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Desirable Dietary Pattern for Bangladesh

The study conducted by:

Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes,


Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM)
Principal Investigator: Quamrun Nahar, PhD

Senior Research Officer, Dept of Biochemistry & Cell Biology


BIRDEM

Co-Investigators:

Subhagata Choudhury, MBBS, FCPS, MPhil

Director and Professor, Laboratory Services, BIRDEM

Md Omar Faruque, PhD, Senior Research Officer,


Dept of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, BIRDEM

Sayeda Saleha Saliheen Sultana, MSc.

Assoc. Prof., College of Home Economics, Dhaka

Muhammad Ali Siddiquee, PhD

Head, Grain Quality and Nutrition, BRRI

This study was carried out with the support of the

National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme

June 2013

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This study was financed under the Research Grants Scheme (RGS) of the
National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (NFPCSP) Phase
II. The purpose of the RGS is to support studies that directly address the
policy research needs identified by the Food Planning and Monitoring Unit
of the Ministry of Food. The NFPCSP is being implemented by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food
Planning and Monitoring Unit (FPMU), Ministry of Food with the financial
support of EU and USAID.
The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO nor of the
NFPCSP, Government of Bangladesh, EU or USAID and reflects the sole
opinions and views of the authors who are fully responsible for the contents,
findings and recommendations of this report.

Acknowledgements
It is with great pleasure that we acknowledge the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of
the UN, Bangladesh for providing technical support to BIRDEM for conducting the study

Desirable Dietary Pattern for Bangladesh. This study is a fundamental step towards improving
the health and nutritional status of the population of Bangladesh. We are also grateful to the
authority of BIRDEM for the permission and support given to us to carry out this work.
We are expressing our indebtedness and gratitude to Dr. Lalita Bhattacharjee, Nutritionist and
Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mannan, National Food Utilization and Nutrition Advisor, NFPCSP,
FAO of the United Nations for their technical guidance and support given throughout the study
period thus leading to its fruitful completion.
We are also grateful to Dr. Ciro Fiorillo, CTA, NFPCSP, FAO of the United Nations for his kind
suggestions and overall supervision.
Our special thanks go to Dr. Nur Ahamed Khondaker, Research Grants Administrator of
NFPCSP, FAO of the United Nations for his assistance and cooperation on issues related to the
research management and logistics.
Special thanks are also due to Mr. Touhidul Islam, Deputy Project Director of Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics (BBS) for his help from time to time on the HIES data management and to
Mr. SM Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi and Dr. Nurul Alam of ICDDRB for support on the statistical
tools.
We are also grateful to Ms. Jillian Waid of HKI for her help regarding Dietary Diversity Score
(DDS) calculation and for review of that section in the study.
We thank Kbd SM Emdadul Hoque, Deputy Director (Fruit and Vegetables), Food Crop Wing,
DAE, Khamarbari and Mr. SM Quamruzzaman, Project Director, Integrated Quality Horticulture
Development Project, DAE, Khamarbari, Dhaka for their support in adapting the crop calendar
and related materials.
We are also thankful to Prof. Ekhlasur Rahman, Director IPHN and Line Director NNS; Prof.
SM Keramat Ali of Daffodil University, Prof. Shaheen Ahmed, Former Principal, Home
Economics College, Prof. Khursheed Jahan, Prof. Moududur Rahman, Prof. SK Nazrul Islam,
Prof. Nazrul Islam Khan, Prof. Nazma Shaheen and Prof. ATA Rahim of INFS for their valuable
suggestions.
We would like to express our heartfelt thanks to all the household members who have spent
important time to give us information on the 24 hr dietary recall for the DDS calculation.
The working group that was set up for this research work also deserves special thanks for their
keen interest and contribution towards the study.

Quamrun Nahar
Senior Research Officer, BIRDEM
Principal Investigator, DDP

Table of Contents
Contents

Page No

Acronyms

viii

Executive Summary

xi

1. Introduction
1.1.Objectives and key research questions

1
1

2. Literature review
2.1
Dietary pattern
2.2
Nutrition situation
2.2.1. Energy deficiency
2.2.2. Obesity and chronic diseases
2.2.3. Micronutrient deficiency
2.2.3.1.Iron deficiency
2.2.3.2.Vitamin A deficiency
2.2.3.3.Iodine deficiency
2.2.3.4.Zinc deficiency
2.3
Energy requirements and reference body weight
2.4
Basal metabolic rate
2.5
Physical Activity Level (PAL)
Nutrient requirements
2.6
2.7
Health and food crop diversity
2.8
Dietary Diversity Score

3
3
4
5
6
6
6
8
8
9
9
11
11
12
16
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3. Methodology
3.1. Energy requirements
3.2. Nutrient requirements
3.3. Food intake patterns in Bangladesh
3.4. Household dietary diversity score
3.5. Key food identification
3.6. Crop calendar
3.7. Compilation of Bangladeshi foods
3.8. Optimizing nutrition return
3.9. Menu planning
3.10. Serving size calculation
3.11. Food exchange lists
3.12. Key stakeholders
3.13. Dietary guidelines for Bangladesh
3.14. Analysis of datasets

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20
21
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22
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23
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4. Results and discussion


4.1.Energy requirements for Bangladeshi population
4.2.Requirements of macro and micronutrients for Bangladesh
4.3.Diet and nutrient consumption patterns in Bangladeshi population

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24
31
35
ii

4.4.Dietary diversity score


4.4.1 DDS of Khagrachari, Rangamati and Dhaka city populations
4.5. Desirable intake for Bangladeshi population
4.6. Energy and nutrient gap calculation for Bangladeshi population
4.7. Identification of key foods
4.8. Exchange lists of foods based on energy values
4.9. Optimizing nutrition return
4.10. Dietary guidelines for Bangladeshi population
4.11. Menu planning
4.12. Conclusion
4.13. Recommendations

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47
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50
58
63
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5. Bibliography

65

Appendices
A1: Physical Activity Level (PAL) calculations in different occupations in
Bangladeshi population
A2: List of occupations in different PAL group
A3: PAL values for different type works
A4: Physical Activity Level (PAL) value of different work for females
A5: BMR in male and females according to age and body weight (FAO, 2004)
A6: Rich source of Energy, Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat
A7: Rich sources of Thiamine, -carotene and Vitamin-C
A8: Rich sources of Calcium, Iron and Fiber
A9: Nutrient Return per 100 taka Spent
A10: Vegetable calendar for Bangladesh from January to June
A11: Vegetable calendar for Bangladesh from July to December
A12: Seasonal fruit calendar from January to June
A13: Seasonal fruit calendar from July to December
A14: Menu plan
A15: Scientific name of all the available Bangladeshi foods
A16: Selected photographs of DDP activity

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131
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List of Tables

Page No

Table 2.1: Per capita/day intake of major food items (g) in Bangladeshi population

Table 2.2: Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant rural women

Table 2.3 Nutrition situation of Bangladesh

10

Table 2.4 Ranges of population intake goals

13

Table 2.5 Summary of the different terms of reference intake

16

Table 2.6 Measures of DDS at a glance

19

Table 4.1: Energy Requirements of Boys and Girls (up to 17 yrs of age)

25

Table 4.2: Energy Requirements of male and females of urban and rural areas

26

for 18-29.9yrs of age


Table 4.3: Energy Requirements of male and females of urban and rural areas for

27

30-59.9yrs of age
Table 4.4: Energy Requirements (kcal/day) of male and females of urban and rural

28

areas for >60yrs of age


Table 4.5: Energy Requirements of male and females for hilly region (PAL, 2.41)

29

Table 4.6: Energy requirements for pregnant women and lactating mothers

30

Table 4.7: RDA for Macronutrients in different age groups for both male and females

31

Table 4.8: RNI of Vitamins for Bangladeshi population

32

Table 4.9: RNI (Recommended nutrient intake) of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron,

33

Magnesium and RI (recommended intake) of Sodium and Potassium


Table 4.10: RNI of iodine and zinc for Bangladeshi population

34

Table 4.11: Food intake (g/p/d) of the Bangladeshi population

35

Table 4.12: Mean per capita energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat and fiber intake of
Bangladeshi population (weighted value)

36

Table 4.13: Distribution ranges of population- nutrient intake goals

36

Table 4.14: Adult male equivalent (AME) consumption for household members
in different age groups according to HIES 2010 data

37

Table 4.15: Cereal intake of Bangladeshi population

41

Table 4.16: Comparison of energy, cereal and rice intake, HIES 2005 and 2010

41

Table 4.17: Diversity of pulse intake in Bangladeshi population

41

Table 4.18: Diversity of fish intake of Bangladeshi population

42

Table 4.19: Diversity of poultry and meat intake of Bangladeshi population

42
iv

Table 4.20: Diversity of vegetables intake for Bangladeshi population

43

Table 4.21: Diversity of fruit intake among the Bangladeshi population

43

Table 4.22: Diversity of Oil and visible Fat intake of Bangladeshi population

44

Table 4.23: Diversity of milk and dairy product intake of Bangladeshi population

44

Table 4.24: Diversity of spices intake of the Bangladeshi population

44

Table 4.25: List of food groups for DDS Calculation

45

Table 4.26: Desirable intake for Bangladeshi population

48

Table 4.27: Current Intake and RNI of different Vitamins for adult Bangladeshi
Population

49

Table 4.28: Intake and RDA of Zinc and Iron for adult Bangladeshi Population

50

Table 4.29: List of key foods with nutrient contributions according to HIES 2010

55

Table 4.29.1: Nutrient values of key foods

56

Table 4.30: Exchange list of fish according to energy contents

58

Table 4.31: Exchange list of lentils according to energy content

59

Table 4.32: Exchange list of leafy vegetables according to energy content

60

Table 4.33: Exchange list of nonleafy vegetables according to energy content

61

Table 4.34: Exchange list of fruits according to energy content

62

List of figures

Page No

Figure 2.1: Trends of anaemia among infants and preschool children in Bangladesh

Figure 4.1: Contribution of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat

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Figure 4.2: Distribution of carbohydrate intake of Bangladeshi population

39

Figure 4.3: Distribution of protein intake of Bangladeshi population

39

Figure 4.4: Distribution of fat intake of Bangladeshi population

40

Figure 4.5: DDS among Bangladeshi households of 14 different days

46

Figure 4.6: Distribution of DDS among Bangladeshi households

46

Figure 4.6.1: HDDS (Dhaka city, Khagrachari and Rangamati)

47

and IDDS (Students and slum peoples)


Figure 4.7: Key foods for fibre

50

Figure 4.8: Key foods for protein

50

Figure 4.9: Key foods for fat

51

Figure 4.10: Key foods for carbohydrate

51

Figure 4.11: Key foods for calcium

51

Figure 4.12: Key foods for iron

51

Figure 4.13: Key foods for

52

Figure 4.14: Key foods for

52

Figure 4.15: Key foods for vitamin C

52

Figure 4.16: Key foods for Vitamin A

52

Figure 4.17: Key foods for folic acid

53

Figure 4.18: Key foods for zinc

53

Figure 4.19: Key foods for magnesium

53

Figure 4.20: Key foods for sodium

53

Figure 4.21: Key foods for potassium

54

Figure 4.22: Key foods for phosphorus

54

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Acronyms
AED

Academy for Educational Development

AI

Adequate Intake

AME

Adult Male Equivalent

ANR

Average Nutrient Requirement

ATP III

Adult Treatment Panel III

BARC

Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council

BARI

Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute

BBS

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

BDHS

Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey

BDT

Bangladesh Taka

BIRDEM

Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes,


Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

BIRTAN

Bangladesh Institute of Research and Training on Applied Nutrition

BMI

Body Mass Index

BMMS

Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey

BMR

Basal Metabolic Rate

BRRI

Bangladesh Rice Research Institute

CBN

Cost Basic Need

CED

Chronic Energy Deficiency

DAM

Department of Agriculture and Marketing

DCI

Direct Calorie Intake

DDS

Dietary Diversity Score

DDP

Desirable Dietary Pattern

DEI

Dietary Energy Intake

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

DRV

Dietary Reference Value

DHS

Demographic and Health survey

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

FANTA

Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FCS

Food Consumption Score

FCT

Food Composition Table

vii

FPMU

Food Planning and Monitoring Unit

GOB

Government of Bangladesh

HIES

Household Income and Expenditure Survey

HKI

Helen Keller International

HDDS

Households Dietary Diversity Score

HH

Household

HNPSP

Health Nutrition and Population Sector Programme

ICDDR'B

International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research; Bangladesh

ICMR

Indian Council on Medical Research

ID

Iron Deficiency

IDA

Iron Deficiency Anemia

IDD

Iodine Deficiency Disorder

IDF

International Diabetes Foundation

IDDS

Individual Dietary Diversity score

IOM

Institute of Medicine

INFS

Institute of Nutrition and Food science

IPHN

Institute of Public Health and Nutrition

LBW

Low birth Weight

LRNI

Lower Reference Nutrient Intake

MDG

Millennium Development Goals

NIN

National Institute of Nutrition

NIV

Nutrient Intake Value

NPNL

Non pregnant non lactating

PAL

Physical Activity Level

PopER

Population Energy Requirement

PSU

Primary Sampling Unit

RDA

Recommended Daily Allowance

RDI

Reference daily Intake

RNI

Recommended Nutrient Intake

SPSS

Statistical Package for Social Science

TDEE

Total Daily Energy Expenditure

TEE

Total Energy Expenditure

UNICEF

United Nations Childrens Fund

UL

Upper Limit

viii

UNL

Upper Nutrient Level

UNU

United Nation University

VAD

Vitamin A Deficiency

WDDS

Women Dietary Diversity Score

WHO

World Health Organization

WFP

World Food Programme

ix

Executive Summary
Nutrition is a basic human need and prerequisite to a healthy life. A proper diet is essential from
the very early stages of life for proper growth, development and to remain active. Food
consumption, which to a large extent depends on production, access, distribution and
affordability, impacts on the health and nutritional status of the population.
Although Bangladesh has made considerable progress in increasing national level food
availability, the intake of energy and other essential nutrients is still below the requirements and
recommended dietary allowances. Diets are largely imbalanced with the staple food cereals
contributing around 70% of total energy intake (HIES, 2010). A desirable dietary pattern
therefore needs to be developed based on the current knowledge of nutritional requirements of
different age, sex and occupational groups, the countrys food and dietary habits and normative
guidelines for a healthy diet. Such recommendations for the desirable dietary pattern are used for
formulating dietary guidelines for individuals and groups and for planning national food and
agricultural strategies. National guidelines for translating the required energy and nutrients play
an important role in supporting long-term planning for balanced food intake, but these are not yet
available for Bangladesh. The present study is an attempt to develop a desirable dietary pattern
and diet plans for Bangladesh that will help to meet the both macro- and micro-nutrient
requirements at affordable costs.
Energy requirements for the Bangladeshi population were calculated using the FAO/WHO
recommendations. For this purpose, the physical activity levels (PAL) of all the occupations
were estimated. PAL values for specific work were adapted from the FAO classification (FAO,
1985; FAO, 2004). After estimating the PAL values, all the occupations were categorized
according to physical activity (sedentary, moderate and heavy work) PAL values that varied
between 1.4 and 1.69 were considered for the sedentary group, 1.70-1.99 were considered for
the moderate activity group and >2.0 were considered for the heavy worker group (FAO, 2004).
PAL values for all the occupations were analyzed to calculate the mean PAL values of sedentary,
moderate and heavy worker group which are estimated as : sedentary 1.5, moderate 1.88 and
heavy 2.46. Moderate and heavy worker groups in the hilly region were considered together
because the population doing moderate work are engaged in tasks that involve both up hill and
downhill movement. They need to expend more energy, and as such are engaged heavy work
with an estimated PAL value for hilly region people at 2.41. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) for
different age groups with different body weight have been adapted from the FAO assessment of
energy requirements based on energy expenditure estimates expressed as multiples of basal
metabolic rates (FAO, 2004). The FAO methodology was used for calculating population energy
requirements. Accordingly, the energy (kcal) requirements were for sedentary: urban: male,
2430, female, 1980; rural: male, 2430, female 1980; moderate: Urban: male, 2997, female, 2442;
rural: male, 3045, female, 2480; and heavy worker groups: urban: male, 3758, female, 3062;
rural: male, 3985, female 3280. This study also documented the comparison of energy
requirements and current energy intakes. To estimate the current energy intakes, secondary data
from HIES 2010 was analyzed. Weighted per capita/day mean energy consumption according to
x

HIES 2010 was 2190 kcal (urban 2094, rural 2223kcal). It appears that the current energy
consumption is about 240kcal deficient compared to the requirements of the average adult
Bangladeshi population. But in terms of intra-household energy distribution according to adult
male consumption equivalents, adult males are consuming adequate energy whereas females are
still energy deficient. About 40% of the population take more than 75% of total calorie from
carbohydrate which may have a linked with obesity and related diseases. Forty percent of the
population take less than 10% of total calorie from protein sources and 53% of the population
take less than 15% of total calorie from fat which reflects the scenario of stunting wasting and
underweight in the country. Dietary diversity score (DDS) which is a proxy for nutrient
adequacy of the diet of individuals, was calculated using the HIES 2010 food consumption data.
Fifty percent of the households a dietary diversity score of less than 6 indicating those
households at risk for micronutrient deficiency.
Weighted per capita/day mean (SD) carbohydrate (g), protein (g) and fat (g) intake for
Bangladeshi population were 413106, 57.215.6and 29.314.0 respectively. When protein
intake of Bangladeshi population has been analyzed it is found that 66.5% of the population take
more than 50g of protein but which are largely from plant sources.
Weighted mean intake of vitamin A (g/day), calcium (mg/day), iron (mg/day) and thiamine
(mg/day) for Bangladeshi population according to the HIES 2010 data were 388291, 439227,
10.963.82 and 1.00.6. More than 70% of the population are consuming less than the
requirements of vitamin a, calcium and iron. Although it appears that the mean intake of vitamin
C (85.467.1mg/day) is sufficient, more than 25% of the population are noted to be consuming
less than the requirement.
Mean pulse intake was 14.68g/person/day and it was mostly from lentil (masur), but interestingly
different kinds of pulses were also present in the diet. Mean fish and meat intake were 50.3 and
19 g/person/day respectively. On the other hand mean vegetable (167g) and fruit (45g) intake
amounts to about half of the recommended dietary allowances. Mean oil intake was
20.4g/person/day in the Bangladeshi population.
This study adapted the RDA of macro- and micro-nutrients (carbohydrate, protein fat, fibre,
vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium,
sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, iodine) from the FAO /WHO recommendations for
all the age groups of the Bangladeshi population categorized by gender and physiological status.
The present study proposes a total of 400g of cereals as against the current average current intake
which is higher and from largely only rice. The present study recommends a combination of
cereals (wheat and maize) rather than focus only on rice. For the fulfilment of macro- and micronutrient requirements, 50g of pulses, 130g of animal products (fish, meat, eggs), 100 g leafy
vegetables, 200 g non leafy vegetables, 100g seasonal fruits and 130ml of milk or milk products
have been proposed. Thirty key foods were identified and various menu options have been
proposed to meet required nutrients. This study will be helpful to individuals to plan healthy
diets and meals for their household and for stakeholders and policy makers for food and
agriculture planning as well as for health and nutrition programmes.
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1. Introduction
Over the last decades, Bangladesh has made considerable progress in increasing national level
food availability and also individual level energy intake. Nevertheless, the intake of energy and
other essential nutrients is still far below the nutrient requirements and recommended dietary
allowances. Diets are largely imbalanced with the staple food cereals contributing around 70%
of total energy intake (HIES 2010). While a declining trend in the consumption of cereals has
been noted, the pace of decline needs to be accelerated. A desirable dietary pattern (DDP) should
be aimed at, with a proportion of no more than 60% dietary energy intakes (DEI) from cereals.
The desirable dietary pattern of nutrients for a countrys population is recommended based on
the current knowledge of nutritional requirements of different age and sex groups and the
countrys food and dietary habits. Such recommendations for the desirable dietary pattern are
used as the basis for dietary guidelines for individuals and groups and for planning national food
and agricultural strategies. The Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Human Energy
Requirements in 2001 led to review and update for energy, nutrient requirements and dietary
intakes towards informing and guiding nutrition policy and planning (FAO, 2004). Further the
recommended dietary allowances for protein and amino acids in human nutrition were also
revised (WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation, 2007). The Expert Consultation also proposed
that countries could develop their own guidelines adapting from the FAO/WHO/UNU
recommendations. The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) updated its nutrient requirements
and recommended dietary allowances based on the 2004 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation.
Diet plans that identify the quantities of different foods to be consumed to provide the human
body with the required energy and nutrients play an important role in supporting long-term
planning for balanced food intake, but these are not yet available in Bangladesh.
The present study is an attempt to develop a desirable dietary pattern and diet plans for
Bangladesh that will help to meet the macro and micronutrient requirements at affordable costs.
Such diets will have adequate dietary diversity; will be sustainable with an emphasis on the
consumption of a variety of traditional and seasonal foods for ensuring diet improvement on a
long term basis. This is in line with one of the key areas of interventions, namely long term
planning for balanced food as outlined in National Food Policy Plan of Action 2008-2015.

1.1 Objectives and key research questions


Objectives
A.
B.

Compute energy requirements using PAL values for different physical activity categories
segregated by age and gender in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh
Compile nutrient requirements disaggregated by gender, age and physiological status
(pregnancy, lactation) and physical activity levels
1

C.

Develop diet plans that identify the types and quantities of foods required to provide
energy and essential nutrients for a balanced diet of population disaggregated by gender,
age, physiological status and physical activity levels in urban and rural areas with due
attention to local food habits, food availability and biodiversity.

Research questions
1.
What is the current dietary intake and pattern in Bangladesh?
What are the gaps in meeting the nutrient requirements?
How to fill up the gaps given the factors of (a) seasonality; (b) cost; (c) local availability;
and (d) biodiversity
2.
What is the energy and nutrient requirements for different age (0-65yrs) categories
disaggregated by gender, physiological status and physical activity levels (sedentary,
moderate and heavy workers) in both rural and urban areas of Bangladesh?
3.
What are the types and quantities of foods to be identified for a desirable dietary pattern?
4.
What is extent of biodiversity that exists for the Bangladesh diet?
5.
What time frame should be used to assess the dietary intake?
6.
What are the different food baskets that can be proposed?
7.
What is the optimum nutrient return per 100 taka spent?
8.
Who are the key stakeholders for building consensus on the desirable dietary pattern?

2. Literature Review
Diet, nutrition and health are closely interrelated. Mere availability of foods does not ensure the
intake of a well balanced diet; it depends on proper nutritional knowledge, purchasing capacity
and also on local food habits. Dietary intake patterns especially related to energy, protein and
micronutrient rich foods and the diversity of diets are discussed in this section.
2.1 Dietary pattern
Cereals, largely rice, form the main components of the diet in Bangladesh. The typical diet in
Bangladesh is not balanced and remains dominated by a high intake of cereals (Jahan et al 1998;
BBS, 2005; BBS, 2010). Household food consumption studies over the last 15
Table 2.1: Per capita/d intake of major food items (g) in Bangladeshi population, HIES
Survey years
Food items, g

2010
1995-96

2000

2005

Poor

Non-poor

Total

Total

913.8

893.06

947.75

816.22

1084.53

999.99

Rice

464.3

458.54

439.64

406.19

420.52

416.01

Wheat

33.7

17.24

12.08

20.36

28.73

26.09

Potato

49.5

55.45

63.30

63.44

73.78

70.52

Pulses

13.9

15.77

14.19

10.15

16.22

14.30

Vegetables

152.5

140.47

157.02

141.8

177.25

166.08

Edible oil

9.8

12.82

16.45

14.20

23.41

20.51

Onion

11.6

15.41

18.37

15.69

24.74

21.89

Beef

6.6

8.30

7.78

1.55

9.27

6.84

Mutton

1.0

0.49

0.59

0.11

0.83

0.60

Chicken/Duck

4.0

4.50

6.85

4.11

15.09

11.22

Eggs

3.2

5.27

5.15

3.40

9.02

7.25

Fish

43.8

38.45

42.14

31.16

57.81

49.41

Milk & milk


products

32.6

29.71

32.40

12.18

43.63

33.72

Fruits

27.6

28.35

32.54

20.46

56.0

44.80

Sugar/Gur

9.2

6.85

8.08

3.32

10.88

8.50

Food taken
outside

24.76

17.70

35.41

29.83

50.9

55.44

48.38

50.28

81.81

72.41

Miscellaneous

years have shown the consumption of cereal intake decreases but it still makes up the largest
share (70 percent) of the diet, followed by non-leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, which together
comprise more than four-fifths of the rural peoples total diet (BBS, 2010). Protein and
3

micronutrient-rich foods like fish, meat, eggs, milk, milk products, fats and oils account for less
than 10 percent of the rural persons diet, and the consumption of vegetables and fruits are
slowly improving over the years. Rural consumption of leafy and non-leafy vegetables has
remained more or less the same over the past two decades after increasing over the preceding 30
years. With an average national per capita consumption of 31g of leafy vegetables, 136g of nonleafy vegetables and 45g of fruit, the average Bangladeshi eats a total of 212g of fruit and
vegetables daily (HIES 2010). This is far below the amount of 400 g of vegetables and fruit
recommended by FAO/WHO in 2003.It is encouraging that the HIES 2010 points towards an
increase in vitamin A and iron consumption as compared to HIES 2005 and Bermudez et al,
2012) but it still needs improvements to fulfill the requirements. In addition, cultural norms
dictate a better diet for males over females with the male head of the household getting the best
meal portions. Persistent poverty, inadequate nutrition information and gender inequity cause
pervasive malnutrition among women, especially pregnant women and lactating mothers
2.2. Nutrition situation
The nutritional well-being of large part of the population is still being neglected because of
insufficient access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. As a result, children and women in
Bangladesh continue to suffer high levels of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies,
including low birth weight (LBW), under nutrition (underweight, stunting and wasting), vitamin
A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency anaemia. At the same time, over
nutrition, obesity and related health problems are emerging as multiple public health problems.
Chronic energy deficiency (CED) is expressed as BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 and used as a
measure of malnutrition and health status in adults. A recent report (WHO, 2011) on noncommunicable disease risk factor survey Bangladesh 2010 have been documented that about one
fourth of the population are underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). Among rural adult non-pregnant
mothers, 30 percent have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of less than 18.5, which is indicative of
critical food insecurity (BDHS 2007). The proportion of women suffering from CED has been
decreasing in Bangladesh during the last decade, from 52% in 1996 to 32% in 2005 and to 25%
in 2010 (FPMU 2012). Poor maternal nutrition affects the high incidence of low birth weight
(LBW) in Bangladesh, estimated at 36 percent (BDHS 2007). Recently WHO reported that the
percentage of LBW in Bangladesh is 22 (WHO, 2012).Among the children, the latest report of
BDHS documented that 41% of children under five are stunted, 16% of children are wasted and
36% are underweight (low weight for age) (BDHS 2011). Dietary intakes of both children and
adults are severely deficient in multiple micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, iron, iodine and
zinc. Bangladesh has made significant progress in reducing vitamin-A deficiency among preschool children over the past 15 years. In National Micronutrient status survey 2011/12, the
prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was reported as 20.5%, 20.9% and 5.4% respectively in
preschool age children, school age children and the non-pregnant non-lactating women.
However, the consumption of vitamin A rich foods is still low, suggesting that the underlying
4

causes of Vitamin A deficiency require further attention and support. Iron deficiency anemia
affects one-third of adolescent girls and non-pregnant women and is even higher in pregnant
women (51 percent; HKI/IPHN 2002). The latest National Micronutrient survey 2011/12 has
shown a significant improvement where the prevalence of anaemia in the non-pregnant nonlactating women was 26% and in the preschool age children (under-5) was 33%. The immediate
cause of malnutrition inadequate dietary diversity, as well as high infectious disease burden,
household food insecurity and inappropriate household practices in feeding especially adolescent
girls, pregnant women, mothers and young children.
2.2.1Energy deficiency
Energy deficiency is defined as negative energy balance and includes chronic energy deficiency
which is characterized by decreased body mass index i.e., BMI less than 18.5kg/m2. This is also
termed as adult under nutrition. Present undernutrition among both sexes in the country is about
25% (WHO, 2011). Maternal undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) in non-pregnant
rural women in Bangladesh declined from 54% in 1996/97 to 38% in 2003, 34% in 2004 and
30% in 2007 (BDHS), which is still very high. Undernutrition both before and during pregnancy
causes intrauterine growth retardation and is one of the major factors responsible for the high
prevalence of LBW (22%) in the country. Anaemia during pregnancy which is an outcome of
maternal undernutrition in pregnancy is linked with the high prevalence of low birth weight
(LBW) in the country. While updated estimates on LBW are not available, it is likely that
between a fourth to a third of children are born of low birth weight. With regard to
undernutrition among children under 5 years, between 1990 and 2011, underweight fell from
67% to 36%, and stunting fell from 66 to 41% (BDHS, 1990; BDHS 2011).
Intrauterine and/or early childhood undernutrition is also linked with adult obesity or abdominal
obesity and related adult diseases such as hypertension and diabetes (Godfrey and Barker, 2000;
Popkin, 2001). Undernutrition at critical periods in intrauterine development causes permanent
changes in the structure and/or function of the developing systems of the fetus (Lucas, 1991;
Barker, 1998; Yajnik, 2004). This increases the susceptibility to disease in later life. Of the many
possible insults during the intrauterine life, Hales and Barker have highlighted undernutrition as
the most likely cause, though many factors could operate in a similar manner. The original
hypothesis overlooked the classic association among maternal diabetes, fetal macrosomia and
increased risk of diabetes for the offspring but new hypothesis allows for this (Hales and Barker
2001). However, the relationships among maternal nutrition, fetal nutrition, neonatal size and
later diabetes appear to be more complicated than originally proposed (Harding, 2001)). This
may have important implications for preventive strategies.

