You are on page 1of 80

A Study of promotional strategies of design Jewellery brand in

India
RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT

Submitted to

Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University


In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Submitted by

Under the Supervision of:

Gopal Singh

Mr. Arif Sultan

B.B.A 6th Semester

Assistant Professor

Roll No:5460023

Department of Business Administration

2015

Technical Education & Research Institute,


Post-Graduate College, Ravindrapuri
Ghazipur-233001

Certificate
This is to certify that Gopal Singh pursuing BBA 6th Semester from this Institute
has prepared the research project report entitled A Study of promotional
strategies of design Jewellery brand in Indiain partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration from Veer
Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, during the session of 2013-14.

This report is based on research project undertaken by Gopal Singh under my


supervision during the course of sixth semester and fulfills the requirements of
regulations relating to the nature and standard of BBA course of V.B.S. Purvanchal
University.

I recommend that this survey project report may be sent for evaluation.

Rahul Anand Singh

Arif Sultan

Associate Professor & Head,

Assistant Professor,

Dept. of Business Administration

Dept. of Business Administration

Declaration
I, Gopal Singh,hereby declare that this research project report entitled A
Study of promotional strategies of design Jewellery brand in India has been
prepared by me under the supervision of Mr. Arif Sultan, Assistant Professor
T.E.R.I., P. G. College affiliated to Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University.

This research project report is my bonafide work and has not been
submitted in any form to any university or Institute for the award of any degree or
diploma prior to the under mentioned date. I bear the entire responsibility of
submission of this project report.

30th May 2015

Gopal Singh

BBA VI Semester
Department of Business Administration,
Technical Education & Research Institute,
P.G. College Ghazipur

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I:-Preface
II:-Acknowledgement
CHAPTER1:
1. Introduction
CHAPTER2
2. Objectives
3. Importance of the study
4. Scope of the study

CHAPTER3:
Research Methodology
CHAPTER4:
Data Analysis &Interpretation
CHAPTER5:
Findings &Recommendations
CHAPTER6:
Conclusion & Limitation
Bibliography

PREFACE
No doubt theory provides the fundamental stone for the guidance of practice but practice
examines the element of truth laying in the theory. Therefore a strong co-ordination of theory and
practice is very essential to make a B.B.A perfect.
Proceed (for which) with inadequate knowledge of facts. research is a tool by which mgt. is
supplied with the information which convent imagination into a stronger competitive position.
The first and foremost talk of any commodity exchanges is to create a investment of consumers
in this and also it define the risk of former in diversify and they can get easily benefit without
such a anymore risks. Financing of any product largely depends upon consumers afford
depilates and attitudes. The availability in the market of a product, habit of usage product
attributes and market structure.
To utilize the theoretical knowledge of Institutional investment in Indian mobile phone market, I
decided to choose my topic which may cover all and as a result I selected A Study of
promotional strategies of design Jewellery brand in India After deciding the topic I went to
search the materials related to the research report from the different source i.e. Internet, books,
magazine, newspaper and from the under guidance of sir, and I studied the mobile phone market
and the important of institutional investment, that what is institutional investment, which
companies are involved in mobile phone market, what are restriction on this investment by the
Indian government. Is the domestic mobile phone market investment and different brand mobile
phone market same or there is any difference between both. Is there is any negative point of
institutional investment. This project report has been divided into six chapters
The first chapter starts with Introduction concept of Jwellary.

In second chapter I focus the Objective, Importance, scope


In third chapter research methodology & Limitation.
In chapter fourth data analysis and interpretation.
In chapter five finding and recommendation.
In chapter six conclusion & limitation \
At lastly Bibliography.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The research project report on A Study of promotional strategies of design Jewellery brand
in Indiaan original work of mine, but I would never have been able to complete it on my own. I
always needed help and support to complete it. This help and support come from different
people. So I have a long list of people to thank to.
First of all thank to almighty GOD and I would like to thank my HOD Mr. Rahul Anand
Singh, who gives me chance to work on this topic. I would also like to say thanks to my
supervisor Mr. Arif Sultan, under whose guidance I completed the report. Without his support it
was literally impossible to complete it. This guidance was like a streak of light to me. It was of
immense or importance. It was he who explained the topic in detail to me, told me about various
sources from where I could get the information related to the topic and also help me in acquiring
and gathering information. It was he who corrected my faults at each and every step and helped
me in making this report presentable.
A word of thanks to our Mr. Arif Sir. Under whose guidance all our works are accomplished.
My mother has always been a real source of inspiration and great support to me. Their support
was urgently needed by me whom they always provided to me. I would also like to thank my
friends, specially rahul and my elder brother upon whom I greatly resided for the completion of
this report.
A special thanks to my batch mates who always supported and encouraged me to do better and
better. They all help me greatly in the collection of secondary data from various sources.

Its my duty to thank my friends who out of their precious time spared some time for me and
answer my question. Their contribution is the greatest because without their support, it was
impossible to prepare, this report. Their responses are the base of this report, so they need a
special word of thanks.
Last but not the least; I would like to thank all other who helped me in one or the other way. May
be I have missed some names, for that I extremely regret and once again thanks all those whose
names couldnt be mentioned here.

Gopal Singh
B.B.A 6th semester

INTRODUCTION
Jewellery or jewelry[1] (/dulri/) consists of small decorative items worn for personal
adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached
to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for
example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal
material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It
is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact with 100,000-year-old beads made from
Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery.[2] The basic forms of jewellery vary
between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common
forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as
adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common.
Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come
from Asia.

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as
amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often
been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material
properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly
every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing
jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures,
but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European
culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other
periods in European culture.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old
French "jouel",[3] and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. In British
English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English

it is spelled jewellery, while the spelling is jewelry in American English.[1] Both are used in
Canadian English.
Form and function
Kenyan man wearing tribal beads
Humans have used jewellery for a number of different reasons:

functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place, or to tell the time (in the case of
watches)

as a marker of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring

as a signifier of some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social

to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets)[4]

as an artistic display

as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning such as love, mourning, or even luck[5]

Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the
form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make
jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a
currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.[citation needed]
Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but
evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[6]
Jewellery can also symbolise group membership (as in the case, of the Christian crucifix or the
Jewish Star of David) or status (as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of
married people wearing wedding rings).
Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in
some cultures. These may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals,

body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in
Islamic art).[7]
Materials and methods
In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are
typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in
jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually
includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold
jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a
number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7%
pure gold), (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to
18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure
gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and
Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and
Africa.[citation needed] Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver
used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless
steel findings are sometimes used.

Bead embroidery design.


Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved
or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay;
polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of
a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office
(the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) the right to
destroy the piece, however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.
Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood,
shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets,
earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known
as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of
seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create

broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork
during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or
beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.
Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding,
cutting, carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts).[8]
Diamonds

Diamonds
Main article: Diamond
Diamonds were first mined in India.[9] Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some
debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas;[10] In 2005, Australia,
Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond
production.[11]
The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough
diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g).

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary
of Burgundy in 1477.[12]
Other gemstones
Main article: Gemstone
Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:
Amber
Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over
time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some
amber can be up to 120 million years old.
Amethyst
Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is
treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark. Spanish emerald
and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum.
Emerald
Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires)
and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured
throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early
as 3500 BC.
Jade

Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of
other colours as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is
sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.
Jasper
Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often,
jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture
jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in
the stones pattern.
Quartz
Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among
the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and
smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of
other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family.
Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.
Ruby
Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued
precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for
ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.
Sapphire
The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to
deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also
available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most
affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire).

