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ME 425: AERODYNAMICS

- Dr. A.B.M. Toufique Hasan


Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BUET

Lecture # 1 (Introduction)
March 2, 2015

ME425: Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is the study of dynamics of gaseous fluids


(air/gas), especially the atmospheric interaction with moving
bodies.
This field of engineering deals with the aerodynamics forces
namely lift and drag and moments and the heat transfer rates
acting on a vehicle in flight.
These mechanical parameters greatly depends on the pattern of
flow around the vehicle.
And the resultant flow pattern depends on the geometry of the
vehicle (shape of the airfoil: NACA, SC, RAE, ONERA, BGK,
NLR, DRA, OAT ), its orientation with respect to
undisturbed free stream (Angle of Attack-AOA), and the speed
(Mach No.) and altitude at which the vehicle is moving.
ME425: Aerodynamics

Fig. Viscous Flow around a square cylinder

Fig. Viscous Flow around a circular cylinder

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Fig. Flow past an airfoil


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The complete flight of a vehicle/object is mostly comprises of


the following matters:

Aerodynamics
Propulsion and Power
Structural mechanics/dynamics
Stability and control

Aerodynamics is the fundamental of Aerospace engineering. A


great scope is available for propulsion technology (Jet
propulsion and rocketry) and structural dynamics.

ME425: Aerodynamics

The physics of aerodynamics can be learnt from


Theoretical aerodynamics (governing equations,
simplification, theoretical modeling etc.)
Experimental aerodynamics (wind tunnel, flow
visualization-PIV, instrumentation, measurements etc.)
Computational aerodynamics (governing equations,
numerical techniques, computational resources, CFD)
Several promising commercial software for CFD are ANSYS FLUENT
ANSYS CFX
FASTRAN
STAR CCM+
ADINA
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ME425: Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics can be broadly classified to two groups1. External aerodynamics


2. Internal aerodynamics
External aerodynamics
1. Helicopter
2. Civil aircraft/passenger aircraft
3. Cargo aircraft
4. Military aircraft (most advanced)
5. Rockets
6. UAV
7. Spaceships
8. Wind turbine
9. Racing car aerodynamics
10.High speed train aerodynamics

Internal aerodynamics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Rocket nozzle (C-D nozzle)


Compressor/turbine blade
Fan blade
Butterfly valve
Cascade

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Air Berlin B737-700

Lufthansa B737-300

Airbus A380

B767 climbing in moist air


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First Flight: December 15, 2009


The Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner is a
super-efficient airplane. It will bring
the economics of large jet transports
to the middle of the market, using 20
percent less fuel than any other
airplane of its size.
Cockpit crew: 2
Seating: 210 -250 passengers
Range 14200 15200 Km
Engine (s) - Two GE GENX /Two

Dreamliner: world's first major airliner to Rolls Royces Trent 1000.


use composite materials for most of its Cruise speed: 902 Kph. (Mach 0.85)
construction

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Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor

Avro Vulcan Bombar

A-10 Thunderbolt II
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Space Shuttle Main Engine

Space Shuttle
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Shock diamonds

Ariane 5 just after lift-off

Flow structure inside nozzle


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Flying of bird
UAV is used for
Remotely piloted
Surveillance
Detection
of
biological,
chemical or nuclear materials
Unmanned air vehicle (UAV)
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Vehicles with wing spans less than approximately 6m and


masses less than 25 kg are usually considered as UAV.
UAV are either remotely piloted or autonomous with artificial
intelligence.
Requirements for a typical low-altitude small UAV include
Long flight duration at speeds between 20 and 100
km/h
Cruise altitude 3 to 300 m
Light weight
All-weather capabilities
Because of recent availability of very small sensors, video
camera, and control hardware, systems as small as 15 cm
with mass of 80 g, referred to as micro-air vehicle (MAV),
are now possible for limited missions.
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Fig. Reynolds number range for flight vehicles*

The most important parameter in fluid dynamics/aerodynamics is


the Reynolds number, Re which is the ratio of inertia force to
viscous force.
* http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.fluid.35.101101.161102

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Fig. Variation of Reynolds numbers with speed across


insects, micro-air vehicles, birds, Model airplanes,
Human powered vehicles, aircraft, hang-gliders and
lighter than air airships. Adapted from (Lissaman 1983)

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NACA 0012

BOEING 737 Root

Boeing 737 Midspan


NACA 0015

Boeing 737 Outboard

NACA 0024

RAE 2822 (SC)

NACA 2414
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Course content
1. Aerodynamic forces-drag and lift
2. Inviscid incompressible flow to include potential function,
stream function, circulation
3. Basic potential flows
4. Kutta Joukowski theorem
5. Airfoil theory
6. Wing theory
7. Aircraft propulsion
8. Aircraft performance; static and special performance
9. Introduction to stability and control

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Reference texts:
1. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics- J Anderson
2. Aerodynamics for Engineers- John J Bertin
3. Aerodynamics for Engineering Students - E. Lo Houghton
and PW Carpenter
4. Introduction to Flight - J Anderson
5. Aircraft performance and Design - J Anderson

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