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### An Elementary Note: Inverse & Implicit Vector Fields and Contours in the Complex Plane

John Gill

Spring 2015

Given a vector field

F: f(z) our task is to construct the inverse field

G

: g(z)

=

f

1

(z)

when

such a field exists. This is not easily accomplished if g(z) is not available in closed form and

must be calculated implicitly. Additionally, Zeno contours of the inverse field should be

displayed as graphics. Implicit function analysis then follows, generalizing the inverse.

The contours in the original VF may be expressed as:

(1)

γ z

:

k n

,

=

z

k

1,

n

+

η

k n

,

(

f z

(

k

1,

n

)

z

k

1,

n

)

or

(

z t

):

dz

dt =ϕ

(

z

)

=

f z

(

)

z

,

t :0 1

Usually

η

k n

,

=

• 1 . For the inverse VF we have

n

Φ(z(ζ ),ζ )= f(z)ζ = 0 , to be solved for z for

each ζ

by a simple gradient method (not requiring holomorphic functions). Then

(2)

1

γ

:

ζ

k n

,

=

ζ

k

1,

n

+

η

k n

,

(

z ζ

(

k

1,

n

)

ζ

k

1,

n

)

or

ζ

(

t

):

ζ

d

dt

=

g

ζ

(

)

ζ

=

f

1

ζ

(

)

ζ

Where

γ

:lim

n →∞

z

k n

,

n

k = 1

and

1

γ

:lim

n →∞

ζ

k n

,

## }

n

k = 1

are continuums of points in C.

We begin with a simple explicit example: z
Example 1 :
F e
:
and
G Ln z
:
(
) In the next example the Liberty BASIC program I wrote uses an implicit evaluation procedure

that requires gradient searches to ascertain inverse function values at each grid point to plot

the vector field. Then the Zeno contour requires gradient searches, point to point, for 500 steps.
3
1
Example 2 :
F
: f(z)
=
z
+
iz
and
G
: g(z)
=
f
(z)
z
− 1
Example 3 :
F
:
f z
(
)
=
z
+
e
and
G
:
g z
(
)
=
f
(
z
)  When the function is not univalent there can be an element of confusion in the program as the

inverse vectors and contour jump from one possibility to another. For analytic functions f , the

Jacobian

J

=

f ( z )

• 2 . An inverse function exists wherever this is non-zero, (although inverse

function forms may change from one point neighborhood to another). In an intuitive sense the

reason is as follows: Suppose

z ,z

1

2

N (

ε

)

α

. Then

f(z )f(z ) f (α)(z z

1

2

1

2

) and

consequently

f z

(

1

)

f z

(

2

)

f

(

)

α

z

1

z

2

>

δ

z

1

z

2

so that in a small neighborhood of

α the function is univalent and the inverse is well-defined. 1
2
Example 4 :
F
: f(z)
=
z
+
and
G
: g(z)
=
z − 1
f
(z)

Sometimes the implicit inverse is well behaved over a larger domain.

1 Example 5 :
F f z = z + e
:
(
)
z
and

G

: g(z)

=

f

1 (z)
.
Mapping of the unit circle under G :

### Implicit Vector Fields and Contours

Suppose z and ζ are related by ϕ(z,ζ )=0 and z = g(ζ ) in regions of C. Then the

vector field of g(ζ ) and associated Zeno contours can be graphed in those regions. 1
2
Example 6 :
ϕ
(z,
ζ
)
=
z
+
ζ
=
0
,
z = g(ζ ).
Mixed regions.
z
ζ
1
z +
ζ
Example 7 :
ϕ
(
z
,
ζ
)
=
e
+
z
ζ
=
0
, z = g(ζ )  z +
ζ
Example 8 :
ϕ
(
z
,
ζ
) =
e
+
z
ζ

ζ

=

0

,

z g

=

ζ

(

) The topographical image over [-1,1] shows areas of questionable definition. For example,

z = g(0) is non-finite.

The Implicit Function Theorem tells us that a function

z = g(ζ )

Here is a sketch of a proof of that theorem:

exists locally when

ϕ

z

0 .

Given that ϕ(z,ζ ) is analytic in both variables and

ϕ(z ,ζ

0

0

)=0 . The question arises: Is there

z z

1

0

such that

ϕ(z ,ζ

1

0

)=0 or is z = z(ζ ) a proper function there?