Turquoise
Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the worlds largest turquoise
producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive
colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage.
Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely
associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many
sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which
provides an interesting contrast to the gemstones bright blue colour.
Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are
produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed
of and arise from minerals.
Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and
importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such
as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.[13]
Metal finishes
An example of gold plated jewellery
For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most
common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the
most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces
the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones
such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by

brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes." Hammered
finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to
give it a wavy texture.
Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling
silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing)
or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with
silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.
Impact on society
Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings;
[14]

later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery. This was also based on

rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For
example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century
and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has
become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is
completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term blingbling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.
Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise
wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not,
going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the
mid-1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the
1920s.[15] Religion has also played a role in societies influence. Islam, for instance, considers the

wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,[16] and many religions have edicts against excessive
display.[17] In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in
the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, "the great whore" or false religious
system, is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden
cup in her hand." (Rev. 17:4) For Muslims it is considered haraam for a man to wear gold and
women are restricted to ear jewellery.[18]
History
The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among
different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into
how ancient cultures worked.
Prehistory
The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads suggesting shell
jewellery made from sea snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos
Cave. In Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been
dated to more than 40,000 years ago.
Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth,
berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to
secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces. In
southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. The Venus of Hohle
Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.

Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.[6] In October 2012
the Museum of Ancient History in Lower Austria revealed that they had found a grave of a
female jewellery worker forcing archaeologists to take a fresh look at prehistoric gender roles
after it appeared to be that of a female fine metal worker a profession that was previously
thought to have been carried out exclusively by men.[19]
Egypt
Amulet pendant (1254 BC) made from gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise and carnelian, 14 cm wide.
An Egyptian 18th dynasty pharaonic era princess' crown.
The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,0005,000 years
ago.[20] The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. In
Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the
community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in
death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.
In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass, along with semi-precious
gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility.
Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the countrys borders.
Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs
found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not
uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.[20]
Europe and the Middle East

Mesopotamia
Pair of Gold Hair Ornaments, Mesopotamian, circa 2000 BC (Isin-larsa period). Decorated with
granulation and cloisonn.Walters Art Museum collections.
By approximately 5,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities
of Mesopotamia. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery
of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 29002300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of
Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis
lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed
pins. In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, including amulets,
ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals.[21]
Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large
numbers of brightly coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favoured shapes
included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human
use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated
metalworking techniques, such as cloisonn, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.[22]

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of
jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in
the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:
1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, [and]
35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five.
1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads,
[with]

41

fluted

beads

in

group

that

make

up

the

hanging

device.

1 necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuli beads, [and] 29
fluted beads for its clasp.[23]
Greece

Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BC.


Gold Wreath
The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as
shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around 1500 BC, the main techniques

of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. [24] Many of these
sophisticated techniques were popular in the Mycenaean period, but unfortunately this skill was
lost at the end of the Bronze Age. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as
the armring (13th century BC), brooch (10th century BC) and pins (7th century BC), have varied
widely since the Bronze Age as well. Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings,
necklace and bracelets. A good example of the high quality that gold working techniques could
achieve in Greece is the Gold Olive Wreath (4th century BC), which is modeled on the type of
wreath given as a prize for winners in athletic competitions like the Olympic Games. Jewellery
dating from 600 to 475 BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the
Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful. [25] One particularly popular
type of design at this time was a bracelet decorated with snake and animal-heads Because these
bracelets used considerably more metal, many examples were made from bronze. By 300 BC,
the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds.
Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a
striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other
cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew
in complexity and different materials were soon used.
Pendant with naked woman, made from electrum, Rhodes, around 630620 BC.
Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special
occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their
wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection

from the Evil Eye or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a
religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods.
Ancient Greek jewellery from 300 BC.
They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer
pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or
clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was
placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more
common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to
thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or
another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or
engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows
or glass poured into special cavities on the surface. The Greeks took much of their designs from
outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs,
other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in
jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by
the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous
polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been
found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.[26]

These Hellenistic bracelets from the 1st century BC show the influence of Eastern cultures.
Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Hexagonal gold pendant with double solidus of Constantine the Great, one of a set of four that
date from 321 AD (British Museum)[27]
Rome

Roman Amethyst intaglio engraved gem, c. 212 AD; later regarded as of St. Peter.
Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian
tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as
smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was
the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of
materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they
used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As
early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used
emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from
Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude

gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants
that could be filled with perfume.
Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the Evil Eye given by
other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring.
Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every
finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it
that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when
kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery
designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes.[20]
Middle Ages
Merovingian fibulae, Bibliothque nationale de France.
6th century bronze eagle-shaped Visigothic cloisonn fibula from Guadalajara, Spain, using
glass-paste fillings in imitation of garnets.
Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills. The Celts and Merovingians
in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of
Byzantium. Clothing fasteners, amulets, and, to a lesser extent, signet rings, are the most
common artefacts known to us. A particularly striking Celtic example is the Tara Brooch. The
Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power. By the 8th century,
jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery (with the exception of signet
rings) seemed to become the domain of women. Grave goods found in a 6th7th century burial
near Chalon-sur-Sane are illustrative. A young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae, a necklace

(with coins), bracelet, gold earrings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle.[28] The Celts
specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for
stylised animal figures.[29] They were not the only groups known for high quality work. Note the
Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship
burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example.[20] On the
continent, cloisonn and garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the
period.
Byzantine wedding ring.
The Eastern successor of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, continued many of the
methods of the Romans, though religious themes came to predominate. Unlike the Romans, the
Franks, and the Celts, however, Byzantium used light-weight gold leaf rather than solid gold, and
more emphasis was placed on stones and gems. As in the West, Byzantine jewellery was worn by
wealthier females, with male jewellery apparently restricted to signet rings. Woman's jewellery
had some peculiarities like kolts that decorated headband. Like other contemporary cultures,
jewellery was commonly buried with its owner.[30]
Renaissance
The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery
in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a
wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this
the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw
increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. An example of this is the Cheapside

Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found
again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite,
and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea
peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were
frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings.[31] Notable among merchants of the period was
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the
1660s.
When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style
and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleons rule, jewellers introduced
parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings,
a diamond brooch, and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleons wives had beautiful sets such as
these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo.
Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought. The period also
saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls
or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts:
jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked
with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.

Romanticism

Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of
western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the publics fascination with the
treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with
Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial
Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a
result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the
development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish,
however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the
jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though
superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith Franoise Dsire
Froment Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of
romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often
seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue
wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one.[32]

In the United States, this period saw the founding in 1837 of Tiffany & Co. by Charles Lewis
Tiffany. Tiffany's put the United States on the world map in terms of jewellery and gained fame
creating dazzling commissions for people such as the wife of Abraham Lincoln. Later, it would
gain popular notoriety as the setting of the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. In France, Pierre Cartier
founded Cartier SA in 1847, while 1884 saw the founding of Bulgari in Italy. The modern
production studio had been born and was a step away from the former dominance of individual
craftsmen and patronage.
This period also saw the first major collaboration between East and West. Collaboration in
Pforzheim between German and Japanese artists led to Shakud plaques set into Filigree frames
being created by the Stoeffler firm in 1885).[33] Perhaps the grand final and an appropriate
transition to the following period were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl
Faberg, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Faberg eggs and jewellery pieces are
still considered as the epitome of the goldsmiths art.
Art Nouveau
In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the
closely related German Jugendstil, British (and to some extent American) Arts and Crafts
Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian "Liberty", etc.
Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form
and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques
including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonn, and plique--jour. Motifs included orchids, irises,

pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female
silhouette.

