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Module 1

Buckingham Pi theorem

The application of this theorem provides a

fairly easy method to identify dimensionless

parameters (numbers).

However identification of the influencing

parameters is the job of an expert rather than

that of a novice.

HOMOGENEITY

The principle is basic for the correctness of

any equation.

It states If an equation truly expresses a

proper relationship between variables in a

physical phenomenon, then each of the

additive terms will have the same

dimensions or these should be dimensionally

homogeneous.

In the engineering point of view model can be

defined as the representation of physical

system that may be used to predict the

behavior of the system in the desired aspect

The system whose behavior is to be predicted

by the model is called the prototype.

Similarity

ratio of length parameters. All the similar linear dimension of the

model and prototype should have the same ratio. This I called

geometric similarity. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or

scale factor

Dynamic Similarity:

number, Weber number etc. be equal for the model and prototype. These

numbers are ratios of inertia, viscous gravity and surface tension forces.

This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at

corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be

the same. This requirement is called dynamic similarity

Kinematic Similarity:

similarities exist, then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the

same throughout the flow field. This will mean that the streamline patterns

will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. This is called

kinematic similarly

Reynolds number (Re) = Inertia force/Viscous

force

Mach number = Inertia force/Elastic force

Froude number = Inertia force/Gravity force

Weber number : It is defined as the ratio of

the inertia force to surface tension force

For the dynamic similarities between the model

and prototype, the ratios of corresponding force

acting on the corresponding points should be

equal.

The ratio of the forces of non-dimensional

numbers it means that for the dynamic similarity

between model and prototype , the dimensionless

number should be same for model and prototype.

The law on which the model are designed for

dynamic similarity are called model laws or

similarity laws

It states that the Reynolds number for the

model and prototype must be equal where the

viscous force is predominant in addition to the

inertia force

Types of Models

geometrically similar with its prototype. The condition of

similarities are completely satisfied for such models hence the

results obtained from the model test are easily used

Distorted model:

In such model, the different scale ratios for linear dimensions are

adopted.

vertical and horizontal

Distortion of Configuration Model does not be an

resemblance of its Prototype.

Material Distortion - Adoption of different material for

model and prototype

Scale Effect

The behaviour of the prototype as predicted by two models

with different scale ratio is generally not the same. Such an

difference in the prediction of behaviour prototype is known as

Scale Effect.

Introduction

Need of experiments :

(i)Theory is incomplete and needs to be supplemented.

(ii) Information of fundamental nature needed in many

areas.

Experimental information towards solving aerodynamic

problems could be obtained in a number of ways. Flight

tests, rocket flights, drop tests water tunnels, ballistic

ranges and wind tunnels are some of the ways by which

aerodynamic data can be generated. With the help of well

performed experiments even information of fundamental

nature could be derived

Wind tunnel

Majority of experimental data needed in

aerodynamics is generated using wind tunnels. Wind

Tunnel is a device for producing airflow relative to

the body under test. Wind tunnels provide uniform

flow conditions in their test section.

1. Aerodynamic applications

2. Non-Aero applications in

Civil Engineering

Automobile Engineering

Calibration of instruments

Operational point of view

Low speed tunnels

High speed tunnels

Intermittent

Blow down M > 0.5 < 5.0

Indraft

Intermittent pressure vacuum tunnel for M>5

Speed, Mach no :

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

subsonic,

transonic,

supersonic

hypersonic wind tunnels.

or Pressure vacuum type.)

(c) Kind of test section (T.S) - Open, Closed or Semi

enclosed

High speed wind tunnel (intermittent/blow down Mach 3, 600m/s)

Free piston shock tunnel (impulse type, Mach 4-10, 5km/s)

Expansion tube (impulse type, Mach 10, 10km/s)

Honey comb

effuser

Open Return

Closed Test Section

low speed tunnels

Suction

type Fan

& motor

Unit

Honey combs: its used to improve the flow qualities in the test

section. Are made of octagonal, hexagonal, square or cylindrical

cells.

turbulence level and increases the velocity of the flow the

contraction ratio n is the ratio between entry and exit of the

cone . Normally the ratio varies from 4 to 20 for low speed

tunnels

n = area at entry of contraction cone

area at exit of contraction cone

patterns . Because the boundary layer is formed along the

test section walls , the walls are given suitable divergence

. So that the net C/S area of the flow is constant along the

length of the test section

Test section wall Boundary layer

Constant flow

Constant flow

Divergence angle

Diffuser :

of the test section in to PE. Before it leaves the diffuser as

efficiently as possible. Normally smaller the divergence

angle of diffuser will give more efficiency . Near to the

exit it will be circular to accommodate the fan .