2.2.2. Obesity and chronic diseases


Along with the problem of under nutrition among children and chronic energy deficiency in
adults in many parts of Asia including Bangladesh, the burden of overweight and obesity is
becoming increasingly widespread (WHO, 2007). In some countries, this situation exists amidst
food shortage and nutrient inadequacies. Over the last decade, there has also been a progressive
increase in over nutrition. Reduced physical activity is identified as a major attributable factor. In
affluent urban segments, increased energy intake from fats, refined cereals and sugar, combined
with simultaneous reductions in physical activity, have contributed to steep increases in over
nutrition in all age groups. Recent evidence (WHO, 2011) from the non-communicable disease
risk factor survey Bangladesh 2010 has shown that 17.6% of the Bangladeshi population are
overweight and obesity and noticed that urban population (25.1%) are more prone than rural
population (10.2%). In that report it is also documented that 3.9% of the population are diabetic
on the basis of self reporting system, blood sugar was not measured to diagnose diabetes. Thus it
may not the real picture because it is generally accepted worldwide that half of the diabetic
population are undiagnosed. A study in a rural Bangladeshi population over a 10 year period
have shown that the prevalence of diabetes increased from 2.3% in 1999 to 7.9% in 2009
(Bhowmik et al, 2012& 2013). In that study under nutrition, overweight and obesity in 2009
were 14%, 17% and 26% respectively, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (cluster of
metabolic risk factors, i.e., insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity indicators, hypertension,
hyperlipidemia) according to WHO, IDF (International Diabetes Federation) and ATP (Adult
Treatment Panel III) criteria were 9.9%, 23.7% and 29.6%respectively with the prevalence of
overweight and obesity, diabetes and other non-communicable diseases also on the rise in Asian
regions.
2.2.3. Micronutrient deficiencies
Micronutrient-related malnutrition is often termed hidden hunger as the consequences are not
always visible. There are four micronutrients that are particularly relevant to public health:
vitamin A, iron, iodine, and zinc. The following sections briefly describe the situation of
micronutrient deficiencies in Bangladesh.
2.2.3.1. Iron deficiency
Anaemia is the most commonly-used indicator to define iron deficiency in population-based
studies or in clinical settings. It has been estimated about two billion people in the world are
anaemic, mostly in the low income countries of Africa and Asia. In Bangladesh anaemia is
common among all age groups and both sexes are affected, especially children and women-both
pregnant and non-pregnant. Anaemia in under-5 children, pregnant and non-pregnant women
studied by different organizations in different time periods like 1975/76 (Ahmed et al, 1977),
1981/82 (Hasan and Ahmed, 1983), 1995/1996 (Jahan and Hasan 1998), 1999 (HKI, 2000), 2001
(HKI, 2002), 2003 (Salam et al, 2006), 2004 (HKI, 2006), 2010 (Eneroth, 2010) and in 2011/12
(National Micronutrient Status Survey, 2013) are summarized in figure 2.1 and table 2.2.
6

Although the prevalence of anaemia decreased in 2001, after that the condition again
deteriorated as reported 2003 and 2004 which may be due to gaps and challenges in the
implementation of strategies. The recent national micronutrient survey (2013) reported that the
prevalence of anaemia in preschool children and non-pregnant non-lactating women has been
declining.

Fig 2.1: Trends of anaemia among infants and preschool


children in Bangladesh
Table 2.2: Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant and non-pregnant rural women
Year

Prevalence of anaemia (%)


Pregnant women

Non-pregnant women

1975/1976

50

70

1981/1982

47

74

1995/1996

60

81

1997/1998

49.2

45

2003

41

34

2004

38.8

46

2011/12

26

Although the 2012 National Micronutrient Survey indicated significant improvements in the
anemia situation of both preschool children and non-pregnant women, it continues to remain a
public-health problem in Bangladesh. The cause of anaemia among young children and women
is multi-factorial, including the low intake of bioavailable iron in the diet and high rates of
infection. The intake of iron from complementary foods is critical for the infant from six months
as breast milk alone cannot provide for the infants increased need for iron for accelerated
growth during that period. A WHO/UNICEF review of complementary foods in developing
countries concluded that requirements of iron might be difficult to meet from non-fortified
complimentary foods, especially if animal foods are not widely consumed.
2.2.3.2. Vitamin A deficiency
In Bangladesh, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) had been identified previously as a major publichealth(HKI, 1985). Study of Helen Keller International has been found a dramatic reduction in
the prevalence of night blindness among preschool children from the 1980s to 2004, which is
attributed to the successful programme of vitamin A supplementation launched in 1973 (HKI,
2005). Keratomalacia, the most severe form of VAD, is now seen occasionally among children
hospitalized for SAM. However, a study in rural Bangladesh, sub-clinical VAD (serum retinol
<0.7 g/dL) was found in 18.5% of 200 pregnant women (Lee et al, 2008). The vitamin A intake
by nearly half of pregnant women was less than the recommended dietary allowance. The recent
national micronutrient survey 2011/12 have shown that vitamin A deficiency were 20.5%,
20.9% and 5.4% respectively in preschool age children, school age children and the nonpregnant non-lactating women. The current estimates indicated vitamin A deficiency still exists
at a magnitude of public health significance in preschool age children and the school age
children. The problem was aggravates in the slum stratum, where the prevalence was 38.0% and
27.0% respectively in the preschool age children and the school age children.
2.2.3.3. Iodine deficiency
Iodine deficiency is one of the most important causes of preventable brain damage in children.
Results of surveys conducted since the 1960s have indicated that Bangladesh is one of the
country are most affected by iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in the world. Due to universal
salt iodization programme, the goitre prevalence decreased from 47% in 1993 to 18% in 1999
and biochemical iodine deficiency among population decreased from 69% in 1993 to 43% in
1999 as the coverage of households consuming iodized salt increased from 14% in 1995 to 70%
in 2003. Despite this encouraging result, IDD remain a significant public health problem in the
country. The latest Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) Survey showed that the prevalence of
goitre among 6-12 years old children was 6.2%, and it was 11.7% among women aged 15-44
years (Yusuf et al, 2007). However, more than one-third of children and women were suffering
from sub-clinical iodine deficiency which also remains steady in the recent national

micronutrient survey 2011/12where it is stated that 40% of the school children and 42% of the
non-pregnant non-lactating women are iodine deficient.
2.2.3.4. Zinc deficiency
At the population level, the risk of zinc deficiency can be assessed based on two indirect
indicators: (a) the prevalence of stunting and (b) the adequacy of absorbable zinc in food supply
at the country level (Black et al, 2008). A stunting rate of more than 20% in under-five children
is indicative of high risk for zinc deficiency at the country level (Black et al, 2008). With a 41%
prevalence of stunting among under-five children, zinc deficiency is a major nutritional disorder
in Bangladesh. The recent study has shown that national prevalence of zinc deficiency was
44.0% in the preschool age children and 57.0% in the NPNL women (National Micronutrients
Status Survey 2011/12).
The nutritional status of the Bangladeshi population was studied by different national and
international organizations in different time periods and is summarized in the table 2.3.
2.3. Energy Requirements and Reference Body Weight
Dietary energy requirements of a healthy, well-nourished population should allow for
maintaining an adequate BMI at the populations usual level of energy expenditure. At the
individual level, a normal range of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 BMI is generally accepted (WHO 1995,
2000). At a population level, a median BMI of 21.0 was suggested by the joint WHO/FAO
Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO/FAO,
2003).
Age, gender, height, weight and BMI are interlinked to the energy and nutrient requirements of
individuals. Anthropometric standards for population groups differ from country to country.
Each country has to set up its own reference standards since height and weight of the population
are not equal with other country. The purpose of recommending nutrient requirements help in
planning norms for attaining anthropometric reference standards. International Organizations
WHO, FAO have proposed reference standards applicable for developing countries.
The 95th centile values of weights and heights for given age/gender can be taken to be
representative of well- nourished normal population and considered as standard reference values
for India. For children below age 17, the reference body weight is fixed at the median of the
range of weight-for-height given by the BMI reference tables (WHO, 2006 and 2007). For adults
and children of age 10 and above, the reference body weight is estimated on the basis of the fifth
percentile of the distribution of the BMI (WHO, 1995; 2007).

Table 2.3:Nutrition situation of Bangladesh

Child
nutritional
status

Child
mortality/1
000

2011

2007

LBW%
Stunting (height-for-age)
(%)
Wasting (weight-forheight) (%)
Underweight (weightfor-age) (%)
Neonatal mortality
Post-neonatal mortality

36

36

41

43

51

16

17

15

36

41

32
10

37
15

Infant mortality

43

52

65

Child mortality
Under-five mortality

11
53

14
65
3.51
(BBS)
30
1.7

24
88

Maternal mortality Rate /1000


BMI (Woman) (<18.5) (%)
BMI (Woman) (>30) (%)

2005

39.7(Under
5yrs)

2.90
(BBS)

Pregnant woman
Non pregnant woman
Adolescent

2002

41
24

19931994

52
(20022006)

34

42
24

48
34

52
35

66

82

87

30
94
3.20 -4.0
(BMMS)

37
116

50
133

1990

1970

67(HKI/PH
N,BDHS)

153

51(HKI
/IPHN)

18 (1999
HNPSP)
43 (1999
HNPSP)

19961997

66(HKI/IP
HN,BDHS)

Goiter%
Biochemical iodine deficiency%

1999-2000

43

49(BBS/
UNICEF)
47(BBS/
UNICEF)
33(BBS/
UNICEF)
29(BBS/
UNICEF)

Preschool child
Anemia %

2004

69 (1993
HNPSP)

47
(1993)
HNPSP

10

2.4. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)


BMR constitutes about 45 to 70 percent of total energy expenditure (TEE) in adults, and is
determined principally by gender, body size, body composition and age. It can be measured
accurately with small intra-individual variation by direct or indirect calorimetry under
standard conditions, which include being awake in the supine position, ten to 12 hours after a
meal, following eight hours of physical rest and no strenuous exercise in the preceding day,
and being in a state of mental relaxation and an ambient environmental temperature that does
not evoke shivering or sweating. BMR can be measured only under laboratory conditions and
in small groups of representative individuals. There is a need to estimate BMR at the
population level when using the factorial approach to estimate TEE from the average BMR
and PAL value attributable to that population. Hence, the alternative has been to estimate a
groups mean BMR using predictive equations based on measurements that are easier to
obtain, such as body weight and/or height (FAO/WHO/UNU 2004).
The report from the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation used a set of equations
derived mostly from studies in Western Europe and North America (Schofield, 1985). Almost
half of the data used to generate the equations for adults were from studies carried out in the
late 1930s and early 1940s on Italian men with relatively high BMR values, and questions
have been raised about the universal applicability of those equations (Soares and Shetty,
1988; de Boer et al., 1988; Henry and Rees, 1991; Arciero et al., 1993; Piers and Shetty,
1993; Soares, Francis and Shetty, 1993; Hayter and Henry, 1993 and 1994; Valencia et al.,
1994; Cruz, da Silva and dos Anjos, 1999; Henry, 2001; Ismail et al., 1998). The use of
closed-circuit indirect calorimetry in most studies has also been questioned, as this technique
might overestimate oxygen consumption and energy expenditure. FAO (2004) has reviewed
extensively the predictive equations derived from a database with broader geographical and
ethnic representation and recommended retaining the equations proposed in 1985 by
Schofield to pursue a more thorough analysis of existing information, or to promote a
prospective study with broad global geographic and ethnic representation.
2.5. Physical Activity Level (PAL)
The 1981 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation estimated the energy requirements of adults
as multiples of BMR (WHO 1985). This was later called
physical activity level (PAL) as
per FAO software used for the calculation of human energy requirements. The average PAL
of healthy, well-nourished adults is a major determinant of their total energy requirement. As
growth does not contribute to energy needs in adulthood, PAL can be measured or estimated
from the average 24-hour TEE and BMR. Multiplying the PAL by the BMR gives the actual
energy requirements. Therefore, a person's Physical activity level (PAL) is a numeric method
of expressing one's daily energy expenditure. PAL takes into account total daily energy
expenditure (TDEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). The equation can be written as:

11

Classification of physical activity levels: Energy requirements are highly dependent on


habitual physical activity. This consultation classified the intensity of a populations habitual
physical activity into three categories, as was done by the 1981 FAO/WHO/UNU expert
consultation (WHO 1985). However, in contrast with the 1981 consultation, a range of PAL
values, rather than a mean PAL value, was established for each category. Furthermore, the
same PAL values were used to assign men and women to a PAL category.
Classification of lifestyles in relation to physical activity, or PAL (FAO 2004)
Category

PAL value

Sedentary or light activity lifestyle

1.40-1.69

Active or moderately active lifestyle

1.70-1.99

Vigorous or vigorously active lifestyle

2.00-2.40*

* PAL values <1.40 extremely inactive cerebral palsy patient


* PAL values > 2.40 are difficult to maintain over a long period of time.

2.6 Nutrient Requirements


Humans need a wide range of nutrients to lead a healthy and active life. Establishing nutrient
requirements is a vast and never-ending task, given the large number of essential human
nutrients. The nutrients include protein, energy, carbohydrates, fats and lipids, a range of
vitamins, and a host of minerals and trace elements. The required nutrients for different
physiological groups can only be derived from a well balanced diet.
Components of the diet must be chosen judiciously to provide all the nutrients to meet the human
requirements in proper proportions for the different physiological activities. The establishment of

human nutrient requirements is the common foundation for all countries to develop foodbased dietary guidelines for their population. WHO and FAO provide technical support
worldwide to establish and disseminate information on nutrient requirements which are
adopted as part of the national dietary allowances. Others use it as a base for their standards.
The concept of population nutrient intake goals is based on the first priority to ensure national
food security and equity of distribution of available food in accordance with individual needs.
Recommended nutrient intake (RNI) is the daily intake, which meets the nutrient
requirements of almost all (97.5 percent) apparently healthy individuals in an age and sex
specific population group. The FAO/WHO Expert Consultations nutrient recommendations
are population intake goals, not individual dietary guidelines. Most nutritional guidelines
address the estimated needs of individuals and identify the minimum intake to meet the
nutritional needs of individuals. However, in recognition of the detrimental effects the
excessively high intakes of essential nutrients may have, the concept of a safe range of
intakes has evolved. Population nutrient intake goals follow this concept and focus on the
maintenance of low population risk rather than low individual risk. The joint WHO/FAO
12

Expert Consultation stressed that because population nutrient intake goals refer to
substantially greater than intended if they are to be applied to the individuals.
The population nutrient intake goals for consideration by national and regional bodies
establishing dietary recommendations for the prevention of diet related chronic diseases as
recommended by FAO/WHO are expressed in numerical terms below.
Table 2.4 Range of population nutrient intake goals (WHO/FAO 2003)
Dietary factor

Goal (% of total energy, unless and otherwise


specified elsewhere )

Total Fat

15-30%

Saturated fatty acids

<10%

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

6-10%

n-6 PUFA

5-8%

n-3 PUFA

1-2%

Trans fatty acids

<1%

Total Carbohydrate

55-75%

Free sugar

<10%

Protein

10-15%

Cholesterol

<300mg/day

Sodium chloride (sodium)

<5g/day (<2g/day)

Fruits and vegetables

>400g/day

Total dietary fiber

From foods ( > 25g/day)

NSP (Non starch polysaccharides)

From foods ( > 20 g/day)

In 2004, FAO/WHO Expert Consultations updated the requirements of all the essential
vitamins and minerals for humans. Indian Council on Medical Research (ICMR) of National
Institute of Nutrition (NIN) has also updated the requirements of micronutrients for Indians
(NIN 2010). No such studies were conducted for Bangladeshi population though sporadic
reports exist (Faruque et al., 1995; Ahmed et al., 1997, 1998) on micronutrient intakes
(Vitamin A, folic acid, iron, iodine, Zn), and have shown that most of the authors reported
that intake were not up to the desired level as recommended by FAO/WHO expert
committee.
13

Reference nutrient intake values: The World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture
Organization (WHO/FAO) together with the United Nations University (UNU), has
published a number of recommendations (reference values) for different groups of nutrients
over time. The most recent report on vitamin and mineral standard intake (FAO, 2004) uses
the term RNI (recommended nutrient intake). The RNI is the daily intake that meets the
nutrient requirements of almost all (97.5%) apparently healthy individuals in an age- and sexspecific population group. In 2004, FAO has published RNIs for 6 minerals and 11vitamins.
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI): DRI (dietary reference intake) was proposed by the Joint
Committee of the United States of America and Canada in 1995, in order to solve such
problems. This term was charged with establishing reference values for planning and
assessing diets of healthy population as well as serving as a basis for nutrition policies. The
DRIs refer to the complete set of reference intakes, including the RDA (recommended dietary
allowance), AI (adequate intake), UL (tolerable upper intake level), and EAR (estimated
average requirement) (Institute of Medicine National Academy Press 1997, 1998, 2002,
2004). DRIs are expressed as intakes per day but are meant to represent average intakes of
individuals over time. It is thought that the nutrient intake can vary substantially from day to
day without ill effects (Murphy and Vorster 2007; Institute of Medicine National Academy
Press 1997). Each DRI expression (RDA, AI, UL, and EAR) has specific uses for planning
and assessing diets or for applications to nutrition policy and education.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J) was published in April, 2005. The
DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference
for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent
lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or
nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): The RDA is the original term introduced by the
US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council in the 1940s (National
Academy Press, 1989). It was defined as the level of intake of an essential nutrient that, on
the basis of scientific knowledge, is judged by the Food and Nutrition Board to be adequate
to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people. The RDA continues to be
used as one of the nutrient intake values included in the US/Canadian dietary reference intake
(DRIs). The DRIs refer to the complete set of reference intakes, including the RDA, AI
adequate intake), UL (tolerable upper intake level) and EAR (estimated average intake). The
RDA is set at a level of intake that meets the needs of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals in a
particular age-and sex-specific group. It is the value that can be obtained from estimated
average requirements (EARs) and an adequate margin of safety. They are calculated by the
formula of RDAs=EARs+2SD (standard deviation).
In Japan, the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) was first established in 1970, after
which a revision was made every five years. In June 1999, the sixth Revision of RDA was
announced by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and already started to use since 2000
effective to the year 2004. In the past years, RDAs had been established and used as the
group target values to prevent nutritional deficiency. RDAs had been also used a guideline
applicable for an individual only in case where such factors as sex, age, physical activity,
physical generally correspond to those of a specific group on the other hand.
14

Dietary Reference Value (DRV): Dietary reference values (DRVs) are nutrient-based
dietary standards recommended by the United Kingdom in 1991 (Department of Health 1991,
Department of Health 1998). The DRVs apply to groups of healthy people and are not
appropriate for those with disease or metabolic abnormalities. As for US/Canadian DRIs, the
DRVs for a nutrient assume that requirements for energy and all other nutrients are met when
deriving a specific reference value. The British DRVs provide three values for most nutrients:
the lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), the estimated average requirement (EAR), and the
reference nutrient intake (RNI). For some nutrients, a
safe intake is given, and for
carbohydrate and fat, individual minimum, maximum, and population averages are specified
(Department of Health 1991).
Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI): FAO and WHO with the United Nations University
(UNU) has published a number of recommendations for different groups of nutrients. The
most recent report on vitamin and mineral standards, published in 2004, uses the term RNI
(recommended nutrient intake). The RNI is the daily intake that meets the nutrient
requirements of almost all (97.5%) apparently healthy individuals in an age- and sex-specific
population group. The most recent RNIs (for 6 minerals and 11vitamins) are based on
nutrient-specific criteria. This term is set at 2 SD of the requirement above the EAR and will
meet the needs of 97% to 98% of the population; it is similar to the US/Canadian RDA. The
RNI is the daily intake that meets the nutrient requirements of almost all (97.5%) apparently
healthy individuals in an age-and sex-specific population group. The most recent RNIs (for 6
minerals and 11 vitamins) are based on nutrient-specific criteria. A statistical distribution of
requirements is derived from primary data, and the RNI equals the mean requirement plus 2
SD. It is equivalent, therefore, to the US/Canadian RDA, the British RNI, and the European
PRI. Insufficient data were available to establish an RNI for vitamins E and A. An acceptable
intake that supports the known function of vitamin E was determined and used as the best
estimate of requirements. A recommended safe intake level was specified for vitamin A as
the level of intake that prevents clinical signs of deficiency and allows normal growth, but it
does not protect vitamin A status during prolonged periods of infection or other stresses.
Nutrient intake value (NIV): FAO/WHO/UNU concurred (King and Garza, 2007) to use
the term NIV (Nutrient Intake Value) to encompass the set of recommendations based on
primary data that are analogous to those developed by various regional groups, e.g., dietary
reference values (DRVs) by the United Kingdom, nutrient reference values (NRVs) by
Australia and New Zealand, reference values for nutrient supply by
Germany/Austria/Switzerland, and dietary reference intakes (DRIs) by the United States and
Canada. The recommended terminology suggests that the set of values be called nutrient
intake values (NIVs) and that the set be composed of three different values. . The group
agreed to recommend only two NIVs, the average nutrient requirement (ANR) and the upper
nutrient level (UNL). It recognized that groups charged with the development of such
recommendations have derived other values, but that these other values usually are derived
from estimates of nutrient-specific ANRs or UNLs. ANR reflects the median requirement for
a nutrient in a specific population.

15

The above discussion about different terms of reference intake with initiating countries or
organizations and introducing year are summarizes in the table 2.5.
Expert Committee has suggested to use the uniform term NIV in 2007 for the nutrient
recommendations but still the guideline with the value for NIV has not yet published so in
this study the latest recommendations of FAO, RNIs are used for 6 mineral and 11 minerals.

Table 2.5. Summary of the different terms of reference intake


Name

Abbreviation

RDA

Recommended dietary US Food and Nutrition Board of the


1940
allowances
National Research Council

RDI

Reference daily intake

USA/Canada

1968

Dietary reference value

United Kingdom

1991

Dietary reference intake

Joint of US Canadian Committee

1995

DRV
DRI

Country/Organization

Year

RNI

World Health Organization/ Food and


Recommended nutrient
Agriculture Organization and United 2004
intake
Nations University

NIV

Nutrient intake value

FAO/WHO Expert Group

2007

2.7. Health and food crop diversity


There is a crucial link between the maintenance of food crop diversity and effective strategies
that ensure optimum nutritional status. Unfortunately, food production strategies to date have
resulted in increasing dependence on cereals and other starchy staples, especially in poor
communities (Tontisirin et al 2002). This has been linked to poorer nutrition. In this regard,
the narrowing of the food base, a global phenomenon, is seen as an important factor affecting
dietary diversity. Micronutrient malnutrition remains a problem of public health concern in
most developing countries including Bangladesh. Food-based strategies have been
recommended as the first priority to meet micronutrient needs (Allen, 2008) and an essential
element of food-based approaches involves dietary diversification.
2.8. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS)
Dietary diversity score is defined as the number of individual food items or food groups
consumed over a given period of time (Ruel, 2003). It can be measured at the household or
individual level through use of a questionnaire. Most often it is measured by counting the
number of food groups rather than food items consumed. At the household level, dietary
diversity is usually considered as a measure of access to food, (e.g. of households capacity to
access costly food groups), while at individual level it reflects dietary quality, mainly

16

micronutrient adequacy of the diet. The reference period can vary, but is most often the
previous day or week (FAO & FANTA, 2011; WFP, 2009).
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2011 has published operational guidelines for
measuring dietary diversity in a standardized way in both individual and household levels,
based on a tool originally developed by FANTA (FAO, 2011; Swindale and Bilinsky, 2006).
FAO suggested a reference period of the previous 24 hours. Using once 24 hour recall period
does not provide an indication of an individuals habitual diet, but it does provide an
assessment of the diet at the population level and can be useful to monitor progress or target
interventions. There are various other valid time frames for recall, such as the previous 3 or 7
days, and in the case of some foods, the previous month. FAO has been suggested to use 24
hours because it is less subjects to recall error, less cumbersome for the respondents and
moreover, DDS based on a 24 hour recall period is easier than with longer recall periods; For
the DDS of household levels FAO has been suggested 16 different food groups and intake of
foods from each group counts for one score. According to the suggestion of FAO, households
who consumed <3 food groups are lowest DDS, households who consumed 4 to 5 food
groups are medium DDS and households who consumed >6 food groups are high DDS.
Different type of DDS: The household dietary diversity score (HDDS) and individual dietary
diversity score (IDDS) are calculated differently because the scores are used for different
purposes. The HDDS is meant to provide an indication of household economic access to
food, thus items that require household resources to obtain, such as condiments, sugar and
sugary foods, and beverages are included in the score. The Individual Dietary Diversity Score
(IDDS) reflects the nutrient adequacy of the diet and the food groups considered in this score
place more emphasis on micronutrient intake rather than economic access to food. For this
reason, the IDDS excludes the last two food groups from the 16 food groups which are
recommended for HDDS and these two groups are: sweets, and spices, condiments and
beverages. These groups may be used for additional analysis and considerations of
bioavailability of micronutrients, but do not count as part of the IDDS. So, it is referred as
IDDS14. The food groups considered in the score for the women dietary diversity score
(WDDS) put more emphasis on micronutrient intake by FAO (2011) than on economic
access to foods and a score based on nine food groups has been suggests for WDDS.
Amount of foods in HDDS: The amount of foods to be taken from each food group is an
important factor to be considers while ensuring the micronutrient adequacy of diets. To avoid
giving credit for consumption of a food group when the amounts reported were small (Kant et
al 1993), excluded foods consumed in less than a minimum amount. For the meat, fruit and
vegetable groups, the minimum reported amount for inclusion in the diversity score was 30g
for all solid foods with a single ingredient and 60g for all liquids and mixed dishes, for the
dairy and grain groups, this minimum amount was 15g for all solids and 30g for all liquids
and mixed dishes. In the guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity
(FAO, 2011) it is recommended not need to set minimum quantities below which foods are
not considered, so even small amounts of foods (for example, a very small portion of meat
17

included in mixed dish) needs to be counted. This is because the score is designed to reflect
economic access to foods, and therefore even small quantities of food item reflect some
ability to purchase that item. For women aged 15-49yrs, DDS were more strongly correlated
with micronutrient adequacy of the diet when food quantities of approximately one
tablespoon or less (<15g) were not included in the score (Arimond et al, 2010).
In 2008, WFP standardized the food consumption score (FCS) to define dietary
diversification on the basis of 7 days food frequency. In that method they divided the foods as
nine groups and the consumption frequency of each food group per week was multiplied by
the assigned weight of each food group. A specific weight was assigned for each food group.
For example the assigned weight for rice is 2. If a person takes rice 7days/week then she will
get 14 points from this food. In this method, if a person scores between 0-21, it is considered
as poor diversification, 21-35 as borderline and >35 as acceptable. Spices and condiments
have no score.
Correlation of HDDS with micronutrient density: DDS has been found to be positively
correlated with adequate micronutrient density of complementary foods for infants and young
children (FANTA 2006), and macronutrient and micronutrient adequacy of the diet for non
breast-fed children (Hatloy et al, 1998; Ruel et al, 2004; Steyn et al, 2006; Kennedy et al,
2007), adolescents (Mirmiran et al, 2004) and adults (Foote et al, 2004; Arimond et al, 2010).
A number of studies have looked at the association between some measure of dietary
diversity and child nutrition outcomes. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from
Ethiopia has shown a strong and statistically significant association between food-group
diversity measures based either on a 24-hour or seven-day recall and childrens height-forage Z-scores (HAZ) (Arimond and Ruel 2002). In that study a positive, and generally linear,
trend in mean HAZ has been observed as food group diversity in the previous 7 days
increases. A difference as large as 1.6 Z-scores has been observed between children who
consumed one food group in the previous seven days compared to those who consumed eight
food groups with adjusted other potentially confounding factors (Arimond and Ruel 2002).
Over the past decade, three large multi-country validation studies (Hoddinott and Yohannes,
2002; Working Group on Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators, 2006; Arimond et al,
2010) and many smaller studies have looked at the association between dietary diversity and
food security and/or micronutrient adequacy of the diet. Hoddinott and Yohannes (2002)
studied the association between household dietary diversity scores and dietary energy
availability in ten countries. Increasing household dietary diversity significantly improved
energy availability. The results suggest that dietary diversity scores have potential for
monitoring changes in dietary energy availability, particularly when resources are lacking for
quantitative measurements. A second multi-country study of diets of children 6-23 months
from ten sites was undertaken to test the association between dietary diversity and mean
micronutrient density adequacy of complementary foods. Significant positive correlations
were observed in all age groups and in most of the countries (FANTA/AED, 2006). Recently
the association between dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy of diets of women of

18

reproductive age was assessed in five countries. Dietary diversity was significantly associated
with micronutrient adequacy in all sites (Arimond et al, 2010).
Studies carried out in individual countries and across diverse age groups showed correlations
of 0.36 to 0.66 between dietary diversity scores and micronutrient adequacy ratios (Kennedy
et al., 2007; Mirmiran et al., 2004; Mirmiran, Azadbakht and Azizi, 2006; Steyn et al., 2006;
Hatloy, Torheim and Oshaug, 1998). Therefore, dietary diversity scores have been shown to
be valid proxy indicators for dietary energy availability at household level and micronutrient
adequacy of diets of young children and women of reproductive age.
In a summary of seven studies reviewed by Ruel (2002), five found a positive association
between dietary diversity score and nutrient adequacy. Of the studies focusing on young
children, a positive correlation was found between DDS and nutrient adequacy in Mali,
Kenya and Niger, while inconsistence results or no correlation were found in Guatemala,
Ghana and Malawi. Greater dietary diversity has been associated with improved nutrient
adequacy in children 4-8yrs of age in Kenya. Analysis of children aged 6-13.9 months from
four developing countries concluded that there has been promising evidence for the utility of
dietary diversity as an indicator of inadequate nutrient intake (Dewey et al 2005).
In Table 2.6measures of DDS (FANTA/FAO) are presented where food groups used at
household, individual, women, children and the food consumption score (WFP) are included.
Table 2.6 Measures of dietary diversity
Dietary
diversity at
household level

Number
of foods

HDDS (FAO &


12
FANTA 2011)
Dietary diversity
at
individual
14
levels (IDDS)
(FANTA 2006)
Womens dietary
diversity
9
(WDDS)
Children (3yrs)
Dietary Diversity
10
(Steyn et al,
2006)
WFP (2008)

Food groups

Amount (g)

Cereals, white tubers and roots, vegetables, fruits,


meat, eggs, fish and other seafood, legumes, nuts
& seeds, milk & milk products, oils & fats,
Sweets, spices, condiments and beverages.
Cereals, vitamin A rich vegetables, roots and
white tubers, dark green leafy vegetables, other
vegetables, vitamin A rich fruits, other fruits,
organ meat, flesh meat, eggs, fish, legumes, nuts
& seeds, milk and milk products, oils and fats
Starchy staples, dark green leafy vegetables, other
vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables, other fruits
& vegetables, organ meat, meat and fish, eggs,
legumes, nuts and seeds.
Cereals and tubers, vitamin A rich fruits &
vegetables,other fruits, other vegetables, legumes
and nuts, oils and fats, meat/poultry/fish, dairy,
eggs, others (sweets,chips,soda,condiments,solid
foods and liquid foods).
Cereals and tubers; pulses; vegetables; fruits;
meat, fish, eggs; Milk and milk products; sugar;
oil