Ren Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognised by contemporaries as
a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists' Colony and Wiener Werksttte provided
perhaps the most significant input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best
known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co. and the
British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but
still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller's art from the setting of
stones to the artistic design of the piece itself. Lalique's dragonfly design is one of the best
examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the
most recognisable design feature.
The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.
[34]

Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived
decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective
manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s
and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German
Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of "no barriers between artists and craftsmen" led to
some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced:
plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of
Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the
material itself. In the West, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German
Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is
based on the basic shapes.
Asia
In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making
anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years. [35] One of the first to start jewellery making were
the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization, in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan
and part of northern and western India. Early jewellery making in China started around the same
period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.
China
The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more than gold. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied
onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs.
However, jade was preferred over any other stone. The Chinese revered jade because of the

human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability, and beauty. [6] The first
jade pieces were very simple, but as time progressed, more complex designs evolved. Jade rings
from between the 4th and 7th centuries BC show evidence of having been worked with a
compound milling machine, hundreds of years before the first mention of such equipment in the
west.[36]
Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty (202 BC220 AD)
`Xin' Shape Jewellery from Ming Dynasty Tombs, (13681644)
In China, the most uncommon piece of jewellery is the earring, which was worn neither by men
nor women.[citation needed] Amulets were common, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. Dragons,
Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.
The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by
archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.[37]
Indian subcontinent
Two-Tiered Enamel Earrings, late 18th-early 19th century. Qajar Dynasty. Brooklyn Museum.
The Indian subcontinent (encompassing India, Pakistan and other countries of South Asia) has a
long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and
politics for more than 5,0008,000 years. Because India had an abundant supply of precious
metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries.
While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India
enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years. [35] One of the first to start

jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization (encompassing present-day
Pakistan and north and northwest India). By 1500 BC, the peoples of the Indus Valley were
creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces, and metallic bangles. Before 2100 BC,
prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley
region was the bead trade. Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a
bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The
stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a
colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the
right size and a hole bored through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some
beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through the family.
Children of bead makers often learned how to work beads from a young age. Persian style also
played a big role in Indias jewellery. Each stone had its own characteristics related to Hinduism.
Jewellery in the Indus Valley was worn predominantly by females, who wore numerous clay or
shell bracelets on their wrists. They were often shaped like doughnuts and painted black. Over
time, clay bangles were discarded for more durable ones. In present-day India, bangles are made
out of metal or glass.[38] Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that
would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although
women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were
often crafted to be placed in men and womens hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.
A female skeleton (presently on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, India) wears a
carlinean bangle (bracelet) on her left hand. Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely
popular in Indian culture. They symbolizes animals like peacock,[39] elephant,[40] etc.

According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of
the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian
jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition
associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In
the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life
originated in and evolved from a golden womb (hiranyagarbha) or egg (hiranyanda), a metaphor
of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.[41]
Antique Pearl & Gold Nose Ring, India, 19th century
Jewellery had great status with Indias royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws,
limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted
permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking
the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore
jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The
Maharaja's role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the
smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form,
whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.[42]

A Navaratna ring.

Navaratna (nine gems)is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja (Emperor). It is an


amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cats eye, coral, and
hyacinth (red zircon). Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the
totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together. The diamond is the most powerful
gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought
gemstones privately from the sellers. Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as
Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the
royal family members and other intimate allies. Only the emperor himself, his intimate
relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As
the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar
or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener.
India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India
traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to
retain or regain a lovers or rulers lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of
fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors and Kings used the

diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and wordly titles
inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian
social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history,
diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and
tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They
have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with
crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to
buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been
honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from
imprisonment or abduction.[43] Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and
jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.[37]
North and South America
Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire
to seize South American gold. Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5,000 years ago in
Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs,
Mixtecs, Mayans, and numerous Andean cultures, such as the Mochica of Peru, created beautiful
pieces of jewellery.
With the Mochica culture, goldwork flourished. The pieces are no longer simple metalwork, but
are now masterful examples of jewellery making. Pieces are sophisticated in their design, and
feature inlays of turquoise, mother of pearl, spondylus shell, and amethyst. The nose and ear
ornaments, chest plates, small containers and whistles are considered masterpieces of ancient
Peruvian culture.[44]

Moche ear ornaments. 1800 AD. Larco Museum Collection, Lima-Peru


Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth.
Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers
from Quetzal birds and others. In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his
status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely
covered in jewellery when making public appearances. Although gold was the most common and
a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade, turquoise, and certain feathers were considered
more valuable.[45] In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices
to appease the gods. Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human
sacrifices.[20][32]
Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the
peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and
copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery.
The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to
metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility
were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the
Aztecs.[37]
In North America, Native Americans used shells, wood, turquoise, and soapstone, almost
unavailable in South and Central America. The turquoise was used in necklaces and to be placed
in earrings. Native Americans with access to oyster shells, often located in only one location in
America, traded the shells with other tribes, showing the great importance of the body adornment
trade in Northern America.[46]

Native American
Main article: Native American Jewelry
Bai-De-Schluch-A-Ichin or Be-Ich-Schluck-Ich-In-Et-Tzuzzigi (Slender Silversmith) "Metal
Beater," Navajo silversmith, photo by George Ben Wittick, 1883
Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings,
bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United
States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native
American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions
and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr
Dubin writes, "[i]n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of
Indian [Native American] communication, conveying many levels of information." Later,
jewellery and personal adornment "...signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major
statement of tribal and individual identity."[47]
Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious
and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other
materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from handquarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.
Pacific
Main article: Jewellery in the Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human
settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and
thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses,
necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.
Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility
or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the
inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy.
Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.
Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside
cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western
nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had
drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as
a sign of the wearer's devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the
mass conversion to Christianity.[48]
A modern opal bracelet
Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in
Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal
market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the
country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific.[49]
The New Zealand Mori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment, [50] most
famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.

Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based
on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New
Zealanders of all backgrounds for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand
identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Mori culture
and arts.
Other than jewellery created through Mori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is
multicultural and varied.[48]
Modern

Contemporary jewellery design


Diamond International Awards1994 from Brazil
Most modern commercial jewellery continues traditional forms and styles, but designers such as
Georg Jensen have widened the concept of wearable art. The advent of new materials, such as
plastics, Precious Metal Clay (PMC), and colouring techniques, has led to increased variety in
styles. Other advances, such as the development of improved pearl harvesting by people such as
Mikimoto Kkichi and the development of improved quality artificial gemstones such as

moissanite (a diamond simulant), has placed jewellery within the economic grasp of a much
larger segment of the population.
The "jewellery as art" movement was spearheaded by artisans such as Robert Lee Morris and
continued by designers such as Gill Forsbrook in the UK. Influence from other cultural forms is
also evident. One example of this is bling-bling style jewellery, popularised by hip-hop and rap
artists in the early 21st century, e.g. grills, a type of jewellery worn over the teeth.
The late 20th century saw the blending of European design with oriental techniques such as
Mokume-gane. The following are innovations in the decades straddling the year 2000:
"Mokume-gane, hydraulic die forming, anti-clastic raising, fold-forming, reactive metal
anodising, shell forms, PMC, photoetching, and [use of] CAD/CAM."[51]
Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United
States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry
continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan
jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.[52] The increase in
numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in
the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of
these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating
traditional workmanship.
Masonic

Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office
held with the Lodge. For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove
represents the Deacon.
Masonic collar jewels
Body modification
A Padaung girl in Northern Thailand.
Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme. The use of
simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as, earrings
are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.
Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five
years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In
addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many
rings on her calves too. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach 1015 in (25
38 cm) long. The practice has obvious health impacts, however, and has in recent years declined
from cultural norm to tourist curiosity.[54] Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures
throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the
Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of
the northwest coast.[55] Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some
South American peoples.

