corresponding to
each peak, and t h e type of p a t t e r n .
8.

Tracer breakthrough curves from a f i e l d t e s t on a f i v e - s p o t p i l o t have


been matched c l o a e l y u s i n g t h i s o p t i m i z a t i o n program w i t h t e n l a y e r s .
This example ahowed t h a t tracer data f u r n i s h information about the high
p e r m e 8 b i l i t y zones of t h e r e s e r v o i r .

9.

The method developed i n t h i s s t u d y can a l s o be used i n d e s i g n of well- tow e l l t r a c e r tests. The amount of t r a c e r r e q u i r e d and tracer breakthrough
times may be computed from t h e method p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n .

- 84 -

6.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

The method p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study c o n s i d e r s only developed p a t t e r n s . Because


s t r e a m l i n e s of a system w i t h any w e l l arrangement f o r u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o are
computable, t h e method can be extended t o i n c l u d e a n a l y s i s of tracer response
curves from i s o l a t e d and i r r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s .
Therefore, t h e tracer curves
from t h e f i e l d example can be analyzed u s i n g a c t u a l flow l i n e s of t h e system.
Comparison of t h e r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e computed i n t h i s s t u d y would i l l u s t r a t e
t h e accuracy of approximating an open system by a developed p a t t e r n .
F u r t h e r work is necessary t o compute tracer flow i n systems where a c o n t r a s t
between t h e m o b i l i t y of tracer s o l u t i o n and t h e m o b i l i t i e s of formation f l u i d
and chase f l u i d e x i s t s .
Because t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough c u r v e s at m o b i l i t y
r a t i o s o t h e r than one could n o t be generated a c c u r a t e l y by t h e s t r e a m t u b e
procedure, it appears t h a t numerical schemes should be adopted t o compute
t r a c e r breakthrough curves.
However, numerical d i s p e r s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h e s e schemes w i l l l i k e l y mask t h e e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l tracer d i s p e r s i o n .
One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n would be t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e t r a c e r mixing e q u a t i o n s
i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y with numerically pre- determined f r o n t l o c a t i o n s t o
generate tracer concentration profiles.
Viscous f i n g e r i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
u n s t a b l e displacement would f u r t h e r complicate t h e a n a l y s i s .
F i n a l l y , t r a c e r a d s o r p t i o n , r e a c t i o n , and p a r t i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s should be
i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e development of r i g o r o u s t r a c e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n techniques
Before t h e s e v a r i a b l e s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o
t o generate precise results.
mathematical models, more l a b o r a t o r y work is necessary t o i n c r e a s e t h e unders t a n d i n g of how each a f f e c t s t r a c e r flow.

- 85 -

NOMENCLATURE

A = area, ft2
a

distance between like wells, L

Co

initial tracer concentration, mass fraction

Ca

formation fluid concentration in the tracer dispersed zone,


mass fraction

chase fluid concentration in the trace


fraction

tracer concentration in a streamtube, mass fraction

maximum tracer concentration in the tracer breakthrough curve


from a homogeneous pattern, mass fraction

effluent tracer concentration from a homogenenous or a


stratified pattern, mass fraction

C, C(e)
'max

-C
CD

CqJ
j4
%,

max

-C
-C j
3,'

-Ci
*

dispersed zone, mass

dimensionless tracer Concentration from a homogeneous pattern

dimensionless tracer concentration from layer j

dimensionless tracer concentration from layer j at sample


point i

dimensionless maximum tracer concentration from a homogeneous


pattern

effluent tracer concentration from layer j, mass fraction

effluent tracer concentration from layer j at sample point i,


mass fraction

effluent tracer concentration from a multi-layered system,


computed at sample point i, mass fraction

Ci

effluent tracer concentration from a multi-layered system


observed at sample point i, mass fraction

molecular diffusion coefficient, L2/T

D'

apparent molecular diffusion coefficient, L2/T

= distance between unlike wells, L

- 86 -

dP

do

EA

'Abt

average g r a i n s i z e d i a m e t e r , L
d i f f e r e n t i a l change i n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n term used i n mixing
equation
a r e a l sweep e f f i c i e n c y , f r a c t i o n of p a t t e r n area
breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y , f r a c t i o n of p a t t e r n area

EAD

dimensionless areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y , a c o r r e l a t i n g parameter

e r f c (x)

complementary e r r o r f u n c t i o n = 1

e r f (x)

- erf

(x)

formation r e s i s t i v i t y f a c t o r , dimensionless
d i s p l a c l n g f l u i d c u t i n t h e production stream, f r a c t i o n

fD

flowing volume of porous medium i n t h e c a p a c i t a n c e model,


f r a c t i o n of t o t a l pore volume

1 - f

s t a g n a n t or dead-end-pore volume , f r a c t i o n of t o t a l pore


volume

fm

m u l t i p l i e r on peak c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r tracer breakthrough curves


from homogeneous systems

fP

m u l t i p l i e r on a/a t o convert p a t t e r n s i n t o e q u i v a l e n t developed


f ive- spot

Fr =

Frj
F(v,K)

I
:

t r a c e r s l u g s i z e i n j e c t e d i n t o a homogeneous p a t t e r n i n terms
of f r a c t i o n of p a t t e r n d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume, d i m e n s i o n l e s s

tracer s l u g s i z e i n j e c t e d i n t o l a y e r j i n terms of f r a c t i o n of
l a y e r d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume, dimensionless
incomplete e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l of t h e f i r s t kind

where y = s i n v
thickness, f t
t h i c k n e s s of l a y e r j
mixing l i n e i n t e g r a l f o r s t r e a m l i n e $
p e r m e a b i l i t y , md

- 87 -

kj

permeability of layer j, md

kh = permeability of a homogeneous pattern, md


=

kp

permeability of the most permeable layer, md

K = effective mixing coefficient , L ~ / T


'

KL = effective longitudinal mixing coefficient, L2/T

K(m),

I$,, =

mass transfer coefficience in the capacitance model, L2/T

KT

effective transverse mixing coefficient , L2/T

complementary and incomplementary complete elliptic integrals


of the first kind

K'(m)

m, ml

mT

mass of tracer injected to a pattern, lbs

number of data points used in the optimization routine

number of layers in the multilayered model

parameters of the Jacobian elliptic functions and elliptic


integrals, m + m l = 1

pressure

PVD = dimensionless pore volume, a correlating parameter


q
qt

flow rate in the sfreamtube, L3/T


total injection rate into a homogeneous pattern, L3/T

R = average grain diameter, L


r

radius, L

front location in radial flow, L

water saturation, fraction of pore volume

dfstance along the etreamline, L

,
S
8

sA, sB = distances along a streamline up to points A and B on the


streamline, L

- -SI' -s2
8,

front locations in the streamtubes, L

sn, cn, dn

elementary Jacobian elliptic functions

t
tbt

injection time, T
breakthrough time of a Streamline, T

- 88 -

i n j e c t i o n t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o reach t h e peak i n t r a c e r breakthrough curve from a homogeneous p a t t e r n , T

t i m e t o peak of t h e most permeable l a y e r , T

microscopic ( p o r e ) v e l o c i t y , darcy v e l o c i t y d i v i d e d by
p o r o s i t y , L/T

vx

microscopic v e l o c i t y component i n the x d i r e c t i o n , L/T

microscopic v e l o c i t y component i n t h e y d i r e c t i o n , L/T

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of a streamtube, L3

t ph

tPP

= d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volu?
l o c a t i o n i n t h e tube, L
)

('T,max
',ax

Vp

Vpbt
VpDbt($)
VpDbt

VpD

of a streamtube up t o tracer f r o n t

volume corresponding t o t h e j t h peak i n an observed ( f i e l d )


tracer p r o f i l e , b b l s

volume of chase f l u i d i n j e c t e d i n t o a homogeneous p a t t e


corresponding t o t h e peak l o c a t i o n i n tracer response, L

t o t a l volu e of chase f l u i d i n j e c t e d i n t o a homogeneous


p a t t e r n , L!J

t o t a l volume of chase f l u i d i n j e c t e d i n t o a homogeneous p a t t e r n


a t a breakthrough of a s t r e a m l i n e , L3

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d i n j e c t e d at breakthrough of a s t r e a m l i n e , $, dimensionless

breakthrough pore volume or breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y


of a p a t t e r n , dimensionless

's

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume i n j e c t e d i n t o a homogeneous p a t t e r n ,


dimensionless

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume i n j e c t e d i n t o l a y e r j , dimensionless

(V )
pD j , i

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volumes i n j e c t e d i n t o l a y e r j at sample


p o i n t i , dimensionless

p
' D ,max

d i s p l a c e a b l e pore volume corresponding t o the peak l o c a t i o n i n


tracer response from homogeneous system, dimensionless

(V

pD j

V T = t o t a l volume i n j e c t e d i n t o a p a t t e r n , b b l s
(vT)i
('T,max)
Vh:

t o t a l volume i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p a t t e r n a t sample p o i n t i, b b l s

volume a t t h e jthpeak i n t h e observed tracer p r o f i l e , b b l s

t o t a l volume of t r a er s l u g i n j e c t e d i n t o e i t h e r homogeneous or
layered pattern, f t

- 89 -

tracer volume injected into a streamtube, ft3

"tr
w

width of a streamtube, L

distance in a linear flow, L

front location in a linear displacement, L

-.

jth linear parameter in the optimization program

the integral in the equation of line integral


=

jth non-linear parameter in the optimization program

initial estimate of non-linear parameters

hydrodynamic dispersion constant, L

aL

"T

transverse dispersion coefficient, L

characteristic constant of the laboratory core packs

As

undiluted width of tracer in a streamtube, L

'est

j'(

longitudinal dispersion constant, L

porosity, fraction
porosity of layer j, fraction
density of tracer solution, lb/ft3
viscoslty, cp
L'

42

standard deviation, measure of the 1

gth of mixed

J , =

stream function or value of a streamline

potential function

on

,L

modulus of an incomplete elliptic integral, where modulus is


equal to the square root of parameter

n = complex potential
v

argument of an incomplete elliptic integral

strength of a source or a sink

- 90 -

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- 95 -

APPEND ICES

There are f o u r appendices i n t h i s s e c t i o n , most c o n s i s t i n g of s e v e r a l subappendices. The f i r s t s e t , Appendix A, provides d e r i v a t i o n s of t h e a n a l y t i c


e q u a t i o n s f o r s e v e r a l p a t t e r n breakthrough curves a t a m o b i l i t y r a t i o of
An e x t e n s i o n of t h e a n a l y s i s t o a developed f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n at a n
unity.
a r b i t r a r y m o b i l i t y r a t i o is provided i n Appendix B.
The t h i r d set, Appendix
C, i l l u s t r a t e s e v a l u a t i o n of t h e l i n e i n t e g r a l embodied i n t h e e q u a t i o n s of
tracer c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s .
The computer program developed t o a n a l y z e
tracer breakthrough c u r v e s from s t r a t i f i e d r e s e r v o i r s i s provided i n Appendix
D.
Also given i n Appendix D are t h e programs t o compute p a t t e r n breakthrough
c u r v e s of a developed, i n v e r t e d seven- spot a t u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o and a
developed five- spot at any m o b i l i t y r a t i o .

Appendix A
DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVES
FOR MOBILITY RATIO OF ONE

This appendix c o n s i s t s of f i v e sub- appendices.


The f i r s t f o u r p r e s e n t t h e
development of mathematical e q u a t i o n s t o d e f i n e p a t t e r n breakthrough curves of
s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e , f i v e - s p o t , d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e and i n v e r t e d seven- spot.
A l l t h e p a t t e r n s are bounded and t h e m o b i l i t y r a t i o of displacement is e q u a l
t o one.
The l a s t appendix of t h i s s e c t i o n d e t a i l s d e r i v a t i o n of some
e q u a t i o n s used i n Appendices A.l and A.3.
When f o r m u l a t i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r f l u i d flow i n any p a t t e r n , p o t e n t i a l
e q u a t i o n s o r stream f u n c t i o n s are r e q u i r e d .
A basic t h e o r y of p o t e n t i a l s is
b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs.
A p p l i c a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y t o
s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s is then i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p e r t i n e n t sub- appendices.
From t h e t h e o r y of incompressible and i r r o t a t i o n a l f l u i d flow i n two dimens i o n s , it f o l l o w s t h a t :

96

where,
n ( z ) = complex p o t e n t i a l

#(x,y) = v e l o c i t y p o t e n t i a l e q u a t i o n
$ ( x , y ) = stream f u n c t i o n
z = x + i y
Both #(x,y) and Jl(x,y) are harmonic f u n c t i o n s ; t h e r e f o r e , they s a t i s f y t h e
Laplace equation.
From t h e Cauchy-Riemann p r i n c i p l e and Darcy's l a w , t h e
v e l o c i t y components of f l u i d a t any p o i n t are r e l a t e d t o t h e p o t e n t i a l
e q u a t i o n and t h e stream f u n c t i o n as follows:

and,

where, k i s t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y and

IJ

is the f l u i d viscosity.

The complex p o t e n t i a l f o r a l i n e source ( i n j e c t i o n w e l l ) i n an i n f i n i t e medium


under s t e a d y state c o n d i t i o n is:

where, u i s t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e source and z is t h e d i s t a n c e of a p o i n t from


t h e o r i g i n of a c o o r d i n a t e system p o s i t i o n e d on t h e source. If t h e s o u r c e is
l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e zo from t h e o r i g i n of a s p e c i f i e d c o o r d i n a t e
system, Q ( z ) is given by:

The complex p o t e n t i a l due t o a sink ( p r o d u c t i o n w e l l ) i s subsequently given by


t h e n e g a t i v e of e i t h e r Eq. A-4 o r Eq. A-5.
Since t h e complex p o t e n t i a l d e f i n e d by Eq. A-1 s a t i s f i e s t h e Laplace e q u a t i o n ,
t h e s u p e r p o s i t i o n p r i n c i p l e can be used t o o b t a i n t h e complex p o t e n t i a l f o r
any combination of i n j e c t o r s and producers.
For a system of n i n j e c t o r s
l o c a t e d a t p o i n t s ai ( i = 1,
nl)
and n2 producers p o s i t oned a t bj
( j = 1,
n 2 ) , t h e o v e r a l l complex p o t e n t i a l a t any p o i n t , z, is:

...,

...,

- 97 ~

The terms v
and u
denote t h e s t r e n g t h
respectively?
Equa@on A-6 can be used t o
ment.
However, f o r some p a r t i c u l a r w e l l
mapping g r e a t l y eases t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n
i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendices A.1 and A.3.

Appendix A.1:

of t h e i n j e c t o r s and producers,
d e r i v e Q(z) f o r any well arrangep a t t e r n s , t h e u s e of conformal
of complex p o t e n t i a l s . h i s is

STAGGERED LINE DRIVE

Consider a r e p e a t e d s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n as shown in Fig. A-1:

Z-PLANE

PRODUCTION

INJECTION

*d

P
0

Fig. A-1:

A DEVELOPED STAGGERED LINE DRIVE I N Z-PLANE

Using t h e f o l l o w i n g conformal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( S p i e g e l , 1964):

(A-7)

- 98 -

t h e shaded segment i n Fig. A-1 is transformed i n t o t h e upper half- plane of t h e


w-plane as shown i n Fig. A- 2. The p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s are mapped at w = 1 and
w = -1, t h e " corners" of t h e p a t t e r n (B and F) are mapped a t f
and t h e
i n j e c t i o n w e l l is mapped a t i n f i n i t y .

s,

W- PLANE

--

fi

Fig

-1

A-2 : W-PLANE SHOWING THE TRANSFORMATION

The i n t e g r a l i n Eq. A-7 is t h e i n v e r s e of t h e J a c o b i a n e l l i p t i c f u n c t i o n ,


sn(z,m), as d e f i n e d by Byrd and Friedman (1954).
Therefore:
-1

sn

(w,m)

(A-8)

Correspondingly:

sn(z,m)

(A- 9)

I n t r o d u c i n g a second t r a n s f o r m a t i o n :

-w

i w

- 99 -

(A- 10)

t h e upper h a l f of t h e w-plane
i s mapped i n t o t h e l e f t h a l f
of t h e ;;-plane as shown i n Fig.
A-3.

W-PLANE

The production wells are now


at
= i and
= -i
and
the
i n j e c t i o n well is again a t
infinity.
The second t r a n s f o r mation w i l l only change t h e
v a l u e s of t h e s t r e a m l i n e s . The
v a x i s i n Fig. A-3 i s a no flow
boundary, hence it can be mathe m a t i c a l l y removed by superimposing an image of t h e l e f t
h a l f of t h e w-plane i n t o t h e
r i g h t h a l f of t h e &plane.
In
t h i s way, t h e w e l l system i n
t h e +plane becomes e q u i v a l e n t
t o two producers i n an i n f i n i t e
medium.
Since one q u a r t e r of a
product i o n w e l l i n t h e z- plane
is mapped i n t o one h a l f of a
w e l l i n t h e w or &plane, i t i s
concluded t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h of
a w e l l i n t h e ;-plane i s equal
t o one h a l f of t h e s t r e n g t h of
a corresponding w e l l i n t h e zplane.
For mathematical convenience, t h e s t r e n g t h s of t h e
w e l l s i n t h e z- plane a r e assumed t o be e q u a l t o one and
t h e complex p o t e n t i a l i n t h e
&plane
subsequently i s obt a i n e d from Eq. A-6 a s follows:

Fig. A.3:

WELL LOCATIONS FOR A DEVELOPED


STAGGERED LINE DRIVE I N ii-PLANE

(A-11)
The w e l l s a t i n f i n i t y do not c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e complex p o t e n t i a l .
A-0 and A-9:

-w

= -i sn(z,m)

From Eqs.

(A-12)

S u b s t i t u t e Eq. A-12 i 3 E q . A-11 and o t e t h a t from t h e p r o p e r t i e s of J a c o b i a n


cn9(z,m):
e l l i p t i c f u n c t i o n s , s n (z,m) = 1

~ ( z )=

- an
-

[cn(z,m)]

100

(A-13)

P r a t s (1956) has r e p o r t e d t h e above e x p r e s s i o n (A-13) f o r t h e complex potent i a l but w i t h a p o s l t i v e s i g n because t h e i n j e c t o r s were assigned n e g a t i v e
p o t e n t i a l i n h i s formulation. From Byrd and Friedman (1954):

- i 2s n ( x ) dn(x)
sn(y)
2
1 - s n ( y ) dn (x)

cn(x) cn(y)
cn(z,m) = cn(x + i y , m ) =

dn(y)

(A-14)
where, s n ( x ) = sn(x,m), cn(x) = cn(x,m), dn(x) = dn(x,m), s n ( y ) = sn(y,ml) and
cn(y) = cn(y,m ) are v a r i o u s Jacobian e l l i p t i c f u n c t i o n s with parameters m and
1
ml where m + ml = 1. From complex v a r i a b l e theory:

Using Eqs. A-14 and A-15 i n Eq. A-13, it is concluded t h a t :

n(z) =

- -2

2
cn (x) cn (y)

+ s n2 ( x )

[1-

2
2
dn ( x ) s n (y) dn2(y)

s n 2 ( y ) dn2(x)]

(A-16)

Comparing Eq. A-16 with Eq. A-1, i t follows t h a t :

(A-18)

--

Prats e t a l . (1955) had d e r i v e d Eqs. A-17 and A-18 f o r t h e s t r e a m l i n e s by


applying Eq. A-6 t o an i n f i n i t e a r r a y of w e l l s .
Figure A-4 shows t h e coord i n a t e system and t h e v a l u e s of s t r e a m l i n e s computed from Eqs. A-17 and A-18.
The terms K(m) and K'(m) i n t h i s f i g u r e a r e complementary and incomplementary
complete e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l s d e f i n e d by Eq. A-7 with w = 1 and w
-1, respectively.
The r e l a t i o n s h i p , K'(m)/2K(m) = d / a , relates t h e parameter m t o t h e
The quadrant shown i n Fig. A-4 is used i n d e r i v a t i o n
geometry of t h e system.
of t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curves.

- 101 -

0
II

-5

Fig. A-4:

4
X

COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR A DEVELOPED STAGGERED LINE DRIVE

The breakthrough time, tbts of a particle on a streamline JI is determined by a


line integral along that streamline. This is:
(A- 19)

where vx is the x component of the microscopic velocity.

From Eq. A- 2:
(A- 20)

where 4 is the porosity.

From Eq. A-17 for the streamline $:

(A- 21)

- 102 -

where,

(A-22)

Theref ore,
(A-23)

Substitute Eq. A-23 in Eq. A-19:


(A- 24 )

The pore volume injected into the system at the time of breakthrough of
streamline $ is:

'bt

qt

(A- 25)

44h K(m) K'(m)

pD

where qt is the injection rate and h is the thickness of the pattern.


flow rate is given by:
qt

kh
=r
*Sd+

The

(A-26)

where the integral is taken around any closed surface in the flow regime.
Because the flow in the vicinity of a wellbore i s essentially radial, Eq. A26, with the values of streamline shown in Fig. A-4, reduces t o :
kh

I-

qt

IJ

A$

2nkh
11

(A-27)

Using this expressfon for qt and Eq. A-24 for tbt, Eq. A-25 simplifies to:

(A-28)

(A-29)
and rl is a constant for the streamline $.

103

Equations A-149 and A-150, derived l a t e r , r e l a t e t h e d e r i v a t i v e s t o t h e functions.


The d e t a i l e d d e r i v a t i o n of t h e s e two r e l a t i o n s h i p s is p r e s e n t e d i n
The e q u a t i o n s for t h e s e d e r i v a t i v e s are:
Appendix A.5.1.