Let’s assume

ϕ

z

(

z

0

,

ζ

0

)

0

. Define an auxiliary function

(

F z

,

ζ

): =

z

(

ϕ

z

,

ζ

)

ϕ

z

(

z

0

,

ζ

0

)

. Then

F(z,ζ ) = z ϕ(z,ζ ) = 0 . Now

F z ζ

z

(

0

,

0

)

=

0

, and this means that there are

z

0

and ζ

0

in which

F z ζ

z

(

,

)

< ρ <

1

. Therefore

(

F z

,

ζ

)

F

ξ ζ

(

,

)

=

z

### ∫

(

F s

s

,

ζ

)

ξ

ds and hence F(z, )

ζ

ξ ζ

F( ,

)

<

ρ

z

ξ

, demonstrating that F

is a contraction mapping on the first variable, which in turn (using the Banach Fixed Point

Theorem) shows there is a unique α

such that

F(α,ζ

0

)=α . I.e.,

ϕ(α,ζ

0

)=0, so that

z

0

= z(ζ

0

)=α is indeed unique. This reasoning extends to a small neighborhood about

ζ

0

.

In Example 8

ϕ

z

0

takes the form

e

ζ

z +

+

ζ

0

. Solving the system

e

ζ

z +

+

ζ

z

e

ζ

z +

+

ζ

ζ

= 0

= 0

to

find an exceptional point, gives ζ ≈ −1.557 + 0i .

Example 9 : z
2
ϕ z ζ
(
,
)
= e
+ z −ζ
=
0
, z = g(ζ )

### Implicit Functions and Attractors

Suppose a function z = z(ζ ) is defined implicitly by ϕ(z,ζ ) = 0 .

(1)

Choose and fix

ζ =ζ

0

.

Thus

z = z(ζ ) = ? and

0

0

ϕ(z ,ζ )=0 .

0

0

(2)

Define a vector field (VF) by

F(z,ζ )=ϕ(z,ζ )+ z

0

0

(3)

Observe that

F(z,ζ )= z

0

ϕ(z,ζ

0

)=0

and therefore

z

0

is a fixed point of

F .

(4)

If

F z ζ

z

(

0

,

0

)

<

1

then

z

0

is an attracting fixed point of F .

(5)

Form the Zeno contour

z

k n

,

=

z

k

1,

n

+

η

n

(

ϕ z

k

1,

n

,

ζ

0

)

=

z

k

1,

n

η F z

+

n

(

k

1,

n

,

ζ

0

)

z

k

1,

n

### )

(6)

It has been shown that

z z

n n

,

0

as

n→ ∞ for starting points close to the attractor.

(7)

Write

*

F (z,ζ )=

0

1

2

F(z,ζ ) and ϕ (z,ζ ) = F (z,ζ )z .

0

0

0

*

*

(8)

Then

z

k n

,

=

z

k

1,

n

+

η

n

*

ϕ

(

z

k

1,

n

,

ζ

0

)

=

z

k

1,

n

η F z

+

n

*

(

k

1,

n

,

ζ

0

)

z

k

1,

n

## )

and

z

n n

,

α ζ

(

0

)

=ϕ α ζ

(

(

0

),

ζ

0

)

, the fixed point of the implicit function.

As a consequence, it is possible sometimes to determine z(ζ ) for particular values of ζ as

the end point – an attractor - of a Zeno contour. 1
2
Example 10 :
ϕ
(
z ζ
,
)
=
ζ z
+ z ( ζ −
1)
+
1
,
ζ
= i
,
z(ζ
) = ?
if ϕ(z,ζ
) = 0
0
0
0
2
The Zeno contour has been boosted by employing 10
η
rather than
η
. z(i)≈ .414 + .414i
n
n
ζ
z
ζ
z
Example 11 :
Φ
(
z
,
ζ
)
=
ζ
Cos
z
=
0
.
Then
F z
(
,
ζ
)
=
ζ
Cos
and the Zeno
10
10

contour terminates at z = z(ζ ) for ζ

in a neighborhood of the origin and initial values of z

near the fixed points. For example,

z(1+ 3i) .1573 + 2.5197i  1
z
Example 12 :
ϕ
(
z ζ
,
)
=
e −
1
z −i +ζ =
4
2

0

,

ζ = . z(1) 1.97 +1.58i , α(1).9091.021i

1 ### Contours defined Implicitly

Instead of ϕ(z,ζ ), consider an ordinary contour defined implicitly:

Example 13 :

Φ(z,t) = tz

3

2t

2

z + 4i =0,

t :0 1 ,

z(t) = ?

for various values of t . z(1) 1.18i z(.5) ≈ 1.834i
z(.2) ≈ 2.67i

For each value of t a Zeno contour is drawn to an attractor. The actual contour z(t) is not

shown (and is embedded in a time dependent vector field (TDVF) not graphed).