In the late 20th century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being
incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body
modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of
decoration blurred.
In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier, with, in some cases, hooks or
even objects as large as bike bars being placed into the recipient's skin. Although this procedure
is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious
ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now
cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used
in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an
erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony
whilst being suspended by hooks.[54]
Jewellery market
According to a 2007 KPMG study,[56] the largest jewellery market is the United States with a
market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 89%, and Italy with
5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the
market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will
increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas
Europe's and Japan's marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less
than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

Objective
1.
2.
3.
4.

To know about the different jwellary brands available in India.


To know about the role of design in promotion of Jewellary.
To know about the design changing strategy adopted by the different Jewellary brands.
To know about the different promotional trends used by Jwellery brands in India.

Scope

Which has witnessed the rapid expansion in the field of handmade jewellery in the past many
decades is now having a new type of competition & challenge in the form of branded jewellery.
This is further enhanced by a few local manufacturers & traders introducing the concept of retail
branding .
Thus the need has arisen to make a perception study of a consumer on branded jewellery to
assess the future of this line of business & to study the future of direction and change being
adopted by the existing manufacturers & traders in the light of the growth of branded jewellery

Importance

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH
A Systematic search for an answer to a question or solution to problem is known as
RESEARCH.
According to KERLINGER defines RESEARCH , A Systematic , Controlled , Empirical
and

Critical Investigation of Hypothetical Preposition about Presumes Relation among

Natural Phenomen .
The marketing research process that will be adopted in the present study will consist of the
following stages
a. Defining the problem and the research objective:
b. Developing the research plan:
c. Collection and Sources of data:
d. Analyze the collected information
e. Report research findings:
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is defined, as the specification of methods and procedures for
acquiring the Information needed. It is a plant or organizing framework for doing the study and
collecting the data. Designing a research plan requires decisions all the data sources, research
approaches, Research instruments, sampling plan and contact methods.
Research design is mainly of following types: -

1. Exploratory research.
2. Descriptive studies

Exploratory Research
The major purposes of exploratory studies are the identification of problems, the more precise
Formulation of problems and the formulations of new alternative courses of action. The design of
exploratory studies is characterized by a great amount of flexibility and ad-hoc veracity.
DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES
Descriptive research in contrast to exploratory research is marked by the prior formulation of
specific research Questions. The investigator already knows a substantial amount about the
research problem. Perhaps as a Result of an exploratory study, before the project is initiated.
Descriptive research is also characterized by a Preplanned and structured design.
The research design used in this project is a DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN.
DATA COLLECTION
Research will be based on two sources:
PRIMARY DATA
Primary data is that kind of data which is collected by the investigator herself for the purpose of
specific study. The data such collected is original in character. The advantage of third method
collection is the authenticity.

SECONDARY DATA When an investigator uses the data that has been collected by others is
called secondary data. The secondary data could be collected from journals, reports and various
publications. The advantages of secondary data can be economical, both in the term of money
and time spent.

Data Collection Method

Primary

Secondary

Published Sources
Direct personal Interview
Indirect personal Interview

Govt. publication

Information from correspondents

Report Committees

Mailed questionnaire &Commissions


Question filled by enumerators

SECONDARY DATA
Sources of Secondary Data
Following are the main sources of secondary data:
1.

Unpublished
Sources

Official Publications.

Private Publication
Research Institute

2.

Publications Relating to Trade:

3.

Journal/ Newspapers etc.:

4.

Data Collected by Industry Associations:

5.

Unpublished Data: Data may be obtained from several companies, organizations, working in the
same areas like magazines.
NOTE In this research report I have used the Secondary data from the different source of
secondary data.

TOOLS USED FOR DATA COLLECTION METHOD


STATISTICAL TOOL:
The researcher has used
Simple Percentage

Pie- chart. .

Period of Study:
This study has been carried out for a maximum period of 6 weeks.
Area of study:
The study is exclusively done in the area of operation. It is a process requiring care,
sophistication, experience, business judgment, and imagination for which there can be no
mechanical substitutes.
Sampling Design:

The convenience sampling is done because any probability sampling procedure would require
detailed information about the DLW Policy, which is not easily available further, it being an
exploratory research.

Sample Procedure:
In this study judgmental sampling procedure is used. Judgmental sampling is preferred because
of some limitation and the complexity of the random sampling. Area sampling is used in
combination with convenience sampling so as to collect the data from different regions of the
city and to increase reliability
Method of the Sampling:
Probability Sampling
It is also known as random sampling. Here, every item of the universe has an equal chance or
probability of being chosen for sample.
Simple Random Sampling
A simple random sample gives each member of the population an equalchance of being chosen.
It is not a haphazard sample as some people think! One way of achieving a simple random
sample is to number each element in the sampling frame (e.g. give everyone on the Electoral
register a number) and then use random numbers to select the required sample.

Random numbers can be obtained using your calculator, a spreadsheet, printed tables of random
numbers, or by the more traditional methods of drawing slips of paper from a hat, tossing coins
or rolling dice.
Systematic Random Sampling
This is random sampling with a system! From the sampling frame, a starting point is chosen at
random, and thereafter at regular intervals.
Stratified Random Sampling
With stratified random sampling, the population is first divided into a number of parts or 'strata'
according to some characteristic, chosen to be related to the major variables being studied. For
this survey, the variable of interest is the citizen's attitude to the redevelopment scheme, and the
stratification factor will be the values of the respondents' homes. This factor was chosen because
it seems reasonable to suppose that it will be related to people's attitudes
Cluster and area Sampling
Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a
statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total
population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. Then
the required information is collected from the elements within each selected group. This may be
done for every element in these groups or a subsample of elements may be selected within each
of these groups.
Non Probability Sampling

It is also known as deliberate or purposive or judge mental sampling. In this type of sampling,
every item in the universe does not have an equal, chance of being included in a sample.
It is of following type:
Convenience Sampling
A convenience sample chooses the individuals that are easiest to reach or sampling that is done
easy. Convenience sampling does not represent the entire population so it is considered bias.
Quota Sampling
In quota sampling the selection of the sample is made by the interviewer, who has been given
quotas to fill from specified sub-groups of the population.
I have chosen convenient sampling for my project work

Chapter 3
Data analysis and Interpretation

Data analysis and Interpretation


1. About the different jwellary brands available in India.

InterpretationDifferent jwellary brands available in India


The Gold Rush
In the late 1990s, the Indian Jewellery market witnessed a shift in consumer perceptions of Jewellery.
Instead of being regarded as only an investment option, Jewellery was being prized for its aesthetic
appeal. In other words, the focus seemed to have shifted from content to design. Trendy, affordable and
lightweight Jewellery soon gained familiarity. Branded Jewellery also gained acceptance forcing
traditional jewelers to go in for branding. Given the opportunities the branded Jewellery market offered;
the number of gold retailers in the country increased sharply.
Branded players such as Tanishq, Oyzterbay, Gili and Carbon opened outlets in various parts of the
country. Traditional jewelers also began to bring out lightweight Jewellery, and some of them even
launched their in-house brands.
However, the share of branded Jewellery in the total Jewellery market was still small (about Rs. 10 billion
of the Rs. 400 billion per annum Jewellery market in 2002), though growing at a pace of 20 to 30 percent
annually.
The branded Jewellery segment occupied only a small share of the total Jewellery market because of the
mindset of the average Indian buyer who still regarded Jewellery as an investment. Moreover, consumers
trusted only their family jewelers when buying Jewellery.