or a fan combination . Speed adjustment has to be done by

varying the RPM. (many larger tunnel tat are equipped

with both RPM and pitch change mechanisms )

Tunnel at MSN

Test section flow velocity more than 650km/hr

High speed tunnel are normally intermittent

(discontinuous) type

Energy is stored in the in the form of pressure

or vacuum or both and is allowed to drive the

tunnel only for few seconds

Intermittent tunnel

Blow down tunnel

Induction tunnel

(High speed tunnel)

Advantages

The most economical type

of super sonic tunnel

Can have larger test section

and high mach number

(M=4 can obtained)

Constant blowing pressure

can be maintained

Running time considerable

duration can be achieved

Single drive may easily run

several tunnels of different

range

Dis advantages

Charging time to running time

ratio will be very high for

larger size tunnel

Stagnation temperature in the

reservoir drops during the run

and changes the Reynolds

number

And adjustable throttling

valve is necessary for constant

stagnation pressure

Starting load is high

Pressure range of reservoir

100 to 2000 psi.

is used to establish the flow in the test section .

Advantages

To Po are constant

No oil contamination , because pump at the down stream end

Disadvantages

Drier size should be large because it has to handle a large mass

flow in a short duration

Vacuum tank size required is too large

M > 2 is not possible

(closed circuit super sonic wind tunnel)

Testing condition can be maintained over a

long period of time

The test section can be designed for M>4 and

large size models

Starting condition can be reduced by starting

at low pressure in the tunnel shell

(common to all tunnel )

test rhombus. The model

must be accommodated in side

the rhombus formed by the

incident and reflected shock for

proper measurements

better suited for large

pressure ratio and mass

flow rate

Proper nozzle geometry is

very important to obtain

good distribution of Mach

number & freedom from

floe angularity in the test

section

Subsonic portion of the

diffuser must have an

optimum

angle,

to

minimize the frictional and

separation losses

Disadvantages

Requires large size cooler

Tunnel design and operation are more

complicated

Losses in the guide vane at the corners(CCT)

Losses in the diffuser

Losses in the contraction cone

Losses in the honey comb

Losses in test section (jet loss in case of open jet)

Losses in the exit (OCT)

pressure drop p ,In dimension less form

called pressure drop coefficient K

K= (p/q)

by

p

K= -------------------

V2

1. Chose a compressor for specified test section size, mach number

& pressure level

2. Determine the best utilization of already available compressor

all pressure ratio and mass flow rate.

Usually the compressor are measured in terms of

volumetric Flow V

Because the density varies through out the circuit , the

V also varies through out the tunnel.

- operating pressure ratio

V- volumetric flow rate

characteristics (one test section condition )

By increasing the stage

high pressure ratio can

be obtained

number flow

n- matching point

b- matching point with

bypass

0 matching point at

minimum operating ratio

The plot Vs V is a straight

line through the origin with a

slope 1/ V0

compressor is given by

- mass flow rate

P03 & P0c- total pressure at the inlet and out let

of compressor

N- no of stages

Ts- stagnation temp

Pt & t stagnation

pressure and density

P , , T - local pressure

density and temperature

P1 & P2 pressure at up

stream and down stream of

shock

One

of

the

primary

consideration in sizing a wind

tunnel

test

section

and

associated equipments such as ,

compressor diffuser .

for subsonic and super sonic

tunnel

section mach number is

evaluated

For super sonic flow nozzle

throat of mach number is

evaluated for predicting the

mass flow rate

Blow down tunnel usually

operated

at

constant

pressure

Objective

of

constant

pressure is to obtain a steady

flow at the time of data

being recorded

The pressure and temperature at the storage tank

changes during the operation . This pressure

changes causes the following effect

Tunnel stagnation and settling chamber pressure fall

Force acting on the model changes during test

Reynolds no of the flow changes during tunnel run

constant Reynolds number operation

Constant pressure operation

Constant throttle operation

P0i

storage tank inlet

pressure

From the graph its clear

Reynolds number decreases

with running time for a

constant throttle operation

Reynolds increases with running

time for a constant pressure

operation

Reynolds change result in

boundary layer thinness and that

affects the area and mach number

at the test section

above causes will be normally

less

m viscosity index

n- polytropic index

Its clear that Re decreases with

time t for a throttling processes

For a given P & T the running time

t will be

Shortest for

constant throttle

operation

Longest for Reynolds no operation

In between above 2 for constant

pressure operation

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