- 2Bf 2 (x,m)

+ f 4 (x,m)

(A-30)

and ,

From Eqs. A-17 and A-29, t h e y terms can be expressed i n


where B = m
ml'
terms of x terms as follows:
(A-32)

U t i l i z i n g Eqs. A-31 and A-32, Eq. A-28 becomes:

'pD

'II

(1

+n)

f (x,m) dx

2K(m) K'(m)

(A-33)
2

I n t r o d u c i n g a change of v a r i a b l e z = f2(x,m) and using Eq. A-30 t o s u b s t i t u t e


f o r f ' ( x , m ) , t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n is obtained:

The i n t e g r a l term i n Eq. A-34 i s of t h e form of an incomplete e l l i p t i c


i n t e g r a l of f i r s t order.
The r o o t s of t h e q u a d r a t i c e q u a t i o n s under t h e
A closed- form s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s i n t e g r a l is
square r o o t s a l l are complex.
o b t a i n e d from Byrd and Friedman (1954). The r e s u l t is:
(A-35)

where F(v , K ) and F(v , K ) are incomplete e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l s of t h e f i r s t kind


1
w i t h modulus K and arguments v1 and v2 given by:

(-

al g l )
a1 + B g l
+

(A-36 )

= ta;'

( -1 7 )

a:=l-B 2

(A-37 )

(A-38)

(A-39)

(A-40)

A = l + r ,

(A-41)

(A-42 )

"A + B

K2

4AB

=
(A

(A-43)

B)*

For a u n i t m o b i l i t y r a t i o and a p i s t o n - l i k e displacement, t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d


c u t i n t h e producing stream a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n w e l l , fD, 1s t h e r a t i o of t h e
a n g l e a t whlch t h e s t r e a m l i n e JI e n t e r s t h e w e l l t o t h e e n t i r e a n g l e a v a i l a b l e
f o r flow. From Fig. A-4, t h i s i s expressed by:

(A-44)
Equations A-35 and A-44 j o i n t l y d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curve of a
developed s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e system.
Breakthrough Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y

The breakthrough s t r e a m l i n e is J,
n/4
and rl = 1, and Eq. A-34 reduces t o :

Therefore, at breakthrough, fD = 0

00

'pDbt

dz

2 K(m) K'(m)

d(z2

- 105 -

282 +1)(z2 -282 +1)

(A-45)

Due t o symmetry of t h e breakthrough


K'(m)/2), Eq. A-45 can be w r i t t e n as:

"pDbt

s t r e a m l i n e around t h e p o l n t

dz

71

K(m) K' (m)


(z2

282 + 1 ) ( z 2

{K(m)/2,

(A-46)
-32

+I)

The upper l i m i t of t h e i n t e g r a l is c a l c u l a t e d from z = f 2 [ K(m)/2 , m]


1.
The answer t o t h i s i n t e g r a l is o b t a i n e d from t h e Byrd and Friedman handbook
(1954) :
'pDbt

n
2 K(m) K ' ( m )

K[(I

- 2m)2~

(A-47 )

Appendix A. 2 : FIVE-SPOT PATTeRN


The f i v e - s p o t i s a s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n w i t h d / a = 1 / 2 .
s p e c i a l case:

For t h i s

m = ml = 0.5

B = m

- ml

= 0

K(m) = K'(m) = 1.8540747


Equation A-34 then reduces t o :

From a handbook of e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l s ( f o r example, Byrd and Friedman, 1954,


or Abramowitz, 1972), t h e i n t e g r a l i n t h i s e q u a t i o n is e q u a l t o K ( l
n2),
hence :

P
'D

= 0.228473 (1

+ 11)

K(l

- n2)

(A-49)

where ,
2

rl = t a n

JI

- 106 -

(A-50)

Breakthrough Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y

Breakthrough areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y is r e a d i l y computed from Eq.


TI
1 for which K ( 0 ) = r / 2 :

A-49 w i t h

"pDbt = 0.71777

DIRECT LINE DRIVE

ADDendix A.3:

The complex p o t e n t i a l for t h i s p a t t e r n is


d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix A.1.
Equation A-7
i n Fig. A-5 i n t o t h e upper half- plane of
mapped a t i n f i n i t y and t h e i n j e c t i o n well
in Fig. A-2.

o b t a i n e d i n a manner similar t o t h a t
is a p p l i e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e segment
t h e w-plane. The production w e l l is
is mapped at t h e o r i g i n as was shown

Z-PLANE

PRODUCTION 0

Fig. A-5:

A DEVELOPED DIRECT LINE DRIVE I N 2-PLANE

107

The complex p o t e n t i a l i n t h e w-plane f o r t h i s p a t t e r n is:

Q(w)

Rn w

(A-52)

S u b s t i t u t e f o r w from Eq. A-9:

~ ( z ) i n [sn(z,m)]

(A-53)

Equation A-1 can be used t o o b t a i n t h e stream f u n c t i o n s .


Hauber (1964) and
Morel-Seytoux (1966) o b t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n for t h e s t r e a m l i n e s :

where ,

(A-55)

F i g u r e A-6 shows t h e v a l u e s of s t r e a m l i n e s and t h e element considered i n


analyzing the d i r e c t l i n e drive pattern.
The breakthrough t i m e of a p a r t i c l e on a g e n e r a l s t r e a m l i n e J, is computed by
u s i n g t h e y component; of t h e p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y as f o l l o w s :

(A-57)

From Eq. A-3, t h e y component of microscopic v e l o c i t y is:

(A-58)

From Eq. A-54 on t h e s t r e a m l i n e Q:


(A-59)
and,
(A- 60)

- 108 _

Fig. A-6:

COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR A DEVELOPED DIRECT LINE DRIVE

S u b s t i t u t i n g Eq. A-58 i n Eq. A-57 and u s i n g Eqs. A- 59 and A- 60:

(A- 61)

Pore volume i n j e c t e d up t o t h i s breakthrough t i m e i s given by:


I

'pD

tbt qt

4 @hK(m) K f ( m )

(A- 62)

Flow rate qt is e q u a l t o Zrkh/p as was shown i n A p p e n d i x A.1.


Using t h i s
v a l u e f o r qt and s u b s t i t u t i n g for t b t from Eq. A-61, Eq. A- 62 reduces to:

(A- 63)

- 109 -

S i n c e t h e s t r e a m l i n e s are symmetric about y = K ' ( m ) / 2 ,


t h e t r a v e l time from
y = 0 t o y = K'(m)/2
is e q u a l t o t h e t r a v e l t i m e from y = K'(m)/2 t o
y
K'(m).
Therefore:

6'
K' (m)

PD

I n t h i s equation,

= - n ( 1 + n)
K ( d K'(m)

r(

dy
g(Ysml) f ' ( x , m )

(A-64)

= t a n $ which is c o n s t a n t for a s p e c i f i e d s t r e a m l i n e .

Equations A-158 and A-166 i n Appendix A.5.2


f u n c t i o n s as f o l l o w s :
f '(x,m)

--

[ml

relate t h e d e r i v a t i v e s t o t h e

- f 2(x,m)] 2 + 4 f 2(x,m)

(A-65)

(A-66)

Using Eq. A-65 in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Eqs. A-29 and A-60 t o e l i m i n a t e f(x,m), Eq.


A-64 reduces t o :

I n t r o d u c e a change of v a r i a b l e , z = g2(y,ml) and u s e Eq. A-66 to r e p l a c e t h e


g'(y,ml) term, Eq. A-67 is s i m p l i f i e d t o :

v
pD

(1

+n)

dt

2 m t K(m) K'(m)

- t)(b - t)(t - c)(t - d )

(A-68)

where ,
1

a =
(1

-m2
1

b (1

+m2

(A-69)

(A-70)

(A-71)

- 110 -

-n

d =

(1

= - a n

-via2

(A-72)

From Byrd and Friedman's (1954) t a b l e of e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l s ,


e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e i n t e g r a l i n Eq. A-68 i s o b t a i n e d . This is:

an a n a l y t i c

where,
F ( u , K ) is an incomplete e l l i p t i c i n t e g r a l of t h e f i r s t kind w i t h
argument v and modulus K given by t h e f o l l o w i n g two e x p r e s s i o n s :
v = Arcsin(d-)

a + m

ab (1

(a

+ nl2

+ bn)(b + an)

(A-74)

(A-75)

The v a l u e s of F ( u , K ) can e i t h e r be o b t a i n e d from a mathematical handbook or


computed
directly
u s i n g Ascending Landen t r a n s f o r m a t i o n
successively
(Abramowitz, 1972).
The d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t , as b e f o r e , is c a l c u l a t e d from t h e a n g l e a t which t h e
s t r e a m l i n e e n t e r s t h e w e l l . From Fig. A-6 it is:
f D = 1 - 2JI
7

and t h u s ,

n is

(A-76)

r e l a t e d t o f D as f o l l o w s :
(A-77)

Equations A-73 and A-77 j o i n t l y d e s c r i b e t h e brea.-t..rough


direct l i n e drive pattern.

curve of a developed

Breakthrough Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y


A t breakthrough; fD = 0, hence rl =
to:

OD,

v = Arcsin

($)

F(v,l)

VpDbt

= 1 and Eqs. A-73 through A-75 reduce

K2

m 2 K(m) K'(m)
1

111

(A-78)

(A-79)

However,
F(v,l) = Rn (tan u

+ sec

U)

(A-80)

From Eq. A-78:


sin v =$-

(A-81)

Therefore, Eq. A-79 becomes:


In

VpDbt

m21 K(m) K'(m)

[<+*I
v=

(A-82)

Substitute for a and b from E q s . A-69 and A-70 and simplify:

'pDbtP

'II

h(m)

4 m l K)m) K'(m)

Appendix A.4:

(A-83)

INVERTED SEVEN-SPOT

The complex potential for this pattern is given by Morel-Seytoux (1966) as


follows :
Q ( z ) = Rn

f(z)

(A-84 )

where,
(A-85)

From Eq. A-14:

- 112 -

Let :
(A- 86)

(A-87)

- ig

cn(z,m) = h

(A- 88)

S u b s t i t u t e Eq. A- 88 i n Eq. A- 85:

- g 2 > + i 2hg][a + b(h2 - g2 ) - i 2bhg]


2
[ l + ( h 2 - g 2 ) - i 2hg][a - b ( h 2 - g ) + i Zbhg]
[l

f(z) =

(h2

(A- 89 )

Equation A-89 can be s i m p l i f i e d to:

f(z)

A
C

iB

- iD

A C - B ; + i A D +C2B C D2
0

c2

(A- 90)

where,
A = a

+ 4bu 2 -

B = 2u(a

C = a

- b)* - b t

- b + 2bG)

+ 4bu 2 +

D = 2u(a

(a

(a

- b ) E - bt

- b - 2bfi)

(A- 91)

(A- 92)

(A- 93)
(A- 94)

and,
(A- 95)
(A- 96)

- 113 -

From E q s . A- 15, A-84 and A-90 the complex p o t e n t i a l i s :

(A- 97)

Comparing Eq. A-1 and A-97:


(A- 98)

Substitute
rearrange:

for A,

= tail

B,

C,

from Eq.

4u[(l

8u2(2b2u2

A-91 through A-94

- b2)(4u2 + t ) + a2 - 5 + b2t ) + a2 + b 2 t 2 l-14t


1

Streamlines given by t h i s equation are shown i n Fig. A-7.

i n Eq.

A-98

Fig. A-7 : COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR AN IWERTED DEVELOPED SEVEN-SPOT

- 114 -

and

(A- 99)

I n t h e c o o r d i n a t e system of Fig. A-7, K'(m) = flK(m).


The element chosen f o r
t h e a n a l y s i s i s 1/12 of t h e p a t t e r n bounded between J, = 2n/3 and J, = II.Time
t o breakthrough of s t r e a m l i n e J, is:
2K' (m)

tbt

dr

(A- 100 )

vY

Making t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e terms

and v i s given by Eq. A-58.


i n JI Ye q u a t i o n (A-99):

- b2)(4u2 + t ) + a2 -

r = (1

w = 8u2(2b2u2

(A-10 1)-

- 5 + b 2 t ) + a2 + b 2 t 2 - 14t

(A-102)

then:

(A-103 )
T h e r e f o r e , from Eqs. A-58 and A-103:

(A-104)

S u b s t i t u t e Eq. A-104 i n Eq. A-100 and r e a r r a n g e :

tbt =

-k

2K' (m)

w(ru'

--I

wLdy
r'u)

NW'

(A- 105 )

Pore volumes i n j e c t e d :
=

'p~

tbt qt
p a t t e r n pore volume

(A-106)

Flow rate around t h e w e l l b o r e s from Eq. A-26:


k

4,

'i; AJ, = 4~

and,
p a t t e r n pore volume

115

-kIJ

2VT4 K2 (m)

(A-107)

(A-108)

Using Eqs. A-105, A-107 and A-108, i n t h e Eq. A-106, one o b t a i n s :


2K' (m)
-n(l

p' D

w 2 dy

+ tan

w(ru'

+ r'u)

- ruw'

(A- 109 )

x =

X(rCl,Y)

t h e d e r i v a t i v e s of v a r i o u s terms i n

From Eqs. A-95, A-96, A-101 and A-102,


Eq. A-109 are:

u' = h'g 4 hg'

r' = (1
w' = 16uu'(4b2u2

- b2)(8uu'

From

Eqs. A-86, A-87 and


and g' = ag/ax

= ahfax

h'

+ t')

(A- 111 )

- 5 + b 2 t ) + 2b2(4u2 + t ) t ' - 1 4 t '

t' = 4(h2

h'

(A-1 10)

- g2 )(hh' - gg')

(A-112)
(A-1 13)

A-141 through A-143 t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s for


are obtained:

- sn ( x ) dn (x)cn (y 1

2m cn 2 ( x ) s n

(A-1 14)

R2

2
R[dn ( x )

-m

2
2
2
sn (XI] 2m s n (y)dn ( x ) s n

R2

(A-115)

R = 1

- s n2 (y)dn 2 (x)

(A-1 16)

In computing V
v a l u e s from Eq. A-109, t h e x terms i n t h e i n t e g r a l should be
Therefore, for a s e l e c t e d x v a l u e on a streamexpressed as fPuDnctions of y.
l i n e $, t h e corresponding y v a l u e has t o be e v a l u a t e d . This w a s accomplished
n u m e r i c a l l y by applying a r o o t - f i n d i n g r o u t i n e t o Eq. A-99 w i t h a c o n s t a n t 9
value.
The computed c o o r d i n a t e p o i n t s on s t r e a m l i n e $ were then s u b s t i t u t e d
i n t o Eq. A-109 and t h e i n t e g r a l term i n t h i s e q u a t i o n was e v a l u a t e d numerically.
Equations A-110 through A-116 were used i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y
terms i n Eq. A-109,
The computer program developed t o g e n e r a t e t h e breakthrough curve of t h i s p a t t e r n is given i n Appendix D.2.

- 116 -

D i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t at breakthrough of s t r e a m l i n e Q from Fig. A-7 is:


(A-117)
where :

-2n< < < r


3

Equations A-109 and A-117 d e s c r i b e t h e breakthrough curve


i n v e r t e d seven s p o t p a t t e r n .

of

a repeated

Breakthrough Areal Sweep E f f i c i e n c y

The breakthrough s t r e a m l i n e is Q
n.
On t h i s s t r e a m l i n e , x = 0; t h e r e f o r e ,
cn(x,m) = 1, dn(x,m) = 1, and sn(x,m) = 0. A l l t h e parameters d e f i n e d b e f o r e
t a k e s i m p l e r forms as follows:
(A-1 18)
g = o

(A-119)

h' = 0

(A-120)

(A- 121)

t =

u = o

(A- 122 )

(A-123)

cn (y,ml)

(A- 124)

t'

(a2

r -

1)cn (y,ml)

(y,m,)

- 117 -

(A-125)

+ (1

- b2 1
(A-126)

(A-127)

r' = 0

(A- 128

w' = 0

(A- 129)

Substitute E q s . A-118 through A-129 into Eq. A-109 and rearrange:

(A- 130

To calculate the integral, let p = cn2(y,ml),

then:

(A-131)

and,
p = cn2

rmll

2K'(m)
3

(2

-fi)2 = b2

Hence, Eq. A-130 becomes:

'II

a2p4
p(1

- P)(mlP

14p2

b2
2 dP
a2 - 1

+ m)(p + l - b 1

(A-132)

118

But :

m = (2 - m / 4
my = 1

- ml

= (2

+ 43)/4

Using Eqs. A- 133 and A-134, Eq. A-132 f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i e s t o :

na

4 s m1(a2

'pDbt

(p

1)K2(m)

-b

l)(P
2
b
P(P +

z)

dP

- 2 tan-l(b) - t a n -1(r)
1
b

dp =

For :

l)(P

(A-135)

This is:

The i n t e g r a l can now be c a l c u l a t e d .

(p

>; - b
2
b
P(P +a)

119

(A-136)

The value of VpDbt computed from Eq A-135 w i t h the i n t e g r a l given by Eq. A-136
is :
VpDbt = 0.743682

Appendix A.5:

RELATING DERIVATIVES OF THE STREAM FUNCTIONS


'IO THE STREAM FUNCTIONS

This appendix is d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .


The f i r s t p a r t covers the s t a g g e r e d
l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n and the second p a r t d i s c u s s e s the d i r e c t l i n e d r i v e
pattern

Appendix A.5.1:

STAGGERED LINE DRIVE

(A-137)

From Abramowitz (1972) or Byrd and Friedman (1954):


(A- 138 )

(A-139)
(A-140)
And :

(A-1 4 1)

(A-142)
(A- 14 3 )

120

Theref ore :

(A- 144)

From Eq. A- 137:

Or:

Let:
y = ml

- m - f 2 (y,ml)

(A- 146)

The s o l u t i o n f o r the quadratic equation i n A- 145 i s :

(A- 147)

The n e g a t i v e sign i s impossible, because m and ml both are p o s i t i v e numbers.


S u b s t i t u t e Eq. A- I47 i n Eq. A- 144 and s i m p l i f y :
(A- 148 )

S u b s t i t u t e back f o r y from Eq. A- 146:


(A- 149)

121

Similarly:
1

+ 2(ml - m)

2
f (x,m)

+ f 4(x,m)

(A- 150)

DIRECT LINE DRIVE

Appendix A.5.2:
From Eq. A-55:

(A-151)
Using t h e d e r i v a t i v e of
through A-143:

f'(x,m) =

the J a c o b i a n e l l i p t i c

2
dn (x,m)

m sn(x,m)
2

functions

from Eqs.

A-138

2
2
sn (x,m) cn (x,m)
2
sn ( x , m >

+m

(A- 152)

-1

sn (x,m)
From Eq. A-151:
2
2
cn (x,m) dn (x,m>
f (x,m> =
2
s n (x,m>
2

4
m sn(x,m)

(1

+ m)sn 2 (x,m) +

2
sn (x,m)
Or:

(A-153)

Let:
y1

= 1

+ m + f 2 (x,m)

(A-154)

The s o l u t i o n t o Eq. A-153 i s :


sn2 (x,m) =

(A-155)

2m

- 122 -

S u b s t i t u t e Eq. A-155 i n Eq. A-152 and s i m p l i f y :


(A-156)
Because m> 0 and -1 < sn(x,m)
f'(x,m) < 0. Therefore:

< 1, from Eq. A-152

it i s concluded t h a t

(A-157)

Substitute f o r Y1

from Eq. A-154 i n Eq. A-157:


(A- 158 )

The above

approach

can a l s o be used t o r e l a t e g'(y,ml)

to

g(y,ml).

From

Eq. A-56 :
(A-159)
The d e r i v a t i v e of t h i s f u n c t i o n is:

(A-160)
Using E q s .
of dn(y,ml)

A- 141

, Eq.

through A-143 t o e x p r e s s sn(y,ml) and cn(y,ml) in


A-160 reduces to:
4
dn (y,ml)
g'(Y,ml)

-m

(A-161)

ml dn (y,ml)

From Eq. A-159:


2

g (Y,ml)

2
2
sn (y,ml)
(Y,rn,)
2
dn ( ~ , m 1 )

4
dn (y,ml)
=

(1

+ m)dn 2 (y,m,)

m21 dn4(y,ml)

123

terms

-m

Let:
yp = 1

2
The solution for dn (y,m,)

+m

- ml2 g2(y,m1)

(A- 163 )

from Eq. A-162 is:


Y2 f

dn b,m1 1 =

(A-164)

Substitute Eq. A-164 in Eq. A-161 and simplify:

(A-1 6 5 )

From Abramowitz (1972):


dn(O,ml) = 1

Therefore, From Eq. A-161 it i s concluded that:

Substitute for y p from Eq. A-163 in A-165 and rearrange:

(A-166)

__

124

Appendix B
DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS FOR PATTERN RECOVERY CURVES
AT VARIOUS MOBILITY RATIOS
The location of the displacement front plays a major role in the analysis of
pattern performance when the mobility ratio is other than one.
For such a
displacement:
1) the streamlines in the regions behind and ahead of front
deviate from those determined at mobility ratio of one; and 2) the total
resistance to flow continually changes as the location of the front varies.
This is in contrast to a unit mobility ratio displacement in which the
resistance to flow is constant and independent of the interface position. In
the following analysis, it is assumed that streamlines are the same for any
mobility ratio while the overall resistance to flow varies during the
displacement. Consequently, for a constant pressure drop between an injection
well and a production well, the total flow rate in the pattern as well as the
flow rates in the individual streamtubes will change as the front advances
towards the production well.
Furthermore, at any particular time, the flow
rates in the individual streamtubes will differ from each other. This is due
to establishment of different resistances in the streamtubes for the same
total pressure drop across them.
Consider a piston-like displacement of two fluids in a developed five-spot
pattern, as shown in Fig B-1.
Flow rate in a general streamtube $1
location s
in the tube is:
$1

when the displacement

front is at

where :

= - = fluid mobility

A(s) = cross sectional area of streamtube at location s


a,b = subscripts for displacing and displaced fluids respectively
p = pressure
q$l(i) = flow rate in the streamtube $1 as a function of front location

-s = front

location, same as s
$1

- 125 -

S = Path Along A
Streamline

F i g . B-1:

FRONT LOCATION IN A DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT PATTERN


AT AN ARBITRARY MOBILITY RATIO

Integrate Eq. B-1 to obtain the pressure drops in each zone:

a'
and,
q$

@pb)$l

l(a

Ab
S

$1

where :

*$I

total length of the streamtube $1

= front location in the streamtube $1

- 126 -

The t o t a l p r e s s u r e drop a c r o s s t h e streamtube is t h e sum of p r e s s u r e drops i n


the Lnvaded and the non-invaded zones.
This t o t a l p r e s s u r e drop is t h e same
for all t h e t u b e s and w i l l be assumed t o be c o n s t a n t i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .
Add
Eqe. B-2 and B-3 and s o l v e f o r q ( E ) :

$1

where Ap i s t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e drop and M is t h e m o b i l i t y r a t i o d e f i n e d as:

The t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e f r o n t i n t h i s streamtube t o r e a c h t h e p r o d u c t i o n
w e l l is:

Substitute f o r q

At this time,
given by:

(s)

111

from Eq. B-4:

t h e f r o n t l o c a t i o n i n t h e streamtube $2 is at

Equate Eqs. B-7 and B-8:

- 127 -

$2 ' which is

Equation B-9 provides t h e f r o n t l o c a t i o n i n the streamtube $2 a t the t i m e when


t h e f r o n t i n t h e streamtube $1 reaches the production w e l l .
Areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y at t h e t i m e of breakthrough i n t h e streamtube $1 i s t h e
1) t h e t o t a l area of t h e streamtubes t h a t are completely
sum of two areas:
f i l l e d w i t h the d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d (broken- through s t r e a m t u b e s ) ; and 2) t h e
t o t a l swept area i n t h e unbroken streamtubes. Mathematically, t h e areal sweep
e f f i c i e n c y is given by:

['%*'A(s)

d s d$

l%;*.I.,
d s d$

(B-10)

EA =

( p a t t e r n pore a r e a ) / 8

For t h e developed f i v e s p o t system i n Fig. B-1, t h e p a t t e r n pore area can be


c a l c u l a t e d from t h e following e q u a t i o n :
p a t t e r n pore a r e a

44K2(0.5)

4(l.8540746)2~ = 13.75036 4

Therefore, Eq. B-10 becomes:

EA

0.5818 4 [ X s ' A ( 8 )

Pore volumes i n j e c t e d , VpD,


are c a l c u l a t e d from:

ds d$

f r A ( s )

ds d$

(B-11)

a t t h e time of breakthrough i n t h e s t r e a m t u b e $1

PD

EA

-k

('pD)a

(B-12)

where, ( V ) i s the pore volumes of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d produced at t h a t t i m e .