Consequently, the branded Jewellery players tried to change the mindset of the people and woo customers
with attractive designs at affordable prices.
Gold Jewellery Market in India
Before the liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991, only the Minerals and Metals Trading
Corporation of India (MMTC) and the State Bank of India (SBI) were allowed to import gold.
The abolition of the Gold Control Act in 1992(2), allowed large export houses to import gold freely.
Exporters in export processing zones were allowed to sell 10 percent of their produce in the domestic
market.
In 1993, gold and diamond mining were opened up for private investors and foreign investors were
allowed to own half the equity in mining ventures.
In 1997, overseas banks and bullion suppliers were also allowed to import gold into India. These
measures led to the entry of foreign players like DeBeers,3 Tiffany4 and Cartiers5 insto the Indian
market. In the 1990s, the number of retail Jewellery outlets in India increased greatly due to the abolition
of the Gold Control Act.'
This led to a highly fragmented and unorganized Jewellery market with an estimated 100,000 workshops
supplying over 350,000 retailers, mostly family-owned, single shop operations.
In 2001, India had the highest demand for gold in the world; 855 tons were consumed a year, 95% of
which was used for Jewellery.
The bulk of the Jewellery purchased in India was designed in the traditional Indian style.6 Jewellery was
fabricated mainly in 18, 22 and 24-carat gold. (Refer Table I for carat calculation) As Hallmarking7 was
not very common in India, under-caratage was prevalent.

According to a survey done by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS),8 most gold Jewellery advertised in
India as 22-carat was of a lesser quality.
Over 80% of the jewelers sold gold Jewellery ranging from 13.5 carats to 18 carats as 22-carat gold
Jewellery. The late 1990s saw a number of branded Jewellery players entering the Indian market.

Titan sold gold Jewellery under the brand name Tanishq, while Gitanjali Jewels, a Mumbai-based
Jewellery exporter, sold 18-carat gold Jewellery under the brand name Gili.
Gitanjali Jewels also started selling 24-carat gold Jewellery in association with a Thai company, Pranda.
Su-Raj (India) Ltd. launched its collection of diamond and 22 -carat gold Jewellery in 1997. The
Mumbai-based group, Beautiful, which marketed the Tiffany range of products in India, launched its own
range of studded 18-carat Jewellery, Dagina.
Cartiers entered India in 1997 in a franchise agreement with Ravissant.9 Other players who entered the
Indian branded gold Jewellery market during the 1990s and 2000-01 included Intergold Gem Ltd.,
Oyzterbay, Carbon and Tribhovandas Bhimji Zaveri (TBZ).
Gili: In 1994, Gili Jewellery was established as a distinct brand by Gitanjali Jewels, soon after the
abolition of the Gold Control Act by the Indian government. Gili offered a wide range of 18-carat plain
gold and diamond-studded Jewellery, designed for the contemporary Indian woman. The designs
combined both the Indian and western styles and motifs. With sales of Rs.0.14 billion for the year 200001, Gili had a 0.03 percent share of the 400 billion Jewellery market in India and a 1.4 percent share of
the branded Jewellery market.
Tanishq: In 1984, Questar Investments Limited (a Tata group company) and the Tamil Nadu Industrial
Development Corporation Limited (TIDCO) jointly promoted Titan Watches Limited (Titan).

Initially involved in the watches and clocks business, Titan later ventured into the Jewellery businesses. In
1995, Titan changed its name from 'Titan Watches Ltd.' to 'Titan Industries Ltd.' in order to change its
image from that of a watch manufacturer to that of a fashion accessories manufacturer. In the same year, it
also started its Jewellery division under the Tanishq brand.
Among the branded Jewellery players in the Indian market, Tanishq is considered to be a trendsetter.
When it was launched in 1995, Tanishq began with 18-carat Jewellery. Realizing that such Jewellery did
not sell well in the domestic market, the 18-carat Jewellery range was expanded to include 22 and 24carat ornaments as well. When Tanishq was launched, it sold most of its products through multibrand
stores.
In 1998, Tanishq decided to set up its own chain of retail showrooms to create a distinctive brand image.
By 2002, Tanishq retailed its Jewellery through 53 exclusive stores across 41 cities. To meet increasing
demand, Tanishq planned to open 70 stores by the end of 2003 and offer a range of 'wearable' products
with prices starting at Rs. 400. With sales of Rs. 2.66 billion in 2000-01, Tanishq had a 0.66 percent share
of the total Jewellery market and a 27 percent share of the branded Jewellery market (Refer Table II).
Carbon: In early 1991, the Bangalore based Peakok Jewellery Pvt. Ltd., (Peakok) was incorporated and
Mahesh Rao (Rao) was appointed director. Peakok realized that the Indian consumer's relationship with
gold Jewellery would grow beyond an investment need towards a lifestyle and personality statement.
In 1996, within the Peakok fold a new brand of 18-carat gold-based Jewellery called Carbon was
launched. In 2000-01, with sales of Rs. 0.14 billion, carbon had a 0.03 percent share of the Jewellery
market and a 1.4 percent share of the branded Jewellery market. The company expected Carbon sales to
touch Rs. 1.5 billion by 2005-06 and exports to start by 2008.
The brand was available at 40 outlets in 16 cities in 2002 and would be made available in 23 cities by
2005.

Oyzterbay: Oyzterbay was founded by Vasant Nangia and his team in July 2000. It began operations in
March 2001. By November 2002, the company had 41 outlets across the country. Oyzterbay seeks to
build a national brand in the Jewellery industry in India and aspires to be the largest branded Jewellery

company in the country with a chain of 100 stores and several hundred-distribution points by
2004. With sales of Rs. 0.17 billion in 2000-01, Oyzterbay had a 0.04 percent share of the Rs.400
billion Jewellery market and a 1.7 percent share of the branded Jewellery market.

Trendsmith: Mumbai-based Tribhovandas Bhimji Zaveri (TBZ), which had been in the Jewellery
business since 1864, saw tremendous scope in the branded segment and opened its new concept
store 'Trendsmith' in Mumbai in December 2001
Encouraged by the response towards its first store, the Zaveris planned to take Trendsmith
(India) Pvt. Ltd. all over the nation by opening as many as 50 stores by 2006. Trendsmith offered
eight lines of exclusive designer Jewellery from well-known export Jewellery manufacturers and
designers from Mumbai and Delhi.
Gold Jewellery Becomes Fashion Accessory
Till the early 1990s, the average Indian bought Jewellery for investment rather than for
adornment. Jewellery made of 18-karat gold was not favored as it was considered a poor
investment. Confidence in the local jeweler was the hallmark of the gold Jewellery trade in India.
A

jeweler

or

goldsmith

in

local

area

had

fixed

and

loyal

clientele.