Example 14 :

and solve for tz
2
Φ z t = e + z −it =
(
,
)
0
, t :0→1. To derive the TDVF differentiate the equation
tz
dz
dz
z
(1
+
e
(
t
1))
+
2
ti
.
Then
(
z t
,
)
=
F z t
(
,
)
z
, where
F z t
(
,
) =
.
tz
dt
dt
1 + te Here the contour is determined directly from the original implicit format, rather than
dz
constructing it as a Zeno contour using
(
z t
,
)
.
dt =ϕ
z
dz
2
te
− z
2
Example 15 :
Φ
(
z t
,
)
=
ze
t
+
C
=
0
,
C
=
1
i
,
=
(
z t
,
)
=
F z t
(
,
)
z
dt
1
z
z(0)≈ 1.34 +5.25i . The Zeno contour has been boosted using 10
η .
n

### Implicit Generating Functions

Normally, a Zeno contour is defined as follows:

Let

g

k n

,

(

z

)

= z +η

k n

,

(

ϕ z

)

where

z S

and

g

k n

,

(

z

)

S

for a convex set S in the complex plane. Require

lim

η

k n

,

n →∞

=

0

, where (usually)

k =1,2,

...

,n

.

Set

G

1,

n

(

z

)

= g

1,

n

(

z

)

,

G

k n

,

(

z

)

=

g

k n

,

G

k

1,

n

(

z

)

## )

and

G

n

(

z

)

= G

n n

,

(

z

)

with

(

G z

)

=

lim

n →∞

G

n

(

z

)

, when that limit exists. The Zeno contour is a graph of this iteration. The word

Zeno denotes the infinite number of actions required in a finite time period if η

k ,n

describes a

partition of the time interval [0,1]. Normally, ϕ(z) = f (z) z for a vector field F = f (z) , and

ϕ(z,t) = f (z,t) z for a time-dependent vector field , in which case

g

k n

,

(

z

) =

z

+η

k n

,

ϕ(

z

,

k

n

)

.

An implicit generator

g

k n

,

(

z = z +η ϕ z g

k n

,

,

)

(

k n

,

(

z

))

produces a contour

γ z

:

k n

,

=

z

k

1,

n

+

(

ϕ z

η

k n

,

k

1,

n

,

z

k n

,

)

=

z

k

1,

n

+

η

k n

,

f z

(

k

1,

n

,

z

k n

,

)

z

k

1,

n

### )

Example 16 :

g

k n

,

(

z

) =

z

+

z g ( z )

 

1

 

k n

,

n

1

+

g

2

k n

,

(

z

) A result virtually indistinguishable from 2
1
 
z
z
k
1,
n
z
=
z
+
,
f z
(
)
=
+
z
k n
,
k
1,
n
2
2
n
1
+
z
1
+
z
 
k
− 1,
n
2
dz
z
*
for good reason:
=
(
z z
,
)
(
z
)
2
dt
1
+
z
Implicit Iteration
Suppose z
and
ζ
one iterate z = g(ζ ) ?
In theory, iteration would look like this:
ζ
→ z(ζ )= z → z(z )= z → z(z )= z
→ or
ϕ z z
(
,
)
=
0
, k =1,2,
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
k
k − 1
A simple application is seen in the following example:
4
3
Example 17 :
Suppose we wish to find a root of the equation
1
1
2
the implicit iteration scheme
Z
+
Z
= 0
n
n − 1
2
Z Z
n n − 1
1
1
2
Toward this end set
ϕ
(
z
,
ζ
)
=
z
+
ζ
=
0
and begin iteration with ζ = 1+ i .
2
z
ζ

are related by ϕ(z,ζ )=0 and z = g(ζ ) in regions of C. How does

α 2α +2 = 0 . Observe that

, should it converge, will provide a root. The image is magnified, with the point 1+i in green, and the 250 th iterate in red. There are a

fair number of iterate points scattered in a roughly circular pattern (not shown) around the

initial value until finally the iterates fall into the spiral as shown. 500 iterates lead to the same

point, with a bit more accuracy.

### Time Dependent Implicit Vector Fields From Example 9,
zt
2
Example 18 :
ϕ z ζ t = e
(
,
;
)
+ zt −ζ
=
0
,
t :0→1