30g for all solid


foods, 60g for all
liquids and mixed
dishes
30g for all solid
foods, 60g for all
liquids and mixed
dishes
At least 15g

19

3. Methodology
Although the country is producing more food and improving nutritional status but still a large
part of the population are facing both under- and over-nutrition related morbidity and
mortality which is delaying the national economic cycle. A national desirable dietary
guideline is essential for each county following the criteria of International Experts
considering habit, PAL, seasonality and availability of foods for healthy life. Most of the
developed and developing countries already have developed the dietary guideline but still
there is a little information regarding the guidelines for desirable dietary pattern for the
Bangladeshi population. The present study focused on the calculation of energy requirements,
adaptation of micronutrient requirements using the FAO/WHO recommendations, analysis of
the current food and nutrient intake patterns and menu development for the Bangladeshi
people, for future healthy generation with the consensus of the key stakeholders of the
country.
3.1. Energy requirement: For the calculation of energy requirements of adults we have
considered reference body weight, BMR and PAL value according to the suggestions of
Expert Consultations (FAO/WHO/UNU, 2004). Reference body weight and BMR for all
ages have been adapted from FAO Guidelines 2004 considering gender and physiological
condition. In this work energy requirement for 0-17 yrs age have directly adapted from the
software named population energy requirement (PopER) which is developed by FAO for
both developed and developing countries. In this software physical activity levels of the
population in this age group are considered as a common group because they are doing
almost similar type of work. Therefore, for a specific age, it is assumed that all the children
have similar energy demands.
Average PAL values for different occupations of the Bangladeshi population have been
calculated using the PAL values established by FAO/WHO/UNU (2004).In this study we
have calculated PAL values of 139 occupations considering 8 hours as occupational work,18
hours for sleeping, and the rest 8 hours for house hold work and personal hygiene and
recreation. Out of 139 occupations 17 were urban, 17 were rural and 105 occupations were in
both urban and rural areas. These occupations have classified as sedentary, moderate and
heavy activities, using the FAO/WHO/UNU classification (sedentary PAL 1.40-1.69,
moderate PAL 1.70-1.99 and vigorous PAL 2.00-2.40). Energy requirements for adults were
calculated from the factorial estimates of PAL by multiplying with BMR and body weight.
The following example to calculate the average energy requirement of a female population
aged between 18 29.9 yrs with a moderately active lifestyle and a mean body weight of
55kg is illustrated in the calculation:
Energy requirement = BMR x PAL x Body weight
= 24kcal/kg/d x 1.85 x 55kg
= 2442 kcal/day
1

As established by International Labour Organization

20

After the estimation of energy requirements for individual age groups of males and females
with different physical activity levels for both the urban and rural areas we have calculated
the average energy requirements for Bangladeshi adults considering the body weight of males
as 60kg and females as 55kg. The proportion of sedentary, moderate and heavy work groups
were considered from a previous study (Murshid et al, 2008).
3.2. Nutrient requirement: Reference nutrient requirements have been revised by
different organizations as well as different countries over time based on newer scientific
knowledge and applications for estimating nutrient requirements and food needs of the
population worldwide. The present study has adapted the latest FAO/WHO recommendations
for requirements of macro and micro nutrients considering gender and physiological
conditions.
The recommended dietary allowances (RDA) of carbohydrate and protein were adapted from
the recommendations of FAO, 2007 and fat from FAO, 2008. Ranges of population nutrient
intake goals were included from the WHO/FAO Expert Consultation 2003. Carbohydrate,
protein and fat requirements as a percentage of total energy requirements were recommended
as 55 to 75% of total energy from carbohydrate, 10 to 15% energy from protein and 15 to 30
% energy from fat. Micronutrients and fiber requirements were adapted from other sources
(Nutrient reference values for Australia & New Zealand, 2005). Recommended nutrient
intake (RNI) of Vitamin A, vitamin B like thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B12, folic acid, and
vitamin C were adapted from FAO (Human vitamin and mineral requirements, 2004).
Calcium, phosphorus, Iron, magnesium, iodine and zinc were also adapted from FAO
(Human vitamin and mineral requirements, 2004). Sodium and potassium requirements were
adapted from NIN 2010 that has been based on the FAO/WHO recommendations.
Food intake pattern in Bangladesh: Current patterns of food and nutrient intake
were calculated using secondary data from HIES 2010 considering all the studied households
(12240) using the food composition table (FCT) of INFS (Shaheen et al, 2013) for the
nutritive value of energy, fat protein, carbohydrate and all the micronutrients (vitamin A,
thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, fiber, magnesium, sodium, potassium,
phosphorus, iodine, zinc and niacin).

3.3.

3.4. Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS): HDDS of Bangladeshi population were
calculated according to the HIES 2010 data using FANTA and FAO, 2011 Guidelines. In this
method 24hr dietary recall for 14 different days of 12240 households were analyzed, total
foods items have been divided into 12 food groups as in FANTA/FAO guidelines. For
consumption of each group food with amounts of at least 30g for solid and 60g for liquid
form have been considered for one score. Mean HDDS of 14 different days and as a whole
mean HDDS have been calculated. According to the suggestion of FAO, households who
consumed <3 food groups are lowest DDS, households who consumed 4 to 5 food groups are
medium DDS and households who consumed >6 food groups are high DDS.
As a cross check for the DDS value of HIES 2010, the present study also collected 24hr
household food consumption data of 511 households and 300 individual women from Dhaka
city (386 households from Zurain, Mohammadpur, Lalmatia and Mirpur areas, 200 students
of graduation level, 100 adults from slum area), Khagrachari (75 households) and Rangamati
21

(50 households) districts. HDDS was calculated as above and IDDS for individual students
and women from slums were calculated using 9 food groups.
3.5. Key Food Identification: In the identification of key foods for Bangladesh, we have
used HIES 2010 food consumption data and applied the methodology established by
Haytowitz et al (2002). HIES 2010 data have shown that about 139 types food item were
consumed by Bangladeshi population. For the identification of key foods, we have considered
amount of food consumption, nutrient content of consumed food and frequency of house hold
consumed the food. At first we have calculated per capita average consumption of each food
item consumed by the survey respondent. After that we have calculated total consumption of
each food item by multiplying average amount of food and the total survey respondents.
After that we have calculated total grams consumed for each nutrient from all foods (total
quantity of nutrient like carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus,
magnesium, zinc, iron, folic acid, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin vitamin C). Finally
we have calculated nutrient contribution percent for each individual food by dividing total
amount of nutrient consumed from all foods. A cumulative percent up to 75% was considered
as key food for individual nutrients. In this way we have selected 5 to 8 food items for each
nutrient. About 110 foods have primarily identified as key foods for 17 nutrients. Among the
110 foods we have identified 30 key foods from maximum amount and number of nutrient
contributions. The 30 key food lists have arranged on the basis of number of nutrient
contribution (Table 4.41).
3.6. Crop Calendar: Staple foods like rice and wheat are available throughout the year,
therefore, Bangladeshi fruits and vegetables were documented in the calendar with the help of
experts from Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council (BARC) and Agriculture Information
Services, Khamar Bari. In this calendar we have included all the available leafy vegetables,
non-leafy vegetable and fruits which are grown in Bangladesh. In this study we have included
the name of food when it is available in market. Crop calendar is placed in appendix A10
A13.
3.7. Compilation of Bangladeshi Foods: List of all available foods of Bangladesh with
local English and scientific names were compiled from reference books and web address and
summarized in appendix A14.
3.8. Optimizing Nutrition Return: Money should be spent logically to get the required
nutrients. Nutrient return for each hundred taka spent were calculated in this study using
updated food composition table and average market prices. Average market prices were
determined using the food price from the period of January 2010 to December 2010 of DAM
(Department of Agricultural Marketing), Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh.
3.9. Menu planning: Different combination of menus with serving size and food
exchange lists considering energy content of the menus and diet plans were documented.
Desirable dietary plans for average adults with 60kg weight for male and 55kg weight for
female were proposed to meet the energy and essential nutrients for different economic (poor
and non-poor) categories giving due attention to local food habits, food availability and

22

biodiversity. Photo documentation of different menus, food lists corresponding to calorie


requirements have also developed.
3.10. Serving size calculation: Serving size is known as the measuring unit of foods. We
have calculated the serving size of Bangladeshi foods especially leafy vegetables, non-leafy
vegetables and fruits. Detailed serving size has been discussed in the dietary guidelines.
3.11. Food Exchange list: All available fruits in Bangladesh have been classified into 9
groups according to similarity of calorie contents so as to have an equal exchange of
foods/fruits from any group according to need and choice. An exchange list for cereals, leafy
vegetables, non-leafy vegetables and fish has been developed.
3.12. Key Stakeholders for building consensus: Faculty members of INFS, Dhaka
University; and Food and Nutrition Departments of public and private affiliated colleges of
Dhaka University, scientist and researchers in the field of Nutrition from ICDDR'B, BRRI,
BARI, IPHN, BIRTAN and BARC, Nutritionists working in different hospitals in Dhaka city,
policy makers from the Ministries of Agriculture, Food, Disaster Management, and Health
and Family Welfare, Representatives from FAO, WHO, UNICEF, WFP (Country Office).
A dietary guidelines booklet and a technical report for a desirable dietary pattern for
Bangladesh with all necessary information have been developed for use.
3.13. Dietary guidelines for Bangladesh: A desirable dietary guideline for Bangladesh has
been developed based on food and nutrient intake analysis of HIES 2010 data along with
current nutrient situation of Bangladesh and also consider the suggestions of National and
International stakeholders in the field of nutrition.
3.14. Analysis of datasets: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 17 and database. Mean SD intake of foods, energy
and micronutrients were calculated using SPSS. Graphs (bar diagram, pie charts) were
prepared using Microsoft Excel 2010. Dietary diversity score for the households were
calculated using the same database.

23

4. Results and Discussion


4.1. Energy requirements for Bangladeshi population
Human energy requirements are estimated from measures of energy expenditure plus the
additional energy needs for growth, pregnancy and lactation. Recommendations for dietary
energy intake from food must satisfy these requirements for the attainment and maintenance
of optimal health, physiological function and well-being.
Energy requirements for Bangladeshi population were calculated using the FAO
recommendations and methodology (FAO/WHO, 2004). Occupation has a very significant
impact on daily energy expenditure, and thus, on per capita energy requirement. This is
because individuals engaged in a particular occupation have to remain engaged in a specific
activity for one third of the total daily available time, and the type of occupation determines
the mean physical activity level (PAL) of a person. Therefore, all the available occupations in
the country were tabulated and physical activity level (PAL) of all the occupations were
estimated. PAL values for specific works were noted from FAO literatures (FAO 1985, FAO,
2004).
For the calculation of energy requirement, the present study considered PAL, BMR, and
desired bodyweight following FAO/WHO/UNU (2004) recommendations. PAL values for
different occupations in the country were estimated using PAL values of different activities
suggested by the Expert Committee (Appendix A1). Bangladeshi occupations were classified
into 3 groups: Sedentary having a PAL value between 1.4 and 1.69; Moderate having a
PAL value between 1.70-1.99 and heavy worker category with a PAL value >2.0 (FAO
2004). The mean PAL values within the categories were calculated and in the rural
occupations, the mean PAL values for sedentary, moderate and heavy workers were
calculated as1.5, 1.88 and 2.46 and the values for urban occupations were 1.5, 1.85 and 2.32.
Moderate and heavy worker groups in the hilly region were considered together because the
moderate need to expend more energy for climbing up hill and downhill activities, the
moderate and heavy category of workers are classified into one group. Accordingly
estimated PAL values for hilly region people were 2.41. Occupations in sedentary, moderate
and heavy work are summarized in Appendix A2 and PAL values of different activities in
male and females are tabulated in appendix A3 and A4. The previous study estimated the
PAL values for sedentary, moderate and vigorous work groups as 1.46, 1.81 and 2.55
respectively (Murshid et al, 2008) where only 20 occupations were recruited.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) in different age groups with different body weight from FAO
literature (FAO/WHO/UNU, 2004) was used to calculate the energy requirements (Appendix
A5).
Energy requirements (ER) for children -up to 17 yrs of both boys and girls were adapted from
PopER software developed by FAO for the developing countries (table 4.1). For this
calculation energy requirement for growth considered with total energy expenditure. In this
method PAL values of all the boys for a specific age are considered similar since their
activities are mostly similar. Accordingly, PAL values of all the girls for a specific age are
similarly considered. For example, energy requirement for 17 year old boys have been
24

calculated as 3108kcal/day and for girls as 2377kcal/day. A proportion of urban children are
engaged in video games rather than out-door playing, in this situation parents should think
about their energy needs and may consults with the proper dieticians otherwise they are going
to be overweight and obese. WHO reported in World Health Statistics that about 1.1% of the
Bangladeshi children (<5yrs) are overweight (WHO, 2012). The percentage is much higher in
school-aged urban children (Mohsin et al, 2012).
Table 4.1: Energy Requirements of Boys and Girls (up to 17 yrs of age)
Age, yrs
<1
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00

Body wt
7.47
11.43
13.51
15.67
17.69
16.71
18.46
20.37
22.55
25.00
27.80
30.88
34.38
38.63
43.96
49.87
55.21
58.64

Boys
kcal/kg/d
83
82
84
80
77
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
57
55
53

kcal/d
620
937
1135
1254
1362
1303
1403
1507
1624
1750
1890
2038
2200
2395
2638
2843
3037
3108

Body wt
7
11
13
15
17
16
18
20
22
25
28
32
37
41
43
45
47
49

Girls
kcal/kg/d
83
80
81
77
74
75
73
71
68
66
63
60
56
54
52
51
50
49

kcal/d
574
863
1053
1160
1244
1202
1300
1403
1502
1638
1777
1942
2070
2198
2247
2294
2333
2377

Energy requirements (ER) for the adult Bangladeshi population from 18-65 yrs were
developed for a certain range of body weights considering BMR and calculated PAL values.
There are differences of BMR between male and females, and also differences of PAL values
(moderate and heavy workers) between rural and urban workers. Therefore, ER of male and
female for both urban and rural areas were calculated and are given in following tables. The
energy requirements estimated here are for the persons with normal BMI (18.5-23kg/m2). In
the same age group BMR also varies with differences of bodyweight, for instance, a man
between 18-30 age groups BMR for 45kg and 75kg body weight are29kcal/kg/day and
24kcal/kg/day respectively which consequences in the variation of energy requirements.
Table 4.2 shows the energy requirements of male and females with 18 to 29 years of age
disaggregated by physical activity levels in both urban and rural areas. A male person with
60kg body weight of urban area have shown 2430, 2997 and 3758 kcal of energy
requirements per day for sedentary, moderate and heavy work groups respectively and for the
person with same body weight in rural areas the values are 2430, 3046 and 3985 kcal
respectively.
25

Table 4.2 Energy Requirements of male and females of urban and rural areas, 18-29.9yrs

Male

Female

BW,
kg

BMR,
kcal/kg/d

45

Urban

Rural

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.85

Heavy,
PAL 2.32

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.88

Heavy,
PAL 2.46

29

1958

2414

3048

1958

2453

3210

50

29

2175

2683

3364

2175

2726

3567

55

28

2310

2849

3573

2310

2895

3788

60

27

2430

2997

3758

2430

3046

3985

65

26

2535

3127

3921

2535

3177

4157

70

25

2625

3238

4060

2625

3290

4305

75

24

2700

3330

4176

2700

3384

4428

40

26

1560

1924

2413

1560

1955

2558

45

26

1755

2165

2714

1755

2200

2878

50

25

1875

2313

2900

1875

2350

3075

55

24

1980

2442

3062

1980

2482

3247

60

23

2070

2553

3202

2070

2594

3395

65

22

2145

2646

3318

2145

2688

3518

70

22

2310

2849

3573

2310

2895

3788

75

21

2363

2914

3654

2363

2961

3875

BW, Body weight; BMR, Basal metabolic rate

Table 4.3 shows the energy requirements of male and females with 30 to 60 years of age
disaggregated by physical activity levels in both urban and rural areas. A male person with
60kg body weight requires 2340, 2886 and 3619 kcal energy for sedentary, moderate and
heavy work groups respectively in urban areas whereas 2340, 2933 and 3838 kcal
respectively requires for rural areas. Similarly a female person with 55kg body weight
requires 1980, 2442 and 3062 kcal energy respectively, in urban areas whereas the energy
requirements of rural females with 55kg body weight are 1980, 2482 and 3247 kcal,
respectively.

26

Table 4.3: Energy Requirements of male and females of urban and rural areas, 30-59.9yrs
Sex

Male

Female

BW,
kg

BMR,
kcal/kg/
d

45

Urban

Rural

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.85

Heavy,
PAL 2.32

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.88

Heavy,
PAL 2.46

23

1553

1915

2401

1553

1946

2546

50

23

1725

2128

2668

1725

2162

2829

55

22

181

2239

2807

181

2275

2977

60

22

1980

2442

3062

1980

2482

3247

65

21

2048

2525

3167

2048

2566

3358

70

20

2100

2590

3248

2100

2632

3444

75

20

2250

2775

3480

2250

2820

3690

40

24

1440

1776

2227

1440

1805

2362

45

24

1620

1998

2506

1620

2030

2657

50

22

1650

2035

2552

1650

2068

2706

55

21

1733

2137

2680

1733

2171

2841

60

20

1800

2220

2784

1800

2256

2952

65

19

1853

2285

2865

1853

2322

3038

70

18

1890

2331

2923

1890

2369

3100

75

18

2025

2498

3132

2025

2538

3321

BW, Body weight; BMR, Basal metabolic rate

Table 4.4 shows the energy requirement for people more than 60 years of age disaggregated
by sex and physical activity levels in urban and rural areas. In this age group, male persons
with 60kg body weight of sedentary, moderate and heavy work groups in urban areas require
1980, 2442 and 3062 kcal of energy respectively whereas for the rural persons with same
body weight requires 180, 2482 and 3247 kcal of energy respectively. Similarly females with
55kg body weight of urban areas require 1733, 2137 and 2680 kcal energy for sedentary,
moderate and heavy work group population whereas the same females in rural areas require
1733, 2171 and 2841 kcal of energy, respectively.

27

Table 4.4: Energy Requirements (kcal/day) of male and females of urban and rural areas,
>60yrs
Sex

Male

Female

BW,
kg

BMR,
kcal/kg/d

45

Urban

Rural

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.85

Heavy,
PAL 2.32

Sedentary,
PAL 1.5

Moderate,
PAL 1.88

Heavy,
PAL 2.46

29

1958

2414

3028

1958

2453

3210

50

29

2175

2683

3364

2175

2726

3567

55

27

2228

2747

3445

2228

2792

3653

60

26

2340

2886

3619

2340

2933

3838

65

25

2438

3006

3770

2438

3055

3998

70

24

2520

3108

3898

2520

3158

4133

75

23

2588

3191

4002

2588

3243

4244

40

27

1620

1998

2506

1620

2030

2657

45

27

1823

2248

2829

1823

2284

2989

50

25

1875

2313

2900

1875

2350

3075

55

24

1980

2442

3062

1980

2482

3247

60

22

1980

2442

3062

1980

2482

3247

65

21

2048

2525

3167

2048

2566

3358

70

20

2100

2590

3248

2100

2632

3444

75

19

2138

2636

3306

2138

2679

3506

BW, Body weight; BMR, Basal metabolic rate

The following table (table 4.5) shows energy requirements of the population of hilly region
for all the adult age groups in both male and females.

28

Table 4.5: Energy Requirements of male and females for hilly region (PAL, 2.41)
18-29.9 yrs
Sex

Male

Female

30-59.9 yrs

>60 yrs

BW,
kg

BMR,
kcal/kg/d

kcal/d

BMR,
kcal/kg/d

kcal/d

BMR,
kcal/kg/d

kcal/d

45

29

3145

29

3145

23

2494

50

29

3495

29

3495

23

2772

55

28

3711

27

3711

22

2916

60

27

3904

26

3904

22

3181

65

26

4073

25

4073

21

3290

70

25

4218

24

4218

20

3374

75

24

4338

23

4338

20

3615

40

26

2506

27

2603

24

2314

45

26

2820

27

2928

24

2603

50

25

3013

25

3013

22

2651

55

24

3181

24

3181

21

2784

60

23

3326

22

3181

20

2892

65

22

3446

21

3290

19

2976

70

22

3711

20

3374

18

3037

75

21

3796

19

3434

18

3253

BW, Body weight; BMR, Basal metabolic rate

Average energy requirements for Bangladeshi adults


Average energy requirements for adult Bangladeshi population were calculated considering
the PAL values of males and females in both urban and rural areas and a desired body weight
of 60kg for male and 55kg for females. The percentage of population engaged in different
physical activity levels (sedentary, moderate, heavy) are considered according to the work
done in a previous study (Murshid et al, 2008). After considering these factors the average
daily energy requirement for adult Bangladeshi population was estimated as 2430kcal. It may
be noted that the mean dietary energy requirement for the population reported by Murshid et
al (2008) was 2187kcal which is 243 kcal lower than this study. This discrepancy may be
explained by the lower desired body weight (male 56kg, female 47kg) used by Murshid et al.
We have adapted the desired body weight from the latest report of NIN (2010) which is
comparable to the body size and structure in Bangladesh given the similarities in body size
and composition.
Energy requirements in pregnancy
Pregnancy is a special physiological condition where 12kg weight gain throughout the
gestational period is considered as standard to ensure the full-term delivery of a healthy baby.
This weight gain is the total growth of foetus, placenta and associated maternal tissues. For
these growths extra energy needed from the beginning of conception and the requirement is
increasing with the increase of gestational period. A Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert
29

Consultation on Human Energy Requirements estimated the total energy cost of pregnancy at
around 77000kcal based on data from longitudinal studies and factorial calculations of the
extra energy required during this period (FAO/WHO/UNU, 2004). The additional energy
recommended during pregnancy is: 85kcal, 285kcal and 475kcal per day for first, second and
third trimester, respectively. These recommendations are proposed as additional energy
needs during pregnancy for Bangladeshi females. Accordingly, the total energy requirements
for sedentary, moderate and heavy worker females in both urban and rural areas are
summarized in table 4.6. In this calculation the body weight for females was considered as
55kg.
Energy requirements during lactation
Like pregnancy, lactating mothers also require an additional energy which corresponds to the
energy cost of milk production and secretion, its energy content and the efficiency with
which the dietary energy is converted to milk energy. Considering the amount of milk
production in first six months and second six months, FAO/WHO/UNU, 2004 have suggested
an additional 675kcal/day for the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding and 460kcal/day
for the second six months (Table 4.6) . This is recommended as additional energy
requirements for lactating mothers in urban and rural areas having different physical activity
levels and considering a body weight as 55kg. It has also been recommended that wellnourished women with adequate gestational weight gain may increase their food intake by
505kcal/day for the first six months of lactation. Energy requirements for milk production in
the second months are dependent on rates of milk production, which are highly variable
among women in the population.
Table 4.6: Energy requirements for pregnant women and lactating mothers
Physiological
condition

Pregnancy

Urban

Period of
pregnancy/

Rural

lactation

Sedentary

Moderate

Heavy

Sedentary

Moderate

Heavy

1st
Trimester

2065
(1980+85)

2527
(2442+85)

3147
(3062+85)

2065
(1980+85)

2567
(2482+85)

3332
(3247+85)

2nd
Trimester

2265
(1980+285)

2727
(2442+285)

3347
(3062+285)

2265
(1980+285)

2767
(2482+285)

3532
(3247+285)

3rd
Trimester

2455
(1980+475)

2917
(2442+475)

3537
(3062+475)

2455
(1980+475)

2957
(2482+475)

3722
(3247+475)

0-6 Month

2655
(1980+675)

3117
(2442+675)

3737
(3062+675)

2655
(1980+675)

3157
(2482+675)

3922
(3247+675)

7-12
Months

2440
(1980+460)

2902
(2442+460)

3522
(3062+460)

2440
(1980+460)

2942
(2482+460)

3707
(3247+460)

Lactation

30

4.2. Requirements of macro and micronutrients for Bangladeshi population


The human body requires a certain amounts of macro and micronutrients for minimizing risk
of nutrient deficit or excess for optimum health and function. The requirements vary with
individual age group, physical activity levels, physiological conditions and gender. In
advancement of scientific knowledge the requirement of both the macro and micronutrients
has been revised and the Expert Committee of FAO/WHO/UNU has contributed significantly
to the establishment and harmonization of the nutrient requirements. In the present study, the
FAO/WHO recommendations for macro and micronutrients established in 2004 and 2007
have been adapted. Previously the requirements of macro and micronutrients for Bangladeshi
population documented from the 1985 FAO/WHO recommendations in a booklet named

Deshio Khaddodrobber Pushtiman by INFS, Dhaka University in 1992. These have served
as reference throughout the country. In 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU recommended a protein
requirement of 33 to 66 g (0.83g/kg/day) depending on the body weight. This requirement is
being proposed for the Bangladesh population as presented in table 4.7.
Table 4.7: RDA for Macronutrients in different age groups for both male and females
Age(
yrs)

Body wt(kg)

Protein
(FAO 2007) g/day

Total Fat
(FAO-2008)
(%E)
Numeric Amount)

Fiber g/d

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Femal
e

Male

<1

7.47

6.91

10.2

9.4

40-60

40-60

ND

ND

No AI has
been set

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19-50
5165+

11.43
13.51
15.67
17.69
16.71
18.46
20.37
22.55
25
27.8
30.88
34.88
38.63
43.96
49.87
55.21
58.64
45-75
45-75

10.79
13
15.06
16.81
16.02
17.81
19.76
22.09
24.82
28.21
32.36
36.96
40.71
43.22
44.99
46.66
48.51
40-75
40-75

11.6
11.9
13.1
17.1
17.1
17.1
25.9
25.9
25.9
25.9
40.5
40.5
40.5
40.5
57.9
57.9
57.9
57.9
33-66

10.8
11.4
12.7
16.2
16.2
16.2
26.2
26.2
26.2
26.2
41
41
41
41
47.4
47.4
47.4
47.4
33-66

35
35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
20-35
20-35

35
35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
25-35
20-35
20-35

19
19
19
25
25
25
25
25
31
31
31
31
31
38
38
38
38
38
38

19
19
19
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
26
25

14
14
14
18
18
18
18
18
24
24
24
24
24
28
28
28
28
28
30

No AI
has been
set
14
14
14
18
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
20
22
22
22
22
22
25

45-75

40-75

33-66

33-66

20-35

20-35

30

21

30

25

Female

Pregnancy
+14
28
25-28
Lactation (0-6 Month)
+19
29
27-30
Lactation (7-12 Month)
+13
29
27-30
Nutrient Reference Values for fiber has been adopted from nutrient recommendations for Australia and New Zealand
2005

31

Requirements of all the micronutrients were adapted according to the suggestions of FAO/WHO in 2004 and are
summarized in tables 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10. In the booklet of INFS, daily requirements of calcium and folic acid for adult
male and females were suggested as 450mg and 200g, in the present study the requirement of these two nutrients
has been suggested as 1000mg and 400g for the wellbeing of the physical fitness.
Table 4.8: RNI of Vitamins for Bangladeshi population

Male

Female

Male

0.2-0.3

0.3-0.4

0.3-0.4

2a-4

2a-4

0.4-0.7

0.4-0.7

80

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

6
6
6
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

6
6
6
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

0.9
0.9
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

0.9
0.9
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

150
150
150
200
200
200
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

40-75

600

600

1.2

1.1

1.3

16

14

2.4

2.4

400

Pregnancy
Lactation (0-6mont)
Lactation (7-12mont

800
850

1.4
1.4
18
1.5
1.6
17
1.5
1.6
b
arbitrary values, Niacin-NE, niacin equivalents.