The buyer had implicit faith in his jeweler. Additionally, the local jeweler catered to the local
taste for traditional Jewellery. However, since the late 1990s, there was a shift in consumer
tastes: women were increasingly opting for fashionable and lightweight Jewellery instead of
traditional chunky Jewellery.

There was a rise in demand for lightweight Jewellery, especially from consumers in the 16 to 25
age group, who regarded Jewellery as an accessory and not an investment. The new millennium
witnessed a definite change in consumer preferences. According to Samrat Zaveri, CEO of
Trendsmith, "Research shows that the Indian Jewellery sector is in the transition phase with
consumers' desire for possession of Jewellery for its aesthetic appeal and not as a form of
investment."10
In October 2002, Trendsmith conducted a survey to understand the shifting needs, motivations
and aspirations of consumers in the Jewellery market, and to identify new trends and
opportunities.

The

research

study

arrived

at

the

following

conclusions:

The Indian market was witnessing an accelerated shift from viewing Jewellery as an investment
to regarding it as aesthetically appealing ornaments. The focus had shifted from content to
design.
The younger generation was looking at trendy, contemporary Jewellery and clearly avoiding
heavy, traditional gold Jewellery.
The consumer wanted a wider selection at a single convenient location and expected an international
shopping experience.
The Indian consumer was willing to experiment with new designs.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, with the increase in the number of designers from design schools such
as the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), a wide range of new designs became available. In
addition, the growing number of manufacturers needed a retailing platform with global and national
reach. All these led to the proliferation of branded Jewellery players.

Strategies for Wooing Customers


Tanishq
In the late 1990s, players in the branded gold Jewellery market formulated strategies for wooing
customers. According to Jacob Kurian (Kurian), Chief Operating Officer of Tanishq, the challenges were
many.
As the Jewellery market was highly fragmented, lacked branding, and allowed many unethical practices
to flourish, Tanishq worked hard on a two-pronged brand-building strategy: cultivate trust by educating
customers about the unethical practices in the business and change the perception of Jewellery as a highpriced purchase.
Said Kurian, "We are changing the attitudes of customers from blind trust to informed trust."11 To
increase its marketshare, Tanishq formulated a strategy for luring people away from traditional
neighborhood jewelers. Tanishq's strategy was to create differentiation and build trust.
According to Kurian, the first part of the strategy was "to provide a point of differentiation in a highly
commoditized category which is the whole point of branding."12 The second part of the strategy was to
project Tanishq as an unimpeachable mark of trust. According to Kurian, "If differentiation plays the role
of primary attraction, trust takes care of lifelong loyalty."13 One way to create differentiation was through
design.
The emphasis had to be on design because local jewelers could offer to design any pattern according to
the customer's specifications. For a national brand a generic design concept with regional variations had
to be evolved. (Refer Exhibit I for Tanishq's design). For this, Tanishq set up a seven member in-house
design team and also outsourced designs from freelance designers.
The designers travelled the length and breadth of the country to get feedback on Tanishq's designs and
learn about customer preferences. On the basis of this feedback, each showroom could select the designs

it would carry. To stay ahead of competition from local jewelers, Tanishq decided to focus on quality
control. In 1999, it introduced caratmeters which showed the purity of gold.
In fact, Tanishq's USP was the purity of its gold. Accordingly, the company's ad campaigns emphasized
the purity aspect of all Tanishq ornaments. (Refer Exhibit II for Tanishq's Ad Campaign) In November
2002, Tanishq introduced a new collection of Jewellery called 'Lightweights.'
The collection featured neckwear, earrings, bangles, rings and chains in 22 karat gold with prices starting
at Rs 1,100. It also launched Lightweight Diamonds, with prices starting at Rs 3,000. Tanishq focused not
only on urban markets, but small town markets as well. Real estate was less expensive in the small towns
than in large urban centers.
Besides, competition from stores in small towns was less stiff than competition from the large Jewellery
stores in the metropolitan cities. According to Kurian, the best returns on investment came from small
towns.

Carbon
Carbon's focus had always been to move Jewellery from the vault to the dressing table and bring the
selling of Jewellery out of heavily guarded Jewellery stores. This was achieved by persuading a few
lifestyle stores to add branded Jewellery to their vast array of products. Besides selling from lifestyle
stores, Carbon also sold its products as gift items over the internet. Like Tanishq, Carbon laid emphasis on
design.
Most of its designs were contributed by students at the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT)
through the diploma programme which the company sponsored. In addition, Peakok's team of six
designers, (headed by Rajeswari Iyer, an alumnus of a German design school who had worked in the
U.K., Germany and India) turned out around 180 to 200 styles in a year, with 75 designs per style.

At any point in time, there were around 600 designs of Carbon on sale, and on an average, 300 to 400
pieces per design were sold. In 2002, Carbon launched its 'Sun Sign' collection, which was based on the
symbols of the Zodiac. This collection was a set of 12 pendants designed in a blend of 18 carat white and
yellow gold (Refer Exhibit III).
While 18 carat gold was commonly used in Carbon products, some of the designs also used white gold,
titanium and steel. Diamond was the preferred precious stone, but other colored stones were also used.
Comprising items of everyday use, (rings, chains, bracelets, ear studs, tie-pins and cuff links) Carbon
items were an impulse purchases. (Refer Exhibit IV) The brand had no offtake cycles in the year, like the
marriage season, unlike traditional Jewellery.
The creation, manufacture and marketing of Carbon was different from the making and selling of
traditional Jewellery. Said Rao, "We are attempting here to eliminate the low productivity, quality
inconsistencies and high precious metal loss associated with traditional Jewellery making.
We have instituted modern manufacturing practices such as self- contained small groups in the assembly
area, self-inspection by the operators, the Japanese Kaizen approach to improvements in operational
practices and the like. We have brought down our manufacturing loss of gold to 6.8 per cent. The average
in the traditional Indian Jewellery shop is as high as 22 per cent, while the world average is only 2 per
cent."14
As the profile of the average customer likely to purchase a Carbon item was a well-paid urban
professional, 24 to 38 years old, having a credit card, it was decided that Carbon should not be placed in
the usual Jewellery shops but made available at `shop-in-shop' outlets in large lifestyle stores (such as
Shoppers Stop, Ebony, Globus, The Bombay Store, Lifestyle and Taj Khazana) and some premium
boutiques (such as the Helvetica in Chennai).
Said Rao, "We are looking at cross-promoting Carbon Jewellery with other branded lifestyle products
such as perfumes, clothing and cosmetics."15 Carbon products were priced between Rs. 2,750 and Rs.