PD a
The term (VpD)a
i s e q u a l t o t h e sum of t h e cumulative volumes of t h e
d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d produced from each broken- through streamtube s i n c e t h e breakthrough t i m e i n each i n d i v i d u a l tube.
Because only one f l u i d is flowing i n
t h e broken- through s t r e a m t u b e s , t h e f l a w rates i n such streamtubes are 'equal
and remain c o n s t a n t a f t e r breakthrough of t h e d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d from t h e
p a t t e r n . Mathematically, t h e pore volumes of d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d produced may be
computed trom:
n/4

("PD),

( t $ l b t - t$bt) dJ,
Ibt
( p a t t e r n pore volume)/8

- 120 -

(B-13)

I n t h i s e q u a t i o n , t h r e e terms must be defined.


F i r s t , q r e p r e s e n t s the flow
rate i n the s t r e a m t u b e s t h a t produce d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d . #is term Is t h e same
f o r a l l t h e streamtubes t h a t have a l r e a d y broken- through. It is g i v e n by:

(B-14)

The i n t e g r a l i n t h e denominator of Eq. B-14 can be computed on any streamtube


t h a t is f i l l e d w i t h the d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d , a. The o t h e r two terms, t t l b t and
r e p r e s e n t t h e breakthrough t i m e from t h e s t r e a m l i n e $1 and
general
ttbt
s r e a m l i n e , J, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n analogy t o Eq. B-7:

S u b s t i t u t e Eqs. B-7, B-14 and B-15 i n t o Eq. B-13 and s i m p l i f y :

(B-16)
D i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t , f , i s t h e r a t i o of producing d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d rate
d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l p r o 8 u c t i o n rate. This is given by:

(B-17)

It
where, q i s t h e flow rate i n any streamtube t h a t has not broken through.
v a r i e s w t h time and is d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t streamtubes, as it i s w i t h i n
t h e i n t e g r a l sign.

- 129 -

Substitute for qb from Eq. B-4 and for qa from Eq. B-14:

.fu

--

(B-18)

Equations B-11, B-12, B-16 and B-18 are written in general forms.
this appendix focusses on simplifing these equations.

The rest of

Because of the assumption of no streamllne change with mobility ratio, the


area terms in the preceding equations can be calculated from the streamlines
determined at unit mobility ratio. That is:
(B-19)

where,
= flow rate in the streamtube if the displacement was at M = 1
q
M= 1

[.(.)I

= microscopic velocity at location s if the displacement was at

M=1

M = 1

From Eqs. 3-42 and 3-50 with h = 1, it is concluded that:


(B-20)

The term

de
which
A(s)

appears frequently in the preceeding equations becomes:


ds =

2 ds

m X

(B-21)

[.(si]

M= 1

The following relationships facilitate evaluation of Eq. B-21:


(B-22)

(B-23)

130

( B-24 )

Theref o r e :

(B-25)

From Eq. A-23:


(B-26)
and s i m i l a r l y :

where, f(x,m) and f(y,ml) are given by Eq. A-18. For a f i v e - s p o t p a t t e r n ,


m = 0. Equations A-30 and A-31 reduce t o :
m = ml = 0.5, hence B = m
1

(B-28)

(B-29)
S u b s t i t u t e Eqs. B-26 through B-29 i n B-25 and u s e Eq.
f(y,ml) terms by f(x,m) terms:

A-32 t o r e p l a c e t h e

(B-30)

in which ,
rl = t a n

2JI

(B-31)

I n t r o d u c i n g t h e same change of v a r i a b l e , z = f (x,m), as proposed i n Appendix


A.1:
2

(n+z)
2
2
2 z & l + z )(rl

- 131 -

dz

+ z2)

(B-32)

From Gredshteyn and Ryzhik (1980):

(B-33)

Let :
(B-34 )

At z
0 and z
m, t h e term G(z,n) approaches i n f i n i t y .
These p o i n t s c o r r e spond t o s i n g u l a r i t i e s a t t h e i n j e c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n w e l l s .
To avold t h e
s i n g u l a r i t l e s i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s , a r a d i u s e q u a l t o d/10000 is a s s i g n e d t o
t h e wells, where d i s t h e d i s t a n c e between an i n j e c t o r and a producer.

Another term t h a t can be s i m p l i f i e d is t h e i n t e g r a l d e f i n e d i n Eq. B-8 and i n


similar e q u a t i o n s . Designate:

(B-35)

The A(s)ds term i n t h i s e q u a t i o n can be reduced t o t h e f o l l o w i n g by u s i n g Eqs.


B-19, B-20, B-22, B-23 and B-24:

X dx
(B-36)

Using Eqs. B-33, B-34 and B-36 and n o t i n g t h a t w e l l b o r e s have d e f i n i t e r a d i i ,


t h e term i n b r a c k e t s i n Eq. B-35 reduces t o :

(B-37 )

where ,
(B-38 )

(B-39 )

f (H,m)2

( B-40 )

and,
x

wi

x
W

= r

s i n J,

(B-41)

c o s JI

(B-42)

-x i s

t h e x component of f r o n t l o c a t i o n , rw i s t h e wellbore r a d i u s and J, i s t h e


v a l u e of a g e n e r a l s t r e a m l i n e shown i n Fig. B-1.

Define :
P(n)

M G(z

,rl)

- G(zi,n)

(B-43)

Using E q s . B-36, B-37 and B-43, t h e H term defined i n Eq. B-35 becomes:

where, x i s t h e x c o o r d i a a t e of the f r o n t i n t h e streamtube $.


19, A-25,$ A-27 and A-34 with $
0, it is concluded t h a t :

From E q s . A-

(B-45)

From Byrd and Friedman (1954):

(B-46)

where,
(B-47)

(B-48)
with the property t h a t ,
(B-49)

S u b s t i t u t e Eq. B- 45 and B- 46 i n Eq. B-44 and r e a r r a n g e :

When t h e f r o n t i n t h e s t r e a m t u b e $1 reaches t h e production w e l l ,


However, z is c a l c u l a t e d a t t h e production w e l l and, hence, z
i n f i n i t y (gee Eq. B- 38).
Therefore, t h e argument of F ( u , K ) d c o m e s equal
t o n/2 and from Eq. B- 49, F ( n / 2 , K )
K(K).
Thus, t h e f r o n t i n any s t r e a m t u b e ,
$2 d e f i n e d by Eq. B-9, is reduced t o :

(B- 51)

where, $1
r e p r e s e n t s $1 a t breakthrough.
Note t h a t i n Eq. B- 51, t h e l e f t
hand s i d e bfs computed a t $2 and t h e r i g h t s i d e a t $ l b t .
A t t h e breakthrough of $1, s u b s t i t u t i o n of Eq. B- 36 i n Eq. B-11

Applying Eqs. B- 45, B- 46 and B- 47 t o Eq.


production w e l l :

where, U and K are defined by Eqs.


from t h e s o l u t i o n of Eq. B-51.

B-52 and n o t i n g t h a t z

B-47 and B-48.

- 134 -

results in:

Values of

* at t h e

are obtained

The pore volumes of d i s p l a c l n g f l u i d produced a t breakthrough of t h e streaml i n e $lbt are computed from Eqs. B-16, B-33, B-34, B-35 and B-50.
The r e s u l t
is:

dJ,

where, H
'bt
H
'bt

(B-54)

r e p r e s e n t s a streamline at breakthrough and is given by:

=-

G(E,n) d;

+n

(B-55)

D i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t is computed from Eqs. B-18, B- 33, B-34, B-37, and B-43 as


follows :
n
4 "bt
f D .c
(B-56)
II
T - '1bt +- [G(zPsl) - G(zisl)]
dJI

P(n)

+ (1

- M)

G(E,n)

The computer program given i n Appendix D.3 u t i l i z e s Eqs. B-12, B-53, B-54 and
B-56 t o e v a l u a t e areal sweep e f f i c i e n c y and d i s p l a c i n g f l u i d c u t f o r v a r i o u s
mobility r a t i o s .

- 135 -

Appendix C
.

EVALUATION OF THE L I N E INTEGRAL I N MIXING EQUATIONS

I n t h i s appendix, e v a l u a t i o n of t h e l i n e i n t e g r a l i n t h e mixing e q u a t i o n s is
i l l u s t r a t e d f o r developed s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e , f i v e - s p o t , and d i r e c t l i n e
The appendix c o n s i s t s of t h r e e sub- appendices, each corredrive patterns.
sponding t o one of t h e above p a t t e r n s .

Appendix C.1:

STAGGERED L I N E DRIVE

Consider a s t a g g e r e d l i n e d r i v e p a t t e r n w i t h t h e dimensions shown i n Fig. 0 1 .

Fig. C-1:

DIMENSIONS FOR A STAGGERED LINE DRIVE CONSIDERED


I N ME ANALYSIS OF MIXING L I N E INTEGRAL

The stream f u n c t i o n s
A- 18 as follows:

f o r t h i s system are given by analogy t o Eqs. A-17 and

f(w,m)

sn(w,m) dn(w,m)
cn(w,m)

136

-2Kb)
a

(C-3)

Using Eqs. B-22, B-23 and B-24, the line integral, I =


reduced to :

dx

( C-6

If initial water saturation in the reservoir is ,S


components of microscopic velocity are given by:

Differentiating
be come :

Eq.

C-1

with respect to y and x ,

k
%

"X

from Eqs. A-2 and A-3 the

ww
-

K'(m)
d

the velocity equations

f(w,m> f '(z,ml)
1

+ [f(w,m) f(z,ml)]

(C-10)

On a general streamline, 6 is a constant and Eq. C-1 yields:


(C-11)

where,

= tan

41 = constant

137

(C- 12)

Utilizing Eqs. 0 3 , C-5, C-9, C-10 and C-11, the following expression for the
line integral is obtained:

where,

Equations A-149 and A-150 relate the derivatives to the functions.

These are:
(C-15)

where ,
B = m -

(C-17)

ml

Substitute for the derivatives in Eq. C-13 and C-14 from Eqs. C-15 and C-16,
and eliminate f(z,ml) by Eq. C-11; then Eq. C-13 simplifies to:
3
ad

2K(m)K' 2(m)
2

f (w,m) dw
*

(C-18)
Introducing a variable change of f 2(w,m)
the f'(w,m) terms, Eq. C-18 becomes:

and using Eq. 0 1 6 to replace

(C-19)

4K(m) K' (m)


where,

3
(1

f2(F,m)

fl dt

+n)
(t2

- 2f3t +l)(t2
-

138

2Bnt

(C-20)

+n

2 m 2 + n)

10

7
n

32
E

w
z
W

GI
t3

sc

0.2

0.4

0.6

X-COMPONENT OF TRACER FRONT LOCATION, w/K(m),

Fig. C-2:

1 .o

0.8
2a
;/

VARIATION OF MIXING L I N E INTEGRAL WIm TRACER FRONT LOCATION


FOR VARIOUS STREAMLINES OF A STAGGERED L I N E DRIVE, d/a
1

- 139 -

t h e amount of tracer flow t o t h e w e l l is i n s i g n i f i c a n t u n l e s s t h e tracer f r o n t


is c l o s e t o t h e production w e l l .
Therefore, f o r a l l practical purposes, t h e
upper l i m i t of t h e i n t e g r a l ,fn Eq. C-20 can always be computed a t t h e producand Y is:
For t h i s case, f [K(m),m]
tion well.

A l l t h e r o o t s of t h e q u a d r a t i c equations in Eq. C-21 are complex. Therefore,


t h e r e is no s i n g u l a r i t y in t h e range of i n t e g r a t i o n . However, f o r d / a 3 2 ,
m + 0 , 6 + -1; hence, one of t h e r o o t s approaches rl.
For t h i s case, precaut i o n s should be taken i n t h e numerical i n t e g r a t i o n around t h e p o i n t t
rl.

Appendix C.2:

FIVE SPOT

For a five- spot system:

B = m - m

= O

K(m) = K'(m) = 1.854074

Equations C-19 and C-21 reduce t o :

(C-22)

3 0 1 e97678
where ,

fi d t
(C- 23)

- 140 -

Appendix C . 3 :

DIRECT L I N E DRIVE

Figure C-3 shows the coordinate system with the dimensions for t h i s pattern:

Fig. C-3:

d i

I s

d)

DIMENSIONS OF A DEVELOPED DIRECT LINE DRIVE CONSIDERED


I N 'ME ANALYSIS OF MIXING LINE INTEGRAL

The stream functions for the above coordinate system are obtained by analogy
t o E q s . A - 5 4 , A-55 and A- 56 as follows:

(C- 25)

( C- 26)

- 141 -

w=2Kh)
a

(C- 27 )

=K'(d
d

(C- 28)

(C- 29)
The following equations f a c i l i t a t e e v a l u a t i o n of

ds =

I =

(C- 30)

(dx)'

v2 = v

+ vY 2

(031)

(C- 32)
Using t h e s e e q u a t i o n s , t h e I i n t e g r a l becomes:

I =

J,

vy

( c-33 1

-4

The v e l o c i t y components are r e l a t e d t o stream f u n c t i o n s by Eqs. C-7 and C-8.


Performing t h e p a r t i a l d i f f e r e n t i o n on J,(x,y), t h e expressions f o r t h e
v e l o c i t i e s become :

(C- 34)

E- -

v+sw

2K(m)
a

f '(w,m)

g(z,m,)

1 + [f(w,m) g(z,m,>]

(C-35)

For a general s t r e a m l i n e , J, is constant and Eq. C-24 r e s u l t s i n :

(C- 36)
where,

n is

given by Eq. C-12.

- 142 -

Utilizing Eq. C-28 and Eqs. C-33 through C-36, the following expression for
the line integral, I, is obtained:

(C-38)

Equations A-158 and A-166 relate the derivatives to the functions:


( c-39 )

and,
1

(C-40)
Substitute for the derivatives from Eqs. C-39 and C-40 in Eq.
eliminate the f(w,m) term by using Eq. C-36:

C-37 and

Introducing a change of variable, t = g (z,ml) :

(043)

- 143 -

S u b s t i t u t e t h i s new v a r i a b l e and Eq. e 4 3 i n t o Eq. 0 4 1 and u t i l i z e t h e ranges


given i n Eq. C-40, t h e r e s u l t of Eq. C-41 is:
( c-44 )

with :
(0 4 5 )

if

o <

z < K' (m ,

or e q u i v a l e n t l y ,

o < g2(T,ml

<
(1

+m2

and,

(C- 46)

A t the production w e l l ,
c-45 :

and g2[K'(m),ml]

K'(m),

= 0; t h e r e f o r e ,

from Eq.

The r o o t s of t h e q u a d r a t i c e q u a t i o n s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n for Q i n Eq. C-46 are:

2t2
ml

- 2(2 - m l ) t + 1 = m12(t - a ) ( t - b )

+n

2t2
ml

= m12(t

144

i e)

(C-49)

(C- 51)

where :

a =
(1

(C- 52)

-*I2
1

b -

(c- 53)

(1 + S I 2
(C-54)

d =

[ - n(2
e = i

- ml) -

m
rl

2
n
6
]/ m2l

(C- 55)

complex

(C- 56)

Since rl
0 , 0 < m < 1 , and 0 < m C 1; then, a > b, c < 0 and d < 0 .
Theref o r e , the integran4 contains a singularity at point t = b which corresponds t o
the upper l i m i t of the integral i n Eq. C- 48. To remove t h i s s i n g u l a r i t y , l e t :
b - t = E 2

(C-57 )

Then :
(C- 58)

where :
= m 254
T1
1

- 2(bm12 + 211 - lml)F2


T2

*E4
T3 = ml

+ b2m12 +

2b11(2

- b + E2

- 2b ml2

52+ b2m12

- 145 -

- ml) + 112

( c- 59 )

(C- 60)

+ rl

(C- 61)

Appendix D
COMPUTER PROGRAMS

This appendix c o n s i s t s of t h r e e sub- appendices, each c o n t a i n i n g a compu zr


program. The f i r s t appendix provides a program t o a n a l y z e tracer breakthrough
c u r v e s from s t r a t i f i e d r e s e r v o i r s .
The second appendix g i v e s an a l g o r i t h m t o
compute t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curve of a developed i n v e r t e d seven- spot f o r
m o b i l i t y r a t i o of one. A program t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p a t t e r n breakthrough curve
of a developed five- spot a t any m o b i l i t y r a t i o is t h e c o n t e n t of t h e last
appendix.

Appendix D.l:

PROGRAM TO ANALYZE A TRACER ELUTION CURVE

The a l g o r i t h m provided i n t h i s s e c t i o n decomposes a tracer breathrough p r o f i l e


from a s t r a t i f i e d formation i n t o several l a y e r responses.
From t h e cons t r u c t e d l a y e r r e s p o n s e s , t h e parameters of t h e l a y e r s are e v a l u a t e d .
The
decomposition process is c a r r i e d o u t i n t e r n a l l y through a non- linear leasts q u a r e s r o u t i n e ( s u b r o u t i n e VARPRO).
S i n c e a n i n v e r s e problem i s being
s o l v e d , t h e number of l a y e r s should be determined by t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r , each
time o b s e r v i n g t h e improvement of t h e generated match w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n
number of l a y e r s .
However, t h i s program can be modified t o perform t h i s
i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n t e r n a l l y and g e n e r a t e an optimum match i n one r u n ,

- 146 -

JOB (JE.NAD,lOQ),'MAGSUD'
EXEC WATFIV
//GO.SYSIN
DD
C
C
C
C
T H I S PROGRAM ANALYZES A TRACER BREAKTHROUGTH CURVE FROM A
C
S T R A T I F I E D RESERVOJR FOR A G I V E N TYPE OF FLOODING PATTERN.
C
THE PROGRAM GENERATES POROSITY THICKNESS PRODUCT, ( P H I * H ) ,
C
AND FRACTIONAL P E R M E A B I L I T Y THICKNESS PRODUCT, (KH/SUM(KH),*
C
FOR EACH LAYER AS N E L L AS A MATCH TO THE I N P U T TRACER
C
BREAKTHROUGH P R O F I L E FOR A S P E C I F I E D NUMBER O F LAYERS.
C
THE PROGRAM CAN CURRENTLY HANDLE F I F T E E N LAYERS.
C
C
********i****************************
C
C
PREPARED BY
C
C
MAGHSOOD ABBASZADEH- DEHGHANI
C
STAN FORD U :.(IV ERS I TY
C
J U L Y 1982
C
C
NOMENCLATURE:
C
C
AALFAP = PECLET NUMSER FOR THE PATTERN
C
A A L F A 5 = PECLET NUMBER FOR AN EQUIVALENT F I V E - S P O T
C
AREA = DRAINAGE AREA OF A WELL WHOSE TRACER RESPONSE CURVE
C
IS B E I N G ANALYZED, FT SQUARE
C
C P H I H J = TRACE2 COKCENTRATION FROYI LAYER J, C / C O
C
CSTAR = TRACER CONCENTKATIOKS I N THE F I E L D TRACER E L U T I O N
C
CURVE, PPH.
AN ARRAY C O N T A I N I N G NDATA P O I N T S
COIKEN = T R A C E R CONCENTRATION I
N THE GENERATED MATCH , mi
C
C
EABTP = BREAKTHROUGH AREAL S!JEEP E F F l C I E N C Y OF A DEVELOPED
C
PATTERN
EABT5 = BREAKTHROUGH AREAL SldEEP E F F I C I E N C Y OF A DEVELOPED
C
C
F I VE-SPOT
C
FACTOR = A CONVERSION FACTOR TO CONVERT TRACER CONCENTRATION
C
(FROM U S U A L L Y P P r i ) T O WEIGHT FRACTION
C
FM = CORRECTION FACTOR ON TRACER PEAK CONCENTRATION
C
FP = CORRECTION FACTOR ON PECLET NUPIBER
C
FRAC = R A T I O OF THE RATE OF F L U I D F L O N I N G FROM THE I N J E C T O R
C
OF THE PATTERN TOWARDS THE WELL, D I V I D E D BY THE TOTAL
C
PRODUCTION RATE FROM THE WELL.
FOR EXAMPLE, I N A
DEVELOPED F I V E - S P O T WHEN TRACER IS I N J E C T E D I N T O ONE
C
OF THE WELLS ONLY, FRAC
0.25
C
KP
=
COMPLEMENTARY
AND
INCOMPLEMENTARY
COMPLETE E L L I P T I C
C
K,
C
I N T E G R A L S OF THE F I R S T K I N D
C
K H J = FRACTIONAL CONDUCTANCE OF LAYER J, ( K H ) J / S U M ( K H )
C
NDATA = NUMBER OF DATA P O I N T S I N P U T E D FROM A F I E L D TRACER
C
RESPONSE CURVE
C
NLAYER = NUMBER OF LAYERS I N THE S T R A T I F I E D MODEL
C
NOTPUT = NUMBER O F P O I N T S D E S I R E D TO B E CALCULATED ON THE
C
MATCH CURVE
C
P H I H J = POROSITY THICKNESS PRODUCT OF LAYER J
C
PVDMX5 = CORRELATING DIMENSIONLESS PORE VOLUME FOR A DEVEC
LOPED F I V E - S P O T .
SW = I N I T I A L WATER SATURATION I N THE RESERVOIR
C
C
T = VOLUMES CORRESPONDING TO SELECTED "CSTAR" VALUES
C
I N THE F I E L D DATA, B B L S
C
TR = TOTAL VOLUME O F TRACER SOLUTION I N J E C T E D I N T O A

//
//

*
..............................................................
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

- 147 -

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C.
C
C

VCAL

VMXCAL

VOBSRV
VPDBT

=
=

VPDMXP

VTMAX

VTMIN
VTMAXP

=
=

YSIGH

Y(J)

XY(J)

PATTERN, F T 3 .
C A L C U L A T E D PEAK VOLUMES O F T H E LAYERS, I F T H E
SYSTEM WAS DEVELOPED AND THE WELL WAS R E C E I V I N G
TRACER FROM A L L THE I N J E C T O R S SURRONDING I T , B D L S
C A L C U L A T E D PEAK VOLUMES OF THE L A Y E R S I N T H E MATCH
CURVE TO T H E F I E L D DATA, B B L S
VOLUMES I N THE MATCH CURVE ( X - A X I S ) , B B L S
X - C W R D I N B T E OF THE P A T T E R N BREAKTHROUGH CURVE OF A
DEVELOPED F I V E - S P O T ( D I S P L A C I N G F L U I D CUT VS PORE
VOLUMES) 9 D I M E N S I O N L E S S
PORE VOLUMES CORRESPONDING TO THE PEAK CONCENTRATION
I N A TRACER BREAKTHROUGH CURVE FROM A HOMOGENEOUS
PATTERN, D I M E N S I O N L E S S
UPPER V A L U E OF T H E RANGE AT W H I C H A MATCH TO T H E
F I E L D TRACER E L U T I O N CURVE I S SOUGHT, B B L S
LOWER VALUE OF T H E RANGE, B B L S
VOLUMES CORRESPONDING TO T H E PEAK CONCENTRATIONS I N
THE F I E L D TRACER RESPONSE CURVE, B B L S .
THESE W I L L B E
USED AS I N I T I A L E S T I M A T E S I N T H E O P T I M I Z A T I O N R O U T I N E
"Ytr V A L U E I N THE M I X I N G L I N E I N T E G R A L , F U N C T I O N OF
STREAMLINE
J T H N O N L I N E A R PARAMETER I N THE O P T I M I Z A T I O N R O U T I N E
KJ/(PHI*SUM(KH))
J TH L I N E A R PARAMETER I N THE O P T I M I Z A T I O N R O U T I N E
K J / ( P H I * S U M ( KH 1 ) f K H J/SUM( KH 1