2.6
2.8
2.8

Female

Female

375400
400
400
400
450
450
450
500
500
500
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600

0.2-0.3

11
13
15
17
16
18
20
22
25
28
32
37
41
43
45
47
49
40-75

375400
400
400
400
450
450
450
500
500
500
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600

Male

Male

6.9

Vit-C
(FAO-2004)
RNI mg/day

Female

Female

Folic acid
(FAO-2004)
g/day

Male

45-75

Vit-B12
(FAO-2004)
g/day

Female

11.4
13.5
15.7
17.7
16.7
18.5
20.4
22.6
25
27.8
30.9
34.9
38.6
44
49.9
55.2
58.6
45-75

Niacin
(FAO-2004)
Mg NE/day

Male

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1965+

Riboflavin
(FAO-2004)
mg/day

Female

7.47

Thiamine
(FAO-2004)
mg/day

Male

<1

Vit-A
(FAO-2004)
retinol, g/d

Female

Male

Age
(yrs)

Body wt(kg)

80

25-30b

150
150
150
200
200
200
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

2530b
30b
30b
30b
30b
30b
30b
35b
35b
35b
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

400

40

40

600
500

30b
30b
30b
30b
30b
30b
35b
35b
35b
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
55
70

32

<
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
50
51
65
+

Body wt(kg)

Ca (FAO-2004)mg/day

Phosphorus
(FAO2002)mg/day

15%

12%

10%

5%

90-275

6.21

7.71

9.31

460
460
460
500
500
500
500
500
500
1250

460
460
460
500
500
500
500
500
500
1250

3.9
3.9
3.9
4.2
4.2
4.2
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.9

4.8
4.8
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4

1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300

1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250

1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250
1250

9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
12.5
12.5
12.5
9.1

1000

1000

700

700

1000

1300

700

700

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

7.47

6.91

300d-400g

300d-400g

90-275

11.43
13.51
15.67
17.69
16.71
18.46
20.37
22.55
25
27.8

10.79
13
15.06
16.81
16.02
17.81
19.76
22.09
24.82
28.21

500
500
500
600
600
600
700
700
700
1300

500
500
500
600
600
600
700
700
700
1300

30.88
34.88
38.63
43.96
49.87
55.21
58.64
45-75

32.36
36.96
40.71
43.22
44.99
46.66
48.51
40-75

1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300
1300

45-75

40-75

45-75

40-75

Pregnancy
Lactation (0-6mont)
Lactation (7-12mont)

Iron(FAO-2004)
Recommended nutrient intake (mg/day)
for a dietary iron bioavailability

1200
1000
1000

700
700

700
700

Na mg/day
(NIN 2010)
(RI)

K mg/day
(NIN 2010)
(RI)

Mg
(FAO-2004)
mg/day

15%

12%

10%

5%

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

18.61

6.21

7.71

9.31

18.61

407

407

628

628

26-54

26-54

5.8
5.8
5.8
6.3
6.3
6.3
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9

11.6
11.6
11.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
17.8
17.8
17.8
17.8

11.6
11.6
11.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
17.8
17.8
17.8
17.8
28.0
28.0
28.0
28.0
65.4
65.4
65.4
65.4
62.0
62.0
62.0
58.8

1100
1100
1100
1550
1550
1550

1100
1100
1100
1550
1550
1550

60
60
60
76
76
76
100
100
100
230

60
60
60
76
76
76
100
100
100
220

29.2
29.2
29.2
29.2
37.6
37.6
37.6
27.4

5.8
5.8
5.8
6.3
6.3
6.3
8.9
8.9
8.9
8.9
14.0
14.0
14.0
14.0
32.7
32.7
32.7
32.7
31.0
31.0
31.0
29.4

589
589
589
1005
1005
1005

14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
18.8
18.8
18.8
13.7

4.8
4.8
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
27.7
27.7
27.7
27.7
25.8
25.8
25.8
24.5

589
589
589
1005
1005
1005

12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
15.7
15.7
15.7
11.4

3.9
3.9
3.9
4.2
4.2
4.2
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.9
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
21.8
21.8
21.8
21.8
20.7
20.7
20.7
19.6

230
230
230
230
230
230
230
230

220
220
220
220
220
220
220
220

9.1

11.4

13.7

27.4

19.6

24.5

29.4

58.8

2092

1902

3750

3225

260

220

9.1

11.4

13.7

27.4

19.6

24.5

29.4

58.8

2092

1902

3750

3225

260

220

Male

Female

11yrs
12yrs
13yrs
14yrs

Premenarch
e

Age(yrs)

Table 4.9: RNI (Recommended nutrient intake) of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Magnesium and RI (recommended intake) of Sodium
and Potassium

7.5
10.0

Post menopausal
9.4
11.3
12.5

15.0

22.6
30.0

220
270
270

33

Table 4.10: RNI of iodine and zinc for Bangladeshi population

Age
(yrs)

Body wt (kg)

Iodine, g/day
(FAO-2004)

High
bioavail
ability

Moderate
bioavailabi
lity

Zinc mg/day (FAO-2004)


Low
High
Moderate
bioavaila
bioavaila
bioavaila
bility
bility
bility

Male

Low
bioavaila
bility

Male

Female

Male

Female

Female

<1

7.47

6.9

90

90

1.1d2.5j

2.8-4.1

6.6-8.4

1.1d-2.5j

2.8-4.1

6.6-8.4

1-3

11.4-15.7

11-15

90

90

2.4

4.1

8.3

2.4

4.1

8.3

4-6

17.7-18.5

17-18

90

90

2.9

4.8

9.6

2.9

4.8

9.6

7-9

20.4-25

20-25

120

120

3.3

5.6

11.2

3.3

5.6

11.2

10-12

27.8-34.9

28-37

120

120

5.1

8.6

17.1

4.3

7.2

14.4

13-18

38.6-75

41-75

150

150

5.1

8.6

17.1

4.3

7.2

14.4

19-65+

45-75

40-75

150

150

4.2

14

4.9

9.8

Pregnancy (1st trimester)

200

3.4

5.5

11

Pregnancy (2nd trimester)

200

4.2

7.0

14

Pregnancy (3rd trimester)

200

6.0

10

20

Lactation(0-6mont)

200

5.8-5.3

9.5-8.8

19-17.5

Lactation (7-12mont)

200

4.3

7.2

14.4

d Breastfed, j Not applicable to infants exclusively breastfed.

34

4.3. Diet and nutrient consumption patterns in the Bangladeshi population


For the evaluation of current dietary and nutrient consumption patterns the HIES 2010 data were
analyzed. The nutrient intake was calculated using the food composition table of INFS (Shaheen
et al, 2013). The foregoing describes the energy and nutrient intake patterns.
HIES Data Analysis: In the HIES 2010, 12240 households were selected from the different
regions of the country considering both urban and rural areas and including both poor and nonpoor families. The data sets of the HIES were analyzed for food consumption and nutrient intake.
It was found that total food grain intake was 464g/person/day where the intakes of rice and wheat
were 424g and 40g respectively. The intakes of fish, poultry, meat, pulses, oils and fruits and
vegetables (g/person/day) were 50.3, 11.5, 7.3, 14.7, 20.4 and 212g, respectively.
The following figure below depicts the proportionate amounts of food from different food groups
among the Bangladeshi population.
Table 4.11: Mean food intake (g/p/d) of the Bangladeshi population
Food items

Intake (g/p/d)

Cereals

464

Pulses

14.7

Fishes

50.3

Poultry

11.5

Meat

7.3

Egg

5.72

Potatoes

70

Leafy vegetables

36

Non-leafy vegetables

131

Fruits

45

Oils

20.4

Milk

32

Spices

40

Salt

15

Sugar/molasses

35

Energy and protein intake of the Bangladeshi population: The per capita mean energy and
protein intake of Bangladeshi population was 2190 kcal/day and 57.2g/day respectively. The
distribution of energy intake in the urban and rural population was 2094 kcal and 2223 kcal per
person per day, respectively and protein intake in urban and rural areas were 58.5g and 56.8g per
day, respectively (table 4.12). Intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat and fibre among the rural and
urban population has been shown in table 4.12. These values are different compared to the HIES,
2010 because of the use of the updated FCT 2013 in this study.
Table 4.12: Mean per capita energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat and fibre intake of
Bangladeshi population (weighted value)
Energy
kcal/day

Protein
g/day

Carbohydrate
g/day

Fat

Fibre

g/day

g/day

Rural

2223529

56.815.4

429106

26.311.9

23.511.0

Urban

2094484

58.516.1

36891

37.516.1

26.810.0

Total

2190521

57.215.6

413106

29.314.0

24.310.8

Table 4.13 shows that 40.3% of the population take more than 75% of total energy from
carbohydrate. A high intake of carbohydrate, especially simple and rapidly absorbed
carbohydrate increases the risk of coronary heart disease independent of conventional coronary
disease risk factors. In a study on rural Bangladeshi population, it was noted that 17% of the
studied population was overweight and 26% were obese (Bhowmik et al., 2012, 2013) which
may be a reflection of higher carbohydrate intake. Forty percent of the population take less than
10% of total energy from protein sources and 53% of the population take less than 15% of total
energy from fat. Low protein and fat intake could be possible factors implicated in the low birth
weight prevalence (22%; WHO, 2012), stunting (41%), wasting (16%), under-weight (36%),
BDHS, 2011 and thinness (30% of the women have BMI less than 18.5; BDHS, 2007). The data
in table 4.13 reflects the presence of both under-nutrition and over-nutrition in Bangladesh
attributed to disproportionate consumption of carbohydrate, protein and fat intake according to
HIES 2010.
Table 4.13: Distribution ranges of population- nutrient intake goals
Macronutrients

Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat

Range of intake
(%)

<55

55-75

>75

<10

10-15

>15

<15

15-30

>30

% Population

16.3

43.3

40.3

40

50

10

53

44

36

Adult male equivalent (AME) consumption for household members in different age groups
according to HIES 2010 data: Adult male consumption unit (kcal) for all the household
members in all age groups were calculated using the methodology of Bermudez et al (2012) and
are summarizes in table 4.14. Although mean calorie intake is about2190kcal but when it is
calculated according to male equivalent consumption 18-29.9yrs males are getting 2594kcal
energy and females of the same age group are getting about 2049kcal of energy.
Table 4.14: Adult male equivalent (AME) consumption for household members in
different age groups according to HIES 2010 data
Age
range, yrs
<1

Male
Energy, kcal/d
571

Female
Energy, kcal/d
571

AME
0.22

1-1.9

804

0.31

726

0.28

2-2.9

960

0.37

882

0.34

3-3.9

1064

0.41

986

0.38

4-4.9

1141

0.44

1064

0.41

5-5.9

1245

0.48

1115

0.43

6-6.9

1349

0.52

1219

0.47

7-7.9

1453

0.56

1323

0.51

8-8.9

1556

0.6

1453

0.56

9-9.9

1686

0.65

1582

0.61

10-10.9

1816

0.7

1712

0.66

11-11.9

1997

0.77

1816

0.7

12-12.9

2179

0.84

1946

0.75

13-13.9

2361

0.91

2023

0.78

14-14.9

2542

0.98

2075

0.8

15-15.9

2698

1.04

2127

0.82

16-16.9

2827

1.09

2127

0.82

17-17.9

2879

1.11

2127

0.82

18-29.9

2594

2049

0.79

30-59.9

2516

0.97

1997

0.77

>60

2075

0.8

1790

0.69

AME
0.22

37

Percent energy contribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat to the Bangladeshi diet: When
the contribution of energy is calculated from carbohydrate, protein and fat as a percentage of
total energy intakes, it has been found that carbohydrate contributed to 78%; protein contributed
to 10% of the energy and fat contributed to 12% of the total energy in the diet. Although 57g of
protein intake was noted, only few grams come from animal sources.
In a balanced diet, the ratio of energy distribution from carbohydrate, protein and fat would need
to be: 7:1:2. In South East Asian countries such as Vietnam, and Myanmar as well as
Bangladesh, the average citizen consumes 150200 kg annually, which accounts for two-thirds
or more of caloric intake and approximately 60% of daily protein consumption. Even in
relatively wealthier countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, rice still accounts for nearly 50%
of calories and one-third or more of protein (www.knowledgebank.irri.org).

Figure 4.1: Contribution of energy from carbohydrate, protein


and fat of Bangladeshi population
Distribution of carbohydrate intake: When the carbohydrate intake was analyzed, it has been
found that 3.7% of the population have taken up to 200g of carbohydrate each day; 31.4%
between 201 to 300g, 44% between 301 to 400g; 16.4% between 401 to 500g and 4.5% of the
population have taken more than 500g of carbohydrate. About 21% of the population takes more
than 400g of carbohydrate per day. Such high nutrient imbalances are associated with insulin
resistance and dyslipidaemia, notably seen in South Asians. In adults, a high-carbohydrate meal
consumption was reported to cause hyperinsulinaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia
(www.knowledgebank.irri.org).
38

Figure 4.2: Distribution of carbohydrate intake of Bangladeshi population


Distribution of Protein Intake: Analysis of protein intakes have shown that more than 66% of
the population have taken more than 50g of protein whereas only 10% of the population have
taken less than40g (figure 4.3). Although mean protein intake is close to the requirements, the
quality of protein is poor since 75% of protein comes from plant sources. Although rice protein
ranks high in nutritional quality among cereals, the protein content is modest. Intake of pulses
can upgrade the proteins from rice sources since limiting amino acids could be mutually
improved in these two food grains. Because of the poor pulse intake (14g) it can mutually
upgrades only about 25% proteins from rice sources in current Bangladeshi diets.

Figure 4.3: Distribution of protein intake of Bangladeshi population

39

In terms of total fat intake/day, it was noted that 55.9% of the population had an intake of total
fat (visible and non-visible) up to 30g; 39.1% of the population took between 30.1-60g of fat,
3.9% of the population had a fat intake between 60.1-80g of fat and 1.1% took more than 80g of
fat (figure 4.4).

Figure 4.4: Distribution of fat intake of Bangladeshi population


The per capita consumption of oil and fat recommended by the World Health Organization
(WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is 21 kg a year for maintaining
nutritional requirements of the human body. However, the present world average of per capita
consumption of oil and fat stands at 16 kg. In neighbouring countries such as India and Pakistan,
the consumption of oil and fat is estimated at 11 kg and 16 kg respectively.
The consumption of oil and fat in Bangladesh has been showing substantial changes since 1999
till date. The per capita consumption has been increased to10 kg from a previous figure of
between 5 to 6 kg per year. This increase has been reportedly encouraging, as it would have
positive effects on energy density of currently inadequate diets and have positive impact on
national health. Apart from being a compact source of energy, its regular consumption at the
required level is essential for normal growth of human body, especially in growth periods.
Diversification in Bangladeshi diets
Diversity of Cereal Intake: According to HIES 2010 data, the mean cereal intake was about
465g for Bangladeshi population and it is largely from medium and coarse rice. Other cereals are
in very less amounts and are summarized in the following table. Cereal and rice intake is
decreased in comparison to the 2005 survey (HIES 2005) which is positive for the well being of
health.

40

Table 4.15: Cereal intake pattern of Bangladeshi population


Food grains

g/person/day

Food grains

g/person/day

Fine Rice

8.9

Flour

1.48

Medium Rice

154

Vermicelli/ Sufi

1.76

Coarse Rice

252

Bread/Bun

1.39

Beaten Rice

1.02

Biscuits

4.34

Pop Rice

0.17

Cake

1.89

Puffed Rice

7.5

Other food grains

4.18

Wheat (attar)

25.8

It seems that mean energy intake has been decreased compared to HIES 2005 but current
consumption has been calculated using the updated food composition table of INFS (Shaheen,
2013). Food composition could be change with changing of nutrient composition of soils.
Table 4.16: Comparison of energy, cereal and rice intake, HIES 2005 and 2010

Source/year

Energy intake (kcal)

Cereal (g), % Energy

Rice (g), % energy

HIES 2005

2238

452 (70%)

440 (68%)

HIES 2010

2190

442 (69%)

416 (64%)

Mean pulse intake for Bangladeshi population in 2010 survey was 14.68g/person/day and it was
mostly from lentil (Mosur) but other different kinds of pulses were also present in the diet which
provided some diversity. Pulses are low fat, high fibre, and high protein.
Table 4.17: Diversity of pulse intake in the Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Lentil (Mosur)

6.723

Pea gram (Khesari)

1.23

Chickpea-Vetch
(Mug dal)

0.484

Maskalai

0.665

Green gram
(Booter dal)

3.762

Other pulses

1.753

Total

14.68 g/person/day

41

Diversity of Fish Intake: Mean fish intake was 50.3 g/person/day according to the HIES 2010
and the dominant types of fish eaten are rhui /katla, pangash, carp and puti/tilapia but other
different types of fish are also found in the menu of Bangladeshi diets which are summarized
below.
Table 4.18: Diversity of fish intake of the Bangladeshi population
Name of the Fish

g/person/day

Name of the Fish

g/person/day

Puti/Big puti/Tilapia/Nilotica

9.8

Sea Fish

1.92

Rhui/Katla/Mrigel/Kalibaush

7.50

Other Fishes

1.58

Pangash/Boal/Aire

7.21

Koi

1.14

Silver carp/Grass carp/Miror carp

5.96

Tangra/Eel fish

0.98

Mala/Dhela/Chapila/Batashi

4.27

Dried Fish

0.96

Hilsa

3.43

Magur/Shinghi/Khalisha

0.57

Shrimp

2.46

Baila/Tapashi

0.33

Shoal/Gajar/Taki

1.99

Total Fish intake

50.3

Diversity of Poultry and Meat Intake: Mean poultry and meat intake for Bangladeshi
population was about 19 g/person/day in 2010 and mostly contributed by chicken and beef. The
distributions of all the types are summarized below.
Table 4.19: Diversity of poultry and meat intake of Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Chicken

10.77

Other meats

0.40

Duck

0.72

Buffalo

0.063

Beef

6.57

Sheep

0.017

Mutton

0.63

Total

19.14

42

Diversity of Vegetable Intake: Mean vegetables intake per person per day was 167g whereas
leafy vegetables were 36g and non-leafy vegetables were 131g. Intake of vegetables are about
half of the recommended allowances which is a risk factor for micro-nutrient deficiency in the
country. Distribution of all types of vegetables intake are summarizes in table 4.20.
Table 4.20: Diversity of vegetables intake in the Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Brinjal

21.1

Snake gourd/Ridge gourd

7.85

White gourd/Pumpkin

12.0

Tomato

7.15

Cauliflower/Cabbage

11.5

Radish

5.36

Water gourd

10.9

Balsam apple

4.28

Potal

10.3

Ladies' finger

3.26

Bean/Lobey

9.73

Other vegetables

11.67

Arum/Ol-kachu/Kachurmukhi

8.90

Leafy vegetables (all)

36.1

Green banana/Green papaya

8.24

Total Vegetables

167

Diversity of Fruit Intake: Fruit intake for Bangladeshi population was about 45g/person/day
according to the HIES 2010 and it is less than half of the recommendations which also may be a
risk factor for vitamin and mineral deficiency in the population. Among the fruits taken, mango,
jackfruit and banana are the dominant types. The distributions of all the fruits are summarized
below.
Table 4.21: Diversity of fruit intake among the Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Mango

11.66

Grape

0.72

Jack fruit

10.21

Amra/Kamranga

0.54

Ripe banana

6.38

Litchi

0.33

Guava

2.63

Palm

0.30

Apple

2.50

Black berry

0.28

Melon/Bangi

2.56

Safeda

0.095

Ripe papaya

1.63

Bedana

0.067

Pineapple

1.26

Others

2.95

Orange

0.77

Total Fruit Intake

44.98

43

Diversity of Oil Intake: Mean oils or visible fat intake was 20.42g/person/day in 2010. Soybean
oil was the most commonly consumed oil. Distribution of all the oils and visible fats are
summarized below in table 4.22.
Table 4.22: Diversity of oil and visible fat intake of Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Soybean oil

18.36

Ghee

0.014

Mustard oil

2.06

Others

0.052

Dalda/Vanashpati

0.034

Total

20.52

Diversity of Milk Intake: Mean milk and dairy products intake was only 32g/person/day which
are far below the recommendations. Milk taken was mostly in the form of liquid milk. Milk
intake is essential to meet the requirement of calcium.
Table 4.23: Diversity of milk and dairy product intake in the Bangladeshi population
Food item

ml/person/day

Food item

ml/person/day

Liquid Milk

30.56

Milk drinks

0.069

Powder milk

0.42

Other dairy product

0.050

Curd

0.54

Diversity of Spice Intake: Mean spice intake was 55g/person/day in 2010 for Bangladeshi
population and it is mostly contributed by onion, salt and green chilli.
Table 4.24: Diversity of spices intake in the Bangladeshi population
Item

g/person/day

Item

g/person/day

Onion

20.52

Ginger

1.47

Green Chilli

7.17

Cummins

0.84

Garlic

2.82

Coriander-seed

0.80

Dried Chilli

2.68

Aromatic-seed

0.34

Turmeric

2.37

Clove/ Black pepper/ Cassia-leaf

0.28

Salt

15.94

44

4.4. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS)


Micronutrient malnutrition remains a problem of public health concern in most developing
countries, partly due to monotonous and cereal-based diets that lack diversity. The dietary
diversity score (DDS) was used to assess micronutrient adequacy of the diets, based on a simple
count of the food groups consumed. DDS is a qualitative measure of food consumption that
reflects household access to a variety of foods, and is also a proxy for nutrient adequacy for the
diet of individuals. DDS have been found to be positively correlated with adequate micronutrient
density of complementary foods for infants and young children (FANTA 2006), and
macronutrient and micronutrient adequacy of the diet for non-breast-fed children (Hatloy et al.,
1998; Ruel et al., 2004; Steyn et al., 2006; Kennedy et al, 2007), adolescents (Mirmiran et al.,
2004) and adults (Ogle et al., 2001; Foote et al., 2004; Arimond et al., 2010). Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2011 published guidelines for the measurement of DDS at
both individual and household levels. FAO suggested a reference period of the previous 24
hours. Using once 24 hour recall period does not provide an indication of an individuals habitual
diet, but provides an assessment of the diet at the population level and can be useful to monitor
progress or target interventions. There are various other valid time frames for recall, such as the
previous 3 or 7 days, and in the case of some foods, the previous month. FAO has been
suggested the use of a 24 hours recall as it is less subject to recall error, less cumbersome for the
respondents and moreover, DDS based on a 24 hour recall period is easier than with longer recall
periods; For the DDS of household levels FAO has recommended 16 different food groups of
which the intake of foods from each group counts for one score. Households that have
consumed <3 food groups have lowest DDS, households who consumed 4 to 5 food groups have
medium DDS and households that have consumed >6 food groups have high DDS.
Table 4.25: List of food groups for DDS Calculation
Group

Food

Group

Food

Cereals

Flesh meat

White roots and tubers

10

Egg

Vitamin A rich vegetable and tubers

11

Fish and Sea food

Dark green leafy vegetables

12

Legumes, nuts and seeds

Other vegetables

13

Milk and milk products

Vitamin A rich fruits

14

Oils and fats

Other fruits

15

Sweets

Organ meat

16

Spices, Condiments and beverages

In HDDS, foods taken from group 3, 4, 5 considered as one score; foods from group 6, 7 considered as
one score; foods from 8, 9also considered as one score

45

In HIES 2010 data 24hr food intakes were recorded for 14 different days in all the 12240
households. The DDS values were calculated for individual households for all the 14 days and
this were summarized and the mean ( SD) valued were derived. The DDS values for
Bangladeshi households were 6.6 1.4 which is high according to FAO/FANTA Guidelines
(2011) See Figure 4.5.

Mean DDS: 6.61.4

Fig 4.5: DDS among Bangladeshi households of 14 different days


Frequency distribution of DDS: When the frequency distribution of DDS was summarized it
has been found that only 0.2% of the studied households had DDS value less than 3 while 35%
had DDS value 3 to 5 and 64.8% had DDS value greater than 6 (Fig 4.6). Therefore, about 35%
of the studied household had DDS value less than 6 and are considered at risk of micronutrient
deficiency.

Fig 4.6: Distribution of DDS among Bangladeshi households


46

4.4.1. DDS of Khagrachari, Rangamati and Dhaka city populations


In this study 24hr dietary data were collected from 511 households from different areas of Dhaka
city and from the districts of Khagrachari and Rangamati. Individuals 24hr dietary data were
also collected from graduate level students (200) and from slum area (100 adults). HDDS in
Dhaka city, Khagrachari and Rangamati have been found as 7.3, 7.7 and 7.9. IDDS for students
have been found as 4.6 and for the slum people as 3.7 out of 9 food groups. See Figure 4.6.1.

HDDS, out of 12 food


groups

IDDS, out of 9 food groups

Fig 4.6.1: HDDS (Dhaka city, Khagrachari and Rangamati) and IDDS (Students and slum
peoples)

4.5. Desirable dietary intake for the Bangladeshi population


The desirable dietary intake is based on the requirements of energy and nutrients for a healthy
life. Using the basis of evaluation of the current patterns of dietary intake (HIES 2010), previous
work on desirable intake proposed by Yusuf et al in 1996 and the desirable intake proposed in
2007 by national experts and considering the requirements of energy and nutrients proposed in
this study, the desirable dietary intake for the Bangladeshi population has been developed. In
this development, energy intake from cereal was proposed to 55% and there is an emphasis on
increase in the intake of pulses, fish, vegetables, fruits and milk (table 4.25). Although 130ml of
milk intake for the Bangladeshi population is highly ambitious but it could be increased
gradually which would help to fulfil the calcium requirement of the population.
47

Table 4.26: Desirable intake for Bangladeshi population


Yusuf et al, 1996
(2310kcal)
Food

National Experts,
2007 (2350 kcal)

DDP, 2013 (2430kcal)

Desirable
intake, g

%
Energy

Desirable
intake, g

%
Energy

Desirable
intake, g

%
Energy

Total Cereal

372

55

375

55

400

56

Rice

312

46.6

350

51

350

49

Wheat and other


cereals

60

8.4

25

50

Pulses

66

10

60

8.8

50

6.5

Animal foods

126

180

7.0

260

10.5

Fish

50

55

2.1

60

Poultry and meat

22

35

1.4

40

Egg

15

0.6

30

Milk and milk


products

47

75

2.9

130

3.5

Fruits

57

100

4.2

100

100

2.5

Leafy
132

2.5

200

3.6

200

Potato

130

60

2.5

100

Cooking oil

38

15

40

15.3

30

11

Sugar/Gur/Molasses

28

18

3.2

20

Spices

10

20

0.4

20

Total

959

1053

100

1280

100

Vegetables

Nonleafy

100

4.6. Energy and nutrient gap calculation for Bangladeshi population


Energy and nutrient content in foods consumed were calculated using the food composition
tables for Bangladeshi foods updated by INFS (Shaheen, 2013). The nutrient content of all the 14
days food consumption was calculated and the mean consumption of energy and nutrients were
calculated using database and SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Science, Chicago,
USA). Mean (SD) of energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intake for Bangladeshi population
have presented in table 4.12. Calcium, iron and thiamine intake for Bangladeshi population
according to the HIES 2010 data were 538241, 29.87.0and 2.601.02mg/capita/day
48

The mean energy requirements for Bangladeshi adults were calculated as 2430 kcal as described
in the energy requirement section of this chapter. Therefore, according to the HIES 2010 data the
current intake is about 240kcal deficient. But compared to the intrahousehold energy distribution
(table 4.14) according to adult male equivalent factors it could be stated no energy deficiency for
Bangladeshi adults (18yrs and above).
Mean vitamin A, riboflavin and calcium intakes are also deficient compared to requirements in
the diet of Bangladeshi population on the basis of HIES 2010 data (table 4.27, 4.28). Diets of
more than 70% of the population are deficient of vitamin A, calcium and iron, and about 50% of
the population have consumed less zinc than the requirements which reflected in the under
nutrition situation of the country. Although it seems that vitamin C intake is sufficient, more than
18% of the population is still consuming less than the requirements.
Table 4.27: Current Intake and RNI of different Vitamins for adult Bangladeshi
Population
Vitamins

Intake
(HIES 2010)

Male

RNI

Female

Vitamin-A, retinol Eq
(g/day)

388291

600

500

Vitamin-C mg/day

84.864.2

45

45

Thiamine (mg/day)

1.00.60

1.2

1.1

Riboflavin (mg/day)

0.800.35

1.3

1.1

Niacin (mg NEq/day)

17.810.2

16

14

Folic acid(/day)

19781

400

400

Calcium (mg/day)

439227

1000

1000

49

Table 4.28: Intake and RDA of Zinc and Iron for adult Bangladeshi Population
Minerals

Zinc
(mg/day)

Iron
(mg/day)

Intake (HIES 2010)

10.032.62

10.963.82

Bio-availability

Male

RDA

Female

High

4.2

3.0

Moderate

7.0

4.9

Low

14.0

9.8

15%

9.1

19.6

12%

11.4

24.5

10%

13.7

29.4

5%

27.4

58.8

4.7. Identification of key foods


Key foods for the Bangladeshi diets were identified as discussed in the methodology section.
Key foods were identified for the planning of proper menus to fulfil the required energy and
other nutrients considering the local habits of the population. Key foods for different nutrients in
current Bangladeshi diets have been shown in figures 4.7 fig 4.22). In the key foods, 30 items
were identified where rice, wheat, fish, chicken, vegetables, fruits (mainly jackfruit, mango) and
milk were included and listed in table 4.29.