20,000 per piece. While the cost of traditional Jewellery was negotiable, the cost of Carbon items was
fixed and nationally uniform.
Oyzterbay
Oyzterbay, with its tag line "Jewellery for the Living", had become synonymous with the entire gamut of
occasions where modern young women would like to wear stylish and affordable Jewellery. Oyzterbay's
collection comprised over 1200 designs in 18, 22 and 24 carat gold and sterling silver, with natural
colored gemstones.
The price of the Jewellery ranged between Rs. 500 and Rs.30000. The initial focus of Oyzterbay was to
give a lifestyle value to Jewellery instead of the traditional investment value.
In the second year of its launch, Oyzterbay emphasized on marketing and advertising strategies to give
the necessary thrust for growth. In order to transform itself from a youth brand to a brand for all
occasions, Oyzterbay launched media campaigns in August 2002 highlighting the new look. The new
communication strategy focused on addressing the 18 to 34 age group instead of the earlier 18 to 24 age
group. The new campaign focused on positioning Oyzterbay as Jewellery for office wear, evening wear or
even a fitness session. (Refer Exhibit V) The broadening of focus to include an older segment was the
result of market research which showed that the brand appealed to middle-aged working women and
affluent housewives.
The investment in the new campaign was Rs 50 million. Where Oyzterbay scored over others was its
simple and refreshing designs and affordability, making it distinct from the usual gold Jewellery stocked
in standard Jewellery showrooms and contemporary Jewellery offered by traditional Jewellery houses
trying to cater to the trend.
Priyadarshi Mohapatra, Marketing Manager, Oyzterbay, said "We began by selecting a completely
different reach - everyday Jewellery for the working woman and Jewellery for the youth. We felt that

Jewellery should be brought out of the locker. So we positioned (it) to accessorize the dress of the young,
college-going crowd, which otherwise sported junk Jewellery.
The second segment was the working woman for whom we sought to build a wardrobe of Jewellery by
making it affordable, so that she could pick up pieces regularly."16 Oyzterbay later extended the same
brand values to diamonds too, the idea being to target a niche market. Oyzterbay refurbished its collection
every few months, keeping in mind international trends. By so doing, they were able to offer exclusive
products to clients.
As part of the Oyzterbay Summer 2002 collection, it offered pendants, earrings, finger rings, bracelets,
neckwear, and chains with natural gemstones set in white gold, as white gold was evolving as a fashion
statement across the world.
Although Ozyterbay was known for its Jewellery in gold and sterling silver embellished with natural
gemstones, it decided to launch 'Your First Diamond', a complete range of diamond Jewellery set in
white, pink, and yellow gold. The price of the collection started from Rs. 500 with the most expensive
piece not exceeding Rs. 12,000.
Gili
Gili distributed its Jewellery priced between Rs. 500 and Rs. 40,000 through lifestyle and department
stores across the country to increase accessibility among its target segment, the 15 to 30 age group.
The company's products were also made available through a mail-order catalogue. In 1997, Gili launched
a collection of traditional Indian ornaments made of 18-carat gold. In 1999, the Gili Gold range was
introduced.
This range included rings, pendants, earrings, necklaces and bangles made of 24-carat gold. All Gili
products came with a guarantee of diamond and gold quality.

When research conducted in February 2000 showed that there was a big gap between the Rs. 1000 and
Rs. 10000 price segment and keeping in view the teenage population, and the kind of pocket money they
had, Gili brought out a collection targeting teens. In 2000, Gili launched its 'diamond heart collection'
targeted at teenagers and priced between Rs 500 and Rs.2500.17.
The collection was promoted at college campuses with banners, pamphlets and a few advertisements
targeted at teens. Gili soon realized that just pushing its product was not enough; it also had to customize
its products for special occasions. Following this, it launched a Diamond Heart Collection specially
designed for Valentine's Day. This collection consisting of tiny, heart-shaped diamond Jewellery was well
received by teens
Special packaging, catchy advertising and extensive press coverage contributed to the success of the
collection. Gili also made special promotional offers during festive seasons like Christmas and Diwali.
Having captured the low price point market of Rs.2000 to Rs.10,000, in 2000, the company focused on
penetrating the premium market of customized Jewellery. For this, Gitanjali jewels opened a Jewellery
salon, Gianti, to provide customized Jewellery to clients in India.
Trendsmith
Trendsmith specialized in premium, exclusive and modern looking Jewellery distinct from TBZ's
traditional designs. The brand's USP was that every piece of Jewellery was exclusive and unique. There
were different collections for babies, teenagers and weddings. Trendsmith stores had a comfortable
ambience and a clutter free display of products.
According to Samrat Zaveri, Managing Director, Trendsmith "is a store for those with little time and big
pockets." The stores also provided space for other premium Jewellery and accessory brands such as
Aashi,18 Blue Fire, Solange,19 Nakshatra, Aura 22, Mimansa,20 Brilliant and Moksh.21 The prices for
these pieces of Jewellery started from Rs. 10,000.

The range comprised finger rings, pendants, bangles, bracelets and neckpieces. Trendsmith laid emphasis
on affordable, fashionable Jewellery. It changed its collection every season. Trendsmith also had a design
studio where customers could design their own Jewellery. The company advertised in women's fashion
and lifestyle magazines since the readers of such magazines formed 80 percent of its clientele.
To remain in the public eye, Trendsmith planned to host events whenever it launched a new collection.
The company intended to spend Rs 30 - 40 million annually, on such events.

2. About the role of design in promotion of Jewellary.

InterpretationPromotion- Promotion is done so that it creates the brand awareness among the people.
Promotion also create brand image. Different kind of promotion activity are adopted so that
awareness increases and also we can touch the area were we are not into existence. Certain
budget is created for promotion so that it should remain in the periodic cycle. AdvertisingAdvertising touches the emotional part of customer thats why customer prefer to see advertising,
advertising can be done through various means like television, radio, newspaper, internet,
magazines and fashion magazines, hoardings and so on. Today almost each house-hold has
television at their home. Advertising through television is done so that it touches the emotional
part of the consumer. It impacts the customer in such a way that it also increases the customer
need to try the product once in its life. Due to such a vastrange of fast capturing of market
television is most effective way to promote the product in the mind of the people. We also
participate on local fashion shows so that our brand image is created and customer get aware of
us. Advertising speaks about the company image and profile in the form of media. Sales
promotion. To increase the sales and to attract more customer, our compay keep some sales
promotion activity during the peak season and during special occasion like festivals, marriage
season, teachers day, mother days, doctor day, etc. On special occasions like festivals we have
discount offer for the customer so that they can buy gold. At the time of festival we do paper
inserting regarding the sales promotion, about the discount on the special products and also at the
time of Deepawali we keep Zero making charges offer, as on Diwali and laxmi pujan people buy

more coins and jewellery as it is know that buying gold ornaments at the time of Akshay Trithiya
and laxmi punjan is very good for the prosperity and growth in Indian traditions. Even on
marriage sason we keep discount on diamond jewellery like upto 10% on the total value or flat
12% discount on purchase of diamond jewellery worth Rs. 2 lacsand above. Providing free gifts
on festival season and various occasions like birthday of customers or marriage. Public
Relations- We believe in creating the public awareness through various medum like practicing in
public fairs and into the exhibitions, we try to provide reason to women to buy our jewellery by
keeping some campaign in-store or by advertising in T.V, through our Ads. Also we have instore public relations officer who make a word with the customer and try to understand their
demand and also suggest them in their purchasing decisions. Direct marketing- Direct marketing
is done to achieve the objective of the company. Direct marketing is done in store so that we can
attract the foot- falls in store. Giving guidelines to existing clients etc. Pricing- We have a wide
variety of collection like pendants, ear-rings, pendants, in the range of Rs.5500 onwards, with
light weight and with colour stones for the woman having low income or for the urban working
women. Also we have collection which are affordable diamonds for them who cannot afford
previously to buy diamonds, it has ear-rings, finger-rings and pendants ranging from 20-25k.
some special collection in 14kt like valentine gift or for college going girls with fancy design and
with the rodium finish so it gives more of diamond look in it. Upto 15% off on special products
also provides opportunity to the customers to buy ornaments. This all provide our customer to
select wide range of product with a good quality. Also we have a collection starting with Rs.3000
which is made a process of elecro- forming with a copper base in it. Its a fancy and more of
modern jewellery collection made for the customer who is looking for international design,
wearability and value for money. Western and fusion designs are also available in the stores.