I M P L I C I T R E A L *8 ( A - ti, 0-2 1
REAL * S K ,KP ,M ,M 1 ,KH J ,K ET A
DIMENSION VPDBT(llO)~YSIGH(110)~T(5O~l~~CSTAR(50)
DIMENSION W ( 5 0 ) , A A ( 5 0 , 3 2 ) , Y ( 1 5 ) , X Y ( l 5 ) , C P H I H ( 1 5 ) , V T M A X P ( l 5 )
EXTERNAL ADA
COMMON I P A R I Y S I G H VPDBT
COMMON /PARK/K,KP,VTMAXP1VPDMXP,EABT5,EABT5,EABTP,FM,FP
COMMON / F O R M IAREA ,SW ,A / \ L F A 5 9 TR 8 N v NM ,tl 1 ,H 2
C
C
C

I N P U T PARAMETERS:
READpFRAC,FACTOR,NDATA,NLAYER
READ,SW,AREA,AALFAP,TR
READPEABTPPFMPFP
READ,VTMIN,VTMAX,NOTPUT
DO 1 0 J = l , N L A Y E R
READ,VTMAXP(J)

10

VTMAXP(J)=VTMAXP(J)*FRAC
DO 20 I = l , N D A T A
READ,T(I,l)pCSTAR(I)
T(I,l)=T(I,l)*FRAC

20
C
C
C
C
C

CSTAR(I)=CSTAR(I)/FRAC*FACTOR
I N THE ABOVE, VALUES OF VTMAXP, T, AND CSTAR WERE CONVERETED TO
THOSE CORRESPONDING TO A DEVELOPED P A T T E R N

EABT5z.7177783
C
C
C

AN E Q U I V A L E N T F I V E - S P O T I S D E T E R M I N E D
AAL F A S Z A A L F A P / F P

148

C
C

DIMENSIONLESS CORRELATING PORE VOLUME I S COMPUTED FROM THE


E Q U A T I O N O F T H E F I V E - S P O T L I N E I N FIG. 3.24

C
C
C
C
C
C

PORE VOLUME CORRESPONDING TO A PEAK FROM A HOMOGENEOUS


P A T T E R N I S COPlPUTED

VPDMXP=EABTP+(l.-EABTP)*PVDMX5
PI='Y.*DATAN(l.DO)
K=1.8540746773DO
KP=K
M = O .5DO
Ml=M
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

P A T T E R N B R E A K T H R O U G H CURVE, "VPBD", A N D M I X I N G L I N E I N T E G R A L t
"Y(SIGH)** F O R A D E V E L O P E D FIVE- SPOT A R E C O M P U T E D . I N T H E
F O L L O W I N G , T H E S T R E A M L I N E S B E T W E E N Z E R O A N D 10 D E G R E E S A R E
D I V I D E D I N T O "N=50" S T R E A N T U B E S A N D T H O S E B E T W E E N 10 D E G R R E S
A N D 4 5 D E G R E E S A R E A L S O D I V I D E D I N T O "N=50" T U B E S . T H I S I S
DONE TO OBTAIN HIGHER ACCURACY FOR T H E EXTREME STREAMTUBES
UPPER=l.D+4
TETl=O.DO
TETL=PI*lO. 0 1 180.
N=50
NN=N+ 1
NHN=?*NN- 1
N?l= 2 ++N

H2=(PI/4.-TETL)/N
H 1 = T E T L/N
DO 5 0 Iz2,NNN
I F (1.LE.NN)GO T O 3 0
TET=TETL+H2*(I-N-l)
GO T O 40
TET=Hl*(I-l)
ETA=DTAN(TET)**2
C=PI/4.*(1+ETA)/K/KP
ZZ=l.-ETA**2
C A L L KVALUE(Z2,KETA)
VPDBT(I-l)=CRKETA
C A L L GAUSS(UPPER,ETA,SIGMA)
YSIGH(I-l)=SIGMA

30
40

50

C
C
C
C

" IPRINT" C O N T R O L S T H E T Y P E O F T H E O U T P U T F R O M T H E O P T I M I Z A T I O N
ROUTINE. S E E S U B R O U T I N E "VARPRC" F O R I N F O R M A T I O N
IPRINT=l

C
C
C
C

T H E W E G H T I N G F A C T O R S F O R T H E F U N C T I O N N E E D E D I N " VARPRO" A R E
EVALUATED

60

&

D O 6 0 LMKz1,NDATA
W(LMK)=l.
LEKGTH=2WLAYER+2
C A L L VARPRO(NLAYER,NLAYER,NDATA,NDATAtLENGTH,l,T,CSTAR,W,
ADA,AA,IPRINT,YtXYpIERR)

149

70
X
C
C
C
C

W R I T E ( 6 r70 1
FORMAT('1',2X,'LAYER
'KH/SUM(KH)',/)

NO~'~7X~'POROSITY.THICKNESS'~l2X,

C A L C U L A T E THE PARAEETRES OF THE LAYERS FROM THE COMPUTED L I N E A R


AND N D N - L I N E A R PARAMETERS
DO 90 I O P T = l , N L A Y E R
KHJ =XY(IOPT)/Y(IOPT)

PHIHJ=XY(IOPT)~Y(IOPT)/Y(IOPT)
WRITE(6,80 )IOPTtPHItiJeKHJ
I F (PHIHJ.LT.O.)GO
TO 2 0 4

80

FORMAT(6X~IZ~l4X,FlO.6,16X~F10.6)

90

CONTINUE
WRITE(6,lOO)
FORMAT('l',lX,'VOLUME

100
C
C
C
C

PRODUCED,

BBLS',

XI

CON ENTR T I O N ,

PPM',/

A MATCH TO THE F I E L D DATA W I T H I N T H E S P E C I F I E D RANGE OF VOLUMES


AND D E S I R E D NUMBER OF P O I N T S I S GENERATED

DELTAP=(VTMAX-VTMIN)/NOTPUT
NOTPT=NOTPUT+l
DO 1 8 0 I K = l , N O T P T

VOBSRV=(IK-l)*DELTAP+VTMIN
V P A T T = V 0 9 S RV EFR A C
C A L L FUNCCYpVPATT , C P H I H i K L A Y E R )
SUMC=O.
DO 1 1 0 M L = l , N L A Y E R
110

120
183
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

200

SUMC=SUMC+XY(ML)*CPHIH(ML)
C 0 N C EN = F E A C/ FA C T 0 R*S UMC
KRITE(6rl20)VOBSRV,CONCEN
FORMAT(5X,F9.2,20X,FlO.6)
CONTINUE
"NLAYERql VOLUMES CORRESPOtiDING TO THE PEAK VOLUNES FROM THE
C O K S T I T U T I N G LAYERS ARE CONPUTED.
THE D I F F E R E N C E BETNEEN T H E
I N P U T E D PEAK VOLUMES AND THE COMPUTED PEAK VOLUMES IS THE
AROUNT OF S H I F T GENERATED UPON A D D I N G THE LAYER RESPONSES TO
FRODUCE AN OVERAL TRACER BREAKTHROUGH CURVE
WRITE(6,200)
FORMAT(//,lX,'SELECTED
DO 2 0 1 I J I = l , N L A Y E R

PEAK VOLUME',5X,'COMPUTED

PEAK VOLUME',/)

VTMAXP(IJI)=VTMAXP(IJI)/FRAC
20 1
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VCAL=AREAxSI.J*VPDPiXP / 5 . 6 1 5 / Y ( I J I )
VMXCAL=VCAL/FRAC
W R I T E (6,202)VTMAXP(IJI),VMXCAL
FO R N A T ( 7 X ,F 7 - 1 ,18 X ,F 7 1 1
GO TO 3 0 0
WRITE(68205)
FORMAT(//,ZX,'A
LAYER PARAMETER I S N E G A T I V E , ' , / , 2 X , ' P R O D A B L Y
& S E L E C T E D PEAK VOLUMES ARE NOT GOOD',//)
STOP
END

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SUBROUTINE F U N C ( V A R B L E t V T , G A M A , N L A Y E R )
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T H I S S U B R O U T I N E COMPUTES THE G A M A ( J , I )

- 150 -

FOR A G I V E N TOTAL VOLUME

THE

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INJECTED. WHERE, GAMMA C O R R E S P O N D TO T H E PHI(J,I) F U N C T I O N I N


T H E R O U T I N E U S E S T H E E Q U A T I O N S OF T A C E R
S U B R O U T I N E "VARPRO".
B R E A K T H R O U G H C U R V E FROM A D E V E L O P E D FIVE- SPOT I N C O N J U C T I O N
W I T H T H E C Q R R E C T I O N F A C T O R S TO E V A L U A T E T H E T R A C E R B R E A K T H R O U G H
FROM A PATTERN.
T H E NON- LINEAR P A R A M E T E R S
V A R B L E = KJ/(PHf)J*SUM(KH),
VT = TOTAL P O R E V O L U M E S I N J E C T E D I N T O T H E P A T T E R N
AT LJHICH GAMA W I L L B E C A L C U L A T E D
NLAYER = N U M D E R O F L A Y E R S
OUTPUT:
GAMA = V A L U E OF GAMA AT VT. I F T H I S V A L U E I S MULTIP L I E D BY TtlE J T H NON- LINEAR PARftFlETER, T R A C E R
C O N C E N T R A T I O N FOR LAYER J AT T O T A L V O L U M E O F
V T , I S OBTAINED.
INPUT:

I M P L I C I T REAL*8 (A-HPO-2)
REAL*8 K,KP
DIMENSION Y S I G H ( l 1 0 ) ~ V P D B T ( 1 1 0 ~ ~ V A R B L E ~ N L A Y E R ) ~ G A M A ~ l 5 ~
DIMENSION FS(lOl),VTMAXP(15)
CoririoN IPARIYSIGH,V P D B T
COMMON /PARK/K,KPtVTMAXP,VPDMXP,EABT5,EABTP1FM,FP
C 0FlM 0N 1F 0EM 1A R E A S14 ,A A L F A 5 ,T R ,N ,N M H 1 ,H 2
PI=4.*DATAN(l.DO)
DO 55 IJZ1,NLAYER
VPDPAT=5.615*VT*VARBLE(IJ)/(AREA*SW)
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P O R E VOLUFIES I N J E C T E D I N T O A N E Q U I V A L E N T FIVE- SPOT A R E C A L C U L A T E D


FROPl T H E P O R E V O L U M E S I N J E C T E D I N T O A P A T T E R N

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D I M E N S I O N L E S S TRACER CONCENTRATIONS, CD, FROM A D E V E L O P E D


H O K O G E H E O U S FIVE- SPOT A R E COrlPUTED
FS( 1 )=O.
DO 80 J=l,N
PVDIFF=(VPDBT(J)-VFD5)aw2

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80

50
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EX=-K*KP*KPsAALFA5*PVDIFF/(PI*PI*YSIGH(J))
IF(EX.LT.-170.DO)GO
TO 4 0
FS(J+l)=DEXP(EX)/DfQRT(YSIGH(J))
GO T O 80
FS(J+l)=O.DO
CONTINUE
CALL INTGRL(N,Hl,FS,VOLl)
DO 9 0 J=N,NM
PVDIFF=(VPDBT(J)-VPD5)**2
EX=-K*KPsKPsAALFA5xPVDIFF/(PI*PI*YSIGH(J))
IF(EX.LT.-170.DO)GO
T O 50
FS(J+l-N)=DEXP(EX)/DSQRT(YSIGH(J))
G O T O 90
FS(J+l-N)=O.DO
CONTINUE
CALL INTGRL(NIH2,FS,VOLP)
VOL=VOLl+VOL2
IF(VOL.GT.1.D-70)GO
T O 115
GAMA(IJ)=O.DO
G O TO 55

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VALUES O F "GAMA" FOR A F I V E - S P O T AXE EVALUATED

THE COMPUTED "GAMA" VALUES FOR THE F I V E - S P O T ARE CONVERTED


TO THOSE CORRESPONDING TO A PATTERN B Y U S I N G THE CORRECTION
FACTORS, F M AND F P .

GAMA(IJ)=GAMA(IJ)*FMSDSQRT(FP)
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CONTINUE
RETURN
END

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SUBROUTINE
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DFUNC(VARBLE,VT,DGAMA,NLAYER)

T H I S SUBROUTINE CONPUTES D E R I V A T I V E O F THE GAMA F U N C T I O N W I T H


RESPECT TO N O N - L I N E A R PARAKETERS FOR EACH LAYER.
VARBLE
VT

NLAYER
OUTPUT : DGAMA

INPUT:

=
=

KJ/(PHI)J*SUM(KH),
THE N O N - L I N E A R PARAMETERS
TOTAL PORE VOLUMES I N J E C T E D I N T O T H E PATTERN
AT WHICH GAKA W I L L B E CALCULATED
KUMBER O F LAYERS
D E R I V A T I V E OF THE GAMA F U N C T I O N W I T H RESPECT
TO THE N O N - L I N E R PARAMETER COMPUTED AT TOTAL
VOLUME I N J E C T E D , VT.

I M P L I C I T REALSS ( A - H , O - Z )
REALxS K t K P
D I t l E N S I O N YSIGHC I 1 0 1 t V P D B T ( 1 1 0 1 , V A R B L E ( N L A Y E R ) ,DGANA( 1 5 )
D I P l E t < S I O N FS( I 3 1 ) , V T M A X P ( 1 5 )
COI.I;ION / P A R / Y S I G H , VPDST
COPIMON / P A R K / K , K P , V T M A X P t V P D M X P , E A B T 5 ~ E A U T P , F M , F P
COMMON / F O ~ M / A R E A , S W , A A L F A 5 , T R , N , N ~ N ~ , H l , H 2
P I = 4 . % D A T A N ( 1 .DO)
DO 55 I J z l p N L A Y E R

V?DPAT=5.615*VT*VARBLE(IJ)/(AREA*SN)
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PORE VOLUMES I N J E C T E D I N T O A PATTERN ARE CONVERTED I N T O THOSE


FROM AN E Q U I V A L E N T DEVELOPED F I V E - S P O T

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D E I V A T I V E S OF D I M E N S I O K L E S S TRACER BREAKTHROUGH CURVE FROM A


H3MOGENEOUS F I V E - S P O T ARE COFlPUTED
FSC 1 )=O.
DO 80 J = l r N

PVDIFF=(VPDBT(J)-VPD5)**2
EX=-K*KP*KP*AALFA5*PVDIFF/(PI*PI*YSIGH(J))
IF(EX.LT.-150.DO)GO

T O 40

FS(J+l)=DEXP(EX)/DSQRT(YSIGH(J))*(VPDBT(J)-VPDS)/YSIGH(J)
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GO TO 80
FS(J+l)=O.DO
CONTINUE
CALL INTGRL(N,Hl,FS,VOLl)

- 152 -

DO 90 J=N,NM
PVDIFF=(VPDBT(J)-VPD5)**2
EX=-K*KP*KP*AALFA5*PVDIFF/(PI*PI*YSIGH(J))
IF(EX.LT.-150.DO)GO
TO 5 0
FS(J+l-N)=DEXP(EX)/DSQRT(YSIGH(J))*(VPDBT(J)-VPD5)/YSIGH(J)
GO T O 90
FS(J+l-N)=O.DO
CONTINUE
CALL INTGRL(N,H2,FS,VOL2)
V O L = V O L 1tVOL2
IF(DABS(VOL).GT.l.D-70)GO
T O 115
DGAFtA( IJ )=O. DO
G O T O 55

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90

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D E R I V A T I V E S O F GAMA F U N C T I O N F O R A D E V E L O P E D FIVE- SPOT A R E


CALCULATED

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D E R I V A T I V E S OF GAMA FUNCTION A R E C O N V E R T E D TO T H O S E C O R R E S P O N D I N G
TO T H E P A T T E R N

DGAMA(IJ)=DGAMA(IJ)~(l-EABT5)/(1-EABTP)wFMwDSQRT(FP)
CONTINUE
RETURN
END

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S U B R O U T I N E ADA(LP,NLAYER,NMAXA,NDATA,LENGTH,IPltApINC,T,ALF
,ISEL)
T H I S S U B R O U T I N E S U P P L I E S T H E R E Q U I R E D P A R A M E T R E S FOR S U B R O U T I N E
I V A R P R 0
I M P L I C I T REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)
REAL*S K I K P
DINENSION Y S I G H ( l l O ) ~ V P D B T ( 1 1 0 ~ ~ I N C ( 1 5 ~ 1 6 ~ ~ T ~ N D A T A ~ l ~
D I M E N S I O N A(NDATA,LENGTH),VTMAXP(l5)rC(15),DC(15)rALF(NLAYER)
COMMON /PAR/YSIGH, VPDBT
COMMON /PARK/ K , K P , V T M A X P , V P D M X P , E A B T 5 , E A B T P , F M , F P
COMMON / F O R M / A E E A , S W , A A ? F A 5 ~ T R p N ~ N P l ~ H l ~ H 2

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10
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7

IF(ISEL.EQ.1)GO
TO 10
IF(ISEL.EQ.2)GO T O 20
DO 30 I=l,NDATA
VT=T(Ip 1 )
CALL DFUNC(ALF,VTtDC,NLAYER)
DO 30 J=l,NLAYER
A(I,NLAYER+l+J)=DC(J)
GO TO 100
DO 6 I=l,NLAYER
INC(I,I)=l
DO 7 I=l,NLAYER
ALF(I)=AREA*SW+VPDMXP/5.615/VTMAXP(I)

DO 9 I=l,NDATA
VT=T(I, 1 )

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CALL FUNC(ALFpVT,C,NLAYER)
CALL DFUNC(ALF,VT,DC,NLAYER)
DO 9 J=l,NLAYER
A(I,J)=C(J)
A(I,NLAYER+l+J)=DC(J)
GO TO 100
DO 12 I=l,NDATA
VT=T<I,l)
CALL FUNC(ALF,VT,C,NLAYER)
DO 12 J=l,NLAYER
A ( I p . J 1= C ( J 1
RET U R t i
END

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SUBROUTINE INTGRL(N,H,F,VOL)
THIS SUBROUTINE COMPUTES VALUE O F A N INTEGRAL USING SIMPSON'S

R U L E OF INTEGRATION.
N = NUMBER OF INTERVALS, AN EVEN INTEGER NUMBER
H = INTERVAL S I Z E
F = VALUES OF FUNCTIONS CCMPUTED AT INTERVALS, AN ARRAY
OUTPUT: VOL = VALUE O F T H E INTEGRAL
INPUT:

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IMPLICIT REAL*S (A-H,O-Z)


DIMENSIOIJ F(91)
SUN 1 = O
SUM?=O
N 1 =N/2- 1
D O 5 0 I=l,Nl
S U N 1=SUP11+ F ( 2*I )
SUNZ=SUP12 +F(2*1+1)
SUP1 1=SUM1 +F(N)
VOL = W 3 * ( F( 1 1t F ( N t 1 1t4. *SUM 1 t2. *SUM2)
RETURN
END

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SUBROUTINE GAUSS(UPPER,E,SIGMA)

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THIS SUBROUTINE COMPUTES T H E rcYclTERM IN T H E MIXING L I N E


INTEGRAL. T H E ROUTINE UTILIZES 8- POINT GAUSSIAN QUDRATURE M E T H O D
APPLIED SUCCESSIVELY TO A S E R I E S OF BROKEN INTERVALS.
INPUT: UPPER

= UPPER LIMIT OF T H E INTEGRAL

E = PARAPIETERS OF T H E INTEGRAL = TAN(SIGH)**2


OUTPUT: SIGMA

= VALUE OF T H E INTEGRAL WHICH CORRESPONDS T O


Y ( SI GH 1

IMPLICIT REAL*8 (A-H,O-Z)


DIMENSION W(15),X(15)
F(Y)=DSQRT(Y/((Y*Y+l.)+(Y*Y+E2)*(Y*Y+E)))

E2=E*E
N=8
X(1)=.18343464249565ODO
X(2)=.525532409916329DO
X(3)=.796664774136272DO
X(4)=.960289856497536DO

- 154 -

X(5)=-X(1)
X(6)=-X(2)
X(7)=-X(3)
X(81=-X(4)
W(1)=.362683783378362DO
W ( 2 1 = .3 1 37 0 6 6 4 5877887 DO
W(3)=.222381034453374DO
W(4)=.10122853629037600
W(5)=W( 1 )
W (6 )=N( 2 1
w( 7 j =w( 3)
W( 8)=W(4 1
AINT=O .DO

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FOR V E R Y SMALL VALUES OF "E" (THE EXTREME STRRAMTUBES),


A SINGULARITY. THEREFORE, SMALL INTERVAL
SIZES ARE CHOSEN AROUND THE LOWER LIMIT OF T H E INTEGRAL.