Fig 4.7: Key foods (%) for fibre

Fig 4.8: Key foods (%) for protein

50

Fig 4.9: Key foods (%) for fat

Fig 4.11: Key foods (%) for calcium

Fig 4.10: Key foods (%) for carbohydrate

Fig 4.12: Key foods (%) for iron

51

Fig 4.13: Key foods (%) for vit B1

Fig 4.15: Key foods (%) for vitamin C

Fig 4.14: Key foods (%) for vit B2

Fig 4.16: Key foods (%) for Vitamin A

52

Fig 4.17: Key foods (%) for folic acid

Fig 4.18: Key foods (%) for zinc

Fig 4.19: Key foods (%) for magnesium

Fig 4.20: Key foods (%) for Sodium

53

Fig 4.21: Key foods (%) for potassium

Fig 4.22: Key foods (%) for phosphorus

54

Table 4.29: List of key foods with nutrient contributions according to HIES 2010
Nutrient Contribution (%)
Food name
Medium rice
wheat (Atta)
Potato
Coarse rice
Liquid milk
Chicken
Rohu
Green gram (boot)
Jack fruit
Brinjal
Puti
Pangash
Lentil(musur)
Beef
Mango
Indian Spinach
Chapila
Ripe banana
Bean
Cauliflower
Cabbage
Radish
Pumpkin
Perbol (patal)
Dried Fish (chapila)
Hilsa
Guava
Tomato
Bitter gourd
Shrimp
Soybean oil
Mustard oil

CHO
29
46

Prot
ein
17
5
2
33
5
2

Fat

8
4

Fibre
6
10
6
30

3
5

3
2
3
3

Vit
A

VitB1

VitB2

25
10

15
8

40

44
6

Nia
cin

48

Folic
acid
31
17
9

46

Mg

Ca

Na

27
13
35

12
15
14

28
14
13

4
3
2
7
10

10
3
4

17
8
28

13
8
6

4
3
2

5
4

3
3

13
2

11
3
4

0.34

2.3

2.5

3
4
8

4
4

12
2

19
2.1

4
3
4

P
18
8
3
44
3

6
2
10
4
7

58
6

Zn

13

Iron

4
13

23

VitC

Fre
que
ncy
13
12
10
10
5
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

55

Thiamine (mg)

43

126

146

1.3

0.21

0.05

4.6

11

Wheat (Atta)

334

1410

11.3

2.1

62.2

10.7

1.5

52

4.9

151

306

284

16

3.0
2

0.49

0.29

6.2

29

0.0

66

281

1.2

0.2

14.0

2.1

0.9

11

0.5

21

40

286

16

0.08

0.09

0.8

18

19.1

349

1480

7.1

0.2

79.5

0.7

0.5

0.7

43

126

146

0.02

0.6

11

0.0

32

0.06

0.28

0.8

1.7

25

0.12

0.07

11.4

0.05

0.07

4.1

Potato
Coarse rice
Liquid milk

Fat(g)

63

263

3.1

3.7

4.3

0.0

0.6

103

0.1

22

90

131

51

106

447

22.3

1.8

0.0

0.0

1.1

15

0.5

32

173

315

37

95

400

17

1.2

13

1.1

27

141

287

100

350

1470

20.4

44.8

17.4

2.6

203

8.8

179

31

187

69

Jack fruit

74

312

1.2

0.2

13.3

7.2

1.1

13

0.3

42

41

268

Brinjal

24

100

1.9

0.1

2.0

4.1

0.7

21

0.4

24

47

178

139

582

17.6

7.6

4.9

967

2.6

620

203

53

Chicken
Rohu

Green gram
(boot)

Puti
Pangash

162

676

15.9

11

14

0.1

29

130

169

46

Lentil (musur)

317

1340

27.7

0.8

43.2

13.2

2.9

23

5.1

72

261

635

37

Beef

103

436

20.7

2.3

0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

15

190

395

52

Mango

82

348

0.8

0.4

18.0

1.6

0.8

13

0.2

15

16

181

Indian
Spinach

25

105

2.4

0.3

2.1

2.2

1.2

111

2.2

179

31

187

69

Chapila

106

442

15.4

4.9

4.4

1060

4.8

37

560

231

57

95

400

1.3

0.8

19.2

2.6

0.8

11

0.3

23

36

411

10

Ripe banana

0.7
9
1.3
2
0.4
5

0.36
0.3
5
0.5
9
0.5
7
3
1.8
5
3.8
9
3.5
2
0.6
0
0.3
5
0.2
4

Vit c (mg)

0.7

Folate(g)

Niacin (mg)

0.5

Riboflavin
(mg)

4.2

Ret Eq (g)

Potassium
(mg)

76

zinc(mg)

Phosphorus
(mg)

Sodium (mg)

Magnesium
(mg)

0.4

Iron (mg)

Ash, g

6.5

CHO(g)

1450

Protein(g)

342

Energy(kj)

Medium rice

Name of food

Energy
(kcal)

total dietary
fibre(g)

Calcium (mg)

Table 4.29.1: Nutrient values of key foods

170

0.02

0.36

0.5

140

51.8

0.11

0.05

[0.9]

24

3.4

0.03

0.07

0.9

34

1.3

59.0

0.01

0.03

0.3

.15

0.06

4.5

0.77

0.13

6.3

36

0.06

0.19

10.0

0.0

25

0.09

0.10

0.6

71

103.0

170

0.02

0.36

[0.5]

140

51.8

1.97

6.0

0.94

0.08

0.9

20

1.0

56

17

0.5
0.32

32
1

0.05
0.02

0.01
0.02

24
18
18

101
74
77

1.5
0.9
1.4

0.3
0.1
0.3

2.6
2.5
1.3

2.5
1.6
2.4

0.4
0.6
0.7

30
24
52

0.5
0.4
0.7

27
15
10

182
23
16

225
142
349

115
40
8

0.28
0.38
0.11

0.08
369

0.9
0.43
0.07

5
Tr
0.06

24

102

2.0

0.3

2.2

2.2

0.5

16

1.7

15

18

148

28

0.4

0.17

0.03

56.6

9.8

570

3.7

104

1798

925

1408

260
0.12

0.14

5.6

0.21
0.07
0.05

0.09
0.01
0.03

1.2
0.6
0.7

22
3
63
23
31
81

926

18

265
96
129

1.0
1.9
2.1

341

17

16.
8
0.5
0.2
0.3
1.4
90
0
90
0

1.9

86

1.3

26

195

162

52

0.54

10.9
2.5
3.6

5.4
1.7
2.6

0.7
0.4
1.1

17
16
16

0.7
0.3
1.8

25
7
31

18
28
20

261
156
182

6
7
36

0.31
0.19
0.35

421

0.6

26

941

503

117

1.36

33
24

0.7

60
30

8.7
40.5

25
16

17.3
21.1

16

19.4

49
9
45

228.3
30.6
90.6

0.5
0.8
[0.
8]

Vit c (mg)

Folate(g)

220
154

Niacin (mg)

34
42

Ret Eq (g)

25
16

Zinc (g)

Riboflavin
(mg)

Sodium (mg)

1.1
0.7

Potassium
(mg)

44
37

Phosphorus
(mg)

0.7
0.8

Magnesium
(mg)

2
2.1

Iron (mg)

8.3
2.7

Calcium
(mg)

0.1
0.3

CHO(g)

3.9
2.7

Fat(g)

228
119

Protein(g)

54
28

Energy(kj)

Thiamine
(mg)

Guava
Tomato
Bitter
gourd
Shrimp
Soybean
oil
Mustard
oil

Ash, g

Hilsa

total dietary
Fibre(g)

Bean
Cauliflow
er (boiled)
Cabbage
Radish
Pumpkin
Perbol
(patal)
Dried Fish
(Chapila)

Energy(kcal)

Name of
food

Continued

Tr

57

4.8. Exchange lists of foods based on energy values (kcal)


An exchange list is a grouping of foods based on similarities in energy content as well as
carbohydrate, protein and fat. It is not possible to refract all the available foods and local habits
in the menus but people should have a choice to exchange the foods in the menus with others
based on approximately equal energy values. For this purpose, we have grouped all the fishes,
vegetables, lentils and fruits according to the calorie contents (table 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, and
4.34), therefore, peoples could change their food items without hampering of the total calories.
Table 4.30: Exchange list of fish according to energy content
Name of food

Kcal/100g

Name of food

50-70 Kcal/100g
Crabs

Kcal/100g

150 -200 Kcal/100g


59

70 -100 Kcal/100g

Bhangon (Fresh)

154

Mullet

155

Bele Fish/Poa

75

Climbing Fish (Koi)

156

Betrongi fish

76

Dragon Fish

161

Black Fish/Baho

76

Sarputi

161

Pumplate (sea fish)

78

Boal

166

Bhetki (Fresh)

79

Salmon

167

Ganges river sprat

84

Magur

86

Bream (Sea, Dried)

210

Pomfret (White)

87

Tengra (Dried)

255

Spotted snake head

87

Bhetki (Dried

266

Aire Fish

89

Hilsha Fish

273

Bata fish

89

Bhangon (Dried)

274

Shrimp

89

Prawns whole(Dried)

287

Bream (Sea, Fresh)

92

Pata fish(Dried)

293

Kucha

92

White Fish (Dried)

296

Shark

93

Sole

94

Parshee Fish (Fresh)

312

Gahira Fish

97

Butter Fish

114

Lota Fish

97

White Fish (Fresh)

120

Rohu

97

Scorpion Fish

124

Mrigal

98

Cat Fish

126

Eel Fish

100

Silver curp

127

200-300 Kcal/100g

>300 Kcal/100g

Tilapia

100-150 Kcal/100g
Chapila (Fresh)

103

Parshee Fish (Dried)

140

Folui

103

Bhangon (Powdered)

144

Fesha Fish(Fresh)

104

Tengra (Fresh)

144

Ribbon Fish

104

Bacha Fish

147

58

Name of food

Kcal/100g

Name of food

Kcal/100g

Pama croaker/poa fish

105

Fry (V. Small Fresh)

106

Flat Fish

108

Fesha Fish(Dried)

336

Carp

111

Magur (Dried)

338

Pomfret (Black)

111

Tapse (Dried)

343

Boicha Fish

112

Prawn(dray)

349

Gura Fish

112

Fishmeal

364

Khalisha Fish

112

Ribbon Fish(dried)

383

Mola Fish

112

Hilsha (Salted)

400

Pomfret(Small)

112

Chapila (Dried)

413

Silver Fish

112

Table 4.31: Exchange list of lentils according to energy content


Food Code

Name of food

Kcal/100g
300-350 Kcal/100g

210

Peas dried/split

315

214

Horse gram

321

215

Moth beans

330

206

Green gram(whole)

334

212

Red gram/Arahar (split)

335

211

Peas fried

340

209

Lentils

343

208

Khesari dal

345

216

Rajmah

346

201

Bean(Field)

347

205

Black gram(split)

347

207

Green gram(split)

348
350-450 Kcal/100g

202

Bengal gram(whole)

360

204

Bengal gram(fried)

369

203

Bengal gram(split)

372

213

Soybean

432

59

Table 4.32: Exchange list of leafy vegetables according to energy content


Name of food

Kcal/100g

Name of food

<20Kcal/100g

Kcal/100g

50-70Kcal/100g

Celery stalks

18

Prawal leaves

55

Ipomoea stems

19

Kheshari leaves

55

Kongulo aga/taokharong bo

55

20-30Kcal/100g
Lettuce

21

Chukai leaves

56

Spinach sour

21

Mesta leaves

56

Amaranth(data) leaves

22

Taro/green arum leaves

56

Mollugo

22

Kassava

59

Radish leaves

24

Punornova leaves

61

Purslane

25

Taolingashku

61

Amaranth Leaves(tender)

26

Jute plant tops

62

Cabbage

26

Ghanda batali

62

Bitter gourd

26

Sweet potato leaves

63

Indian spinach

27

Cauliflower leaves

66

Edible fern

29

Turnip leaves

67

Bathua leaves

30

Orai balai

70

Spinach

30

Lawn marsphenny wort

70

30-50Kcal/100g

70-100Kcal/100g

Blue commelina/venus bath

31

Soybean leaves

72

Wild coriander

32

Thankuni leaves

73

Safflower leaves

33

Carrot leaves

77

Mustard leaves

34

Taro/black arum leaves

77

Cowpea leaves

36

Yellow saraca

79

Celery leaves

37

Indian ivy-rue

81

Sineiye leaves

37

Drumstick leaves

92

Pumpkin leaves

38

Agathi

93

Roselle

38

Gram leaves

97

Bottle gourd leaves

39

Potato leaves

40

Curry leaves

108

Helencha leaves

41

Tamarind leaves(green)

115

Amaranth ( red leaf variety)

43

Coriander leaves

44

Taro/Arum Leaves (dried)

Beet leaves

46

>300Kcal/100g

Kolmee leaves

46

Tamarind leaves (dry)

Susni sak

46

Fenugreek leaves

49

Mint leaves

49

100-150Kcal/100g

150-200Kcal/100g
277
305

60

Table 4.33: Exchange list of nonleafy vegetables according to energy content


Name of food
Kcal/100g
<20Kcal/100g
Fekong
7
Gourd(ash)
10
Sigon data
12
Maira bokong
16
Gourd(snake)
18
Yam stem
18
Colocasia stem
18
Kovai
18
Amaranth(data) stem
19
Kolmee
19
20-30Kcal/100g
Sea weed(fresh)
20
Idurer kaan
20
Spinach stalks
21
Cucumber
22
Tomato (green)
23
Bean (French)
26
Cabbage
26
Gourd (bitter)
28
Gourd (ridge)
30
Gourd (sweet) pumpkin
30
Red silk/cotton tree
30
30-50Kcal/100g
Prawal/potol
Gachh oal
Berry bamboo
Water lily flower
Plantain flower
Banchalta
Papaya (green)
Bean
Pumpkin flower
Cauliflower
Onion & garlic stalk
Aubergine/Eggplant
Plantain stem
Karonda (fresh)
Lady`s finger/okra
Mushroom
Bean(red)
Mango (green)
Sword beans
Bean(broad)
Bean(immature)
Cow pea

31
32
32
33
34
35
36
38
39
41
41
42
42
42
43
43
44
44
44
48
48
50

Name of food
50-70Kcal/100g
Jackfruit(immature)
Pea eggplant
Fig(red)
Lotus seeds(green)
Chaltha
Drumstick/Horseradish
Gourd (bitter)
Gourd(bottle)
70-100Kcal/100g
Lokooch
Solanum
Kakrol
Plantain
100-150Kcal/100g
Chilli(green)
Gram (red, unripe)
Betagi
Yam
Peas (green)
Water lily (white)
150-200Kcal/100g
Water lily stem (red)
200-300Kcal/100g
Lotus stem (dry)

Kcal/100g
51
52
53
57
59
60
60
66
73
77
80
83
103
116
120
126
127
142
193
234

61

Table 4.34: Exchange list of fruits according to energy content


Name of food
Orange juice
Blackberry(Indian)
Kheera

Bengali Name
<20Kcal/100g
Komolar rosh
Kalo jam
Kheera

Wild melon

Sindera

Watermelon
Melon
Melon(musk)
Amla
Tomato(ripe)

Tarmuz
Bangee
Kharmuj
Amloki
Paka tometo
20-30 Kcal/100g
Coconut milk
Daber pani
Bead tree
Kusumgulu
Palm, Palmyra(green)
Kochi tal
Pineapple
Anarosh(joldugee)
30 -50 Kcal/100g
Burmese grape
Lotkon
Lemon(sweet)
Mishti lebu
Fig(ripe)
Dumur(paka)
Pommelo(red)
Zambura(lal)
Rose apple
Jamrul
Papaya (ripe)
Paka pepe
Pineapple (wild
Anarosh (deshee)
variety)
Lime (sweet)
Mushambee
Orange/mandarin
Komola
Straw berry
Straw berry
Lime
Lebu
Jackfruit (ripe)
Paka Kathal
Kodobele (ripe)
Kodobele (paka)
Roshko
Bilimbi
Kamranga
Peaches
Peach phal
50-70 Kcal/100g
Guava
Peyara
Black berry (deshi)
Kalo jam
Plum
Alubokhara
Kusum fruit
Orange
Lemon
Lichis
Lichi (bastard)
Tamarind (immature)
Cherries (red)
Ambada (hog plum)
Kodobele (immature)
Pears
Bullocks heart

Kusumphul
Malta
Kagogee lebu
Lichi
Ash phal
Tetul (kacha)
Cherry phal
Amra
Kodobele (kacha)
Nashpatee
Nona ata/ Atafol

Kcal/
100g

Name of food

Bengali Name

6
11
11

70-100
Breadfruit
Pomegranate juice
Phalsa

14

Pomegranate

16
17
17
19
20
23
28
29
30
32
35
37
38
39
42

Kcal/100g
Madar
Bedanar rosh
Folsha
Bedana
(bichishoho)

Apple
Persimmon
Tetul(bilati)
Palm(ripe)
Wood apple
Custard apple
Mango(ripe)
Grapes

Apel
Gav
Belatee tetul
Paka tal
Bel
Sharif
Paka am
Angur
100-150 Kcal/100g
Boroi(bitter plum)
Boroy
Banana
Paka kola
Mahua(ripe)
Mohua phul
Gab
Gab
Dates
Khezur (taza)
200 -300 Kcal/100g
Tamarind (pulp)
Tetul(paka)

Kcal/
100g
71
71
72
74
76
76
78
87
87
90
90
97
104
109
111
113
144
283

42
43
43
44
47
48
49
49
50
50

Raisins
Dates(dry)

>300 Kcal/100g
Kishmish
Khezur (shukna)

308
324

51
52
52
53
54
59
61
61
62
64
66
66
69
70

62

4.9. Optimizing Nutrition Returns


Money should be spent logically. The money spent on good-quality of food is like money in the
bank that is kept for good health. It will decrease the number of hospital visits, lower the medical
cost and also improve the physical and mental strength.
Good nutrition is often equated with food consumption, but they are not one and the same. Good
nutrition also depends on adequate health care and childcare practices. Even if a person
consumes enough food, he or she may be undernourished due to a lack of essential vitamins and
minerals provided by a diverse diet or to an illness (such as diarrhoea or parasites) that limits the
absorption of nutrients. Eating a diverse diet is fundamental to good health. In Bangladesh as
much as 70 percent of an individuals daily energy comes from a single staple food (such as rice
and a little wheat), making it difficult to consume enough vitamins and minerals. Improving the
nutrition of women of childbearing age and young children is critical. Poor nutrition during the
1000 day period from conception through the first two years of life adversely affects the
development of the childs brain and body, severely compromising growth, learning, and future
health and productivity. The linkages and leakages in the agriculture-income-nutrition pathway,
including household income, agricultural production, agricultural sales, food expenditures, food
consumption, feeding practices, intra-household food distribution, child feeding practices,
children and womens morbidity, and children and womens nutritional status are most critical to
improving health outcomes. The nutrient returns per 100 taka spent (price of foods as in 2010)
has been calculated and tabulated in the appendix section (A9).
4.10. Dietary Guidelines for Bangladesh
Dietary guidelines for Bangladeshi population have been developed based on an analysis of
dietary and nutrient adequacy of HIES 2010 survey considering qualitative and quantitative
messages after extensive reviewing of national and regional dietary guidelines and including the
suggestions of stakeholders . These guidelines emphasize the adequacy intake of foods from all
food groups for maintenance of optimal health and have been published in a separate document
known as D
ietary Guidelines for Bangladesh.
4.11. Menu Planning
Menu has been developed considering energy and nutrient requirements, gender, physiological
status and physical activity levels. Factors of macro and micronutrients, seasonal availability,
healthy food and nutrient distribution during the day and dietary diversity have also been
considered in the menu planning. Energy and nutrient content from edible raw foods have been
calculated in the menus. The updated food composition tables (INFS 2013) have been used for
computing the nutritive values. Twenty four diet plans have been formulated considering females
with an average of 55 kg body weight and males with an average of 60kg body weight engaged
in sedentary, moderate and heavy physical activity in poor and non poor categories in urban and
rural areas and have been summarized in appendix A 14.
63

4.12 Conclusions
Dietary habits of Bangladeshi population are changing with decreasing rice dependency and
increasing vegetables, fruits and animal products. These are promising although vegetable and fruit
intakes are still half of the requirements. Average consumption of energy in Bangladeshi population
seems 280kcal less than the requirements of average adults but when the consumption is calculated
on the basis of adult male equivalents then it has been found that Bangladeshi adult males are
consuming sufficient energy although females are depriving little bit. Although mean dietary
diversity score of the diet of Bangladeshi population are satisfactory (more than 6) but still
micronutrient intake deficiency specially vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc, folic acid are still prominent.
This study proposes a desirable diet with emphasis on fruits vegetables, pulses, milk and other animal
products consumption to fulfil the requirements.
4.13 Recommendations
1. Given the pressing need for updated energy and nutrient requirements, the study is timely and
fulfills an important policy requirement in the area of human nutrition, food planning and
dietary guidance.
2. It has followed up from the work of previous preliminary desk review, calculations and
consultations carried out by stakeholders from academic, research and government
institutions.
3. The study provides an update on energy requirements for all ages, based on measurements
and estimates of total daily energy expenditure and on energy needs for growth, pregnancy
and lactation based on the FAO/WHO recommendations.
4. It has also adapted the latest macro and micronutrient requirements established by
FAO/WHO and regional institutions for use in Bangladesh. The study is based on
international methodologies and evidence drawn from global and regional recommendations.
5. The diet plans and menu options have been formulated based on an assessment of household
and individual food consumption using the HIES 2010. Accordingly, it provides a basis for
realistic food and nutrition planning given that it reflects the dietary adequacy and nutrient
gaps in Bangladeshi diets.
6. The diets proposed can be adapted for use by both poor and non poor households in urban
and rural areas. A variety of foods and food groups has been used in planning the diets so as
to achieve a desirable dietary pattern with adequate dietary diversity scores.
7. The study findings can be considered for agriculture, food and diet planning wherein updates
on energy and nutrient requirements are needed. Accordingly, the study findings can be used
for normative guidance under the national nutrition programmes and interventions as well as
for hospital diets.
8. The dietary guidelines have been developed using science based evidence from the study and
are recommended in health and nutrition improvement for the general population.
9. The key nutrition messages can be considered for use in policy, programmes and field
interventions across food, agriculture and health sectors.

64

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72

A1: Physical Activity Level (PAL) calculations in different occupations in Bangladeshi population

TV_CHAT
PAL

TT

1.7

3.4

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

33.4

1.38

Athletes

6.6

39.6

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

66.1

2.75

Army officer

3.37

26.96

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

50.8

2.11

32

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

1.95

1.4

1.4

24

54.2

2.25

28

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

3.9

1.4

1.4

24

52.1

2.17

Banker (Urban)

1.3

10.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

32.9

1.37

Banker (rural)

1.3

10.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

32.2

1.34

Bakery worker

2.5

20

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

43.2

1.80

Barber (Urban)

1.6

11.2

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

35.3

1.47

Barber (rural)

1.6

12.8

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

35.5

1.47

24

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

45.8

1.90

2.9

23

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

46

1.91

Beating cotton

2.4

19

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

42

1.75

Breaking nuts

1.9

15

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

38

1.58

8
4.2
34
8
1
8
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
1
2.8
3
2
1
2.8
24
56
Binding sheaves
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

2.33

Brick breaking
(Urban)
Brick breaking
(rural)

Brick field
worker
Boy, Hotel

73

APAL

PAL

2.3

TPAL

TV chathr

2.3

HHWPAL

PAL

HHWhr

PAL

Ecs PAL

Pcare hr

PAL

S_PAL

14.5

ECSHr

PAL

1.45

W_PAL

10

PAL

Actor

Occupation

Whr

Sleeping
hr

Tcare PAL

PAL calculation in different occupations

TV_CHAT
PAL

TT

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

51.6

2.15

3.5

28

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

1.95

1.4

2.8

24

49.9

2.07

8
8

2.2
2.2

17.6
18

6
8

1
1

6
8

2
1

2.3
2.3

4.6
2.3

4
4

1.7
1.7

6.8
6.8

2
1

1.95
2.8

3.9
3

2
2

1.4
1

2.8
2.8

24
24

41.7
40

1.73
1.66

Cowboy

2.7

21.6

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

44.1

1.83

3.5

28

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

1.4

24

50.4

2.10

3.5

24.5

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

48.3

2.01

Cutting trees

4.8

38.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

60.9

2.53

Cutting grass

4.7

23.5

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

50.4

2.10

4.7

38

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

60

2.5

3.4

27

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

50

2.08

4.3

34

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

57

22.37

3.8

30

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

53

2.2

1.8

14

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

37

1.54

1.9

15

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

38

1.58

Carpenter
(Urban)
Carpenter
(rural)

Cutting
grass
with machete
Cutting
fruit
from tree
Chopping wood
with machete
Clearing ground
Cooking
Collecting leaves

Catching fish by
8
3.9
31
8
1
8
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
1
2.8
3
2
1
2.8
24
54
hand
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

74

APAL

PAL

TPAL

TV chathr

2.3

HHWPAL

2.3

PAL

HHWhr

Ecs PAL

PAL

PAL

Pcare hr

ECSHr

S_PAL

28.8

TcarePAL

PAL

3.6

W_PAL

PAL

Car mechanic
Chemical
Industry
Child care
Cleaning house

Occupation

Whr

Sleeping
hr

Continued.

2.25

2.8

2.8

24

59

2.5

5.2

42

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

64

2.66

6.5

52

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

75

33.12

5.4

43

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

66

32.75

5.2

41.6

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

63.7

2.65

5.2

36.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

59.5

2.47

Driver (Urban)

2.1

12.6

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

37.6

1.56

Driver (rural)

2.1

14.7

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

38.5

1.60

2.1

17

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

40

1.6

5.5

44

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

67

2.79

40

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

63

2.6

4.6

37

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

60

2.5

Driving(Tractor)
Digging
irrigation
channels
Digging holes for
posts
Digging ground

Digging holes for


8
4.3
34
8
1
8
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
1
2.8
3
2
1
2.8
24
57
planting
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

75

APAL

TPAL

PAL

6.8

TT

TV chathr

1.7

TV_CHA
T
PAL

HHWPAL

PAL

2.3

HHWhr

2.3

Ecs PAL

PAL

ECSHr

Pcare hr

TcarePAL

S_PAL

PAL

PAL

36

W_PAL

4.5

Catching crabs
in coastal area
Collecting and
spreading
manure
Cutting
sugarcane
Clearing ground
(depending types
of land)
Day labouring
(Urban)
Day labouring
(rural)

PAL

Occupation

Whr

Sleeping
hr

Continued

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

34.5

1.43

Doctor (rural)

1.45

8.7

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

5.6

24

34

1.41

Deseeding cotton

1.8

14

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

37

1.54

Earth cutting

6.2

37.2

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

62.7

2.61

24

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

46.1

1.92

21

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

45.4

1.89

Engineer

1.45

11.6

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

1.95

1.95

1.4

2.8

24

34.8

1.44

Full time made

14

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

38.8

1.61

Electrical
industry

16

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

39

1.6

Fisher man

2.73

21.84

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

44.9

1.87

Farmer(Male)

40

10

10

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

1.95

1.4

2.8

24

60.5

2.51

Forking
dry
leaves
Feeding animals

6.8

54

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

77

3.6

29

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

52

2.1

Fetching water
from well
Furnishing
industry

4.1

33

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

56

2.3

3.3

26

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

49

2.04

Electrical
(Urban)
Electrical
(rural)

Whr

work
work

8
2.5
20
6
1
6
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
2
1.95
3.9
3
1.4
4.2
24
43.2
Garment worker
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

76

APAL

4.6

TPAL

2.3

TT

TV
chathr

PAL

HHWPA
L

PAL

ECSHr

HHWhr

TcarePA
L

Ecs PAL

Pcare hr

11.6

PAL

S_PAL

1.45

PAL

PAL

W_PAL

Doctor (Urban)

Occupation

PAL

Sleeping
hr

TV_CHA
T
PAL

Continued

3.2

1.8

TV_CHA
T
PAL

TV chathr

HHWPAL

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

53.2

2.21

3.8

30

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

53

2.2

3.1

25

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

48

4.4

35

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

58

2.4

Handloom

1.5

12

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

33.6

1.39

Ironing clothes

3.5

28

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

51

2.12

Journalist

10

2.4

24

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

44.1

1.83

Kneeling sorting
potatoes

1.6

13

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

36

1.5

Laundry work

3.4

27.2

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

50.4

2.10

Lab worker

10

20

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

2.8

24

39.2

1.63

Loading Sacks

4.7

38

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

60

2.5

Loading manure

6.4

51

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

74

3.08

2.6

21

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

44

1.83

3.7

30

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

52

2.1

7.4

59

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

82

3.4

2.7

22

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

44

1.83

Grinding grain
on millstone
Harvesting root
crops
Hoeing

Loading
earth
oven with food
Lifting grain
sacks for
weighing
Loading sacks on
lorry
Light cleaning

77

APAL

4.6

TPAL

2.3

TT

PAL

PAL

HHWhr

Pcare hr

Ecs PAL

S_PAL

PAL

PAL

29.05

ECSHr

Sleeping
hr

4.15

Gardener

PAL

W_PAL

Occupation

Whr

PAL

TcarePAL

Continued

2.8

2.8

24

46

1.91

3.7

30

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

52

2.16

2.7

22

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

44

1.83

3.6

29

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

52

2.16

Making tortillas
in restaurant

2.1

17

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

40

1.66

Nurse (Urban)

1.6

12.8

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

35.7

1.48

Nurse (rural)

1.6

9.6

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

35.7

1.48

Office worker
(M)

1.3

10.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

1.95

1.4

5.6

24

31.7

1.31

Pulling carts

5.6

33.6

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

5.6

24

59.2

2.46

Picking tea

3.4

27.2

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

34.8

2.08

Player, Football
6
6.6
39.6
7
1
7
2
2.3
4.6
4
1.7
6.8
2
1.95
3.9
3
1.4
4.2
24
66.1
(Urban)
Player, Football
5
6.6
33
8
1
8
2
2.3
4.6
4
1.7
6.8
1
1.95
3.9
4
1.4
5.6
24
61.9
(rural)
Player, cricket
6
3.3
19.8
8
1
8
2
2.3
4.6
4
1.7
6.8
1
1.95
3.9
3
1.4
4.2
24
47.3
(Urban)
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

78

APAL

TPAL

PAL

6.8

TT

TV chathr

1.7

TV_CHA
T
PAL

HHWPAL

PAL

2.3

HHWhr

2.3

Ecs PAL

PAL

ECSHr

Pcare hr

TcarePAL

S_PAL

PAL

PAL

23

W_PAL

2.9

Milking cows by
hand
Moderate
cleaning
(Polishing,
Window cleaning
etc.)
Machine
tool
industry
Making fence

PAL

Occupation

Whr

Sleeping
hr

WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

2.75
2.57
1.97

TV_CHAT
PAL

TV chathr

HHWPAL

Ecs PAL

TcarePAL

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

46.3

1.92

Pilot

1.6

9.6

2.3

4.6

1.7

8.5

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

36.8

1.53

Part time maid

2.5

20

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

42.5

1.77

Painting, wall

2.9

23

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

46

1.91

Planting root
crops

3.9

31

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

54

2.25

Printing press

16

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

39.1

1.62

1.5

12

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

35

1.45

4.6

37

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

60

2.5

1.4

11

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

34

1.41

7.9

39.5

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

1.95

1.4

5.6

24

65.9

2.74

7.9

47.4

2.3

2.3

1.7

8.5

1.95

1.95

1.4

5.6

24

73.8

3.07

40

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

63

2.62

2.1

17

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

40

1.66

1.5

12

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

35

1.45

1.3

10

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

33

1.37

Preparing
tobacco
Pounding (rice)
Peeling sweet
potato
Rickshaw
(Urban)
Rickshaw
(rural)
Repairing fences
Rice / wheat
harvest-cutting
Removing beans
from pod
Roasting corn

WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

79

APAL

TPAL

4.6

TT

2.3

PAL

PAL

HHWhr

PAL

ECSHr

Pcare hr

19.8

PAL

S_PAL

3.3

W_PAL

PAL

Player, cricket
(rural)

Occupation

Whr

PAL

Sleeping hr

Continued

1.4

12.6

APAL

Sewing cloth

TPAL

TT

32

TV_CHA
T
PAL

PAL

TV chathr

Sowing

HHWPAL

PAL

HHWhr

10.15

Ecs PAL

1.45

PAL

ECSHr

Student (rural)

TcarePAL

PAL

Pcare hr

11.6

S_PAL

PAL

1.45

W_PAL

PAL

Student (Urban)

Occupation

Whr

Sleeping
hr

Continued

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

2.8

24

33.1

1.37

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

35

1.45

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

55

2.29

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

33.7

1.40

24

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

47

1.95

3.5

28

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

51

2.1

1.3

10.4

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

32.6

1.35

1.3

9.1

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

33

1.37

Sweeper

3.25

22.75

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

47.6

1.98

Sheaf/ cook

1.8

14.4

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

1.95

1.4

4.2

24

36.6

1.52

2.6

20.8

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

42.6

1.77

3.6

25.2

2.3

2.3

1.7

3.4

1.95

5.85

1.4

4.2

24

49

2.03

1.4

11

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

34

1.4

3.7

30

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

52

2.16

2.4

19

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

42

1.7

4.2

34

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

56

2.33

32

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

55

2.29

Sweeping house
Sweeping yard
Shopkeeper
(Urban)
Shopkeeper
(rural)

Shoemaker
(Urban)
Shoe maker
(rural)
Spinning cotton
Stirring porridge
Squeezing
coconut
Splitting wood
for posts
Sharpening posts

80

PAL/hr

TV_CHAT
PAL

TV chathr

HHWPAL

HHWhr

Ecs PAL

ECSHr

TcarePAL

Pcare hr

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

45.1

1.87

2.5

20

2.3

4.6

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

2.8

24

43.4

1.80

Teacher (Urban)

1.45

10.15

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

36.7

1.52

Teacher (rural)

1.45

8.7

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

1.95

5.85

1.4

2.8

24

28.8

1.19

Traffic police

1.6

12.8

2.3

2.3

1.7

5.1

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

35.3

1.47

Threshing corn

40

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

63

2.6

2.7

22

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

44

1.8

3.5

28

2.3

4.6

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

25

53

2.2

2.7

24.3

2.3

4.6

1.7

3.4

1.95

3.9

1.4

4.2

24

46.4

1.93

3.9

31

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

54

2.25

24

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

47

1.95

1.7

14

2.3

2.3

1.7

6.8

2.8

2.8

24

36

1.5

Weeding
8
2.9
23
8
1
8
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
1
2.8
3
2
1
2.8
24
46
Weeding
in
8
3.8
30
8
1
8
1
2.3
2.3
4
1.7
6.8
1
2.8
3
2
1
2.8
24
53
nursery
WPAL=Working PAL; SPAL=Sleeping PAL; Pcare PAL= Personal care PAL; Tcare PAL=Total Care PAL; ECS PAL= Eating, Cooking, Sitting PAL
HHWPAL=House hold, Walking PAL; TV chathr PAL=TV, Chatting PAL; TT=Total time; TPAL=Total PAL.