Pricing will be low as to capture the market more, with lots of affordable collection we will
decide the price. Pricing Strategies-

Competitive pricing-

If our product is sold at the lowest price regarding all our

competitors, we are practicing competitive pricing. Sometimes competitive pricing is essential.


For instance, when the products are basically the same, this strategy will usually succeed. The
success of the competitive price depends upon the achieving high volume and low costs. Costplus-profit- It means that if we add the profit we need to our cost. The authority we have access
to the costing data and should like to check if the profit added to the cost is not too high. Value
pricing- It means we base our prices on the value we deliver to our customers. We can charge
high price when there is new product launched in the market. Pricing can be done as per the need
of the customers, proper marker research should be done before the pricing is fixed,, pricing
price is not a easy job for any organization proper survey is needed. Cost method- Activity based
costing Activity based costing is the method of deciding cost to product and service. It is a tool
for planning and controlling. It helps in value chain analyzing. Activity based costing helps in
providing the benefits like- It help in knowing the most and least profitable customer products
and channels. Easily identify the root causes for poor financial performance. Facilitate with
better marketing mix. Enhance the better bargaining power with the customers. Achieve better
positioning of products in the market. Place- We sell directly to customer as we have our in
house production in Mumbai. Selling to the customer- we sell directly to our customer as a
retailer, we employed a well trained and experienced staff who deals with the front and the final
customers in store of our different outlets.
Our aim is to expand the business with new areas in new place which is outside Mumbai in
different cities. So that we can reach more and more people and also try to give more wide range

of products to our outside customers. We are located at Mumbai, and have a 10 outlets in
Mumbai itself. Our location is such that it is convenient for a customer to buy the jewellery from
any store outlets. Also we are planning to capture foreign market so that we can become a
prominent brand globally and also have a link with the international brand.

3. About the design changing strategy adopted by the different Jewellary


brands.

Interpretation
Many jewellery manufacturers want to build jewellery brands. At the forthcoming India
International Jewellery Show 2013, many people would be discussing this topic.
How do you build a jewellery brand in the market that is loved and cherished, trusted and
respected by consumers? It is a question that has vexed many great minds of our times. It is a
fact in todays world that jewellery brands have come to occupy a supreme place in the lives of
consumers. Yet, for many, the process of jewellery brand building remains shrouded in mystery.
A jewellery brand is an inextricable part of the social fabric of every society. But brand
marketers often grope in the dark and resort to hit-or-miss techniques in their attempt to embed a
jewellery brand in the minds and hearts of their target audience.
I have formulated a very clear and distinct Brand Marketing Strategy Module which I call the
Select-Effect-Reflect Module. In this module, I attempt to present a holistic view of an
integrated brand marketing strategy that will help marketers build a brand in the marketplace.
Developing an integrated brand marketing strategy for jewellery brands is akin to cooking a
meal.
It is important to note that all ingredients must be used for jewellery brand building. Further, it is
important to note that the ingredients must be used in a proportion that is customized and
relevant to the respective jewellery product category, target audience as well as the place where it
is going to be marketed.

A jewellery brand marketer too, must look beyond just the functional benefits of his jewellery
product. His job does not end with the sale, it rather begins with it. This is because the most
crucial aspect of the brand experience is the consumption. Satisfied, the customer returns.
Once that happens, he perpetuates this cycle of sale-brand experience-sale. His brand has been
accepted. Then, as a seasoned jewellery brand marketer, it behooves him to take care of that
customer so that he is not led away by competing brands.
Right from the time that the brand is conceived, the jewellery brand marketer tends to it. Its birth
is celebrated with a lot of fanfare. Its brand naamkaran is treated with the same loving affection
as the naamkaran of his own child.
Through its childhood, he schools it in the ways of his consumers and trains it to deliver more
than it promises. Once it matures into adulthood, he encourages it to spawn sub-brands that will
also go out into the world and do their bit to better society.
A jewellery brand that is mature is also responsible. It enthralls and entertains while it satisfies. It
weaves itself into the lives of its consumers and carves for itself, a little niche in their hearts,
making sure that it always stays on top of the mind.
The multi-crore-rupee question, however, is how does he do brand building with a reasonable
likelihood of success? Jewellery brand building, in my opinion, is not shrouded in mystery.
Neither do marketers have to resort to a hit-or-miss method to build their brands.
Use the 27 ingredient Select-Effect-Reflect module.
Let us look at the first set of Select. In this set you have to select the brand offering in terms of
4 ingredients namely Consumer needs, Segmentation, Target Markets and Positioning, to build
jewellery brands.

The next set is Effect. In this you need to effect the jewellery brand offering. There are 13
ingredients that I recommend here including Organisation Structure, Systems, Processes,
Product, Pricing, Sales, Distribution, Customer Service, Competitive edge, Attire, Environment,
Attitudes and Skills.
The last set is the set for building jewellery brands of Reflect. In this set you need to reflect the
brand offering. This set has 10 ingredients namely Brand experience, integrated communication,
Advertising, Salesmanship, Promotion, Perception, Events, PR, Direct marketing and
Relationships.
The importance and significance of the Select-Effect-Reflect Module, Brand Marketing
Strategy Module is to develop an effective Brand in a systematic and cost effective manner to
increase awareness, trials, repeats, growth, market share growth and profit growth for jewellery
brands.

4. About the different promotional trends used by Jwellery brands in


India.

InterpretationEuromonitor has the worlds most comprehensive research on the jewellery category
within the personal goods industry. We monitor and analyse industry trends around the
world, including in-depth data on market share and market size from the big picture
qualitative analysis; down to specific category data.
Euromonitor data and market analysis cultivates your organizations awareness of the
jewellery market and the greater competitive environment, ensuring accurate and focused
strategies for your business.
A resource for your entire organization, Euromonitor market research supports every
level of business, assisting in strategic development, marketing, mergers and acquisitions,
and brand management.

Conclusion
Based on the above analysis all the Jewelers were Focusing their own customers through saving
scheme, Tele calling and Personal invite.
This activity will give more bonding to their customers and maximize sales growth into their
business. The Market level activity will create more awareness about their brand and recollecting
their existing customers. Also the customer acquisition will contribute to the business.
Store Level activity will assure the 65 % of their business. Its a cost effective tool and reach
individual customer. At the same time to increase their brand share and new customer acquisition
required Market Level activity will support their collection launch, New schemes, offers etc.

LIMITATIONS
The scope of study is limited due to the following reasons:
1) Awareness- the sample taken and the conclusion drawn can be led to only one side if there is
lack of awareness about Branded or Traditional Jewellery .
2) Consumers biasness: People think that if the price of a product is higher, then it is of a high
quality.. In this way Consumers are often biased in their decision-making. . Many types of bias
exist and all people have biases to varying, Consumers who prefer new experiences (novelty
seekers) may tend to be biased in favor of products and services that are presented more vividly
and uniquely than competing products.
3) Time and age factor: Buying preference varies according to season, festivals and other
occasions and the age of the individual also play important role to decide buying preferences.
4) Short life span of product: From the consumers perspective fashion designs and trends are
always changeable in search of new innovation that can be reflected in the changed demand and
buying preference.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Market Research by Tull and Hawkins
Marketing Management by Philip Kotler
www.emarketingii.in
www.google.in
www.scribed. In
www.slideshare.in