T=O APPROACHES

As0 .DO
B=. 0 l*E
1FCUPPER.LE.B) BZUPPER
SUM=O .DO
DO 10 I=lrN
Y=.5DO+((B+A)+(B-A)~X(I))
SUM=SUMtW( I )*F(Y 1
VALUE=.5DOw(B-A)sSUM
AJNT=AINT+VALUE
IF(UPPER.EQ.B)GO T O 30
A=B
IF(B.GT.1.0) G O T O 50
B=2.ODOSB
GO T O 20
Bz5.DOsB
G O T O 20
SIGMA=(l.DO+E)**l.5*AINT
RETUXN
END

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SUBROUTINE KVALUECMtKM)
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THIS SUBROUTINE COMPUTES THE VALUES O F K(M)


K(M)=COMPLEMENTARY COMPLETE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL OF FIRST KIND
M=INPUT
,KM=OUTPUT
IMPLICIT REAL+8 (A-HpO-2)
REALE8 M,Ml,KM
Ml=l .DO-M
A0=1.38629436112DO
Al=.09666344259DO
A2=.03590092383DO
A3=.03742563713DO
A4=.01451196212DO
BO=.5DO
BlS.12498593597DO
B2=.06880248576DO
83=.03328355346DO
B4=.00441787012DO
X=AOtAl*MltA2~ill**2+A3*Rl**3+A4*~l**4
Y=BO+B1*M1+B2~M1+*2+B3*~1**3+B4*Ml**4

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KM=X+Y*DLOG(l./Ml)
RETURN
END
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S U B R O U T I N E ELLEP(Y,Z,A)
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T H I S S U B R O U T I N E COMPUTES INCOPIPLETE ELLIPTIC INTEGRALN F(PH1,k)


P H I I S T H E ARGUMEl4T A N D k IS T H E MODULUS. T H E M O D U L U S IS EQUAL
T O THE, S Q U A F E ROOT OF T H E PARAMETER.
INPUT: Y = ARGUMENT O F T H E ELLIPTIC FUNCTION
2 = PARAMETER O F T H E ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL
A = V A L U E O F T H E ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL
T H E R O U T I N E U S E S LANDENS DECENDING TRANSFORMATION. FOR R E F E R E N C E
S E E ABRAMOWITZ, P A G E
IMPLICIT REAL*S (A-HvO-2)
REAL*S K,Kl,KP
TOL=1 .D-4
PI=4.*DATAN(l.D0)
W = 1 .DO
x=Y
K=DSQRT(Z)
Kl=P.SDSQRT(K)/(l+K)
X=.5+(X+DARSIN(K*DSIN(X)))
QE=DARSIN(Kl)
QE=QEs18D./PI
w=2.w/( 1+K)

IF((90.-QE).LE.TOL)GO
K=K1

T O 30

G O T O 15
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A=WsDLOG(DTAN(PI/4+X/2))
RETURN
END

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S U E R O U T I N E VARPRO ( L , NL, N, NMAX, LPP2, IV, T, Y, W , ADA, A,
X IPRINT, ALF, BETA, IERR)
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GIVEN A SET OF N OBSERVATIONS, CONSISTING OF VALUES Y(1)r


Y(2),
t Y(N)
O F A DEPENDENT V A R I A B L E Y, W H E R E Y(1)
CORRESPONDS T O T H E IV INDEPENDENT VARIABLE(S1 T(I,l), T ( I , 2 ) ,
..., T(I,IV), VARPEO ATTEMPTS TO C O M P U T E A W E I G H T E D LEAST
SQUARES FIT T O A FUNCTION ETA ( T H E 'MODEL') NtiICH I S A LINEAR
COMB I N AT I ON
L
ETA(ALF, BETA; T ) = S U M BETA * PHI CALF; T) + P H I
(ALF; 1)
J=1
J
J
L+ 1

...

O F NONLINEAR FUNCTIONS PHICJ) (E.G., A S U N O F EXPONENTIALS AND/


OR GAUSSIANS).
THAT IS, DETERMINE T H E LINEAR P A R A M E T E R S
BETACJ) A N D T H E VECTOR O F NONLINEAR P A R A M E T E R S ALF B Y MINIMIZING
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NOKM(RES1DUAL)

N
SUN
1=1

(Y

ETACALF, BETA; T 1)
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T H E (L+l)-ST T E R N IS OPTIONAL, A N D IS U S E D WHEN IT I S D E S I R E D


T O FIX O N E OR M O R E O F T H E BETA'S (RATHER THAN LET T H E M B E

- 156 -

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DETERMINED).

NOTES :
A)
THE ABOVE PROBLEM I S ALSO REFERRED TO AS ' M U L T I P L E
NONLINEAR REGRESSION'.
FOR USE I N S T A T I S T I C A L E S T I M A T I O N ,
VARPRO RETURNS THE RESIDUALS, THE COVARIANCE M A T R I X OF THE
L I N E A R AND NOIILINFAR PARAPIETERS, AND THE ESTIPiATED VARIANCE O F
THE OBSERVATIONS.
B ) 'AN ETA OF THE ABOVE FORM I S CALLED 'SEPARABLE'.
THE
CASE OF A NONSEPARABLE ETA CAN B E HANDLED BY S E T T I N G L = 0
AND U S I N G P H I ( L + l ) .
C ) VARPRO MAY ALSO B E USED TO SOLVE L I N E A R LEAST SQUARES
PROBLEMS ( I N THAT CASE NO I T E R A T I O N S ARE PERFORMED).
SET
NL = 0 .
D)
THE M A I N ADVANTAGE O F VARPRO OVER OTHER LEAST SQUARES
PROGRAPlS I S THAT NO I N I T I A L GUESSES ARE NEEDED FOR THE L I N E A R
PARAMETERS.
NOT ONLY DOES T H I S M A K E I T E A S I E R TO USE, BUT I T
OFTEN LEADS TO FASTER CONVERGENCE.

D E S C R I P T I O N O F PARAMETERS
L
NL
N

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NUMBER OF L I N E A R PARAMETERS BETA (MUST B E .GE. 0).


NUFIBER O F NONLINEAR F'ARAMETERS A L F (MUST B E .GE. 0).
NUMBER O F OBSERVATIONS.
N MUST B E GREATER THAN 1 + NL
( I . E . t THE HLPIBER O F ODSERVhTIONS MUST EXCEED THE
NUrlSER OF PARAPIETERS)
NUllBER O F INOEt'ENDEKT V A R I A B L E S T .
T(It J)
REAL N BY I V M A T R I X OF INDEPENDENT V A R I A B L E S .
COHTAINS THE VALUE OF THE I - T H OBSERVATION OF THE J - T H
INDEF E N D Et: T V AI: IA E L E.
N-VECTOR O F OBSERVATIONS, ONE FOR EACH ROW OF T .
N-VECTOR OF NONNEGATIVE WEIGHTS.
S H O U L D B E SET TO 1 ' s
I F LJEIGHTS ARE NOT D E S I R E D .
I F VAEIANCES OF THE
I N D I V I D U A L O D S C R V A T I O ! 4 S ARE KNOldti, W ( I)SHOULD B E SET
TO l . / V A R I A N C E ( I ) .
NL X ( L + 1 ) INTEGER I N C I D E N C E M A T R I X .
INCCK, J ) = 1 I F
NON- LINEAR PARAMETER ALFCK) APPEARS I N THE J - T H
( T H E PROGRAM SETS A L L OTHER INCCK, J )
FUNCTION P H I C J ) .
TO ZERO.)
I F P H I ( L + l ) I S INCLUDED I N THE MODEL,
THE APPROPRIATE ELEMENTS OF THE ( L + O - S T COLUMN SHOULD
B E SET TO 1 ' s .
I N C I S NOT NEEDED WHEN L
0 OR NL = 0 .
CAUTION:
THE DECLARED ROLJ D I M E N S I O N O F I N C ( I N ADA)
MUST CURRENTLY B E SET TO 1 2 .
SEE ' R E S T R I C T I O N S ' BELOW.
THE DECLARED ROW D I M E N S I O N OF THE M A T R I C E S A AND T.
I T MUST B E AT LEAST MAXCN, 2 * N L + 3 ) .
L + P + 2 , WHERE P I S THE NUflBER OF ONES I N THE M A T R I X I N C .
THE DECLARED COLUMN DIMENSION OF A riusi BE A T L E A S T
LPP2.
( I F L = 0 , SET L P P 2 = N L + 2 . I F NL = 0 , SET L P P Z
Lt2.1
REAL M A T R I X OF S I Z E MAX(N, 2 * N L + 3 ) B Y L + P + 2 .
ON I N P U T
I T CONTAINS THE P H I ( J ) ' S AND T H E I R D E R I V A T I V E S ( S E E
BELOW).
ON OUTPUT, THE F I R S T L + N L ROWS AND COLUMNS OF
A W I L L CONTAIN AN APFROXIPlATION TO THE (WEIGHTED)
COVARIANCE M A T R I X AT THE SOLUTION ( T H E F I R S T L ROWS
CORRESPOND TO THE L I N E A R PARAMETERS, THE LAST NL TO THE

I V
T

Y
W

INC

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VARPRO REQUIRES F I R S T D E R I V A T I V E S OF THE P H I ' S .

HMAX
LPP2

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NONLINEAR ONES), COLUMN L + N L + l W I L L CONTAIN THE


WEIGHTED R E S I D U A L S CY
ETA), A(1, L + N L + 2 ) M I L L CONTAIN
THE ( E U C L I D E A N ) NORM OF THE IJEIGHTED R E S I D U A L , AND
A ( 2 r L + N L + 2 ) W I L L CONTAIN AN E S T I N A T E OF THE (WEIGHTED)
VARIANCE OF THE OBSERVATIONS, NORM(RESIDUAL)**2/
(N
L
NL).
I N P U T INTEGER CONTROLLING P R I N T E D OUTPUT.
I F IPRINT I S
P O S I T I V E , THE NOHLINEAR PARAMETERS, THE NORM OF THE
R E S I D U A L , AND THE MARQUARDT PARANETER W I L L B E OUTPUT
EVERY I P R I N T - T H I T E R A T I O N ( A N D I N I T I A L L Y , AND AT THE
FINAL ITERATION).
THE L I N E A R PARAMETERS W I L L B E
P R I N T E D AT THE F I N A L I T E R A T I O N .
ANY ERROR MESSAGES
W I L L ALSO B E P R I N T E D .
( I P R I N T = 1 I S RECOMMENDED AT
F I R S T . ) I F I P R I N T = 0 , ONLY THE F I N A L Q U A N T I T I E S W I L L
B E P R I N T E D , AS WELL AS ANY ERROR MESSAGES.
I F IPRINT =
- 1t N O P R I N T I N G W I L L B E DONE.
THE USER I S THEN
RESPONSIBLE FOR CHECKING THE PARAMETER I E R R FOR ERRORS.
NL- VECTOR OF E S T I M A T E S OF NONLINEAR PARAMETERS
(INPUT).
ON OUTFUT I T W I L L CONTAIN OPTIMAL VALUES OF
THE NONLINEAR PARAMETERS.
L- VECTOR OF L I N E A R PARAMETERS (OUTPUT O N L Y ) .
INTEGER ERROR FLAG ( O U T P U T ) :
.GT. 0
SUCCESSFUL CONVERGENCE, I E R R I S THE NUMBER OF
I T E R A T I O K S TAKEN.
- 1 TERMINATED F O R TOO NANY I T E R A T I O N S .
- 2 TERMINATED FOX I L L - C O N D I T I O N I N G (MAEQUARDT
PARANETER TOO LARGE.)
ALSO S E E I E R R = -8 BELOW.
-4 I N P U T ERROR I N PARAllETER N, L , NL, L P F Z , OR NMAX.
-3
I t i C M A T R I X I P i f R O F E R L Y S P E C I F I E D , OR P DISPtG!?EES
W I T H LPl"2.
- 6 A LI'EIGHT L!A5 NEGATIVE.
- 7 'COHSTANT' COLUMN W A S CO:lFUTED MOiZE THAN ONCE.
-S CATASTROr'WIC F A I L U R E
A COLLIMN OF THE A M A T R I X HAS
BECOYE ZERO.
SEE 'CONVERGENCE F A I L U R E S ' BELOLJ.

IPRINT

ALF

BETA
IERR

( I F I E R R .LE. - 4 , THE LIIZEAR PARAMETERS,


M A T R I X , ETC. ARE NOT RETURNED.)

COVARIANCE

SUBROUTINES REQUIRED
N I N E SUBROUTINES, DFA, ORFACt, ORFACP, BACSUBt POSTPR, COVI
XNORM, I N I T , AND VARERR ARE PROVIDED.
I N A D D I T I O N , THE USER
MUST P R O V I D E A SUBROUTINE (CORRESPONDING TO THE ARGUPlENT ADA)
WHICH, G I V E N ALF, W I L L EVALUATE THE FUNCTIONS P H I C J ) AND T H E I R
P A R T I A L D E R I V A T I V E S D P H I ( J ) / D A L F ( K ) , AT THE SAMPLE P O I N T S
T(I>.
T H I S R O U T I N E MUST B E DECLARED 'EXTERNAL' I N THE C A L L I N G
PROGRAM.
I T S C A L L I N G SEQUENCE I S
SUBROUTINE ADA ( L + 1 ,
ISEL)

NL,

N,

NMAXt LPPP,

I V t A,

INC,

T , ALF,

THE USER SHOULD M O D I F Y THE EXAMPLE SUBROUTINE 'ADA'


ELSEWHERE) FOR H I S OWN FUNCTIONS.

(GIVEN

THE VECTOR SAMPLED FUNCTIONS P H I C J ) SHOULD B E STORED I N THE


F I R S T N ROWS AND F I R S T L + 1 COLUMNS OF THE M A T R I X A, 1 . E . t
A ( I , J ) SHOULD C O K T A I N P H I C J , ALF; T C I t l ) , T ( I , 2 ) ,
p
T(I,IV)),
I = 1,
N; J = 1 ,
, L (OR L + 1 ) . THE ( L + l ) - S T
COLUNN OF A CONTAINS P H I ( L + l ) I F P H I ( L + l ) IS I N THE MODEL,
OTHERLJISE I T I S RESERVED FOR WORKSPACE.
THE 'CONSTANT' FUNC-

...,

...

- 158 -

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T I O N S (THESE ARE FUNCTIONS P H I C J ) WHICH DO NOT DEPEND UPON ANY


NONLINEAR PARAMETERS ALF, E . G .
T ( I ) * S J ) ( I F ANY) MUST APPEAR
F I R S T , S T A R T I N G I N COLUFIN 1.
THE COLUiiN N-VECTORS OF NONZERO
D ALFCK) SHOULD B E STORED
PARTIAL DERIVATIVES D P H I C J )
SEQUENTIALLY I N THE WATRIX A I N COLUrlNS L + 2 THROUGH L + P + l .
THE ORDER IS

O M I T T I N G COLUMNS O F D E R I V A T I V E S WHICH ARE ZERO, AND O M I T T I N G


P H I ( L + 1 ) COLUBNS I F P H I ( L + O I S NOT I N THE MODEL.
NOTE THAT
THE L I N E A R PARAMETERS BETA ARE NOT USED I N THE M A T R I X A .
COLUMN L + P + 2 I S RESERVED FOR WORKSPACE.
THE CODING
ISEL

=
=

2
3

O F ADA SHOULD B E ARRANGED SO THAT:


(WHICH OCCURS THE F I R S T T I N E ADA IS CALLED) MEANS:
A.
F I L L I N THE I N C I D E R C E M A T R I X I N C
B. STGRE ANY CONSTANT P H I ' S I N A .
C.
CORPUTE NONCONSTANT P H I ' S AND P A R T I A L D E R I V A TIVES.
MEANS COMPUTE ONLY TI!E NONCONSTANT FUNCTIONS P H I
MEANS COXPUTE ONLY T t i E D E R I V A T I V E S

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(WHEN THE PROBLEM IS L I N E A R ( N L


D E E I V A T I V E S ARE NOT NEEDED. 1

0) ONLY ISEL

1 I S USED1 AND

R E S T R I C T 1ONS
THE SUBROUTINES DPA, I t t I T (AND ADA) CONTAIN THE LOCALLY
DIMENSIONED PlATRIX I E I C , KHDSE D I M E I I S I O I I S ARE CURRENTLY SET FOE
MAXIMA O F L t l = 1 6 , NL = 15.
T l i E Y KUST B E CHANGED F O R LARGER
PROBLEMS.
DATA PLACED I N ARRAY A IS OVERWCITTEN ( ' D E S T R O Y E D ' ) .
THE PROGRAM
DATA PLACED I N ARRAYS T, Y AND I N C IS L E F T I N T A C T .
RUNS I N WATFIV, EXCEPT WHEN L = 0 O R NL = 0 .
I T I S ASSUMED THAT THE M A T R I X P H I ( J 1 ALF; T ( 1 ) ) HAS F U L L
COLUMN RANK.
T H I S MEANS THAT THE F I R S T L COLUMNS O F THE M A T R I X
A MUST B E L I N E A R L Y INDEPENDENT.
OPTIONAL NOTE:
AS W I L L B E NOTED FROM THE SAMPLE SUBPROGRAM
ADA, THE D E R I V A T I V E S D P H I ( J ) / D ALFCK) ( I S E L
3 ) MUST B E
COrlPUTED INDEPENDENTLY OF THE FUNCTIONS P H I C J ) ( I S E L = 21,
S I N C E THE FUNCTION VALUES ARE OVERldRITTEN AFTER ADA I S CALLED
W I T H I S E L = 2.
T H I S IS DONE TO M I N I M I Z E S'IORAGE, AT THE POSS I B L E EXPENSE OF SOME RECOMPUTATION ( S I N C E THE FUNCTIONS AND
DERIVATIVES FREQUENTLY H A V E SOME CoririoN SUBEXPRESSIONS).
TO
REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF COMPUTATION AT THE EXPENSE OF SOME
STORAGE, CREATE A M A T R I X B OF D I M E N S I O N NMAX BY L + t I N ADA, AND
AFTER THE COMPUTATION OF THE P H I ' S ( I S E L = 2 1 , COPY THE VALUES
I N T O B.
THESE VALUES CAN THEN B E USED TO CALCULATE THE D E R I V ATIVES ( I S E L = 3 ) .
( T H I S MAKES USE OF THE FACT THAT WHEN A
CALL TO ADA W I T H ISEL = 3 FOLLOWS A CALL W I T H I S E L = 2 , THE
A L F S ARE THE SAME.)

- 159 -

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TO CONVERT TO OTHER MACHINES, CHANGE THE OUTPUT U N I T I N THE


THE
DATA STATEMENTS I N VARPRO, DPA, POSTPR, AND VARERR.
PROGRAM HAS BEEN CHECKED FOR P O R T A B I L I T Y BY THE B E L L LABS PFORT
VERIFIER.
FOR MACHINES MITHOUT DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N HARDWARE, I T
MAY BE D E S I R A B L E TO CONVERT TO S I N G L E P R E C I S I O N .
T H I S CAN DE
DONE B Y CHANGING ( A ) THE DECLARATIONS 'DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N ' TO
( B ) THE PATTERN ' . D '
TO ' . E '
I N THE ' D A T A ' STATEMENT I N
'REAL',
VARPRO, ( C ) DSIGN, DSQRT AND DABS TO S I G N , SQRT AND ABS,
RESPECTIVELY, AND ( D ) DEXP TO EXP I N THE SAMPLE PROGRAMS ONLY.
NOTE ON I N T E R P R E T A T I O N OF COVARIANCE M A T R I X

FOR USE I N S T A T I S T I C A L E S T I M A T I O N ( M U L T I P L E NONLINEAR


REGRESSION) VARPRO RETURNS THE COVARIANCE M A T R I X OF THE L I N E A R
AND NONLINEAR PARAMETERS.
T H I S M A T R I X W I L L BE USEFUL ONLY I F
THE USUAL S T A T I S T I C A L ASSUMPTIONS HOLD:
AFTER WEIGHTING, THE
ERRORS I N THE OBSERVATIONS ARE INDEPENDENT AND NORMALLY D I S T R I BUTED, W I T H MEAN ZERO AND THE SAME VARIANCE.
I F THE ERRORS DO
NOT HAVE MEAN ZERO (OR ARE UNKNO!.!N), THE PROGRAM N I L L I S S U E A
WARNING MESSAGE (UNLESS I P R I N T . L T . 0 ) AND THE COVARIANCE
M A T R I X W I L L NOT B E V A L I D .
I N THAT CASE, THE MODEL SHOULD B E
ALTERED TO I N C L U D E A CONSTANT TERM ( S E T P H I ( 1 ) = 1 . ) .
NOTE ALSO THAT, I N ORDER FOR T t i E USUAL ASSUMPTIONS TO HOLD,
THE OBSERVATIONS MUST ALL B E O F APPROXIMATELY THE SANE
MAGNITUDE ( I N THE ABSENCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE ERROR OF
EACH OBSERVATION) , OTItEi?L*JISE T l l E VARIANCES W I L L NOT B E THE
SAME.
I F THE OBSERVATIONS ARE NOT THE 5AME S I Z E , T H I S CAN B E
CURED BY WEIGHTING.

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I F T t i E USUAL ASSUMFTIONS HOLD, THE SQUARE ROOTS O F THE


DIAGONALS O F THE COVARIANCE M A T R I X A G I V E THE STANDARD ERROR
S ( 1 ) OF EACH PARAllETER.
D I V I D I t j G A ( I , J ) BY S ( I ) * S ( J ) Y I E L D S
THE CORRELATION M A T R I X O F THE PARAIIETERS.
P R I I j C I P A L AXES AND
CONFIDENCE E L L I P S O I D S CAN BE O B T A I N E D BY PERFORMING AN E I G E H VALUEt'EIGENVECIOR A N A L Y S I S ON A.
0I:E StiOULD CALL THE E I S P A C K
PROGRAM TRED2, FOLLOLdED BY T Q L 2 (OR USE THE E I S P A C CONTROL
PROGRAM).
CONVERGENCE F A I L U R E S
I F CONVERGENCE F A I L U R E S OCCUR, F I R S T CHECK FOR INCORRECT
CODING OF THE SUBROUTINE ADA.
CHECK E S P E C I A L L Y THE A C T I O N OF
I F THESE
I S E L , AtiD THE COMPUTATION OF THE P A R T I A L D E R I V A T I V E S .
ARE CORRECT, TRY SEVERAL S T A R T I N G GUESSES FOR A L F .
I F ADA
I S CODED CORRECTLY, AND I F ERROR RETURNS I E R R = - 2 OR -8
P E R S I S T E N T L Y OCCUR, T H I S I S A S I G N OF I L L - C O N D I T I O N I N G , WHICH
MAY B E CAUSED BY SEVERAL THINGS.
ONE I S POOR S C A L I N G OF THE
PARAMETERS; ANOTHER I S AN UNFORTUNATE I N I T I A L GUESS FOR THE
PARAMETERS, S T I L L ANOTHER IS A POOR CHOICE OF THE MODEL.

ALGOR I THM
THE R E S I D U A L R IS M O D I F I E D TO INCORPORATE, FOR ANY F I X E D
ALF, THE OPTIMAL L I N E A R PARAMETERS FOR THAT A L F .
I T I S THEN
P O S S I B L E TO M I N I M I Z E ONLY ON THE NONLINEAR PARAMETERS.
AFTER
THE OPTIMAL VALUES OF THE NONLINEAR PARAMETERS HAVE BEEN DETERMINED, THE L I N E A R PARAMETERS CAN L E RECOVERED B Y L I N E A R LEAST
SQUARES TECHNIQUES ( S E E REF. 1 ) .