1.95

Tying
fences
posts
Uprooting sweet
potatoes
Village
house
wife
Winnowing corn
or rice
Washing clothes
Washing dishes

TPAL

TT

PAL

PAL

PAL

25

PAL

S_PAL

2.5

Tailoring
(Urban)
Tailoring (rural)

PAL

10

Occupation

Whr

PAL

Sleeping hr

W_PAL

Continued

81

2.2

A2: List of occupations in different PAL group


Sedentary
PAL < 1.69 (1.5)

PAL < 1.69


(1.5)

Moderate

PAL 1.7 - 1.99


(1.85)

Actor

Nurse (rural)

Bakery work

Banker (Urban)

Office worker
(M)

Brick field worker

Banker (rural)

Picking tea

Barber (Urban)
Barber (rural)
Driver (Urban)

Picking coffee
/tea
Pilot
Printing press

Driver (rural)

Preparing
tobacco

Engineer

Peeling sweet
potato

Full time made

Removing
beans from pod

Garments worker

Roasting corn

Hotel boy

Student (Urban)

Handloom
Ironing clothes
Kneeling sorting
sweet potatoes
Lab worker

(2.32)

Athletes

Child care

Brick breaking
(Urban)

Earth cutting

Cowboy

Brick breaking (rural)

Electrical work
(Urban)
Electrical work
(rural)

Brewery work (wine)

Fisher man
Journalist
Player cricket
(Urban)
Sweeper

Breaking nuts (like


peanuts)
Binding sheaves
Car mechanic

Feeding animals

Making fence
Making tortillas in
restaurant
Chemical Industry

Furnishing industry,
Pulling carts

Carpenter (rural)

Teacher (rural)

Shopkeeper
(Urban)

Part time maid

Farmer(Male)
Forking dry leaves

Tailoring (rural)

Spinning cotton

Electrical industry

Beating cotton

Sewing cloth

Village house
wife
Player cricket
(rural)

(2.32)

Doctor (rural & urban)


Deseeding cotton

Student (rural)

Sheaf/ cook

PAL >2.0

Army officer

Cleaning house,
Weeding
Carpenter (Urban)

Teacher
(Urban)

Shopkeeper (rural)

PAL >2.0

Shoe maker
(Urban)
Tailoring (Urban)

Nurse (Urban)

Traffic police

Heavy

Cutting trees
Cutting grass

Fetching water from well


Light cleaning

Gardener, Milking cows


by hand Milk maid/man
Grinding grain on
millstone
Harvesting root crops
Hoeing,
Threshing
Laundry work
Loading Sacks

Cutting grass with


machete
Cutting fruit from tree

Loading manure

Chopping wood with


machete
Machine tool industry

Lifting grain sacks for


weighing
Loading sacks on lorry

Loading earth oven with


food

PAL >2.0

(2.32)

Clearing ground
Cooking Stirring
porridge
Collecting leaves for
flavouring
Catching fish by hand

PAL >2.0

(2.32)

Player Football (rural


and urban)
Painting
Planting root crops
Pounding (rice)

Catching crabs in
coastal area
Collecting and
spreading manure
Cutting sugarcane

Peeling taro

Clearing ground
(depending types of
land)
Weeding in nursery

Repairing fences

Day labouring
(Urban)

Sowing, Squeezing
coconut
Sweeping house

Day labouring (rural)

Rickshaw (Urban)
Rickshaw (rural)

Rice / wheat harvestcutting ears

Driving (Tractor)
Digging irrigation
channels
Digging holes for
posts
Digging ground

Tying fences posts


Uprooting sweet
potatoes
Winnowing corn or rice

Digging holes for


planting
Moderate cleaning
(Polishing, Window
cleaning etc.)
Sweeping yard

Washing dishes

Washing clothes

Splitting wood for posts


Sharpening posts

Shoe maker (rural)

82

A3: PAL values for different type works


Male
Work

PAL

Work

PAL

Work

PAL

Sleeping
Lying

1.0
1.2

Sitting activities
stringing loom

1.9

Standing activities
Chopping Firewood

4.1

Sitting quietly
Personal care(dressing,
Showering)
Eating

1.2
2.3

Sharpening axe
cooking

1.7
1.8

Singing firewood
Washing clothes

3.2
2.2

1.5

House-building

Making bows and arrows, bags, etc.

2.7

Light leisure activities (watching


TV, chatting)
Standing quietly

1.2

Weaving bamboo wall

2.9

Walking

Roofing house

2.9

Around or strolling

2.5

3.2
4.1
6.2

Downhill
Slowly
At normal pace

2.8

1.5

Cutting bamboo
Cutting palm tree trunks
Digging holes for posts

Office work
Sitting at desk

4.1

Fast

3.6

1.5

Laying floor
Nailing

3.3

Uphill

Standing and moving around

1.6

Coconut activities

1.4

Collecting(including
climbing trees)
Husking

Sitting activities
Playing cards
Sewing

1.4
1.4

Transport
Driving lorry
Harvesting

Putting in bags

Kneeling sorting sweet Potatoes

Pedalling rickshaws

1.6

Helicopter pilots

4.6

At normal pace

5.7

6.3

Fast

7.5

At normal pace with 10-kg load

6.7

Sitting activities
Weaving

2.1

8.5

Carving Plates, combs, etc.

2.1

Sharpening machete Household tasks

2.2
2.7

With passengers

Hovering

1.6

Pulling carts

1.5

4.7

7.2

1.5

Normal and low-level flying

Slowly

Without passengers

Normal and low-level flying


Helicopter pilots

3.1

Without load

5.3

With load

5.9

Light cleaning

3.7

83

Work

PAL

sawing
Hand saw
Power saw
Wood planning

Digging earth to make mud

PAL

Pushing wheelbarrow

4.8

Work

PAL

Light industry

7.5

Mining

Printing

4.2

Working with pick

6.0

Tailoring

2.5

Shovelling mud

5.7

Shoemaking

2.6

Brick-making
Making mud bricks-squatting
Kneading clay

Work

Erecting roof supports


3
2.7

4.9

Armed services
Cleaning kit

2.4

Motor vehicle repairs

3.6

Carpentry
Electrical work

3.5

Machine tool industry

3.1
3.5

3.1

Drill

Shovelling mud

5.7
4.4

Route marching

3.2
4.4

Earth cutting

6.2

Assault course

5.1

Laboratory work

Jungle march

5.7

Harvesting
2.1

3.4

Sorghum harvest-cutting ears


Uprooting sweet potatoes

3.9

Brick breaking
Building industry
Labouring
Bricklaying

5.2

Hunting and fishing


Paddling canoe

Chemical industry

3.5

3.3

Fishing from canon

2.2

Winnowing

joinery

3.2

Fishing with line

2.1

Lifting grain sacks for weighing

3.7

Decorating and painting

2.8

Fishing with spear

2.6

Loading sacks on lorry

7.4

Agriculture(mechanized)

Hunting flying-fox

3.3

Cutting sugarcane

6.5

Driving tractor

2.1
6.8

Hunting pig

3.6

Clearing ground (depending on type of land)

2.9-7.9

Hunting birds

3.4

Weeding

2.5-5.0

4.7
3.6

Forestry
In nursery
Trimming branches off trees

3.6

4.8
2.7

7.3

Cutting trees
Tying fence posts
Making fence

Felling with axe

7.5

Splitting wood for posts

4.2

Planting tree
Agriculture(tropical)

4.1

Sharpening posts
Digging holes for posts

Forking
Loading sacks
Feeding animals
Repairing fences

Recreation
Sedentary(playing cards, etc.)
Moderate (dancing, swimming, tennis,
etc.)
Light (billiards, bowls, cricked, golf,
sailing, etc.)
Heavy (football, athletics, jogging,
rowing, etc.)

2.2
4.4-6.6
2.2-4.4
6.6+

Milking cows by hand


Collecting
and
manure
Loading manure

spading

2.9
5.2
6.2

Planting
Cutting grass with machete
Digging irrigation channels
Feeding animals

3.6

5
2.9
4.7
5.5
3.6

84

A4: Physical Activity Level (PAL) value of different work for females
Work

Sleeping
Lying

PAL
1.0
1.2

Work

Household tasks
Washing dishes

Sitting quietly

1.2

Food preparation and cooking

Sewing clothes

1.4

Deseeding cotton

Sewing pendants mat


Weaving carrying bag
Preparing rope

1.5
1.5

Office work
Collecting leaves for flavouring
Winnowing corn or rice

Standing
Household tasks

1.5

Cleaning ground
Digging ground

Ironing clothes
Preparing tobacco
Spinning cotton

1.4
1.5

Digging holes for planting


Planting root crops
Weeding

Food preparation and cooking


Removing beans from pod
Roasting corn
Agriculture (non-mechanized)
Picking coffee
Household tasks
Cooking
Light cleaning
Moderate cleaning (polishing,
window Cleaning, etc.)

1.5

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.5
2.1
2.7
3.7

Sweeping house

Sweeping yard

Hoeing
Cutting grass with machete
Sowing
Threshing
Binding sheaves
Harvesting root crops
Cutting fruit from tree
Light industry
Bakery work

PAL
1.7

Work

PAL

Waking
"Around" or strolling

2.4

Slowly

1.8
1.7
1.9

At normal pace

1.7

At normal pace

4.6

3.8
4.6
4.3
3.9

Fast
With load

6.6
6

2.9
4.4
5
4
5
4.2
3.1
3.4
2.5

3.4
4

With load
Uphill:

Downhill:
Slowly
At normal pace
Fast
With load
Food preparation and cooking
Catching fish by hand
Catching crabs
Grinding grain on millstone
Pounding
String porridge
Making tortillas

Brewery work

2.9

Loading earth oven with food

3.5

Chemical industry

2.9

Recreations

Electrical industry

Child care

2.2
2.2

Furnishing industry
Laundry work

3.3
3.4

Chopping wood with machete

4.3

Machine tool industry

2.7

Beating cotton

2.4

Washing clothes
Cleaning house

Sedentary (playing cards, etc.)


Light(billiards, bowls, cricket, golf)
Moderate
(dancing,
swimming,
tennis, etc.)
Heavy(football, athletics, jogging,
rowing,)

2.3
3
3.4
4.6
3.9
4.5
3.8
4.6
3.7
2.1
2.6
2.1
2.1-4.2
4.2-6.3
6.3+

85

Appendix A5: BMR in male and females according to age and body weight (FAO, 2004)
18-29.9yrs
Male

30-59.9yrs

Female

Male

>60yrs

Female

Male

Female

BW, BMR, BW, BMR, BW, BMR, BW, BMR, BW, BMR, BW, BMR,
kg kcal/kg kg kcal/kg kg kcal/kg kg kcal/kg kg kcal/kg kg kcal/kg
50

29

45

26

50

29

45

27

50

23

45

24

55

28

50

25

55

27

50

25

55

22

50

22

60

27

55

24

60

26

55

24

60

22

55

21

65

26

60

23

65

25

60

22

65

21

60

20

70

25

65

22

70

24

65

21

70

20

65

19

75

24

70

22

75

23

70

20

75

20

70

18

80

24

75

21

80

22

75

19

80

19

75

18

85

23

80

21

85

22

80

19

85

19

80

17

90

23

85

21

90

21

85

18

90

18

85

17

BW. Body weight; BMR, basal metabolic rate

86

A6: Rich sources of Energy, Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat (per 100g)

Energy rich foods


Food Name

Energy
kcal

Cooking oil

Carbohydrate
rich foods

Protein rich foods

Fat rich foods

Food
Name

CHO,
g

Food Name

Protein,
g

Food Name

Fat,
g

900

Molasses

99

Fishmeal

88.4

Cooking

100

Fish liver oil

900

Sugar

99

Ribbon
(dried)

fish

76.1

Fish liver oil

100

Ghee (buffalo)

900

Sugar candy

99

Fesha
(dried)

fish

70.9

Ghee (buffalo)

100

Ghee (cow)

900

Sago

87

Magur (dried)

69.7

Ghee (cow)

100

Ghee
(vegetable)

900

Molasses
(date)

86

Prawn (dry)

68.1

Ghee
(vegetable)

100

Oils
etc

900

Rice
(puffed)

81

Parshee
(dried)

65

Oils
etc

100

Butter

729

Honey

80

Chapila dried)

64.8

Butter

81

Walnut

687

Rice
parboiled
(milled)

79

Pata
(dried)

64.5

Walnut

65

Coconut (dry)

662

Vermicelli

78

Bhangon
(dried)

61.5

Coconut (dry)

62

Nuts

655

Rice sunned
(milled)

78

Bhetki (dried)

60.2

Nuts

59

Pistachio

626

Dates (dry)

78

Prawns whole
(dried)

60

Pistachio

54

Sunflower
seeds

620

Rice
parboiled
(husked)

77

White
(dried)

58.9

Sunflower
seeds

52

Chilgoza (nut)

615

Rice
(flattened)

77

Tapse (dried)

58.5

Chilgoza (nut)

49

Cashew nuts

596

Makhana

77

Tengra (dried)

54.9

Pumpkin/swee
t gourd seed

47

Pumpkin/swee
t gourd seed

584

Rice sunned
(husked)

77

Soybean

43.2

Cashew nuts

47

Groundnut/
peanut (fried)

570

Semolina

75

Oil
cakes
(groundnut)

40.9

Sesame

43

Groundnut/
peanut

567

Wheat flour
(refined)

74

Bream
dried)

38.6

Coconut
(mature)

42

Sesame

563

Rice (fried
paddy)

74

Hilsha (salted)

38

Groundnut/
peanut

41

Mustard

541

Appricot
(dry)

73

Powdered milk
(skim, cow)

38

Coconut milk

40

Biscuit (salted)

534

Sorghum

73

Khesari dal

28.2

Groundnut/
peanut (fried)

40

Linseed

530

Mahua
flower

72

Groundnut/
peanut (fried)

26.2

Mustard

40

Powdered milk
(whole, cow)

496

Biscuit
(sweet)

72

Fenugreek

26.2

Linseed

37

Nutmeg

472

Wheat
(whole)

71

Chicken

25.9

Nutmeg

36

mustard

fish

fish

fish

(sea,

mustard

87

Continued
Carbohydrate
foods

Energy rich foods

rich

Protein rich foods

Fat rich foods

Food Name

Energy,
kcal

Food Name

CHO, g

Food Name

Protein, g

Food Name

Fat, g

Biscuit (sweet)

450

Millet
(French)

70

Powdered milk
(whole, cow)

25.8

Hilsha
(salted)

35

444

Barley(whol
e)

70

Groundnut/
peanut

25.3

Biscuit
(salted)

32

Mace

437

Wheat flour
(coarse)

69

Cat fish

25.2

Yogurt
(buffalo)

31

Soybean

432

Turmeric

69

Lentils

25.1

Powdered
milk (whole,
cow)

27

Coconut milk

430

Millet
(pearl)

68

Bean (field)

24.9

Yogurt
(cow)

26

Yogurt
(buffalo)

421

Tamarind(p
ulp)

66

Green
gram(split)

24.5

Cheese

25

Chapila (dried)

413

Maize/
(mature)

66

Pumpkin/sweet
gourd seed

24.3

Mace

24

Yogurt (cow)

403

Achar

64

Black
gram(split)

24

Omum

22

Hilsha (salted)

400

Lotus seeds
(ripe)

64

Green
gram(whole)

24

Cow
solids

Molasses

398

Bengal
gram(whole)

61

Pigeon

23.3

Soybean

20

Sugar

398

Tamarind
leaves (dry)

61

Peas fried

22.9

Hilsha fish

19

Sugar candy

398

Bean (field)

60

Scorpion fish

22.8

Popy seed

19

Rice husk/ bran

393

Green
gram(split)

60

Beef

22.6

Chapila
(dried)

17

Tamarind seed
(dried)

387

Bengal
gram(split)

60

Bengal
gram(fried)

22.5

Rice
bran

16

Ribbon
(dried)

383

Lentils

59

Yogurt (buff,
skim mik)

22.3

Biscuit
(sweet)

15

Bengal
gram(split)

372

Peas fried

59

Mustard

22

Cumin seed

15

Bengal
gram(fried)

369

Bengal
gram(fried)

58

Hilsha fish

21.8

Mixed
spices

15

Fishmeal

364

Lotus seeds
(dry)

58

Popy seed

21.7

Duck egg

14

Omum

363

Red gram/
arahar(split)

58

Duck

21.6

Mutton
(lamb)

14

Millet (pearl)

361

Green
gram(whole)

57

Shark

21.6

Hen egg

13

Bengal
gram(whole)

360

Khesari dal

57

Goat

21.4

Milk
(condensed)

12

Powdered milk
(skim, cow)

357

Peas
dried/split

57

Cashew nuts

21.2

Salmon

12

Coconut
mature

fish

milk

husk/

21

88

A7: Rich sources of Thiamine, -carotene and Vitamin-C contents per 100g
Thiamine rich foods
Food name
Rice husk/ bran

Thiamin
e mg
2.7

Chilli, red (dry)

0.93

Groundnut/
peanut

0.9

Pepper (black)

0.9

Sunflower seeds
Kodobele (ripe)

0.86
0.8

Soybean

0.73

Green
gram(split)
Pistachio

0.72
0.67

Mustard

0.65

Cashew nuts
Cumin seed
Mixed spices
Pork
Bean (field)

0.63
0.55
0.55
0.54
0.52

Gahira fish

0.5

Wheat
flour(coarse)
Bengal
gram(split)
Green
gram(whole)
Peas dried/split
Peas fried
Barley (whole)
Wheat (whole)
Powdered milk
(skim, cow)
Red
gram/arahar(split
)
Lentils
Walnut
Radish
Black
gram(split)
Maize/ (mature)
Papaya(green/im
mature)

-carotene rich foods


Food name
Helencha leaves
Taro/black
arum
leaves
Amaranth (red leaf
var.)
Taro/green arum
leaves
Turnip leaves
Mango (ripe)
Sweet
potato
leaves
Amaranth
leaves(tender)
Indian spinach
Gourd(sweet)/pum
pkin
Bottle gourd leaves
Jute plant tops
Coriander leaves
Drumstick leaves
Cowpea leaves
Amaranth
(data)
leaves

Vitamin-C rich foods

carotene
Food name
mcg

Vit-C mg

13700

Amla

463

12000

Drumstick leaves

220

11940

Neem leaves, yellow


(ripe)

218

10278

Guava

210

9396
8300

Turnip leaves
Agathi

180
169

7800

Radish leaves

148

7715

Coriander leaves

135

7440

Chilli (green)

125

7200

Tetul (bilati)

108

7196
6918
6918
6780
6072

Pommelo (red)
Neem leaves (green)
Spinach
Gourd (small bitter)
Ambada (hog plum)

105
104
97
96
92

5998

Cauliflower

91

0.49

Beet leaves

5862

Bottle gourd leaves

90

0.48

Betel leaves

5760

Orange

84

0.47

Carrot leaves

5700

Carrot leaves

79

0.47
0.47
0.47
0.45

Spinach
Agathi
Radish leaves
Jackfruit (ripe)

5580
5400
5295
4700

Amaranth (data) leaves


Beet leaves
Gourd(bitter)
Orange juice

78
70
68
64

0.45

Celery leaves

3990

Indian spinach

64

0.45

Spinach sour

3660

Taro/black arum leaves

63

0.45
0.45
0.43

Amaranth (spiny)
Safflower leaves
Liver (goat)

3564
3540
3030

Lemon
Celery leaves
Gram leaves

63
62
61

0.42

Mace

3027

Pumpkin leaves

61

0.42

Khesari leaves

3000

Bilimbi

61

0.4

Thankuni leaves

2998

Blackberry (Indian)

60

89

Continued
Thiamine rich foods

-carotene rich foods

Vitamin-C rich foods

Thiamine mg

Food
name

carotene mcg

Food name

Vit-C mg

Khesari dal

0.39

Mesta leaves

2898

Papaya (ripe)

57

Groundnut/
peanut (fried)

0.39

Neem leaves (green)

2760

Ole kopi

53

Sorghum

0.37

Spinach stalks

2630

Fenugreek leaves

52

Liver (mutton)

0.36

Mustard leaves

2622

Boroi (bitter plum)

51

Fenugreek

0.34

Tamarind
(green)

2510

Chilli, red (dry)

50

Nutmeg

0.33

Chilli(green)

2340

Lime (sweet)

50

Millet (pearl)

0.33

Fenugreek leaves

2340

Lime

47

Gram
unripe)

0.32

Apricot (boiled)

2160

Lemon (sweet)

45

Chilgoza (nut)

0.32

Neem leaves, yellow


(ripe)

1998

Drumstick/horse radish

45

Turnip leaves

0.31

Kolmee leaves

1980

Amaranth (red leaf var.)

43

Powdered milk
(whole, cow)

0.31

Pumpkin leaves

1940

Kolmee leaves

42

Bengal
gram(whole)

0.3

Carrot

1890

Khesari leaves

41

Pumpkin/sweet
gourd seed

0.3

Liver (mutton)

1830

Pickles

41

Prawal /potol

0.3

Bathua leaves

1740

Mango (ripe)

41

Ambada
plum)

0.28

Mint leaves

1620

Mahua (ripe)

40

0.27

Cabbage

1200

Orange/mandarin

40

(red,

(hog

Rice parboiled
(husked)

leaves

90

Continued
Thiamine rich foods
Food
Thiamine mg
name

-carotene rich foods

Vitamin-C rich foods

carotene mcg

Food name

Vit-C mg

Khesari dal
Groundnut/
peanut (fried)
Sorghum
Liver (mutton)

0.39

Mesta leaves

2898

Papaya (ripe)

57

0.39

Neem leaves (green)

2760

Ole kopi

53

0.37
0.36

2630
2622

Fenugreek leaves
Boroi (bitter plum)

52
51

Fenugreek

0.34

2510

Chilli, red (dry)

50

Nutmeg
Millet (pearl)

0.33
0.33

2340
2340

Lime (sweet)
Lime

50
47

Chilgoza (nut)

0.32

1998

Drumstick/horse radish

45

Turnip leaves
Powdered milk
(whole, cow)
Bengal
gram(whole)
Pumpkin/sweet
gourd seed
Prawal /potol
Ambada
(hog
plum)
Rice parboiled
(husked)
Cumin seed
Parshee
fish
(fresh)
Yogurt
(buff,
skim mik)
Pata fish (dried)
Yogurt (cow)
Powdered milk
(whole, cow)
Bhetki (dried)
Ribbon
fish
(dried)
Snails (large)
Tengra (dried)
Amaranth
(Spiny)
Cheese

0.31

Spinach stalks
Mustard leaves
Tamarind
leaves
(green)
Chilli(green)
Fenugreek leaves
Neem leaves, yellow
(ripe)
Kolmee leaves

1980

Amaranth (red leaf var.)

43

0.31

Pumpkin leaves

1940

Kolmee leaves

42

0.3

Carrot

1890

Khesari leaves

41

0.3

Liver (mutton)

1830

Pickles

41

0.3

Bathua leaves

1740

Mango (ripe)

41

0.28

Mint leaves

1620

Mahua (ripe)

40

0.27

Cabbage

1200

Orange/mandarin

40

1080

Fishmeal

22.6

Fig (red)
Neem leaves,
(ripe)

1050

Crabs

21.2

990

Cowpea leaves

20.1

Tamarind (pulp)

5.6

988
956

Rice (flattened)
Turmeric

20
18.6

Bullocks heart
Guava

5.2
5.2

950

Coriander leaves

18.5

Pomegranate

5.1

939

Punornova leaves

18.4

Kodobele (ripe)

890

Fesha fish (dried)

18

870
843

Coriander seed
Mustard

800
790

yellow

6.4
6.2

Linseed

4.8

17.9
17.9

Drumstick/ horse radish


Peas dried/split

4.8
4.5

Parshee fish (dried)

17.4

Peas fried

4.4

17.2

Rice husk/ bran

4.3

17.1

Bakul flower

4.3

16.8

Prawal leaves

4.2

Bata fish

790

Cloves (dry)
Lemon/
lime
peel
Turnip leaves
Scorpion fish
Punornova
leaves
Yogurt (buffalo)
Rohu

740

Pappadom
Neem leaves, yellow
(ripe)
Pepper (black)

710

Fenugreek leaves

16.5

Green gram(whole)

4.1

710
670

Mustard leaves
Beet leaves

16.3
16.2

Peas (green)
Barley (whole)

4
3.9

667

Mint leaves

15.6

Bengal gram(whole)

3.9

650
650

Mahua flower
Bhetki (dried)

15
15

Dates (dry)
Blackberry (Indian)

3.9
3.8

91

A8: Rich sources of Calcium, Iron and Fibre (per 100g)


Calcium rich foods

Iron rich foods

Fibre rich foods

Food Name

Ca
mg

Food Name

Iron
mg

Food Name

Fibre
gm

Bhangon (dried)

6235

Tengra (dried)

100.8

Coriander seed

32.6

Prawn (dry)

4384

Pata fish (dried)

51.7

Chilli, red (dry)

30.2

3847

Prawns whole (dried)

49.6

Omum

21.2

Chapila (dried)

3590

Pickles

45.2

Cardamom

20.1

Parshee fish (dried)

2231

Ribbon fish (dried)

43.7

Tamarind leaves (dry)

20.1

Magur (dried)

1804

Tapse (dried)

41.2

Taro/arum
(dried)

16

Fesha fish (dried)

1676

Cauliflower leaves

40

Pepper (black)

14.9

Tapse (dried)

1597

Taro/black arum leaves

38.7

Pickles

13.7

Popy seed

1584

Rice husk/ bran

35

Cumin seed

12

1546

Cumin seed

31

Lotus seeds (dry)

11.8

1525

Mixed spices

31

Nutmeg

11.6

1485

Turnip leaves

28.4

Betel/areca nut

11.2

1450

Omum

27.7

Cloves (dry)

9.5

1370

Amaranth (data) leaves

25.5

Popy seed

Crabs

1370

Neem leaves (green)

25.3

Fenugreek

7.2

Snails (small)

1321

Gram leaves

23.8

Chilli (green)

6.8

Agathi

1130

Amaranth (Spiny)

22.9

Coconut (dry)

6.6

Prawns
(dried)

Taro/arum
(dried)

whole

leaves

Omum
Tamarind
(dry)

leaves

Sesame
Powdered
(skim, cow)

milk

leaves

Cumin seed

1080

Fishmeal

22.6

Fig (red)

6.4

Parshee fish (fresh)

1050

Crabs

21.2

Neem leaves, yellow


(ripe)

6.2

Yogurt (buff, skim


mik)

990

Cowpea leaves

20.1

Tamarind (pulp)

5.6

Pata fish (dried)

988

Rice (flattened)

20

Bullocks heart

5.2

Yogurt (cow)

956

Turmeric

18.6

Guava

5.2

950

Coriander leaves

18.5

Pomegranate

5.1

Bhetki (dried)

939

Punornova leaves

18.4

Kodobele (ripe)

Ribbon fish (dried)

890

Fesha fish (dried)

18

Snails (large)

870

Coriander seed

Tengra (dried)

843

Amaranth (Spiny)

Powdered
(whole, cow)

milk

Linseed

4.8

17.9

Drumstick/ horse radish

4.8

Mustard

17.9

Peas dried/split

4.5

800

Parshee fish (dried)

17.4

Peas fried

4.4

Cheese

790

Pappadom

17.2

Rice husk/ bran

4.3

Bata fish

790

Neem leaves, yellow


(ripe)

17.1

Bakul flower

4.3

Cloves (dry)

740

Pepper (black)

16.8

Prawal leaves

4.2

Lemon/ lime peel

710

Fenugreek leaves

16.5

Green gram(whole)

4.1

92

Food Name

Ca
mg

Food Name

Iron
mg

Food Name

Fibre
mg

Turnip leaves

710

Mustard leaves

16.3

Peas (green)

Scorpion fish

670

Beet leaves

16.2

Barley (whole)

3.9

Punornova leaves

667

Mint leaves

15.6

Bengal
gram(whole)

3.9

Yogurt (buffalo)

650

Mahua flower

15

Dates (dry)

3.9

Rohu

650

Bhetki (dried)

15

Blackberry (Indian)

3.8

Gahira fish

650

Fenugreek

14.1

Mace

3.8

Coriander seed

630

Ribbon fish

13.9

Cow pea

3.8

Cauliflower leaves

626

Millet (pearl)

13.3

Soybean

3.7

Lota fish

610

Mace

12.6

Dates

3.7

Folui

590

Wheat flour (coarse)

11.5

Coconut (mature)

3.6

Chapila (fresh)

590

Soybean

11.5

Amla

3.4

White fish (fresh)

590

Lotus seeds (dry)

11.1

Oil
(groundnut)

Bhangon
(powdered)

580

Spinach

10.9

Groundnut/ peanut

Prawal leaves

531

Tamarind (pulp)

10.9

Groundnut/ peanut
3.1
(fried)

cakes

3.2
3.1

93

Iron,

Thiamine,
mg

Riboflavin_
mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A,
g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium
mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium ,
mg

Phosphorus
mg

130
88
119
415
323
240
290
184
249
190
288
629
328
328
84
162
118
51
110
144
64
37
101
140
101
122
326
59
37

23
1
8
107
60
24
85
55
13
10
14
20
9
9
12
12
27
12
15
13
13
14
17
31
27
11
243
8
4

1584
1089
999
2296
1777
1792
638
538
682
358
740
1253
510
510
62
17
27
220
98
87
201
67
30
133
109
488
1042
693
102

502
121
293
1519
1492
314
2890
509
584
1096
839
1349
272
272
7214
9132
4430
775
5171
5983
3567
2939
3061
9792
5867
442
833
567
988

136
9
27
181
140
66
125
80
36
63
87
118
60
60
354
214
147
47
102
485
73
57
77
53
123
28
31
25
16

4.2
2.8
2.5
14.1
14.0
2.9
4.3
4.4
4.6
3.8
4.4
8.2
9.1
9.1
1.3
1.1
3.3
1.0
0.9
5.0
4.7
1.6
1.0
1.5
5.5
2.3
1.7
4.0
17.8

1
2
1
4
8
2
4
2
2
3
2
5
2
2
8
5
8
4
17
27
13
2
3
11
7
2
5
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1565
1501
2249
1075
2410
2722
1013
1377
723
1575
1203
427
156
946
713

0
0
0
0
12
0
43
30
52
24
39
112
33
33
31359
28330
9319
13250
7884
15263
6621
3118
13955
17479
14889
0
69
112
0

80
46
45
204
177
105
70
22
22
53
80
64
75
75
68
57
66
24
23
80
30
32
48
65
65
43
10
40
21

0
153
240
1407
829
490
2648
1341
1457
1120
1701
4583
426
426
3586
3036
3443
1125
6512
6150
1900
1400
6621
3150
3150
71
660
891
1033

27
11
0
103
86
38
38
30
27
21
33
75
46
46
41
34
23
13
16
74
17
10
31
25
17
19
14
39
16

939
598
560
5259
4313
1419
1851
1000
1567
1512
1791
2229
846
846
7650
6475
3240
667
8326
2092
647
404
1768
3250
1534
442
833
1018
620

40
8553
107
667
468
241
470
355
390
224
370
787
437
437
1519
2107
1930
1225
3227
2999
3567
1398
5836
1200
1169
195
382
807
1668

2995
2026
1867
10852
8114
5154
10192
6591
8720
14240
15796
18022
7506
7506
13544
9321
13024
5750
8696
11245
6907
5193
16075
19075
19100
9044
7292
14172
5887

2592
1753
1227
11704
8743
3431
5238
3009
4249
2608
3831
8296
3085
3085
1968
1143
1342
1300
1442
2999
1215
823
1536
975
997
2867
1007
1980
945

mg

Calcium ,
mg

7114
4755
4627
12741
9545
8480
4982
3405
3867
2544
4259
7805
3749
3749
1056
1125
1237
1214
1167
1619
1422
644
887
1553
1264
2602
8438
3284
727

CHO, g

26
18
43
452
306
66
248
11
10
130
9
49
156
156
184
151
207
13
101
288
124
52
100
93
93
37
66
102
66

Fat, g

2000
1316
1333
3704
2857
2451
1423
909
1104
800
1215
2217
1182
1182
4219
3571
4717
2500
4651
5000
3333
2000
3413
2500
2500
1770
3472
4950
4132

Protein ,

5
8
8
3
4
4
7
11
9
13
8
5
8
8
2
3
2
4
2
2
3
5
3
4
4
6
3
2
2

Energy , kcal

Rice(flattened)
Rice(puffed)
Vermicelli
Wheat(whole)
Wheat flour(coarse)
Wheat flour(refined)
Bengal gram(whole)
Bengal gram(split)
Black gram(split)
Green gram(whole)
Green gram(split)
Khesari dal
Lentils
Other pulses
Amaranth(data) leaves
Amaranth( red leaf var)
Bottle gourd leaves
Helencha leaves
Indian spinach
Jute plant tops
Kolmee leaves
Radish leaves
Spinach
Taro/black arum leaves
Taro/green arum leaves
Garlic
spices
Potato
Radish

Price /
100g_Tk
Amount of
food(g) /100
Tk
Fibre,
_g

Food Name

A 9: Nutrients return per 100 Taka spend

94

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_m
g

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium
mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium ,
mg

Phosphorus
mg

2884
3024
2480
886
714
650
605
1048
823
683
756
796
0
680
504
1020
1874
400
1209
1342
1688
2207
525
395
852
141
3126
633
1417

62
66
40
38
56
54
44
82
54
57
50
35
0
14
38
52
58
19
65
35
129
57
44
15
43
3
131
29
111

5
5
4
4
2
3
2
10
4
9
8
10
0
8
8
6
14
4
5
3
6
9
5
3
17
5
150
28
25

590
618
503
154
58
55
33
77
97
62
88
127
0
126
36
188
361
72
178
259
231
443
58
57
96
14
125
59
188

1143
1024
1667
4810
625
1556
351
1467
454
444
392
574
0
874
1420
600
828
1684
2868
660
798
629
372
197
436
389
5860
1598
681

27
21
20
76
11
20
26
14
3
47
44
35
0
11
19
34
80
17
28
27
29
17
7
7
6
3
167
70
60

4.2
3.5
2.0
0.4
0.8
1.8
0.5
3.8
0.8
4.6
1.2
3.0
0.0
1.1
1.9
1.0
2.5
0.0
1.2
1.4
7.4
2.6
1.6
0.3
2.5
0.0
2.0
0.9
1.4

1
1
2
8
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
2
2
1
2
0
5
1
3
2
0
0
1
0
3
1
1

177
179
150
1511
38
214
1628
0
1331
543
2221
127
0
524
577
280
4380
0
541
840
142
207
702
0
129
0
0
12
0

0
110
0
1076
112
421
152
229
494
150
583
60
0
0
10114
0
417
0
585
26
701
1610
0
0
2034
3
0
101
68

31
32
37
0
28
11
21
54
11
22
17
14
0
22
22
4
25
0
43
9
52
26
14
1
24
1
20
6
5

629
647
733
0
1006
1378
159
4565
838
447
1103
194
0
447
438
0
491
0
1858
0
1204
629
206
0
289
11
0
16
357

7
7
8
22
17
8
31
27
3
11
9
14
0
9
3
0
15
0
10
10
23
4
4
4
7
1
43
6
0

943
971
1100
0
703
1131
690
1386
533
419
766
388
0
475
274
0
613
0
609
2534
873
813
161
262
414
113
2995
636
528

257
324
300
0
226
223
191
625
800
787
882
1080
0
1089
219
700
1595
0
1149
317
93
114
161
24
82
121
316
233
81

16886
17382
19700
0
5257
3789
4486
11712
4933
4131
4462
3850
0
4330
9562
6560
5706
0
5516
5840
4519
6903
3578
1479
5472
446
11442
2173
2255

943
2471
2800
1266
1391
1089
478
1440
2095
492
483
886
0
782
438
800
794
632
862
695
2000
586
642
242
798
45
3702
798
1574

mg

117
121
137
51
120
96
134
163
91
62
64
30
0
22
66
56
34
0
96
68
94
66
39
37
72
15
380
17
31

_g

Protein ,

2857
2941
3333
4219
2959
2222
1592
2717
1905
2793
2451
2770
2469
2793
2740
2000
3067
2105
3096
4525
1852
2857
2294
152
272
53
930
157
426

Energy , kcal

4
3
3
2
3
5
6
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
3
5
3
2
5
4
4
66
37
190
11
64
24

Fibre,

Taro/arum
Taro/Arum tubers
Yem (Elephant)
Amaranth(data) stem
Aubergine/Eggplant
Bean
Chilli(green)
Cow pea
Drumstick/Horseradish
Prawal/potol
Gourd(bitter)
Gourd(ridge)
Gourd(small bitter)
Gourd(snake)
Gourd(sweet)pumpkin
Jackfruit(immature)
Kakrol
Kolmee
Lady`s finger/okra
Papaya(green/immature)
Peas(green)
Plantain
Tomato(green)
Cardamom
Chilli, Red(dry)
Cloves(dry)
Coriander seed
Cumin seed
Fenugreek

Price /
100g_Tk
Amount of
food (g) /100
Tk

Food Name

Continued

95

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine,
mg

Riboflavin_
mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A,
g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid,
g

Zinc, g

Magnesium
mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium ,
mg

Phosphorus
mg

26
1
0
0
9
85
24
140
20
34
17

941
125
603
229
363
1452
290
2226
633
442
449

25
2
32
10
6
68
11
46
13
8
2

10
7
25
2
28
87
3
56
11
1
1

174
14
62
42
22
98
42
314
111
83
98

222
51
1831
130
92
6100
426
1116
709
320
43

14
4
53
5
4
111
16
221
35
9
1

0.4
0.1
0.9
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.1
0.6
3.5
0.2
0.6

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0

65
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
963
4534
29

0
144
148
0
0
47
26
7
0
8
20

13
0.4
0
0
1
8
1
29
4
2
1

144
0
0
0
0
0
13
259
0
0
22

5
0
0
0
0
0
1
25
2
3
0

523
61
0
0
176
564
178
1276
494
280
36

157
0
0
0
0
0
35
233
13
40
7

5059
0
0
0
0
0
1231
18073
2187
2250
774

418
29
0
0
185
1772
161
1854
138
250
80

14

724

17

449

98

43

0.6

29

20

22

36

774

80

1555

40

1477

20

13

299

171

14.6

16

31

14

311

358

156

6392

560

8
11
10
20
4
15

1250
952
1000
500
2500
683

35
33
0
22
28
57

513
371
598
423
492
2098

7
8
19
9
14
15

9
5
2
1
7
3

84
58
126
83
80
473

119
217
140
86
505
429

10
8
8
5
4
50

1.5
0.9
0.2
0.4
1.5
0.7

1
0
1
1
1
0

618
706
661
190
82
3

84
883
20
2
0
50

6
2
10
5
3
9

150
0
0
70
75
134

5
2
3
2
3
0

238
349
245
125
613
303

50
267
65
45
2388
14

1598
1641
3535
1831
6500
4624

288
151
330
235
442
437

13

769

42

485

84

134

1.6

1756

254

377

193

42

2010

136

Grapes, pale green, raw

30

333

10

314

67

73

0.3

97

26

273

637

100

Kheera
Kodobele(immature)
Kodobele(ripe)
Lemon(sweet)
Lichis

3
2
2
15
37

3300
6667
5000
667
270

0
0
177
5
15

363
4400
3210
233
167

30
207
153
5
4

3
0
20
2
1

53
900
517
49
28

594
3733
3685
200
29

0
0
35
5
1

0.3
2.7
40.0
0.0
0.1

1
1
1
0
0

99
1000
638
300
30

0
681
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
2

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1

0
0
2000
0
39

0
0
100
0
2

0
0
17995
1400
353

0
0
3200
133
47

mg

Protein ,

1307
29
169
100
77
400
96
664
1250
1000
724

Energy , kcal

8
350
59
100
130
25
104
15
8
10
14

Price /
100g_Tk
Amount of
food (g) /100
Tk

Ginger
Mace
Mixed spices
Mixed spices(hot)
Nutmeg
Omum
Pepper(black)
Turmeric
Ambada(hog plum)
Amla
Apple(with skin, raw)
Apple(with skin,
raw)Safeda
Banana, ripe, combined
different varieties, raw
Bilimbi
Blackberry
Boroi(bitter plum)
Custard apple
Coconut water
Dates(dry)
Guava, combined varieties,
green, raw

Food Name

Fibre,
_g

Continued

96

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

29
19

801
254

5
5

12
3

170
41

681
287

39
3

0.0
0.3

1
0

801
332

0
11

2
2

0
143

0
0

0
64

0
22

0
1029

341
118

1370

22

918

12

189

132

5.1

324

1599

25

973

122

19

1881

206

3
5
15
15
12
20
6
14
15
4
6
31
4
25
16
17
6
8
3
8
20
10
28
35
41

3333
2000
690
667
858
500
1634
714
667
2740
1667
328
2762
400
625
588
1667
1250
3333
1250
500
1000
357
286
242

33
32
17
1
21
2
11
12
24
38
23
13
28
5
32
6
28
87
54
14
2
42
0
0
0

567
1400
340
60
379
157
1281
236
410
1178
777
220
1038
160
1688
459
267
1391
534
650
85
401
318
420
257

10
20
1
1
6
3
9
4
4
22
16
5
12
3
20
16
18
36
16
8
2
16
61
52
39

7
2
1
1
2
1
6
1
2
11
2
1
9
1
3
2
4
3
7
3
1
25
8
16
11

103
324
74
11
75
34
291
46
82
227
162
42
213
32
380
94
24
261
76
146
18
7
0
17
0

567
440
214
33
201
215
257
205
40
548
298
69
983
36
794
82
216
518
415
334
160
521
39
1486
1195

7
62
1
5
2
3
27
2
3
44
11
1
6
1
25
6
3
5
13
22
7
15
3
2
3

3.7
0.6
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.7
0.6
0.2
3.0
3.3
0.1
1.7
0.0
2.2
1.3
0.6
0.4
0.7
1.1
0.6
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2

3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
0

1130
780
372
427
463
20
574
441
25
573
565
85
3361
89
70
635
205
141
377
820
130
121
0
37
0

3500
637
77
13
160
0
3404
429
0
0
85
10
91
0
8
0
144
0
977
0
0
0
0
0
0

17
0
3
2
4
1
5
4
1
11
7
2
8
2
12
0
10
14
11
0
2
0
2
2
13

711
0
319
40
257
0
0
414
53
329
202
125
718
0
91
0
250
0
100
0
0
0
39
0
0

2
0
0
0
1
0
4
1
0
16
4
3
2
0
0
0
7
3
0
0
0
0
1
0
2

700
0
69
53
146
0
236
74
53
329
526
144
414
16
540
0
124
166
367
150
155
113
129
0
80

100
0
14
67
39
0
33
29
40
1151
217
3
28
0
117
0
113
87
582
632
523
72
300
0
201

7033
0
1248
1000
1132
0
3905
1301
876
3342
2923
436
6504
417
4376
0
2605
6160
3558
1336
1705
1985
968
0
487

467
0
97
87
214
100
948
79
73
192
150
230
580
120
747
0
400
625
400
146
70
171
364
514
485

mg

Energy , kcal

1704
667

Fibre,

6
15

_g

Amount of
food (g) /100
Tk

Lime
Lime(sweet)
Mango, combined
varieties, ripe, raw
Melon
Olive(wild)
Orange
Orange juice
Orange/mandarin
Palm, Palmyra(green)
Palm(ripe)
Papaya(ripe)
Pears
Pineapple
Pineapple(wild var)
Pomegranate
Pommelo(red)
Rose apple
Tamarind(pulp)
Tetul(bilati)
Tomato(ripe)
Wood apple
Watermelon
Black berry(deshi)
Melon(musk)
Burmese grape
Aire Fish
Bacha Fish
Bata fish

Price /
100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

97

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

309
480
255
222
333
594
448
102
420
182
435
158
353
785
471
471
1339
222
408
560
728
154
404
545
243
320
245
400

56
65
48
50
64
106
73
22
77
31
84
32
51
123
59
59
131
36
72
118
177
27
78
69
42
52
20
38

10
15
3
2
9
19
18
0
12
0
11
3
16
32
26
26
91
2
7
8
2
3
4
30
4
13
18
35

0
22
10
2
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
15
13
3
0
4
15
0
11
0
0
6

1515
1933
1710
783
346
81
700
102
296
496
2236
163
3533
6838
217
217
116
733
1725
2793
194
257
2314
3792
1625
500
94
310

5
4
3
13
3
7
0
0
0
2
3
5
16
13
4
4
1
2
5
30
45
4
7
10
3
0
1
4

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
32
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
24
0
55
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
4
0
0
33
0
0
13
106
20
0
729
729
41
2006
0
0
0
43
118
231
0
0
0
0

12
2
2
0
16
26
0
0
0
0
19
3
0
0
9
9
37
2
0
0
0
0
3
1
0
0
6
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
2
0
7
0
4
4
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
1
0

46
0
18
0
154
169
0
0
0
27
152
0
123
0
180
180
240
27
78
0
0
0
118
0
0
0
29
20

302
0
259
0
263
625
0
0
0
553
236
0
190
0
176
176
380
27
214
0
0
49
159
208
0
0
57
1023

1027
0
779
0
608
1794
0
0
0
49
1236
0
770
2724
726
726
1397
249
416
0
0
170
605
796
0
0
178
146

1279
1033
605
0
558
881
0
0
0
453
992
350
1867
1608
546
546
1074
357
901
0
0
357
1045
2431
0
0
214
58

mg

Energy , kcal

382
333
323
83
417
625
400
111
200
160
422
125
333
190
339
339
826
222
392
167
200
143
392
392
250
286
110
100

Fibre,

26
30
31
120
24
16
25
90
50
63
24
80
30
53
29
29
12
45
26
60
50
70
26
26
40
35
91
100

_g

Amount of
food (g) /100
Tk

Bele Fish/Poa
Bhangon (Powdered)
Bhetki (Fresh)
Bhetki (Bried)
Boal
Black Fish/Baho
Boicha Fish
Bream (Sea, Fresh)
Bream (Sea, Dried)
Butter Fish
Carp
Cat Fish
Indian river shad, raw
Chapila (Dried)
Climbing Fish (Koi)
Tilapia cooked
Dragon Fish
Eel Fish
Fesha Fish(Fresh)
Fesha Fish(Dried)
Fishmeal
Flat Fish
Folui
Fry (V. Small Fresh)
Gahira Fish
Gura Fish
Hilsha Fish
Hilsha (Salted)

Price /
100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

98

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1750
224
1127
432
358
388
624
488
370
97
260
765
821
111
319
404
424
168
280
560
269
686
240
425
296
400
552
525

263
34
232
68
65
48
130
108
68
19
42
160
160
22
63
64
43
29
59
91
47
117
38
92
59
60
104
78

77
10
18
18
11
20
9
5
9
1
10
9
20
1
7
10
25
6
5
22
9
24
10
7
6
10
15
17

0
0
9
0
0
5
6
4
5
2
0
12
0
3
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
17
0
14

7033
59
6013
3068
2298
893
4462
1647
953
222
407
10259
10315
343
0
2496
579
532
1458
875
277
3194
1320
1405
0
1967
97
3

15
2
74
15
6
11
35
86
8
1
16
132
0
2
36
4
1
4
2
0
3
82
6
168
0
2
2
8

21.7
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.9
0.0

4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
37
0
0
0
0
38
0
30
0
0
0
0

650
33
311
10720
39
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
0
0
0
0
91
0
0
0
10
0

43
4
0
0
3
7
2
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
1
0
0
5
0
11
0
0
2
40
0

0
0
0
0
60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
44
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
0

23
1
0
13
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1
5
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
7
0

600
54
0
120
133
0
0
0
252
0
0
0
0
0
0
46
0
0
90
0
115
0
46
187
0
0
179
62

567
154
0
172
221
0
0
0
209
0
0
0
0
0
0
388
0
138
405
0
133
0
114
1572
0
0
275
699

3350
748
0
712
828
0
0
0
514
0
0
0
0
0
0
1106
0
723
1742
0
965
0
680
110
0
0
1703
1354

8300
391
0
1760
982
438
792
0
2454
322
0
0
2729
0
583
672
316
507
3258
1125
347
1190
733
2431
0
733
1750
36

mg

Energy , kcal

1667
217
333
400
351
250
200
167
333
111
233
267
235
143
83
384
263
167
346
500
267
200
211
167
100
333
500
500

Fibre,

6
46
30
25
29
40
50
60
30
90
43
38
43
70
120
26
38
60
29
20
38
50
48
60
100
30
20
20

_g

Amount of food
(g) /100 Tk

kasha Fish
Magur
Magur (Dried)
Mola Fish
Mrigal
Mullet
Parshee Fish (Fresh)
Pata fish(Dried)
Pomfret (Black)
Pomfret (White)
Pomfret(Small)
Prawns whole(Dried)
Prawn( dray)
Pump late(sea fish)
Ribbon Fish(dried)
Rohu
Saputo
Scorpion Fish
Shrimp
Silver Fish
Sole
Tapse (Dried)
Tengra (Fresh)
Tengra (Dried)
White Fish (Dried)
White Fish (Fresh)
Tilapia
Pama croaker/poa fish

Price / 100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

99

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

310

54

11

1630

0.1

127

12

23

10

87

127

450

1500

30

333

183

31

920

11

0.0

344

4292

120

4663

50

200

139

20

866

0.0

250

763

122

5607

12
25
50

855
400
200

0
0
0

1051
364
0

150
69
113

51
10
20

0
0
0

188
2496
1141

13
6
7

0.7
0.2
0.0

8
0
0

0
0
0

0
764
0

43
8
0

0
0
0

2
4
0

231
140
209

983
272
2816

1923
980
1850

1556
1760
3597

30

333

110

0.0

46

41

202

468

40
30
50
15

250
333
200
667

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

62
55
0
0

6
14
11
12

0
0
0
0

6
2
86
286

4
0
1
4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

28
12
52
114

328
410
445
140

1038
0
93
380

785
509
806
1771

30

333

12

386

0.0

112

156

788

1473

30

333

16

852

0.0

90

113

484

1033

25

400

102

0.0

134

288

856

1415

20

500

28

231

0.0

129

159

972

1168

80

125

50

0.0

34

45

71

197

40

250

176

0.0

63

108

300

529

40

250

62

0.0

65

312

346

395

mg

Energy , kcal

333

Fibre,

30

_g

Amount of food
(g) /100 Tk

Ganges river sprat (sweet


water, fresh, bony)
Ganges river sprat(sweet
water, dry)
Yellow tail mullet(marine,
dry)
Silver curp
Spotted snake head
Chapila(Dry)
Mottlet nandus/mud perch
deboned
Skipjack
Rita
Indian potasi (Fresh)
Cotio(Fresh)
Papper red loach/guntea
loach(bony)
Jamuna ailia (fresh, bony)
Freshwater gar fish/niddle
fish(fresh, bony)
Giant snake head
Giant river/fresh water
prawn(fresh, deboned)
Reba(Fresh)
Yellow shrimp(fresh,
deboned)

Price / 100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

100

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

57

0.0

89

100

227

403

50
28
23
41
48
43
33
30
34
100
16
17
21
18
30
10
25

200
361
442
242
211
232
308
333
294
100
607
580
485
566
333
1000
400

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
373
419
256
131
273
329
500
575
137
765
1092
764
787
823
940
704

130
75
86
54
45
50
64
64
54
23
99
78
64
82
82
32
28

9
8
8
4
10
8
9
25
40
5
34
83
56
51
84
40
49

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
14
8
0
0
18
114
38

1150
15
53
36
8
28
52
33
37
12
15
377
291
164
2633
1030
1552

3
7
7
1
5
7
0
21
6
0
10
14
8
8
1
1
0

0.0
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.3
0.0
1.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.5
0.5

0
1
1
0
3
1
0
6
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
1

0
0
0
0
12
0
0
67
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
12

0
0
0
61
51
0
43551
28509
26
0
0
2097
1030
936
683
320
181

0
36
27
28
19
9
0
59
12
0
0
27
16
22
22
8
0

0
25
35
17
53
12
542
627
17
0
0
464
242
283
133
90
0

0
13
9
4
4
9
0
0
12
0
0
8
10
13
12
5
0

428
55
142
77
40
63
0
0
55
0
73
62
51
119
73
220
0

1397
188
235
89
156
190
225
0
121
0
713
777
653
657
1697
510
0

1361
1426
1314
764
571
892
492
0
401
0
1220
1287
469
625
277
1310
0

1679
686
836
419
495
447
858
1267
441
290
40
1275
1067
1246
1380
900
0

41

241

502

91

120

3305

1.1

12

23

51

11

265

1049

3860

2306

39

256

1008

68

68

96

2453

0.8

27

609

17

97

235

934

3018

1939

6
6
8
20

1667
1639
1250
500

0
0
0
0

1450
1034
688
2105

63
51
44
73

125
61
51
156

78
70
54
103

3433
1689
1900
3250

3
1
3
29

0.8
1.0
0.6
0.0

4
5
1
0

28
33
14
0

783
517
400
0

2
13
13
0

100
139
13
0

4
7
4
0

300
361
175
0

867
839
625
0

2967
2150
2550
0

4100
1475
1388
2100

mg

Energy , kcal

250

Fibre,

40

_g

Amount of food
(g) /100 Tk

Yellow shrimp(fresh,
bony))
Yellow shrimp
Beef
Beef (Buffalo)
Chicken(deshi)
Duck
Goat
Liver (Goat)
Liver (Mutton)
Lamb
Pigeon
Chicken (farm)
Duck Egg
Hen Egg(deshi)
Hen Egg(Farm)
Cheese
Curd
Milk(condensed)
Powdered milk (skim,
cow)
Powdered milk (whole,
cow)
Whole milk (Buffalo)
Whole milk (Cow)
Whole milk (Goat)
Yogurt(Buffalo)

Price / 100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

101

Protein ,

Fat, g

CHO, g

Calcium ,
mg

Iron,

Thiamine, mg

Riboflavin_mg

Vit C , mg

Vitamin A, g

Niacin, mg

Folic acid, g

Zinc, g

Magnesium mg

Sodium , mg

Potassium , mg

Phosphorus mg

0
0
0
0
0
8
8
0
6
0
0
6
0
4
0
0
0
0

2015
814
6114
1069
2136
1150
1150
163
7000
4769
319
459
5196
4293
1132
1404
6667
508

100
1
0
0
25
19
19
6
223
0
0
23
7
18
75
1
0
11

130
90
679
119
130
33
33
1
20
0
0
1
1
4
1
1
0
0

125
0
0
0
218
189
189
33
1483
0
80
89
1287
1045
210
348
1667
115

4780
27
0
1
0
277
277
12
314
615
5
172
81
159
320
40
0
123

0
0
0
0
0
7
7
1
31
63
1
5
4
5
69
5
0
17

1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.1
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6

2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

30
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
38
0
0
0
0
0
0

746
703
0
764
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
0
0
0
23
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0

0
2
0
0
0
107
107
0
0
0
0
0
0
183
0
0
0
154

0
793
0
2
0
277
277
0
0
0
0
0
54
390
0
0
0
108

0
27
0
1
0
387
387
0
0
0
0
0
13
902
0
0
0
385

3065
27
0
0
0
437
437
0
0
0
16
334
148
585
0
40
0
92

1538

508

11

115

123

17

0.6

154

108

385

92

7
7
8

1538
1538
1250

0
0
0

508
508
4125

11
11
168

0
0
10

115
115
861

123
123
875

17
17
30

0.6
0.6
0.0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0.0

0
0
0

0
0
0

154
154
0

108
108
0

385
385
0

92
92
5500

mg

Energy , kcal

500
111
679
119
400
333
333
67
2857
1538
100
345
1350
1220
400
400
1675
1538

Fibre,

20
90
15
84
25
30
30
150
4
7
100
29
7
8
25
25
6
7

_g

Amount of food
(g) /100 Tk

Yogurt (Cow)
Butter
Soya bean oil
Ghee(Cow)
Biscuit(Salted)
Biscuit(Sweet)
Horlicks
Bread(Loaf)
Bread(White)
Date juice
Honey
Jackfruit seed
Molasses
Molasses (Date)
Pappadom
Sago
Sugar
Sugarcane juice
Sugarcane juice(Soft
drinks)
Tea
Coffee
Water Chestnut(dry)

Price / 100g_Tk

Food Name

Continued

102

A10: Vegetable calendar for Bangladesh from January to June


January

Cabbage,
Carrot,
Cauliflower,
Ole kopi,
Potato,
Radish,
Spinach,
Tomato,
Turnip,
Indian Spinach,
Eggplant,
Green chilli,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Bottle),
Bean,
Lettuce,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Humming bird
flower,
Moringa,
Amaranth (red leaf
var.)
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(bitter),
Ladys finger,
Lau shak,
Peas(Green),
Motor shak,
Onion Stalk,
China shak,
Bati shak,
Beet,
Broccoli.

February

Cabbage ,
Carrot,
Cauliflower,
Ole kopi, Potato,
Prawal,
Radish,
Spinach,
Tomato,
Broccoli,
Cucumber,
Turnip,
Green chilli,
Indian Spinach,
Carrot,
Eggplant,
Pumpkin,
Gourd(Bottle),
Bean,
Lettuce,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa,
Air potato,
Peas(Green),
Motor shak,
Onion Stalk,
China shak,
Bati shak,
Beet,
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(bitter),
Ladys finger,
Lau shak,
Amaranth (red leaf var.)

March

Amaranth (red leaf


var)
Cabbage ,
Cauliflower,
Gima kolmee,
Pumpkin,
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(Bottle), prawal,
Green chilli,
Ladys Finger,
Broccoli,
Turnip,
Spinach,
Carrot,
Tomato,
Bean,
Potato
Amaranth(data),
Indian spinach,
Kolmee,
Moringa,
Papaya,
Lettuce,
Air potato,
Sitalau,
Ole kopi,
Peas(Green),
Motor shak,
Onion Stalk,
China shak,
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(bitter),
Lau shak,
Radish,
Bati shak,
Beet,

April

Amaranth(data),
Amaranth (red leaf var.),
Cabbage ,
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gimakolmee,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(Bottle), Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Gourd (Ridge),
Green chilli,
Kakrol,
Lady`s Finger,
Prawal,
Pumpkin,
Broccoli,
Carrot,
Bean,
Snake gourd ,
Potato,
Indian spinach,
Kolmee,
Lettuce,
Moringa,
Papaya,
Air potato,
Sitalau.
Cowpea,
Yam stem,
Arum tubers,
Water taro.
Marrow.
Drumstick,
Jute plant tops.

May

Amaranth(data),
Amaranth (red leaf var.),
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gima kolmee,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Gourd(Bottle),
Gourd (Ridge),
Green chilli,
Kakrol,
Lady`s Finger,
prawal,
Pumpkin,
Snake gourd,
Snake gourd ,
Indian spinach,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa.
Cowpea,
Yam stem,
Taro/Arum tubers,
Water taro.
Marrow.

June

Amaranth(data),
Amaranth (red leaf var.),
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gimakolmee
Gourd(Ash), Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Bottle),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Green chilli,
Gourd (Ridge),
Prawal,
Kakrol,
Lady`s Finger,,
Pumpkin,
Snake gourd,
Snake gourd ,
Yard long bean,
Indian spinach,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa,
Cowpea,
Yam stem,
Water taro.
Spinach,
Gima kolmee,
Marrow.
Taro/Arum tubers

103

A11: Vegetable calendar for Bangladesh from July to December

July
Amaranth (data),
Amaranth (red leaf
var.),
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Gourd(Bottle),
Gima kolmee,
Gourd(Ridge),
Indian spinach,
Lady`s Finger,
Pumpkin,
Snake gourd,
Tomato,
Kakrol,
Yard long bean,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa,
Prawal.
Cowpea,
Yam stem,
Taro/Arum tubers,
Water taro,
Marrow.
Water lily.