- 160 -

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T t i E M I N I M I Z A T I O N I S BY A M O D I F I C A T I O N OF OSBORNE'S ( R E F . 3)
M O D I F I C A T I O N OF THE LEVENBERG-MARQUARDT ALGORITHM.
I N S T E A D OF
SOLVING THE NORMAL EQUATIONS W I T H M A T R I X

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T
(J J

+ NU

D),

WHERE

D(ETA)/D(ALF),

STABLE ORTHOGONAL (HOUSEHOLDER) R E F L E C T I O N S ARE USED ON A


M O D I F I C A T I O N OF THE M A T R I X
(
J
>
(-----1 ,
( NU*D 1
WHERE D I S A DIAGONAL M A T R I X C O N S I S T I N G OF THE LENGTHS OF THE
COLUMNS OF J.
T H I S MARQUARDT S T A B I L I Z A T I O N ALLOWS THE R O U T I N E
TO RECOVER FROM SOME RANK D E F I C I E N C I E S I N THE J A C O B I A N .
OSBORNE'S E M P I R I C A L STRATEGY FOR CHOOSING THE MARQUARDT PARAMETER HAS PROVEN REASONABLY SUCCESSFUL I N P R A C T I C E .
(GAUSSNENTON W I T H STEP CONTROL CAN BE ODTAINED BY M A K I N G THE CHANGE
I N D I C A T E D BEFORE THE I N S T R U C T I O N LABELED 5 ) .
A D E S C R I P T I O N CAN
BE FOUND I N REF. ( 3 1 1 AND A FLOW CHART I N ( 2 1 , P. 22.
FOR REFERENCE,
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

SEE

GENE H. GOLUB AND V . PEREYRA, ' T H E D I F F E R E N T I A T I O N OF


PSEUDO- INVERSES AND NONLINEAR LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS WHOSE
V A R I A B L E S SEPARATE,' S I A M J . NUMER. ANAL. 1 0 , 413-432
(1973).
, SAME T I T L E , STANFORD C.S. REPORT 7 2 - 2 6 1 , F E B . 1 9 7 2 .
OSBORNE, FIICHAEL R.,
' S O K E ASFECTS OF RON- LINEAE LEAST
SQUARES CALCULATIONS,' I N LOOTSrlA, ED., 'KUNERICAL METHODS
FOE N o l i - L I N E A R O f T I M I Z A T I O N , ' ACADErlIC PRESS, LONDON, 1 9 7 2 .
K R O G H , FRED, ' E F F I C I E N T I r l P L E M E N T A T I O N OF A V A R I A B L E FROJ E C T I O N ALGORITIiFl FOR KOtiLINEAR LEAST SQUARES P R O L L E N S ~'
coriri. A C M 1 7 , PP. 1 6 7 - 1 6 9 ( M A R C H , 1 9 7 4 ) .
KAUFMAN, L I N D A , ' A V A R I A B L E PROJECTION METHOD FOR S O L V I N G
SEPARABLE NONLINEAR LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS', B . 1 . T .
15,
49- 57 ( 1975).
DRAPER, N. t AND SMITH, H. t A P P L I E D REGRESSION A N A L Y S I S ,
W I L E Y , N.Y.,
1 9 6 6 (FOR S T A T I S T I C A L INFORMATION ONLY).
C . LAlJSON AND R . HANSON, S O L V I N G LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS,
PRENTICE- HALL, ENGLEWOOD C L I F F S , N . J., 1 9 7 4 .

------

JOHN BOLSTAD
COXPUTER SCIENCE DEPT.,
STANFORD U N I V E R S I T Y
JANUARY, 1 9 7 7

SERRA HOUSE

..................................................................
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N A(NMAX, L P P Z ) , BETACL), A L F ( N L ) , TCNMAX, I V ) ,
2 W(N), Y ( N ) , ACUM, EPS1, GNSTEP, NU, PRJRES, R, RNEW, XNORM
INTEGER B l t OUTPUT
LOGICAL S K I P
EXTERNAL ADA
I T M A X 1281, OUTPUT / 6 /
DATA E P S l I 1 . D - 6 1 ,

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THE FOLLOWING TKO PARAMETERS ARE USED I N THE CONVERGENCE


TEST:
E P S l I S AN ABSOLUTE AND R E L A T I V E TOLERANCE FOR THE

161

NORM OF THE PROJECTION OF THE R E S I D U A L ONTO THE RANGE OF THE


JACOBIAN OF THE V A R I A B L E PROJECTION FUNCTIONAL.
I T M A X I S THE MAXIMUM NUFiDER OF FUNCTION AND D E R I V A T I V E
EVALUATIONS ALLOWED.
CAUTION:
E P S l MUST NOT B E
SET SMALLER THAN 1 0 T I M E S THE U N I T ROUND-OFF OF THE MACHINE.

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c---------------------------'-"""""--------------------------

CALL L I B MONITOR FROM VARPRO, MAINTENANCE NUMBER 5 0 9 , DATE 77178


C**fPLEASE DON'T REMOVE OR CHANGE THE ABOVE C A L L . I T I S YOUR ONLY
C*S*PROTECTION AGAINST YOUR U S I N G AN OUT- OF- DATE OR INCORRECT
C***VERSION
OF THE ROUTINE. THE L I B R A R Y MONITOR REMOVES T H I S CALL,
C***SO I T ONLY OCCURS ONCE, ON THE F I R S T ENTRY TO T H I S ROUTINE.

c-----------------------------------------------------------------

IERR = 1
ITER = 0
LP1 = L + 1
B l = L + 2
LNL2 = L + NL + 2
N L P 1 = NL + 1
S K I P = .FALSE.
KODIT = I P R I N T
I F ( I P R I N T . L E . 0 ) MODIT = I T M A X + 2
NU = 0 .
I F GAUSS-NEWTON I S D E S I R E D REMOVE THE NEXT STATEMENT.
NU = 1 .

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b
P

B E G I N OUTER I T E R A T I O N LOOP T O UPDATE A L F .


CALCULATE THE N O R M OF 7 H E R E S I D U A L AND THE D E R I V A T I V E O F
THE M O D I F I E D R E S I D U A L THE F I R S T T I M E , BUT ONLY THE
D E R I V A T I V E I N SUBSEQUENT I T E R A T I O N S .

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5 CALL DPA ( L , N L , N t NMAX, LPPZ, X V t T,


X I P R I N T , A, BETA, A ( 1 , L P l ) , R )
GNSTEP = 1 . 0
ITERlN = 0
I F ( I T E R .GT. 0 ) GO T O 1 0
I F ( N L .EQ. 0 ) GO TO 9 0
I F ( I E R R .NE. 1 ) GO TO 9 9

Y t W,

ALF,

ADA,

IERR,

I F ( I P R I N T .LE. 0) GO TO 1 0
WRITE (OUTPUT, 2 0 7 ) XTERIN, R
WRITE ( OUTPUT , 200) riu
B E G I N TWO-STAGE ORTHOGONAL F A C T O R I Z A T I O N
1 0 CALL O R F A C l ( N L P 1 r NMAXt Np L , I P R I N T , A c t , B 1 ) , P R J R E S t I E R R )
I F ( I E R R . L T . 0 ) GO TO 9 9
IERR = 2
I F (NU .EQ. 0 . ) GO TO 3 0

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B E G I N I N N E R I T E R A T I O N LOOP FOR GENERATING NEW A L F AND


T E S T I N G I T FOR ACCEPTANCE.

25
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C

CALL ORFAC2CNLP1,

NMAX,

NU,

A(l,

Bl))

SOLVE A N L X NL UFPER TRIANGULAR SYSTEM FOR D E L T A - A L F .


THE TRANSFORMED R E S I D U A L ( I N COL. L N L P D F A ) I S OVERWRITTEN B Y THE RESULT DELTA- ALF.

30
35

CALL BACSUB (NMAX, N L I A ( l r B l ) , A ( 1 t


DO 35 K = t , NL
A(K, 8 1 )
= A L F ( K ) + A(K, L N L 2 )

- 162 -

LNL2))

NEW A L F ( K )

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C

ALFCK)

+ DELTA ALFCK)

STEP TO THE NEW P O I N T NE14 ALF, AND COMPUTE THE NEW


NORM OF R E S I D U A L .
NEW A L F I S STORED I N COLUMN B 1 OF A .
CALL DPA ( L j NL, N, NMAX, LPP2, I V t T, Y , W s A t 1 8 B l ) ,
I E R R t I P R I N T j A I BETA, A ( l r L P 1 ) t RNEW)
I F ( I E R R .NE. 2 ) GO TO 9 9
ITER = ITER + 1
ITERIN = ITERIN + 1
S K I P = MOD(ITER, M O D I T ) .NE. 0
I F ( S K I P ) GO TO 4 5
W R I T E (OUTPUT, 2 0 3 ) I T E R
W R I T E (OUTPUT, 2 1 6 ) ( A ( K , B l ) , K = 1, N L )
W R I T E (OUTPUT, 2 0 7 ) I T E R I N , RNEW

40

ADA,

C
I F ( I T E R . L T . I T M A X ) GO TO 50
IERR = - 1
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T , I E R K t 1 )
GI) TO 9 5
I F (RNEW
R . L T . EPS1*(R + 1.DO))

45

50
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GO TO 7 5

RETRACT THE STEP JUST TAKEN


I F (NU .NE.

0.)

GO TO 6 0

GAUSS-NEWTON O P T I O N OIiLY
GNSTEP = O.S*GNSTEP
I F (GtiSTEP . L T . E P S 1 ) GO TO 9 5
DO 5 5 K = 1, NL
A ( K , B 1 ) = ALFCK) + GNSTEP*A(K, L N L Z )
GO T O 4 0
ENLARGE THE KAAQUARDT PARAMETER
NU = 1 . 5 f N U
I F (.NOT. S K I P ) WRITE (OUTPUT, 2 0 6 ) NU
I F ( N U . L E . 1 0 0 . 1 GO TO 6 5
IERR = - 2
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T , I E K R , 1 )
GO TO 95
R E T R I E V E UPPER TRIANGULAR FORM
AND R E S I D U A L OF F I R S T STAGE.
DO 70 K = 19 NL
KSUB = L P 1 + K
DO 70 J = K t N L P l
JSUB = L P 1 + J
JSUB = N L P l + J
A(K, J S U B ) = A ( I S U B , KSUB)
GO TO 25
END OF I N N E R I T E R A T I O N LOOP
ACCEPT THE STEP JUST TAKEN

55
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60

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65

70

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75 R

RNEW

DO 80 K = 1 , NL
80

ALFCK)

A(K,

B1)

C
ACUM
C
C
C
C

GNSTEP*XNORM(NL,

Act,

CALC. NORMCDELTA A L F ) / N O R M ( A L F )
LNL2))/XNORM(NL,
ALF)

I F I T E R I N I S GREATER THAN 1, A STEP WAS RETRACTED DURING


T H I S OUTER I T E R A T I O N .

I F ( I T E R I N .EQ.

1 ) NU

0.5*NU

- 163 -

C
C
C
C
C

I F ( S K I P ) GO T O 85
W R I T E ( O U T P U T , 2 0 0 ) NU
W R I T E (OUTPUT, 208) A C U M
85 I E R R = 3
I F ( P R J R E S .GT. EPSl*(R + 1.DO)) GO T O 5
E N D OF O U T E R I T E R A T I O N L O O P
C A L C U L A T E FINAL Q U A N T I T I E S
C O V A R I A N C E M A T R I X , ETC.

--

LINEAR PARAMETERS, RESIDUALS,

9 0 IERR = ITER
95 I F ( N L .GT. 0) C A L L DPACL, NL, Nt NMAX, LPP2, I V , T, Y , W , ALF,
X ADA, 4 , IPRINT, A, BETA, A C 1 , LPl), R)
C A L L P O S T P R C L , NL, N , NMAX, LNL2, EPSl, R, I P R I N T , ALF, W , A,
X A(1, LPl), B E T A , I E R R )
99 R E T U R N

C
200 FORMAT
203 FOEMAT
206 FORflAT
207 FORMAT
2 0 8 FORMAT
216 F O R M A T
END

(9H
(12HO

N U = t E15.7)
I T E R A T I O N , 14, 2 4 H
NONLINEAR PARAMETERS)
(25H
S T E P R E T R A C T E D , N U =, E15.7)
( I H O , 15, 20H N O R M O F R E S I D U A L = p E15.7)
(34H
N O R M C D E L T A - A L F ) / N O R M C A L F ) =, E12.3)
( l H O , 7E15.7)

C
S U B E O U T I N E O R F A C l C N L P l , NMAX, N, L, I P R I N T , B, F R J R E S , I E R R )
C
C

S T A G E 1:

HOUSEI1OLDER R E D U C T I O N O F

C
C
C

DR

R2 1

R3 1

NL

1,
R4 1

N-L-NL

NL

DE'.

(----.

TO

NL

-1

C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

W H E R E DR = -D(Q2)sY IS T H E D E R I V A T I V E O F T H E M C D I F I E D R E S I D U A L
P R O D U C E D BY D P A , R 2 I S T H E TRANSFORPIED R E S I D U A L F R O M D P A , A N D
DR' I S I N U P P E R T R I A N G U L A R FORI.1 (AS I N REF. (21, P. 18).
D R I S S T O R E D IN ROIdS L + l T O N A N D COLU[lNS L+2 T O L + NL + 1 O F
T H E M A T R I X A (I.E., C O L U M N S 1 T O NL O F T H E M A T R I X B).
R 2 IS
S T O R E D I N C O L U M N L + NL + 2 O F T H E M A T R I X A ( C O L U M N N L + 1 O F
8). F O R K = 1 , 2,
NL, F I N D R E F L E C T I O N I - U * U' / B E T A
W H I C H Z E R O E S B(It K ) , I = L+K+l,
N.

...,

...
....................................................................
)

D O U B L E P R E C I S I O N A C U M , ALPHA, B C N M A X , NLPI), BETA, D S I G N , P R J R E S ,


X Ut X N O R M
C

NL = NLPl
1
NL23 = 2rNL + 3
LPl = L + 1
C
D O 3 0 K = 1 , NL
LPK = L + K
A L P H A = DSIGN(XNORM(Ntl-LPK, B C L P K , K)),
U = BCLPK, K) + A L P H A
BCLPK, K) = U
BETA = ALPHA * U
I F ( A L P H A .NE. 0.0) GO T O 13

164

BCLPK, K ) )

COLUMN IJAS ZERO


IERR = -8
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T ,
GO TO 9 9

L P l + K)

IERR,

C
C

APPLY R E F L E C T I O N S TO R E M A I N I N G COLUPlNS
OF B AND TO R E S I D U A L VECTOR.
13

20

25
30

KPl = K + 1
DO 25 J = KP1, NLf'l
ACUM = 0 . 0
DO 2 0 1 = LPK, N
ACUM = ACUM + B ( I ,
ACUPi = ACUM / BETA
DO 25 I = LPK, N
B(1, J ) = B(1, J )
BCLPK, K ) = - ALPHA

PRJRES
C
C
C
C

XNORM(NL,

B(LP1,

K)

B(I,

K)

B(I,

J)

ACUM

NLP1))

SAVE UPPER TRIANGULAR FORM AND TRANSFORMED R E S I D U A L , FOR USE


I N C A S E A S T E P IS R E T R A C T E D . A L S O COPiFUTE c o L u r i N LENGTHS.
I F ( I E R R .EQ. 4 ) GO TO 9 9
DO 50 K = I t NL
LPK = L + K
DO 4 0 J = K, N L P l
JCJUB = N L P l + J
B(K, J ) = B(LPK, J)
40
BCJSUB, K) = B ( L P K , J )
50
B(r(L23, K) = X N O R ? l ( K p B ( L P I ,

K))

C
9 9 RETURN
END

C
SUBROUTINE O E F A C 2 ( N L P 1 p NMAXt NU, B )
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C

STAGE 2:

S P E C I A L HOUSEHOLDER REDUCTIOH OF
NL

DR'

(-----

N- L- NL

(-----

NL

(NU*D
NL

R3

. -- 1
. R 4 )
. -- I

(DR"
(-----

TO

R5 1
1

. --

. R 4 )

(- - - - -

1
. R 6 )

. --

NL

WHERE DR', R3, AND R4 ARE AS I N ORFAC1, NU IS THE MARQUARDT


PARAPIETER, D IS A DIAGONAL M A T R I X C O N S I S T I N G OF THE LENGTHS OF
IS I N UPPER TRIANGULAR FORM.
THE COLUMNS OF DR', AND DR"
D E T A I L S I N ( 1 1 , PP. 4 2 3 - 4 2 4 .
NOTE THAT THE ( N - L - N L )
BAND OF
ZEROES, AND R4, ARE OMITTED I N STORAGE.

..................................................................
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N ACUM,
X XNORM

ALPHA,

BCNMAX,

NL = N L P l
1
N L 2 = 2*NL
NL23 = NL2 + 3
DO 30 K = 1, NL

- 165 -

NLPl),

BETA,

D S I G N t NU,

UP

KP1 = K + 1
N L P K = NL + K
NLPKMl = NLPK
1
B C N L P K , K) = N U * B(NL23, K)
B(NLp K) = B(K, K)
A L P H A = DSIGN(XNORM(K+lr BCNL, K)), B(K9 K))
U = B(K, K) + A L P H A
BETA = ALPHA * U
B(K, K) = - ALPHA
T H E K-TH R E F L E C T I O N FlODIFIES O N L Y R O W S K,
NL+l, NL+Z,
, NL+K, A N D C O L U M N S K TO NL+l.
D O 30 J = KP1, NLP1
BCNLPK, J ) = 0 .
ACUM = U
B(K,J)
DO 2 0 I = NLP1, N L P K M l
A C U M = A C U M + B(I,K) * B(I,J)
ACUM = ACUM 1 BETA
B(K,J) = B(K,J) - U * A C U M
DO 30 I = NLP1, N L P K
B(I,J) = B(I,J) - B(I,K) * A C U M

...

20

30

C
RETURN
END
C
S U B R O U T I N E D P A ( L t NL, N, N M A X , L P F Z , IV, T, Ye LJ, A L F , ADA, ISEL,
X I P R I K T , A, Ut R, R N O R M )
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

COFlPUTE T H E N O R M O F T H E R E S I D U A L ( I F I S E L = 1 O R 21, O R T H E
(N-L) X NL D E R I V A T I V E O F T H E FlODIFIED R E S I D U A L (N-L) V E C T O R
Q2*Y ( I F I S E L = 1 O R 3). H E R E Q * Pt1I = S , I . E . ,

WHERE Q I S N X N ORTHOGONAL, A N D S I S L X L UPPER TRIANGULAR.


T H E N O R M O F T H E R E S I D U A L = NORPl(RZ), A N D T H E D E S I R E D D E R I V A T I V E
A C C O R D I N G T O REF. (51, I S
D(Q2

Y)

-42

- 1

D(PHI)*

Q1* Y .

..................................................................
D O U B L E P R E C I S I O N A(Nf'lAX, L P P 2 1 , ALF(NL), T C N M A X , IV), W(N), Y(N),
X ACUM, A L P H A , BETA, R N O R M , D S I G N , D S Q R T , S A V E , RCN), U(L), X N O R M
I N T E G E R FIRSTC, F I R S T R , INC(15,16)
LOGICAL NOWATE, PHILPl
EXTERNAL ADA

I F ( I S E L .NE. 1 ) GO T O 3
LPl = L + 1
L N L 2 = L + 2 + NL
LP2 = L + 2
LPPl = L P P Z
1
FIRSTC = 1
L A S T C = LPPl
F I R S T R = LPl
C A L L INXT(L8 NL, N, NMAX, LPP2, IV, T I W , A L F I ADA, I S E L ,

- 166 -

I P R I N T , A, I N C , NCON, NCONPl,
I F ( I S E L .NE. 1 ) GO TO 9 9
GO TO 30

PHILP1,

NOGIATEI

3 CALL ADA ( L P l ,
x 31)
FIRSTC = LP2
LASTC = L P P l
FIRSTR = ( 4
GO TO 50

N,

NMAX,

LPP2,

IV,

A,

INC,

ISEL)*L

ALF,

MINOCISEL,

ISEL

3 OR 4

ISEL

+ 1

6 FIRSTC

T,

2 1 GO TO 6

I F ( I S E L .EQ.
C

NL,

NCONPl
LASTC = L P l
I F (NCON .EQ. 0 1 GO TO 30
I F ( A ( 1 , NCON) .EQ. SAVE) GO TO 30
ISEL = -7
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T , I S E L , NCON)
GO TO 9 9
ISEL

1 OR 2

30 I F ( P H I L P I ) GO TO 4 0
DO 35 I = 1 , N
35
R(I1 = Y(I1
GO TO 50
40
DO 45 I = 1 , N
45

R(I) =

Y(1)

R(I)
WEIGHT APPROPRIATE COLUMNS

5 0 I F ( N O N A T E I GO TO 58
DO 55 I = 1, N
ACUn = W ( I )
DO 5 5 J = F I R S T C , LASTC
55
A ( I , J I = A C I D J)
ACUM

C
C
C

COFlPU T E ORTHO GON A L FACT O R I Z A T I O ti S BY ti0 U 5 EHO L DER


REFLECTIONS.
I F I S E L = 1 OR 2 , REDUCE P H I (STORED I N THE
FIiZST L COLUMIiS O F THE F l A T R I X A ) T O UPPER TRIANGULAR FORM,
( Q S P H I = SI, AND TRANSFDRM Y (STORED I N COLUMN L + 1 ) , G E T T I N G
Q*Y = R .
I F I S E L = 1 , ALSO TRANSFORM J = D P H I (STORED I N
COLUMNS L + 2 THROUGH L + P + 1 OF THE M A T R I X A I , G E T T I N G Q*J = F.
I F I S E L = 3 OR 4 , P H I HAS ALREADY BEEN REDUCED, TRANSFORM
5 , R, AND F OVERWRITE P H I , Y, AND J , R E S P E C T I V E L Y ,
ONLY J.
AND A FACTORED FORM OF Q IS SAVED I N U AND THE LOLJER
T R I A N G L E OF P H I .

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

58 I F ( L .EQ. 0 1 GO TO 7 5
DO 7 0 K = 1, L
KP1 = K + 1
I F ( I S E L .GE. 3 .OR. ( I S E L .EQ.
ALPHA = DSIGN(XNORM(N+l-K,
A(K,
U ( K 1 = ACK, K ) + ALPHA
A ( K , K ) = - ALPHA
FIRSTC = KP1
I F (ALPHA .NE. 0.01 GO TO 6 6
ISEL = -8
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T , I S E L , K )
GO TO 9 9
C
C

66

BETA

-A(K,

K)

2 .AND.
Kll,

K .LT.NCONPlll
A(K, K ) I

GO TO 6 6

APPLY R E F L E C T I O N S TO COLUMNS
F I R S T C TO LASTC.
U(K)

- 167 -

D O 70 J = FIRSTC, L A S T C
A C U M = U(K)*A(K, J )
DO 68 I = KP1, N
I F ~ D A B S ~ A ~ I ~ K ~ ~ . L T . 1 ~ D ~ 3 O . O ~ ~ D A B S ~ A ~ IT ,O J68
~~~LT~l~D~3O~GO
A C U M = A C U M + A(I, K)*A(I, J )
CONTINUE
ACUM = ACUM / BETA
A(K,J) = A(K,J) - U(K)*ACUM
DO 70 I = KP!, N
A(I, J ) = A(I1 J ) - A(1t K)*ACUM

68

70

C
75 I F ( I S E L .GE. 3 ) G O T O 85
R N O R M = XNORM(N-L, R(LP1))
I F ( I S E L .EQ. 2) G O TO 99
I F ( N C O N .GT. 0) S A V E = A(1,

C
C
C
C
C
C

NCON)

F 2 I S NOW C O N T A I N E D I N R O W S L + l T O N A N D C O L U M N S L + 2 T O
L+P+1 OF T H E M A T R I X A. N O W S O L V E T H E L X L U P P E R T R I A N G U L A R
S Y S T E M S*BETA = R1 F O R T H E L I N E A R P A R A M E T E R S BETA. B E T A
O V E R W R I T E S R1.
85 I F (L .GT. 0) C A L L B A C S U B (NMAX, L , A, R )

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

K A J O R P A R T O F KAUFMAN'S S I M P L I F I C A T I O N O C C U R S HERE.
T H E D E R I V A T I V E OF ETA W I T H R E S P E C T T O T H E N O N L I N E A R
PARAMETERS
T
Q

D ETA

* --------

T
Q f

D ALFCK)

L
D PHICJ)
( S U M BETA(J) -------J=1
D ALFCK)

AND STORE T H E RESULT IN COLUMNS L+2


= 4 , T H E F I R S T L ROlc'S A R E O M I T T E D .
ISEL R O T = 4 T H E R E S I D U A L R2 = Q2*Y
TO COLEMN L+NL+?.
OTHERLJISE A L L O F

COMPUTE

D PHI(L+l)

---------- 1

F2*BETA

D ALFCK)
T O L+NL+l. I F I S E L N O T
T H I S I S -D(C2)*Y.
IF
( I N COL. L + l ) I S C O P I E D
COLUPlN L+l I S COPIED.

D O 95 I = FIRSTR, N
I F ( L .EQ. N C O N ) G O T O 9 5
M = LP1
DO 90 K = 1 , NL
A C U M = 0.
DO 88 J = NCONPl, L
I F (INCCK, J ) .EQ. 0 ) G O T O 88
M = M + 1
A C U M = A C U M t A(I, ri) * R(J)
88
CONTINUE
K S U B = LPl + K
I F (INC(K1 LPl) .EQ. 0) G O T O 9 0
M = M + 1

A C U M = A C U M + A(1, M )
ACI, K S U B ) = A C U M
ACI, LNLZ) = R(1)

90
95

C
99 R E T U R N

END
C
S U B R O U T I N E INITCL, NL, N, NMAX, LPP2, IV, T, W, ALF, ADA, ISEL,
A, INC, NCON, NCONPlr P H I L P 1 , N O W A T E )

X IPRINTt

C
C

CHECK VALIDITY OF INPUT PARAMETERS, A N D DETERMINE NUMBER O F

168

CONSTANT FUNCTIONS.

C
C
C
C

..................................................................
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N ACNMAX, L P P Z ) ,
X DSQRT
I N T E G E R OUTPUT, P, I N C ( 1 5 , 1 6 )
L O G I C A L NOWATE, P H I L P 1
DATA OUTPUT / 6 /
LP1 = L + 1
LNL2 = L + 2

ALFCNL),

T(NMAX1 I V ) ,

W(N),

NL

CHECK FOR V A L I D I N P U T
I F CL .GE. 0 .AND. N L .GE. 0 .AND. L+NL .LT. N .AND. L N L 2 . L E .
X L P P 2 .AND. 2*NL + 3 .LE. NMAX .AND. N . L E . NMAX .AND.
X I V . G T . 0 .AND. .NOT. ( N L .EQ. 0 .AND. L .EQ. 0 ) ) GO TO 1
I S E L = -4
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T , I S E L , 1 )
GO TO 9 9
C

1 I F ( L .EQ. 0 . O R . NL .EQ.
DO 2 J = 1, L P 1
DO 2 K = 1, NL
2
INCCK, J ) = 0

0) GO TO 3

3 CALL ADA ( L P 1 ,

NL,

N,

NMAX,

LPP2,

IV,

A,

INC,

1, ALF,

ISEL)

C
NOWATE = .TRUE.
DO 9 I = 1 , N
NOWATE = NOWATE .AND. (W(I)
I F ( W ( 1 ) .GE. 0.) GO TO 9

.EQ.

1. O )

ERROR I N WEIGHTS

ISEL = -6
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T ,
GO TO 9 9
W ( I ) = DSQRT(W(1))

ISEL,

I)

C
NCON = L
NCONPl = L P 1
P H I L P l = L .EQ.
I F ( P H I L P 1 .OR.

0
NL

c
C

.EQ.

0 ) GO TO 9 9
CHECK I N C M A T R I X FOR V A L I D I N P U T AND
DETERMINE NUMBER OF CONSTANT FCNS.

P = 0
DO 11 J = 1, L P 1
I F ( P .EQ. 0) NCONPl = J
DO 1 1 K = 1 , NL
I N C K J = INCCK, J )
I F ( I N C K J .NE. 0 .AND. I N C K J .NE.
I F ( I N C K J .EQ. 1 ) P = P + 1
I1
CONTINUE

1 ) GO TO 1 5

1
NCON = NCONP1
I F ( I P R I N T .GE. 0 ) WRITE (OUTPUT,
I F ( L + P + 2 .EQ. L P P 2 ) GO T O 2 0

2 1 0 ) NCON

I N P U T ERROR I N I N C M A T R I X
15 ISEL = -5
CALL VARERR ( I P R I N T ,
GO TO 9 9

ISEL,

1)
DETERMINE

169

IF P H I < L + 1 ) IS I N THE MODEL.

20 DO 25 K = 1, NL
25
I F <INC(K, L P I )

.EQ.

1) PHILPI

.TRUE.

C
9 9 RETURN
2 1 0 FORMAT (33HO
NUMBER OF CONSTANT FUItCTIONS
END
SUBROUTINE BACSUB (NMAX, N t A i X )
C
C
C
C

=,

I 4 1)

BACKSOLVE THE N X N UPPER TRIANGULAR SYSTEM A*X


THE SOLUTION X OVERWRITES THE R I G H T S I D E B .
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N ACNMAX,

N),

X(N),

ACUM

NMAX,

LNL2,

= B.

X ( N ) = X ( N ) 1 A(N, N )
I F ( N .EQ. 1 ) GO TO 3 0
NP1 = N t 1
DO 20 I B A C K = 21 N
I = NP1
IBACK
I = N-1, N - 2 1
2, 1
IPl = I t 1
ACUM = X ( 1 )
DO 1 0 J = I P 1 , N
10
ACUM = ACUM
A(I,J)*X(J)
20
X ( 1 ) = ACUM
A(I,I)

...,

C
30 RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE POSTPRCL,
X W , A, Rc U, I E R R )

C
C
C
C
C

NL,

N,

EPS, RNORM, I P R I N T , A L F ,

CALCULATE R E S I D U A L S , SANPLE VARIANCE, AND COVARIANCE M A T R I X .


ON I N P U T , U CONTAINS IHFOF',P?ATION AE3UT HDUSEHOLDER R E F L E C T I O N S
FROM D P A .
O N OUTPUT, I T CONTAINS THE LSIiEAR PARAMETERS.
DOUBLE F R E C I S I O N A(NPIAX, L N L 2 1 , A L F C N L ) ,
X EPS, PRJRES, RNORM, SAVE, DADS
INTEGER OUTPUT
DATA OUTPUT / 6 /

R(N),

U(L),

W(N),

ACUM,

C
LPl = L + 1
LPNL = L N L 2
2
L N L I = LPNL + 1
DO 1 0 I = 1, N
10
U ( I ) = W(I)**2

C
C
C

UNWIND HOUSEHOLDER TRANSFORMATIONS TO GET R E S I D U A L S ,


AND MOVE THE L I N E A R PARAMETERS FROM R TO U.

I F ( L .EQ. 0) GO TO 30
DO 25 KBACK = 1, L
K = LPl
KBACK
KPl = K + 1
ACUM = 0.
DO 2 0 I = KP1, N
20
ACUM = ACUM + A ( I , K )
R(I)
SAVE = R ( K )
R ( K ) = ACUM / ACK, K )
ACUM = -ACUM 1 ( U ( K )
A(K, K ) )
U ( K ) = SAVE
DO 25 I = KP1, N

- 170 -

25

R(I)

R(I)

A(I,

K)+ACUM

30 ACUM
35
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

COMPUTE MEAN ERROR

0.

DO 35 I = 1, N
ACUM = ACUM + R ( 1 )
SAVE = ACUM 1 N
THE F I R S T L COLUMNS OF THE M A T R I X HAVE BEEN REDUCED TO
UPPER TRIANGULAR FORM I N DPA.
F I N I S H BY REDUCING ROlJS
L + 1 TO N AND COLUMNS L + 2 THROUGH L + N L + l TO TRIANGULAR
FORM.
THEN S H I F T COLUMNS OF D E R I V A T I V E M A T R I X OVER ONE
TO THE L E F T T O B E ADJACENT TO THE F I R S T L COLUMNS.

IF ( N L .EQ. 0 ) GO T O 4 5
CALL O R F A C l ( N L + l r NMAX, N,
DO 4 0 I = 1, N
A(1, LNL2) = R ( I )
DO 4 0 K = LPl, L N L l
40
A ( I s
K) = A ( I , K + l )
C

L,

IPRINT,

A(1,

L+2),

PRJRES,

4)

COMPUTE COVARIANCE M A T R I X

4 5 A ( 1 , L N L 2 ) = RNORM
L
ACUM = RNORM*RNORM/(N
A(2, L N L 2 ) = ACUM
CALL COV(NMAX, L F N L , ACUM,

- -

NL)
A)

I F ( I P R I N T . L T . 0 ) GO TO 9 9
WRITE (OUTPUT, 2 0 9 )
I F ( L .GT. 0 ) W R I T E (OUTPUT, 2 1 0 ) ( U C J ) , J = 1, L )
I F ( N L .GT. 0) WRITE (OUTF'UT, 2 1 1 ) ( A L F ( K ) , K = 1, N L )
WRITE (OUTPUT, 2 1 4 ) RNLIEM, SAVE, ACUfl
I F (DABSCSAVE) .GT. E F S ) WRITE (OUTPUT, 2 1 5 )
N R I T E (OUTPUT, 2 0 9 )
9 9 RETURN
C
209
210
211
214

FORMAT ( l H O , 5 0 ( 1 H ' ) )
FORMAT ( 2 0 H O L I N E A R PARAMETERS / / ( 7 E 1 5 . 7 ) )
FORMAT (23HO NONLINEAR PARAPlETEfiS / / ( 7 E 1 5 . 7 ) )
FORMAT (21HO NORN O F R E S I D U A L =, E 1 5 . 7 , 331.1 EXPECTED ERROR OF OBS
E15.71 / 39H
E S T I N A T E D VARIANCE OF OBSERVATIONS =,
XERVATIONS
X E15.7 1
2 1 5 FORMAT ( 9 5 H WARNING
EXPECTED ERROR OF OBSERVATIONS IS NOT ZERO
X.
COVARIANCE M A T R I X MAY B E MEANINGLESS. / I
END
SUBROUTINE COV(NMAX, N, SIGMA2, A )
= f

--

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

COMPUTE THE SCALED COVARIANCE M A T R I X OF THE L


PARAMEIERS.
T H I S I N V O L V E S CONPUTING

2
SIGMA

-1

NL

-T
T

WHERE THE ( L + N L ) X ( L + N L ) UPPER TRIANGULAR M A T R I X T IS


DESCRIBED I N SUBROUTINE POSTPR.
THE RESULT OVERWRITES THE
F I R S T L+NL ROlJS AND COLUPlNS OF THE M A T R I X A .
THE R E S U L T I N G
M A T R I X IS SYMMETRIC.
SEE REF. 7 1 PP. 6 7 - 7 0 , 2 8 1 .

..................................................................
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N A(NMAX,

N),

SUM,

SIGMA2

171

DO 1 0 J
tO

A(J,

=
J)

C
C
C

1,

l./A(J,

J)

I N V E R T T UPON I T S E L F
I F ( N .EQ. 1 ) GO TO 7 0
NM1 = N
1
DO 6 0 I = 1, NM1
IP1 = I + 1
DO 6 0 J = I P l t N
JN1 = J
1
SUM = 0 .
DO 5 0 M = 1 1 J M 1
50
SUM = SUM + A ( I r M I
A(M,
60
A C I , J ) = -SUM
ACJ, J)

C
C
C

J)

NOW FORM THE M A T R I X PRODUCT


7 0 DO 9 0 I = l r N
DO 9 0 J = 1, N
SUM = 0 .
DO 80 M = J t N
80
SUM = SUM + A ( I ,
SUM = SUM
SIGMA2
ACI,
J ) = sur1
90
A(J, 1) = SUM

MI

A(J,

M)

C
RETURN
END
SUBROUTINE VARERR ( I P E I N T ,
C
C
C

IEER,

K)

P R I N T ERROR MESSAGES
INTEGER ERRNO, OUTPUT
DATA OUTPUT / 6 /

C
I F ( I P R I N T . L T . 0 ) GO TO 9 9
ERREIO = I A B S ( I E R R 1
GO TO ( 1 , 2, 99, 4 , 5 , 6, 7, 8 ) s ERRNO
C

1 WRITE
GO TO
2 WRITE
GO TO
4 WRITE
GO TO
5 WRITE
GO TO
6 WRITE
GO TO
7 WRITE
GO TO
8 WRITE

(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,
99
(OUTPUT,

101)
102)
104)

105)

106) K
107)

108) K

C
99
101
102
104
105

RETURN
FORMAT (46HO
FORPlAT ( 4 9 H O
FORMAT (1 50H
FORMAT (68HO
XES W I T H LPP2.

PROBLEM TERMINATED FOR E X C E S S I V E I T E R A T I O N S / / I


PROBLEM TERPlINATED BECAUSE OF I L L - C O N D I T I O N I N G / I )
I N P U T ERROR I N PARAMETER L , NL, N, L P P 2 , OR NMAX. 1 )
ERROR
I N C N A T R I X IMPROPERLY S P E C I F I E D , OR D I S A G R E

--

/I

172

--

1 0 6 FORMAT (19HO
ERROR
WEIGHT(, 1 4 , 1 4 H ) I S N E G A T I V E . 1 )
1 0 7 FORMAT (28HO
ERROR
CONSTANT COLUMN , 1 3 , 3 7 H MUST BE COMPUTED
1)
XONLY WHEN I S E L = 1.
1 0 8 FORMAT (33HO CATASTROPHIC F A I L U R E
COLUMN p 14, 2 8 H I S ZERO, SE
XE DOCUMENTATION. 1 )
END
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N FUNCTION XNORMCN, X )

--

--

C
C
C
C
C

COMPUTE THE L 2 ( E U C L I D E A N ) NORM O F A VECTOR, M A K I N G SURE TO


A V O I D UNNECESSARY UNDERFLOWS.
NO ATTEMPT I S MADE TO SUPPRESS
OVERFLOWS.
DOUBLE P R E C I S I O N X ( N ) ,

C
C

RMAX,

SUM,

TERM,

DABS,

DSQRT

F I N D LARGEST ( I N ABSOLUTE VALUE) ELEMENT


RMAX = 0 .
DO 1 0 I = 1, N
I F (DABS(X(1))
.GT. RMAX) RMAX = D A B S ( X ( 1 ) )
10
CONTINUE

C
SUM = 0 .
I F (RMAX .EQ. 0 . 1 GO TO 3 0
DO 2 0 I = 1, N
TERM = 0 .
I F (RMAX t D A B S ( X ( 1 ) ) .NE.
20
sum = SUM t T E R W T E R M

RMAX) TERM

C
3 0 XNORM = RMAXsDSQRT(SUP1)
9 9 RETURN
END
$DATA
.8541676,1.D-6,34,7

.55,27225.,6600.,1.093753
.7177783,1.,1.
2000~~4000.~15
2200.
2390.
2610.
2930.
3050.
3270.
3640.
2040., 1.5
2 0 7 0 . ,- 8
2200. ,4.5
2280.r4.75
2340. ,8.
2400.,10.
2 5 0 0 ,20.
2540.,21.5
2600.931.
2660.s27.6
2700.p29.2
2800.,25.
2870. ,28.

3 0 0 0 . p28.
3 0 4 0 . ,3 0 .
3070.,2a.25
3120. ,28.
3160.,26.

173

X(I)/RMAX

3200. 132.
3260.132.
3360.126.
3400.125.9
3460. 1 2 5 .
3520.125.
3580. 1 28.
3620. 1 28.
3700. 124.
3720.n25.6
3800.r20.
3860. p21.5
3900.121 - 7 5
3925.119.25
3960.119.5
4000. 1 12.

/*

174

OUTPUT FROM PROGRAM

NUMBER OF CONSTANT FUNCTIONS =

0 N O R M O F RESIDUAL = 0.1442714D-04
NU = 0.1000000D 01
ITERATION
1
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS
0.1042649D 01 0.9485506D 00 0.8722263D 00
1 N O R M OF RESIDUAL = 0.1334315D-04
NU = 0.5000000D 00
NORMCDELTA- ALF) / N O R M C A L F ) =
0.500D-02
ITERATION
2
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS
0.1046405D 01 0.94177720 00 0.8712702D 00
1 N O R M OF RESIDUAL = 0.12526860-04
N U = 0.2500000D 00
NORMCDELTA-ALF) 1 N O R M C A L F ) =
0.528D-02
ITERATION
3
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS
0.1046952D 01 0.9342167D 00 0.8697866D 00
1 N O R M O F RESIDUAL = 0.1207254D-04
N U = 0.1250000D 00
NORMCDELTA-ALF) / N O R M C A L F ) =
0.394D-02
ITERATION
4
NONLINEAR PARAMETERS
0.1046302D 01 0.9272034D 00 0.86719413) 0 0
1 N O R M OF RESIDUAL = 0.1174424D-04
N U = 0.6250000D-01
NORM(DE1TA-ALF) / NORM(ALF1 =
0.344D-02
ITERATION
5
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS
0.1045457D 01 0.9239122D 00 0,86486391) 00
1 N O R M OF RESIDUAL = 0.1162343D-04
N U = 0.3125000D-01
NORMCDELTA-ALF) 1 NORMCALF) =
0.200D-02
ITERATION
6
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS
0.1044500D 01 0.9230081D 00 0.8640470D 00
1 N O R M O F RESIDUAL = 0.1160925D-04
N U = 0.1562500D-01
NORMCDELTA- ALF) / NORMCALF) =
0.821D-03

0.78373878 00

0.74415011) 00

0.695689

0.7916243D 00

0.7472037D 00

0,694535

0.7954584D 00

0.7468173D 00

0.6944111

0.7954597D 00

0.7468120D 00

0.6944090

0.7940712D 00

0.74646163) 00

0.6943551

0.7932118D 00

0.7462077D 00

0.6943202

..................................................
LINEAR PARAMETERS
0.1705885D-01
0.40428030-01
N O N L I N E A R PARAMETERS

0.6303247D-01

0.3332297D-01

0.324272lD-01

0.420784QI

0.1044500D 01 0.9230081D 00 0.864047013 00 0.79321183) 00 0.7462077D 00 0.69432029


N O R M OF RESIDUAL = 0.1160925D-04 EXPECTED ERROR OF OBSERVATIONS = 0.1398237D-06
ESTIMATED V A R I A N C E O F OBSERVATIONS = 0.6738738D-11

..................................................

- 175 -

LAYER NO.

POROSITY.THICKNESS

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
V O L U M E PRODUCED, B B L S
2000.00
2133.33
2266.67
2400.00
2533.33
2666.67
2800.00
2933.33
3066.67
3200.03
3333.33
3466.67
3600.00
3733.33
3866.67
4000.00

KH/SUM(KH)
0.016332
0.043800
0.072950
0.0420 10
0.043456
0.060604
0.054508

0.015636
0.047454
0.084429
0.052962
0.058236
0.087285
0.087129

CONCENTRATIONt P P M
0.037696
4.600 928
4.167477
11.495150
21.593647
29.679569
25.71 I356
27.380659
28.569303
30.307478
29.44766 1
23.823376
28.6 22558
24.487 164
18.975435
15.983867

SELECTED PEAK VOLUME

COMPUTED PEAK VOLUME

2200.0
2390.0
2610.0
2930.0
3050.0
3270.0
3640.0

2181.1
2468.2
2636.7
2872.1
3053.0
3281.2
3641.6

S T A T E M E N T S E X E C U T E D = 2576626
42368 B Y T E S P A R R A Y A R E A =
19416 BYTESnTOTAL AREA AVAIL
CORE USAGE
OBJECT C O D E =
DIAGNOSTICS
NUMBER OF E R R O R S =
0 , NUPlBER OF W A R N I N G S =
0, NUPlBER OF E
COMPILE TIME=
0.37 S E C p E X E C U T I O N T I M E =
27.20 SEC,
16.00.30
MONDAY
CSSTOP

176

Appendix D.2:

PROGRAM TO COMPUTE PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVE OF A


DEVELOPED INVESTED SEVEN-SPOT FOR UNIT MOBILITY RATIO

This program calculates the curve of displacing fluid cut versus displaceable
pore volume Injected for a developed inverted seven-spot at unit mobility
ratio. As was mentioned In the text, for every selected y coordinate of a
point on a general streamline, a corresponding value for the x coordinate of
the point must be evaluated. Subroutine "ROOT" performs this evaluation. The
However, a more efficient root-finding
routine uses the "bisection method."
method can reduce the computation time

177

/ / JOB

(JE.PlAD, 104,2),'MAGSUD'
EXEC WATFIV
//GO.SYSIN DD
C
C
* ~ X t f t t n * t f * t f * W Y W X X * f * * * ~ * ~ ~ * ~ * t ~ . ~ ~ ~ * ~ t * * t ~ K ~ ~ . ~ ~ K f ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~
C
C
w
C