August
Amaranth (data),
Amaranth (red leaf var.),
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Ash),
Gima kolmee,
Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Gourd(Bottle),
Gourd(Ridge),
Indian spinach,
Lady`s Finger,
Pumpkin,
Snake gourd,
Tomato,
Kakrol,
Yard long bean,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa,
Prawal.
Cowpea,
Yam stem,
Taro/Arum tubers,
Water taro,
Marrow.

September
Amaranth (red leaf
var.),
Amaranth (data),
Bean,
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gima kolmee,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter)
Gourd(Bottle),
Gourd(Ridge),
Indian spinach,
Potato,
Pumpkin,
Spinach,
Snake gourd,
Kakrol,
Yard long bean,
Lady`s Finger,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Moringa,
Prawal.
Yam stem,
Cowpea,
Taro/Arum tubers,
Water taro,
Marrow.

October

November

December

Amaranth (red leaf var.),


Bean,
Eggplant,
Cabbage,
Cauliflower,
Cucumber,
GimaKolmi,
Gourd(Ash),
Gourd(bitter),
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(Bottle),
Ole kopi,
Potato,
Pumpkin,
Tomato,
Spinach,
Radish,
Carrot,
Snake gourd ,
Yard long bean,
Kolmee,
Moringa,
Lettuce,
Indian spinach,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Humming bird flower,
Broccoli,
Turnip,
Peas(Green),
Ladys finger,
Lau shak,
Amaranth (red leaf var.),
Motor shak, Onion Stalk,
China shak, Bati shak,
Beet, Coriander seed, Mint leaves.

Bean,
Cabbage ,
Carrot ,
Cauliflower,
Ole kopi,
Potato,
Radish,
Tomato,
Broccoli,
Turnip,
Spinach,
Radish,
Carrot,
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Bottle),
Yard long bean,
Lady`s Finger,
Indian spinach,
Kolmee,
Papaya,
Lettuce,
Sitalau,
Humming bird flower,
Moringa.
Peas(Green),
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(bitter),
Amaranth (red leaf
var.),
Motor shak,
Onion Stalk,
China shak,
Bati shak,
Beet,
Coriander seed,
Mint leaves.

Cabbage,
Carrot ,
Cauliflower,
Tomato,
Ole kopi,
Potato,
Radish,
Broccoli,
Turnip,
Spinach,
Radish ,
Carrot,
Eggplant,
Cucumber,
Gourd(Bottle),
Bean,
Lettuce,
Papaya,
Sitalau,
Humming bird flower,
Moringa,
Peas(Green),
Gourd(Small bitter),
Gourd(bitter),
Ladys finger,
Lau shak,
Radish,
Indian spinach,
Amaranth (red leaf
var.),
Motor shak,
Onion Stalk,
China shak,
Bati shak,
Beet,
Coriander seed,
Mint leaves.

104

A12: Seasonal fruit calendar from January to June


January
Boroi (Bitter
plum),
Orange,
Water melon ,
Melon,
Pomegranate,
Amla,
Lime (Sweet),
Lemon,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Carambola,
Sapota,
Custard apple,
Sweet orange,
Dragon fruit,
Tamarind,
Strawberry,
Sugarcane.

February
Boroi (Bitter plum),
Wood apple,
Pomegranate,
Sapota,
Melon,
Water melon,
Carambola,
Rose apple,
Tamarind,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Custard apple,
Elephants foot apple,
Dragon fruit,
Strawberry
Sugarcane,

March
Boroi (Bitter plum),
Wood apple,
Water melon,
Carambola,
Rose apple,
Tamarind,
Passion fruit,
Mulberry,
Fig,
Melon,
Lemon,
River ebony,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Sapota,
Bullocks heart,
Custard apple,
Satkara,
Elephants foot apple,
Dragon fruit,
Strawberry.

April
Bullocks heart,
Wood apple,
Water melon,
Carambola,
Rose apple,
Passion fruit,
Phalsa,
Bilimbi,
Litchi (Kalipuri),
Mulberry,
Fig,
Melon,
Lemon,
River ebony (Local),
Mango,
Banana ,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Custard apple,
Satkara,
Elephants foot apple,
Date palm,
Wax apple,
Strawberry.

May
Blackberry,
Jackfruit,
Pineapple(Joldhu
pi),
Lichi,
Guava,
Monkey jack,
Wax apple,
Cashew nut,
Karanda,
Phalsa,
Bilimbi,
Melon (futi),
Lemon,
Mango,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Bullocks heart,
Custard apple,
Satkara,
Date palm.

June
Mango,
Blackberry,
Jackfruit,
Lichi,
Pineapple(Joldhupi),
Pineapple(Ghurasal),
Olive,
Guava,
Monkey jack,
Wax apple,
Cashew nut,
Karonda,
Phalsa,
Bilimbi,
Date palm,
Coconut,
Burmese grape,
Pomegranate,
Melon (futi),
Lemon,
Jamum,
Almond,
Cowa(Mangosteem),
Banana,
Papaya,
Custard apple,
Peach,
105

A13: Seasonal fruit calendar from July to December


July
Mango,
Blackberry,
Jackfruit,
Pineapple(Ghurasal)
,
Pineapple(Jauntkew)
,
Olive,
Hogplum,
Karanda,
Monkey jack,
Wax apple,
Guava,
Phalsa,
Bilimbi,
Date palm,
Coconut,
Burmese grape,
Pomegranate,
Pummelo,
Lemon,
Stargareberry,
Jamum,
Almond,
Cowa
(Mangosteem),
Papaya,
Lichi,
Banana,Custard
apple,Rambutan,

August
Mango,
Blackberry,
Jackfruit ,
Pineapple
(Jauntkew),
Olive,
Custard apple,
Hogplum,
Palmyara palm,
Monkey jack,
Wax apple,
Karanda,
Guava,
Passion fruit,
Bilimbi,
Pummelo,
Lemon,
Stargareberry,
Grape,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Jamum,
Indian dellenia,
Burmese grape,
Rambutan,
Daophal.
Sugar cane

September
Olive,
Custard apple,
Palmyara palm,
Hogplum,
Passion fruit,
Pummelo,
Lemon,
Flacouritia,
Stargareberry,
Longan,
Pears,
Grape,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Indian dellenia,
Karanda.

October
Olive,
Custard apple,
Palmyara palm,
Hogplum,
Elephants foot
apple,
Indian dellenia,
Fig,
Lemon,
Flacouritia,
Velvety apple,
Papaya,
Banana,
Coconut,
Carambola,
Pummelo,
Amla.

November
Olive,
Amla,
Orange,
Elephants foot
apple,
Fig,
Sweet orange,
Lime (Sweet),
Satkara,
Indian dellenia,
Papaya,
Banana,
Coconut,
Carambola,
Pummelo,
Lemon,
Custard apple,
Strawberry.

December
Boroi (Bitter plum),
Amla,
Orange,
Elephants foot
apple,
Pomegranate,
Sweet orange,
Lime (Sweet),
Satkara,
Banana,
Papaya,
Coconut,
Carambola,
Custard apple,
Olive,
Mandarin,
Dragon fruit,
Strawberry

106

A14: Menu Plan

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

Tk

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

A15: Scientific name of all the available Bangladeshi foods


Food
Code
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115

English Name

Scientific Name

Barley (whole)
Maize/ corn(immature)
Maize/ (mature)
Millet (French)
Millet (pearl)
Rice (fried paddy)
Rice husk/ bran
Rice parboiled (husked)
Rice parboiled (milled)
Rice sunned (husked)
Rice sunned (milled)
Rice (flattened)
Rice (puffed)
Semolina
Sorghum

Hordeum vulgare
Zea mays
Zea mays
Pennisetum miliaceum
Pennisetum glaucum
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Triticum aestivum
Sorghum bicolor

116

Vermicelli

Triticum aestivum

117

Wheat (whole)

118

Wheat flour (coarse)

119

Food
Code
212
213
214
215
216
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310

English Name

Scientific Name

Red gram/ arahar(split)


Soybean
Horse gram
Moth beans
Rajmah
Agathi
Amaranth (data) leaves
Amaranth leaves(tender)
Amaranth (red leaf var)
Amaranth (spiney)
Bathua leaves
Beet leaves
Bottle gourd leaves
Cabbage
Carrot leaves

Cajanus cajan
Glycine max merr.
Dolichos biflorus
Phaseolus aconitisolius
Phaseolus vulgaris
Sesbania grandiflora
Amaranthus gangeticus
Amaranthus gangeticus
Amaranthus gangeticus
Amaranthus spinosus
Chenopodium album
Beat vulgaris
Lagenaria vulgaris
Brassica oleracea var capitata
Daucus carota

311

Cauuflower leaves

Brassica oleracea var.

Triticum aestivum

312

Celery leaves

Apium graveolens var. Dulce

Triticum aestivum

313

Chukai leaves

Wheat flour(refined)

Triticum aestivum

314

Coriander leaves

Coriandrum sativum

120

Ragi

Eleusine coracana

315

Cowpea leaves

Vigna catjang

121

Wheat germ

Triticum aestibum

316

Drumstick leaves

Morinba oleifera

122

Oatmeal

Avenabyzantina

317

Fenugreek leaves

Trigonella foenum graecum

201

Bean (field)

Phaseolus vulgaris

318

Folwal leaves

202

Bengal gram(whole)

Cicer arietinum

319

Gram leaves

Cicer arietinum

203

Bengal gram(split)

Cicer arietinum

320

Helencha leaves

Enhydra fluctuans

204

Bengal gram(fried)

Cicer arietinum

321

Indian spinach

Spinacia oleracea

205

Black gram(split)

Phaseolus mungo roxb.

322

Jute plant tops

Corchorus capsularis

206

Green gram(whole)

Phaseolus aureus roxb.

323

Khesari leaves

Lathyrus sativa

207

Green gram(split)

Phaseolus aureus roxb.

324

Kolmee leaves

Ipomoea reptans

208
209

Khesari dal

Latyyrus sativus

325

Lettuce

Lactuca sativa

Lentils

Lens esculenta

326

Mesta leaves

Polygonum chinense

210

Peas dried/split

Pisum sativum

327

Mustard leaves

Brassica capestris var. Sarason

211

Peas fried

Pisum sativum

328

Neem leaves (green)

Azadirachta indica

131

Food
Code
329

English Name
Neem leaves, yellow (ripe)

Scientific Name
Azadirachta indica

330

Potato leaves

Solanum tuberosum

331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344

Mint leaves
Pumpkin leaves
Punornova leaves
Radish leaves
Safflower leaves
Soybean leaves
Spinach
Spinach sour
Sweet potato leaves
Tamarind leaves (green)
Tamarind leaves (dry)
Taro/arum leaves (dried)
Taro/black arum leaves
Taro/green arum leaves
Thankuni leaves
Turnip leaves
Celery stalks
Curry leaves
Ipomoea stems
Kuppameni
Susni sag
Bitter gourd
(Sabarang)
Roselle
(Lemon pata)
India ivy-rue
(Ojam shak)
(Ghanda batali)
(Orai balai)
Purslane
Yellow saraca
Mollugo
Wild coriander
Kassava

Mentha spicata
Cucurbita maxima

345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364

Raphanus sativus
Carthamus tinctorius
Glycine max merr.
Spinacia oleracea
Rumex acetosa
Ipomoea batatas
Tamarindus Indica
Tamarindus Indica
Colocasia esculenta
Arum palestinum
Peltandravirginica
Centella japonica
Brassica rapa
Apium graveolens
Murraya keonigll
Ipomoea reptans
Acalypha indica
Marsilea minuta
Momordica charantia
Ajuga macrosperma
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Premna obtusifolia
Xanthoxylum rhetsa
Spilanthes calva
Paederia foetida
Premna esculenta
Portulaca oleracea
Saraca thaipingensis
Glinus Oppositifolius
Eryngium foetidum
Manihot esculenta

Food
Code
365
366
367
368
369
370
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514

English Name

Scientific Name

Blue commelina/venus bath


Edible fern
Lawn marshpenny wort

Commelina benghalensis
Diplazium esculentum
Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides

Beet root
Carrot
Garlic
Ground potato
Ole kopi (german turnip)
Onion
Potato
Radish
Sweet potato
Taro/arum

Beta vulgaris
Daucus carota sativus
Allium sativum
Solanum tuberosum
Brassica oleracea
Allium cepa
Solanum tuberosum
Raphanus sativus
Ipomoea batatas
Colocasia esculenta
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

Taro/arum tubers
Turnip
Yam(elephant)
Yam(wild)
Moor sanga
Water lilt(red)
Amaranth (data) stem
Aubergine/eggplant
Bean
Bean (broad)
Bean (French)
Bean (immature)
Bean (red)
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Chilli (green)
Cow pea
Cucumber
Drumstick/horserradish
Drumstick flower

Brassica rapa
Dioscorea elephantipes
Dioscorea villosa
Butea frondosa
Nymphea nouchali
Amaranthus mangostanus l
Solanum melongena
Phaseolus lunatus
Vicia faba
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus Vulgaris
Brassica oleracea var capitata
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Capsicum annuum.
Vigna unguiculata
Cucumis sativus
Moringa oleifera.
Moringa oleifera

132

Food
Code
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551

English Name
Fig (red)
Folwal/potol/parwar
Gourd (ash)
Gourd(bitter)
Gourd (bottle)
Gourd (ridge)
Gourd (small bitter)
Gourd (snake)
Gourd (sweet)/pumpkin
Gram (red, unripe)
Jackfruit (immature)
KAKROL(Teasle gourd)
Kolmee
Lady's finger/okra
Mango (green/immature
Marrow
Onion& garlic stalk
Papaya (green/immature)
Peas (green)
Plantain
Plantain flower
Plantain stem
Pumpkin flower
Spinach stalks
Tomato (green)
Waterlily stem (red)
Waterlily stem (white)
Yam stem
Colocasia stem
Karonda(fresh)
Karonda (dry)
Kovai
Lokooch
Leeks
Lotus stem(dry)
Sundakai
Sword beans

Scientific Name
Stenoderma rufum darioi
Trichosanthes dioica
Benincasa hispida
Momordica Charantia L.
Lagenaria siceraria
Luffa acutangula
Momordica charantia
Trichosanthes cucumerina
Cucurbita maxima
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Momordica dioica
Abelmoschus esculentus
Mangifera foetida
Allium cepa & Allium sativum
Carica papaya
Pisum sativum
Musa paradisiaca
Plantago major
Musa sapientum
Cucurbita pepo
Spinacia oleracea
Solanum lycopersicum
Nymphaea odorata
Nymphaea alba
Dioscorea villosa
Colocasia antiquorum
Carissa carandas
Carissa carandas
Coccinia cordifolia
Artocarpus lakoocha
Allium porrum
Nelumbium nelumbo
Solanum torvum
Canavalia gladista

Food
Code
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615

English Name
Chaltha
Lotus seeds(green)
Mashroom
Sea weed(fresh)
Sea weed(dry)
Silk cotton flowers
Water lily flower
Pea eggplant
Solanum
Sigon data
Yam
Banchatta
Fekong
Red silk/cotton tree
(Seng e tur/senge/thorai)
(Betagi)
(Seon sak/gandri)
Berry bamboo
(Maira bokong)
(Laigrao bokong)
Cashew nuts
Chilgoza (nut)
Coconut (dry)
Coconut (mature)
Groundnut/ peanut
Groundnut/ peanut (fried)
Linseed
Mustard
Nuts
Oils mustard etc
Pistachio
Sunflower seeds
Sesame
Walnut
Niger seeds

Scientific Name
Dillania indica
Nelumbium nelumbo
Agaricus bisporus

Bombax malabaricum
Nymphea nouchali
Solanum spinosa
Solanum virginianum
Lasia spinosa
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Dillenia pentagyna
Alpinia nigra
Agaricua sp
Agaricus sp
Bombax ceiba
Amomum corymospachyum
Alpinia sp
Melocanna baccifera

Anacardium occidentale
Pinus gerardiana
Cocos nucifera L.
Cocos nucifera L.
Arachis hypogaea
Arachis hypogaea
Linum usitatissimum
Brassica nigra
Brassica nigra
Pistacia vera
Helianthus annuus
Sesamum indicum
Juglans regia
Guizotia abyssinica

133

Continued
Food
Code
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810

English Name
Piyal seeds
Sunflower seeds
Jangli badam
Oysternut
Roselle seed

Tamarind seed kernel(roasted)

Okra(whole seed)
Okra (kernel)
Cardamom
Chilli, red (dry)
Cloves (dry)
Coriander seed
Cumin seed
Fenugreek
Ginger
Lemon/ lime peel
Mace
Mixed spices
Mixed spices (hot)
Nutmeg
Omum
Pepper (black)
Turmeric
Arisithippili
Asafoetida
Mango powder
Nutmeg(rind)
Ambada (hog plum)
Amla
Apple
Apricot (boiled)
Appricot (dry)
Bakul flower
Banana
Bilimbi
Backberry (indian)
Boroi (bitter plum)

Scientific Name
Buchanania latifolia
Carthanus tinctorius
Sterculia foetida
Telfairea pedata
Tanarindus indicus
Abelmoschus esculentus
Abelmoschus esculentus
Elettaria cardamomum
Capsicum annum
Syzygium aromaticum
Coriandrum sativum
Cuminum cyminum
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Zingiber officinale
Citrus limon
Semen Myristicae

Myristica
Trachyspermum ammi
Piper nigrum
Curcuma longa
Pimpella anisum
Ferula foetida
Mangifera indica
Myristica fragrans
Spondias mombin
Phyllanthus emblica
Malus domestica
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus armeniaca
Mimusops elengi
Musa
Averrhoa bilimbi
Syzygium cumini
Oemleria cerasiformis

Food
Code
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847

English Name
Breadfruit
Bullocks heart
Custard apple
Coconut milk
Dates
Dates (dry)
Fig (ripe)
Guava
Grapes
Jackfruit (ripe)
Kheera
Kodobele (immature)
Kodobele (ripe)
Kusum fruit
Lemon
Lemon (sweet)
Lichis
Lime
Lime (sweet)
Mahua (ripe)
Mango (ripe)
Melon
Neem fruit
Olive (wild)
Orange
Orange juice
Orange/mandarin
Palm, palmyra (green)
Palm (ripe)
Papeya (ripe)
Pears
Phalsa
Pineapple
Pineapple (wild var)
Pomegranate juice
Pomegranate
Pommelo (red)

Scientific Name
Anacardium occidentale
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Cocos nucifera L.
Phoenix sylvestris
Phoenix sylvestris
Ficus carica
Psidium guajava
Vitis vinifera
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Cucumis sativus
Feronia limonia
Feronia limonia
Citrus limon
Litchi chinensis
Citrus aurantifolia
Citrus limettioides
Mangifera indica
Cucumis melo
Elaeocarpus floribundus

Borassus flabellifer
Carica papaya
Grewia asiatica
Ananus comosus

Punica granatum

134

Food
Code
848

English Name

849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863

Rose apple
Tamarind(immatur
e)
Tamarind (pulp)
Tetul (bilati)
Tomato (ripe)
Wood apple
Watermelon
Black berry(deshi)
Cherries(red)
Lichi(bastard)
Melon(musk)
Peaches
Persimon
Plum
Raisins
Strawberry

864
865

Gab
Monkey jack

Scientific Name
Syzygium jambose
Tamarindus indica
Tamarindus indica
Tamarindus indica
Solanum lycopersicum
Aegle marmelos
Citrullus vulgaris
Syzygium cumini
Prunus cerasus
Nephelium litchi
Cucumis melo
Amygdalis persica
Doispyros kaki
Prunus domestica
Vitis vinifera
Fragaria vesca
Doispyros embryopteris
Artocarpus lakoocha

Food
Code
915

Bream (sea, fresh)

Cybium commersoni/Scomberomorus commerson

916

Bream (sea, dried)

917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930

Butter fish
Carp
Cat fish
Chela (fresh)
Chela (dried)
Climbing fish (koi)
Crabs
Dragon fish
Eel fish
Fesha fish (fresh)
Fesha fish (dried)
Fishmeal
Flat fish
Folui
Fry (very small
fresh)
Gahira fish

Cybium
Commersoni/scomberomorus commerson
Callichorus pabo/ompok pabo
Katla katla/catla catla
Arius sona
Chela phulo
Chela phulo
Anabus testudineus/anabas testudineus
Paratephusa spinigera
Pangasius pangasius
Mastocembellus armatus
Setipinna phasa
Setipinna phasa

931
932

English Name

Scientific Name

Notopterus chitala/chitala chitala


Notopterus notopterus
Barbus spp/puntius chola
Clupisoma garua

135

866
867
868
869
901
902
903
904

Burmese grape
Wild melon
(Roshko)
Bead tree
Aire fish
Bacha fish
Bata fish
Bele fish/poa

906

Betrongi fish
Bhangon (fresh)
Bhangon (dried)
Bhangon
(powdered)
Bhetki (fresh)
Bhetki (dried)
Boal
Blackfish/baoh
Boicha fish

907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914

Pirardia sapida
Cumis melo
Syzygium balsameum
Elaeocarpus angustifolius
Mystus seenghala
Eutropiichthys vacha/murius
Labeo bata /ariza
Glassogobius giuris
Botia dayi
Labeo bata/boga
Labeo bata/boga
Labeo bata/boga
Lates calcarifer
Lates calcarifer
Wallago attu
Labeo calbasu
Colisa lalia

933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940

Gura fish
Hilsha fish
Hilsha (salted)
Khalshe fish
Lota fish
Magur
Magur (dried)
Mola fish

941
942
943

Mrigal
Mullet
Parshee fish (dried)

944
945
946
947
948
949

Parshee fish (fresh)


Pata fish (dried)
Pomfret (black)
Pomefret (white)
Pomfret ((small)
Prawns whole (dried)

Clupea ilisha
Clupea ilisha
Colisa fasciata
Ophiocephalus punctatus
Clarius batrachus
Clarius batrachus
Amblypharyngodon mola
Cirrhinus mrigala/ cirrhinus cirrhosus
Mugil oeur
Mugil parsia/mugil cephalus
Mugil parsia/mugil cephalus
Solea ovate
Formio miger/parastromateus niger
Stromateus sinensis/pampus chinensis
Chanda nama
Leadrites celebensis

136

Continued
Food
Code

English Name

950
951
952
953
954

Prawn (dry)
Pumplate (sea fish)
Ribbon fish
Ribbon fish (dried)
Rohu

955
956
957
958

Salmon
Sarputi
Scorpion fish
Shark

959

Shrimp

960
961
962

Silver fish
Sole
Tapse (dried)

963
964

Tengra (fresh)
Tengra (dried)

965

White fish (dried)


White fish/stripled
gourami (fresh)
Tilapia/mozambique
telapia

966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974

Pama croaker/poa fish


Ganges river sprat(sweet
water, fresh, bony)
Ganges river sprat(sweet
water, dry)
Yellow tail mullet
(marine, shukna)
Silver carp
Spotted snake head
Chapila/indian river
shad(fresh ,bony)

Scientific Name
Leadrites celebensis

Trichiurus spp/ Trichiurus lepturus


Trichiurus spp/. Trichiurus lepturus
Labeo rohita
Solonia silondia
Barbus sarana/Puntius sarana
Saccobranchus fossilis/Hetero pneustes fossilis
Carcharias spp./ Carcharias acutus
Penaeus latisulcatus
Ailia coilia
Ophiocephalus striatus/Channa striatus
Polynemus paradiseus
Mystus bittafus
Mystus bittafus
Gonialosa manminna
Gonialosa manminna
Orechromis mossambicus
Otolithoides pama
Corica soborna
Corica soborna
Sicamugil cascasia
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Channa puncpatus
Gadusia chapra

Food
Code
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992

English Name
Chapila/indian river shad(dry,
bony)
Golden/red snapper
White grunter
Hard tail torpedo trevally
Tripple tail
Mottlet nandus/mud
perch(deboned)
Skipjack
Boggut labeo
Rita
Small head hair tail/ribbon
fish(dry)
Russell`s smooth-back
herring(dry)
Indian potashi (bony)
Cotio(bony)
Papperred loach/guntea
loach(bony)
Jamuna ailia(fresh,bony)
Freshwater gar fish/niddle
fish(fresh, bony)
Large lazor belly
minnow(fresh, bony)

993

Giant snake head


Giant river/fresh water
prawn(fresh. Deboned)

994

Reba(fresh, deboned)

995

Yellow shrimp(fresh, deboned)

996
997
998

Yellow shrimp(fresh, bony))


Yellow shrimp
Kucha

1001

Beef

Scientific Name
Godusia chapra
Chrysophrys auratus
Pomadays hasta
Megalaspis cordyla
Lobotes surinamensis
Nandus nandus
Euthynnus pelamis
Labeo boggut
Rita rita
Leptura canhus
Brachypleura nova zeelandlac
Pseudeutropius atherinoides
Rohtee cotio
Lepidocephalichthys guntea
Ailiichthys punctata
Xenentodon cancila
Chela bacaila
Channamarulius
Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Crossocheilus latius
Metapenaeus brevicornis
Metapenaeus brevicornis
Metapenaeus brevicornis
Amphipnous cuchia
Bos Taurus/Beef cattle

137

Continued

Food
Code
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009

English Name

Scientific Name

Columba livia intermedia

Food
Code
1304
1305
1306
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405

Beef (buffalo)
Chicken
Duck
Goat
Liver (goat)
Liver (mutton)
Mutton (lamb)
Pigeon

Bulbus bubalis
Gallus bankiva murghi
Anas platyrhyncha
Capra hyrchusb

1010

Pork

1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1101
1102
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
5

Snails (small)
Snails (large)
Turtle
Chicken (farm)
Yeast dried(deshi)
Yeast dried (food)
Duck egg
Hen egg
Buffalo milk solids
Butter-milk
Cheese
Cow milk solids
Curd
Human/breast milk
Milk (condensed)
Powdered milk (skim, cow)
Powdered milk (whole, cow)
Skim-milk (liquid)
Whole milk (buffalo)
Whole milk (cow)
Whole milk (goat)
Yogurt (buffalo)
Yougurt (buff, skim mik)

Ghee (buffalo)
Ghee (cow)
Ghee (vegetable)
Betel/areca nut
Betel leves
Biscuit (salted)
Biscuit (sweet)
Bread (brown)

Sus cristatus wagner/Sus serofa


domesticus

1406

Bread (loaf)

1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429

Bread (white)
Coconut milk
Date juice
Honey
Jackfruit seed
Lotus seeds (dry)
Lotus seeds (ripe)
Lotus seed (green)
Mahua flower
Makhana
Molassea
Molassed (date)
Oil cakes (groundnut)
Pappadom
Pickles
Popy seed
Pumpkin/sweet gourd seed
Sago
Sugar
Sugar candy
Sugar cane juice
Tamarind seed (dried)
Toddy (fermented)

Viviparus bengalensis
Pila globosa
Gallus bankiva murgi
Terula saccharomyces
Terula saccharomyces
Anas platyrhyncha
Gallus bankiva murghi

English Name

Scientific Name

Areca catechu
Piper betel

Cocos nucifera
Phoenis dactylifera/Phoenis sylvestris
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Nelumbium nelumbo/Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbium nelumbo/Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbium nelumbo/Nelumbo nucifera
Bassia latifolia/Madhuca indica
Euvale ferox/Euryale ferox
Saccharum officinarum
Phoenis dactylifera/Phoenis sylvestris
Arachis hypogeal

Papaver somniferum
Cucurbita maxima
Metroxylon spp./Metroxylon sagu

Saccharum officinarum
Tamarindus indica

138

A 16: Selected photographs of DDP activities


Photographs of the First Stakeholder Meeting,
Venue: BIRDEM, Date July 16, 2012

From left: Prof Nazmun Nahar, DG, BIRDEM, Dr Lalita


Bhattacharjee, FAO, Dr MA Mannan, FAO, Ms Shaheen
Ahmed, Prof Subhagata Choudhury, BIRDEM, Prof
Aminul Haque Bhuyan, INFS

From left: Mr Mostafa Faruk Al Banna, Ministry of


Food, Dr Nur Ahamed Khondaker, FAO

Participants of the meeting

From left: Dr Monirul Islam, BARC, Prof Nazrul Islam


Khan, INFS, Prof Sk Nazrul Islam, INFS, Prof SM Keramat
Ali, Ex Director, INFS, Dr Quamrun Nahar, BIRDEM and
PI, DDP

139

Prof. Aminul Haque Bhuyan, Director of INFS


discussing about DDP

Mr Mostafa Faruq Al Banna, Associate Research


Director, Ministry of Food expressing his opinion

Selected Photographs of Second Stakeholder Meeting, Venue: BIRDEM, Date:


April 03, 2013

Prof Nazmun Nahar, DG, BIRDEM, Dr Lalita Bhattacharjee, Nutrition Expert, FAO,
Prof Subhagata Choudhury, BIRDEM, Prof SM Keramat Ali, Ex Director, INFS, MA
Wahed, Consultant, Health, Nutrition and Management, Dhaka
140

From left: Dr Quamrun Nahar, BIRDEM & PI: DDP project, SS Saleheen Sultana, Home
Economics College, Shaheen Ahmed, ex Principal, Home Economics College, Dr MA
Mannan, FAO, Mr Mostafa Faruk Al Banna, Ministry of Food, Dr Nur Ahamed
Khondaker, FAO, Prof Nazmun Nahar, DG, BIRDEM, Dr Lalita Bhattacharjee, FAO,
Prof Subhagata Choudhury, BIRDEM

From left: MA Wahed, Ms Taznin, WFP, Ms Shamsunnahar, BIRDEM,


Ms Aktarun Nahar, BIRDEM, Ms Khaleda Khatun, BIRDEM, Mr
Abdullah, WFP, Dr Shakhaoat Hossain, BIRDEM
141

Selected Photographs of Third Stakeholder Meeting, Venue: BIRDEM, Date: April


16, 2013

After presentation of PI, Prof Ekhlasur


Rahman, Director of IPHN, discusses about
the guideline.

Prof SM Keramat Ali, discussing about


the guidelines

Dr Quamrun Nahar, PI of the project answering


the question of a stakeholder.

Ms Jillian Waid of HKI discussing about the


guidelines

142

Dr SK Roy, a famous former Scientist of ICDDR,B explaining the


importance of the guideline

Data Collection at Khagrachari and Rangamati District for HDDS calculation

Dr Quamrun Nahar and Dr Omar Faruque


interviewing the tribal peoples for the DDS data
143

Ms Maksuda Parvin is collecting data from a tribal


people

Ms Shamsun Nahar, Research Associate


of the project collecting data

Local people Processing Dhekisak to cook at his


home premises

A research Fellow collecting data from a tribal


woman

144

ISBN
978-984-33-7491-2

BIRDEM, Dhaka, June 2013