T H I S FROGRAM COPIPUTES PATTERN BRRAKTIiRDUGH CURVE ( D I S P L A C I N G
C
F L U I D CUT VS D I S P L A C E A U L E FORE VOLUPlES I N J E C T E D ) F O R A DEVELC
LOPED I N V E R T E D S E V E N - S r O T A T f I O U I L I T Y KIZTIO O F ONE.
C
)i
C
"*~fXKtWK*tXfKtf#**#***~*f~tY~*~~*t~~~X~K~.~~**K)i~W,~~K*****~K~~*fK
//

*
*
*
*

*
*

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

OUTFUTS
=
FW
PV(1) =
DPV
=

FROM THE PROGRt$M ARE:


D I S P L A C I N G F L U I D CUT AT THE PRODUCIND STREAM
C I S P L A C E A D L E PORE VOLUMES I N J E C T E D CORRESFONDING TO F1J
D I ~ l E N S I O N L E S SPORE VOLUME USED I N THE CORRELATION

I P l F L I C I T R E A L * 8 (A-Iit O-2)
DIPlEtiSION F( 20 0 19 PV ( 3 0 1
EEALHS P i , M l , K
c o r i r m A A ,R I! ,pi, ri 1 ,P
F I = ' 1 . fDATA:i( 1 . DO 1
AA=DSQAT(3.EO)

B U = 1 ./An
K=(Z.-AA)/4.DO
rii = 1 . - P I
ti=50
"=N+ 1
F l , I = . 5D- 1
00 3 5 L = 1 , 9
SIGtl=PI+:( 1 .-fl*J/3)
P=DTAIl( SIGH)
CALL K f ! ( A A tZ,K)

)'Z=2.2:KuBB
Il=Y2/N

F(l)=O.OOO
DO 1 0 I = 2 , N N
Y=(I-l)fH

C
C
C
C

FOR A Y- CODRDINATE OF A P O I N T ON A G L N E R A L STREAPILIHE,


COORESPOEDXNG VALUE FOE THE X- COORDINATE I S COflI'UTED.
CALL R O O T ( Y , X )

C
C
C

THE IHTEGRANE I N EQ.

A - 1 0 9 I S EVALUATED

C A L L \'A L U E ( X 8 Y 8 U t UP P R v f?P ,W v WP >


F ( I1=Id* W/ ( Id* ( t? U P + Rf t U 1 - R 3 U WJP )
CO N T I NU E

10
C
C
C

POKE VOLURES I N J E C T E D ARE COPlFUTED


CALL I N T G R L ( N t H , F SUPI)
C=-PI*(l+PtP)/(Z.*AA*~~K)

rv( L )=c*suri
DPV=(PV(L)-.743682)/(1.-.743682)
L!R IT E ( 6 e2 0 0 1

F W P V ( L 1 ,DP V
p

178

f t

200

35

FO!?Mb\T( l X , 3 ( F 1 5 . 5 ) 1
FlJ=FW+. 1 0
STOP
END

C
C
C
SUBROUTINE VALUE(X,Y,

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

JP)

T H I S SUBROUTIRE COlPUTES THE FOLLOLJING FUNCTIONS THAT ARE


TIIE FUI4CTIONS A R E :
NEEDED F O R THE PROGRAM.
H , G I U t U ' r 1, 1 ' 9 R s R ' , W c W '
THESE FUNCTIONS HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED THE SAME NOTATIONS AS I N
A F F E N D I X A- 4.
INFUT:
X,Y = COORDINATES OF A P O I N T ON A STREAMLINE
OUTPUT: FUNCTIONS U, U ' , R, R ' , Id, Id'

C
C
C
SUEROUTINE R O O T ( Y t 2 )

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T H I S S U t R O U T I N E CALCULATES T I i E R O O T O F F ( X , Y ) = 0 F O R A G I V E N Y .
THE FUNCTION F ( X , Y ) IS S l l F r L I E D E Y EQ. A - 1 0 3 I N A F P E N D I X A- 4.
THE SUBCOUTINE USES T I I E " B I S E C T I O N " PIETHOD.
INFUT:
Y = Y-COORDIfiATE OF A P O I N T O N STKCAMLINE, S I G H
OUTFUT: 2 = X- COORDINATE CORRESPONDING T O Y

I M r L I C I T REAL38 (A-H,fl-Z)
EEAL-:~P,r:,ni
COlillOt4 A A ,BB ,Mpt.11 t P
T O L = 5 . D-4
D = F / 4 . DO

179

Xl=l .D-5
X 2 = . 5D-3

10

20

30

C A L L V A L UE ( X 1 t Y p U p UP, R s RP W t LJP 1
F l=R*U/Lcl-D
CALL VALUE ( X 2 t Y t Ut UP t R t RP 8 14 ,IdP 1
F 2= R S U/l*!- D
IF(FlXFZ.LT.O.)GO
TO 2 0
x 2 = 1.5#);?
GO T O I O
1=1

Z=(Xl+X2)/2.DO
C A L L VALUECZ ,Y t U ,UP t R RP p Wtk'P 1
FZ=R*U/W-D
IF(Fl+FZ.LT.O.) GO TO 4 0
p

x1=z

IF(DABS(XZ-Z).LT.TOL)RETURN
1=1+1
GO TO 30
40

XZ=Z

IF(DABS(Xl-Z).LT.TOL)RETURN
1=1+1
GO T O 3 0

END
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
c

10

C
C
SUBROUTINE KFl(KPOK,Q,K)
C
C

THIS SUBROUTINE COMT'UTES COPlFLEFIEI~TARYOR INCDMPLEMENTARY COMFLETE


THE ROUTHINE
ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL FUtiCION K ( N ) OR K ( M 1 ) = K * ( M ) .

- 180 -

U T I L I Z E S THE EXFANSION PRESEKTED I N ABRi'trlOWITZ

(1972)

30

I M P L I C I T REALX8 ( A-H ,0-Z1


REA L * 8 K Pl 9 KP 0 K
PI=4.*DATAN(l.DO)
Q=DEXf'( -PI*EPOY,)
su:1=0.
00 3 0 I = 1 , 1 0
SllM=SUM+Q**I/( 1 . + Q * * ( Z . * I ) )
K=PI/~.
* ( 1. t 4 , *suri)
RETURN
END

C
C
C
SUBROUTINE IHTGRL(N,N,F,\'OL)
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T H I S SUBROUTINE CCIPlFUTES VALUE OF AN INTEGRAL U S I N G SIFIPSON'S


RULE O F I N T E G R A T I O N .
INPUT:
N = NUMBER OF I N T E R V A L S , AN EVEN INTEGER NLJMDER
H = INTERVAL SIZE
F = VALUES O F FUttCTIONS COPlrUTED AT I N T E R V A L S , AN ARRAY
OUTFUT: V O L = VALUE OF THE INTEGRAL

I PIP L I C I T R EA L 8 ( A-H s 0-Z1


DIPlENSION F(91 1
sur1 1 = o

sum=o

50

t4 1 =N/2- 1
D O 5 0 1=1,t41
S UP1 1 = S UP1 1 + F ( 2 I1
suri?=siiri2 t F ( : * I t i )

surii=sur:itF(t:)
V 0 L =ti/ 3
F: E T IJff t4
EllD

* ( F ( 1 1 t F ( 11 t 1 1t 4 . *iSlIM 1+ 2 . * 5 UP12 1

SDATA

181

Appendix D.3:

PROGRAM TO COMPUTE PATTERN BREAKTHROUGH CURVE OF A


DEVELOPED FIVE- SPOT AT AN ARBITRARY MOBILITY RATIO

This program computes both the displacing fluid cut and areal sweep efficiency
curves of a developed five-spot pattern for any mobility ratio. The assumption made in the derivation of the equations is that the streamlines are
independent of mobility ratio; hence, they can be calculated from single-phase
fluid flow (mobility ratio equal to one).

182

/ I JOB (JE.MAD, 1 0 4
/ / EXEC b!ATFIV
/fGO.SYSIN
DD
C
C
C
* * * t * * F W

'MAGHSOOD'

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

*
)r:

*
*

S E * * t W * I X * * X ~ ~ * * x ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ * x ~ * ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ * ~ ~ S . ~ ~ ~ W ~

*
*
*
*
*

T I I I S F R O G R A M COPlPUTES PATTERN UAE~1KTliROUGIt CURVES ( D I S P L A C I N G


F L U I D CUT VS D I S P L A C E A D L E FORE VOLUFlE) AND A R E A L SIdEEP E F F I C I ENCY CURVES ( F R A C T I O N A L AREA SLJEPT V S C I S P L 4 C E A U L E PORE V O L W l E
I N J E C T E D ) FOR A DEVEL@?ED F I V E - S P O T PATTEEN A T VARIUUS f l O B I L I 1 Y x
R A T I O S . THE PROGEArl ASSLvIlES TtIAT THE STREAFlLINES DO NOT CtIANGE
WITH l l O D I L I l Y R A T I O .

~*~**~t*****S#***#***~**~*~*~**~***~~****~~*****~*****~****~***~~**

THE LOCATION O F THE FRONT I N THE SYSTEM I S CONTINUOUSLY


COP'IFUTED AS THE STREAPlLINES DREAKTIIROUGH.
THE I N P U T AND OUTPUT FROM THE PROGRAM ARE AS FOLLOLJS:
INPUT:
PiOBLTY = M O B I L I T Y R A T I O
OUTPUT: P V = D I S P L A C E A E L E FORE VOLUPlCS I N J E C T E D
S'JEEP = AREAL SlJCEP E F F I C I E I I C Y , FRACTION
FA, D I S P L A C I N G F L U I D CUT I N THE F'RODLICING STREAM,

FEACTIOIJ

I I I F L I C I T REAL * 8 ( A - t l f O - Z )
REAL X Q FiOSLTY, L E F T , F F ( 9 1 1 , GG( 9 1 ) . FSIJEPC 9 1 )
Gl(Z)=DS3Rl(Z'Z+l)
G2 ( Z ,E T A =I)S C ET ( Z sZ+ ET A X ET A )
G ~ Z ~ E T A ~ ~ D L O C ~ ~ Z ~ E T A ' ( G I o , G : ~ Z ~ E T ~ , ~ ~ / ~ E T A ~ G l ~ ~ ~ ~ G ~
R E k D ,K O 3 L TY
F I r 4 . x D A T A I : ( 1.00
A K = 1 . S 5 4 @ 7 6 6 ? 7 3 @13721)O
R I 4 = A K 2: D 5 "? 2 T ( 2 .D 0 1f 1 @ @ 0 0 .
C
C
C
C

OllE E I G I I T H OF A F I V E - S r O T I S D I V I D E D I N T O "Kr" STEEAHTUDES.


TIIESE NF STEEhi'lTUBCS UREAKTt1F;OUG!I OIiE P Y O N E .

w-ia
H = P I f 4 ./NP
DO 1 J = l , N P

C
C
C
C
C

I N THE FOLLOWING, TETUT = STREAPlLIttE TtIAT


BREAKTHKOUGH. R I G H T H A N D S I D E OF EQ.. B - 5 1
S T R E A K L I N E AttD IS STORED I N " RIGIIT" .

IS CONSIDERED TO
IS COllrUTED FOR T H I S

TETBT=H$(NP+l-J)
El=DTAN(TETGT)**Z
X I ~ I I D T = R l J ~ D S I( N
TETBT 1
XI,!PBT=AK-RW*DCOS( TETRT 1
CALL FU::CT( 1 ,FZPBT,XCFDT)
CALL F U N C T ( l , F 2 I B T p X W I @ T )
C n L L GhUSS( 1 ,F Z I B T FZFBT p E l , VAL 1

PlEl=~lODLTY~G(F2PBT~El)-G(F2IBT,El)
E P = 1 - E 1 *.E 1
PP=PI/2.
CALL E L L E P ( P P , E P , A K E l )
R I G HT = ( 1 + E 1 ) X-( F 1 E 1 AK E 1 + ( 1 -MI U L T Y

c
C

*V A L 1

STREANLINES BETWEEN ZERO AND BROEENTHROUGM ( T E T B T ) ARE D I V I D E D


INTO w t STREAMTUUES AND THE FRONT LOCATION I
N mat O F Tt{Eri

183

IS CALCULATED GY EQ. B - 5 1 .

F I R S T A LOIJCF! AND At: Ufl'ER VALUE FOR


B A R I N T H I S E Q U A T I O N ARE COPirlJTED I t { cJlJC11 A N A Y l t ! h T T H E EXACT
PAR VALUE L I E S BETP!EEN THEll.
THEN, A ROOT F l I d D I N G R C U T I N E I S
U T I L I Z E D TO DETERPlINE THE EXACT VALUE OF T l l E Z FAR.

Z
Z

N=90
NH=N- 1
STEP=TETBT/N
DO 10 I = l . N N
TET=ST E P S I
XW I=F: 14 S DS 114 ( T ET 1
Xl*!r=RltlfDCOS ( T E T 1
E=DTAN(TET)**Z
Z Z = 1. -EsE
X 1 ZAK-XWP
CALL FUNCT( 1 t F 2 P , X 1 )
CALL FUNCTC l , F 2 I , X l J I )

PlE=MOBLTY*G(F2P,E)-G(F2I~E)
A=F2I
B=5. S F 2 1
AINTZO. 0
C A I L GAUSS( 2, A t B t E t VALUE)
A I NT=A I H T + V A L U E
FMl=DATAN(D/E)
CALL E L I E P ( P H I , Z Z , T l )

LEFT=(l.+E)*(PlE~'Tl+(l.-RODLTY)rAINT)
I F ( L E F T . G T . R1SHT)GO 10 1 5
rl=B

B=5. S A
StIVEl=LEFT

G O T O 20

15

P @ L !IA=
I !:T - \!A L U E
SAVE?=LEFT
CALL KOOTCA, 5, SAVE1 t SAVE2 P O L D , R I G H T vP1OPLTY s EPZZ,P 1 E , T , X I
t

AFTER DETEEMI!JING THE FRONT LOCATIONS FROil 7 H E SUDAOUTJNE ROOT,


CALCULATION D I S F L A C I N G F L U I D CUT STARTS:

10

QA
QB
FA

=
=
=

PRODUCING FLOLJ RATE O F D I S P L A C I N G F L U I D


PRODUCING FLOW RATE OF DISPLACEI! F L U I D
D I S P L A C I N G F L U I D CUT I N THE T'RODUCTION STREAN

CALL 114TGRL(N,STEP,GG,QD)
QA=GG(N+l)*(FI/4-TETDT)
FA=QA/(QA+QB
CALCULATION OF AREAL SWEEP E F F I C I E N C Y AND I N J E C T E D D I S P L A C E A D L E
PORE VOLUPIES START.
F I K S T , THE PORE VOLUFIES O F WhTER PRODUCED
ARE COMPUTED.
T H I S I S STORED I N "VP".

- 184 -

11
C

Nl=N+l
DO 1 1 L = l , N l
T E T = T E T B T + HBT * ( L - 1 1
E T = D T A t i ( TET If*?
PP=PI/2.
Z=l-ET+'ET
C A L L E L L EP ( P P , Z , E K )
F S W E P ( L ) = ( 1 + ET 1 9 E K
XI*!I = R1.J ::DS IN ( T ET 1
XWP=AK-RLdSDCOS ( T E T )
C A L L FUNCT( 1 ,ZP,>II*!P)
C A L L FU:;CT( 1 , Z I , S I J I )
PE=MODLTY*G(ZP, E T ) - G ( Z I ,ET 1
CALL GAUSS(l,ZI,ZP,ET,VAL)
H T E T A = ( 1+ E T ) / 4 * ( F E * E K t ( l - M O B L T Y ) * V A L 1
GG(L)=(HTETBT-HTETA)/(G(tP,ET)-G(ZI.ET))
CON1 INUE

C A L L I t l T G R L ( N , ItDT, GG, V P )
111 T H E F O L L O l d I f j G C A L C U L A T I O N S OF AREAL SWEEP E F F I C I E N C Y A K D
PORE VOLUPIES I N J E C T E D , THE TldO SYPlDOLS S l AND S2 ARE USED T O
DESIC-:.ItIl E:
S 1 = AREA ENCO"1PASED RElC!EEN THE BROKEN-TIIROUGII S l C C A M L I N E ( T E T D T 1
At:D THE S T E E A r l L I N E P I 1 4
S2 = SKEPT AKEA EIICCIII'ASED CETldEEN S T R E A N L I N E . TETDT, AND
S T E E f . l l L I N E ZERO.

100
1

C
C
C
S U B R O U T I N E S tt ( X ,SNX )
T H I S S U D R O U T I N E C A L C U L A T E S T H E J A C O D I A N E L L I P T I C FU1:CTION
T H E R O U T I t l E USES F O U R I E R S E C I E S EXP:INSIO:4 O F S t l ( X , 0 . 5 ) .
IiiFUT:
X , ARGUMENT O F T l f E J l Z C O B I A N E L L I P T I C F U N C T I O N
OUTPUT: SNX, V A L U E OF T I I E J A C O D I A t l E L L I f T I C FUNCTIOt4
I N r L I C I T R E A L * 8 (A-Ht0-Z)
AK=l.S54074677301372DO
AN=. 5
FI=4.*DATAN(l.DO)
Q=DEXP(-PI)
SUM=O. DO
V=PI*X/?./AK
EO 1 0 I = 1 , 9
11=1-1
Cl=II+. 3
c2=2.*11+1
10

SUil=SUM+Q~*Cl~DSIN(C2~V)/(l.-QuxCZ)

185

SN(X,O.5)

SliX=2 .~PI*SUM/AK/DSQRT(AM)
RETURN
END
C
C
C
SU3ROUTlNE FUtiCT(1KDICp F2,X)
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T H I S S U B R O U T I N E CONFUTES F 2 FOR A G I V E N X O R COFlFUTES X FOR A


G I V E N FZ.
F?=F*F AND F I S T l t E E Q U A T I O N FOR T H E D E F I N I T I O N OF S T R E A M L I N E
ldHICI-1 I S G I V E I I BY EQ. A- 18 l d I l H iii = 0 . 5 .

IWDIC=l,
INDIC=2,

COMPUTE F2 F O R G I V E N X
CONFUTE X FOR G I V E N F2

10

20
C
C
C
S U B R D U T I t i E E L L E P CY ,2. A )

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T I t I S S U E R O U T I N E COMPUTES I N C O N P L E T E E L L I P T I C ItITEGR!.LN F(Pl.11 , k )


P H I I S T I i E AGGL':IEHT hY{D k IS THE KODULUS.
T l l E PlOPLILUS I S EQUAL
TO T H E SCUJ??E: ROOT O r T l t E FAF:PtPiETER.
INPUT:
Y = AKGUXENT OF TI!E E L L I P T I C TLINCTION
z = r t 8 " I j r I E T E x OF THE E L L I P T I C JNTCGRhl.
A = V t I L U E OF T I i E E L L I P T I C I N T E G R A L
THE R O U T I N E USES LAI4DEt:S D E C E N D I N G T R A ~ ~ S F O R M A T I O N . FOR REFERENCE
S E E ABRAPlOlc'ITZ, PAGE

IPiF L IC I T REALE.8 ( A - t l , 0-2 1


REAL*S
KpK1,KP
TOL=l .D- 4
P I = 4 . * D A T A N ( l .DO)
W = l D@
x=Y
KZDSQRTCZ)
Kl=P.*DSQRT(K)/(I+K)

15

X=.5*(XtDARSIN(KIDSIN(X)))

30

QE=DARSINCKl)
QE=QEflEO./PI
W=2 . X W ( 1 + K 1
IF((90.-QE).LE.TOL)GO
TO 3 0
K=K 1
GO TO 15
A=WxDLOG(DTAN(PI/4+X/2))

186

RETURN
END
C
C
C
SUBROUTINE GAUSS(L,ALOWES,UrrER,E,VALUE)
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T H I S SUPROUTINE CONFUTES VALUE OF A N I N T E G C A L USIt4G E I G H T P O I N T


G A U S S I A N QUDRATURE N E T H O D .
IltrUT:
ALCIJER = LOb!CR L I r l I T OF T H E I N T E G R A L
'
UPPER = UPPEP, L I P 1 1 1 O F T t i E I N T C G R A L
I F L = 1, PALIGAAM CO!';F'UTES T t i E I N T E G E A L 5 Y D I V I D I N G T I I E
I N T E R V A L I N T O S E V E R A L SEGFlENTS ON A LOGARITtII.1IC S C A L E
(BASE 1 0 )
I F L # 1, T H E PROGRAM USES @ N L Y ONE I N T E R V A L
E = E T A T E E N D E F I N E D B Y EQ. 9 - 3 1
O U T P U T : V A L U E = V A L U E OF T H E I N T E G R A L

10

15
17

12

- 187 -

Y *F? CY

100

GO T O 1 7
RETURII
END

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

T H I S SUBROUTINE COtlPUTES T I i E ROOTS OF EO. D - 5 1


THE I N F U T TO TltE R O U T I N E ARE:
X 1 = V A L l l E OF Z BAR A T k ' l t I C t t THE L E F T S I D E I N Ec). 1)-51 IS
SKALLER THAN THE R I G H T SIDE
X2 = VALUE OF 2 BAR AT WHICH THE RIG!tT S I D E OF EQ. B - 5 1 IS
LARGER THAN THE R I G H T SIDE
F 1 = VALUE O F T l t E L E F T S I D E COFlrUTED AT X l
F2 = VALUE O F T l l E LEFT SIDE COrlrUTED AT X?
P I = VALUE OF THE INTEGRAL I N THE L E F T S I D E O F EQ. B - 5 1 COMPUTED
AT X 1
AM = P 1 0 3 I L I T Y R A T I O
E = VA.LUE O F ETA D E F I N E D D Y EQ. 0 - 3 1
2 = PsRGUt.lENT C F E L L I P T I C INTEGRAL F ( 1 1 , k )
P I E = T I i E P TERFl I N LEFT S I D E O F EQ. 6 - 5 1
R I G l I T = VALUE OF THE R I G H T I i A l j D S I D E OF EQ. D - 5 1 COMPUTED AT
A I!i;3 I;E'i T I iT: 0 U G ! t S 1R E b,11 L I N E, T C T D T
THE OUTfUT F i l K l THE R O V T I N E A R E :
x = E X A C T V A L U E O F z F A R (SOLUTIO!.( T O E Q . D - 5 1 )
T = VALUE O F T I i E I N T E G P A L I N 1 H E LEFT S I D E OF LQ. B - 5 1 C0P:PUTED
AT X 1
I t l F ' L I C I T REAL X S ( A - H 0-Z)
TOL=: . D - 4
F l = F 1- R I C - I I T
F 2 = F 2 - E1 G!t T
x = ( x 1 + N 2)/2.
CALL G/IUCJCJ(2,Xl , X , E , V )
AI!;T=V+ P 1
PI! I = D A T A t4 ( X/ E )
CALL E L L E F ( P t I 1 , Z , T )
ALEFT=( 1 . + E ) * ( P l E * T + ( 1 .-Ail)*AItiT)
FX=A L EFT- R 1C.tiT
IF(Fl*FX.LT.O.DO)GO
TO 1 0
9

x1=x
Fl=FX
PlzAINT

IF(DA!IS(Xt-X).LT.DABS(TOLSX))GO

TO 2 0

GO TO 5

10

x2=x

20

GO T O 5
RETURN
END

IF(DADS(Xl-X).LT.DtIPS(TOL~X))GO

T O 20

C
C
SUBROL~TINE INTGRL(N,H,F,VOL)
TIiYS SUBROUTINE COPIPUTES VALUE O F AN INTEGRAL U S I N G SIMPSOI4'S
RULE OF I N T E G 2 A T I O N .
ItiPUT:
N = NUrlDER OF I N I E R V A L S , AN EVEN I N T E G E R NUPIRER
H = INTERVAL S I Z E
F
VnLUES O F FUNCTIOtiS CONPUTED AT I N T E R V A L S , AN ARRAY

- 188 -

C
C

OUTPUT:

VOL

VALUE OF T H E I N T E G R A L

I K P 1 I C I T R E A L 38
DIME t1510N F ( 9 1 )
SUP11 = o

( A-H

,0 - 2

S U X =0

N1=w2- 1
CO 50 I = l , N 1
surii=surii+F(~~I)
50

~UFl?=SUFl? tF(?*It 1 )

SUtll=SUTll+F(I4)
V O L H/ 3* ( F ( 1 1 + F ( K t 1 1 4 4 . *SUM 1 +2.*SUM2 )
RETURN

END
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