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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.

com

A
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abate
1. to reduce in amount, degree, or intensity; lessen
2. to deduct from an amount; subtract

abdicate to relinquish (power or responsibility) formally

aberrant ,
1. deviating from the proper or expected course
2. deviating from what is normal; untrue to type

aberration , ; () ; () ,

abet ,
1. to approve, encourage, and support (an action or a plan of action); urge and help on
2. to urge, encourage, or help (a person)

abeyance ,
1. the condition of being temporarily set aside; suspension
2. (Law) a condition of undetermined ownership, as of an estate that has not yet been assigned

abjure
1. to renounce under oath; forswear
2. to recant solemnly; repudiate
3. to give up (an action or practice, for example); abstain from
recant (, ) ,
to make a formal retraction or disavowal of (a statement or belief to which one has
previously committed oneself)

aboveboard [ ] ,
without deceit or trickery; straightforward in manner

abrade , ;
1. to wear down or rub away by friction; erode
2. to make weary through constant irritation; wear down spiritually

abridge
1. to reduce the length of (a written text); condense
2. to cut short; curtail

abrogate (, )

abscission , ;

to abolish, do away with, or annul, especially by authority


the act of cutting off
2

abscond to leave quickly and secretly and hide oneself, often to avoid arrest or prosecution

absorbed wholly involved or occupied; engrossed


engross /; () , ; (monopolize)
1. to occupy exclusively; absorb
2. to acquire most or all of (a commodity); monopolize (a market)
3. a. to write or transcribe in a large, clear hand b. to write or print the final draft of (an
official document)

abstemious
1. eating and drinking in moderation
2. a. sparingly used or consumed b. restricted to bare necessities

abstract , , ; , ; , (absent)

abstruse ,
difficult to understand; recondite
recondite 1. not easily understood; abstruse
2. concerned with or treating something abstruse or obscure
3. concealed; hidden

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absurd ; , (laughable)
1. ridiculously incongruous or unreasonable
2. of, relating to, or manifesting the view that there is no order or value in human life or in the
universe
3. of or relating to absurdism or the absurd
incongruous , ; ,
1. lacking in harmony; incompatible
2. not in agreement, as with principles; inconsistent
3. not in keeping with what is correct, proper, or logical; inappropriate

abuse
1. to use wrongly or improperly; misuse
2. to hurt or injure by maltreatment; ill-use
3. to assail with contemptuous, coarse, or insulting words; revile
revile to assail with abusive language; vituperate
vituperate to rebuke or criticize harshly or abusively; berate
berate to rebuke or scold angrily and at length

academe < kd:m> , ;


1. a. the academic environment, community, or world b. academic life
2. a place in which instruction is given to students
3. a scholar, especially a pedant
pedant ,
1. one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules
2. one who exhibits one's learning or scholarship ostentatiously

accentuate <ksntuit> ,
1. to stress or emphasize; intensify
2. to pronounce with a stress or an accent
3. to mark with an accent

acclaim to praise enthusiastically and often publicly; applaud

accolade (); , ,
1. a. an expression of approval; praise b. a special acknowledgment; an award
2. a ceremonial embrace, as of greeting or salutation
3. ceremonial bestowal of knighthood

accompaniment , ; () ()
1. (Music) a vocal or instrumental part that supports another, often solo, part
2. something, such as a situation, that accompanies something else; a concomitant
3. something added for embellishment, completeness, or symmetry; complement
concomitant , , (concurrent)
occurring or existing concurrently; attendant
attendant 1. being present
2. accompanying or following as a result

accountant ,

accretion () /; /()
a. growth or increase in size by gradual external addition, fusion, or inclusion b. something added
externally to promote such growth or increase

accuse /; ,
1. to charge with a shortcoming or an error
2. to charge formally with a wrongdoing

acerbic, acerb () , ; (, ) ,
sour or bitter, as in taste, character, or tone

acolyte , , ,

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1. one who assists the celebrant in the performance of liturgical rites


2. a devoted follower ar attendant
celebrant (), ( ) ; ( ) ,
1. a. person who participates in a religious ceremony or rite b. the priest officiating at the
celebration of the Eucharist
2. a participant in a celebration
rite () , ; ,
officiate , ; () , ;
1. to perform the duties and functions of an office or a position of authority
2. to serve as an officiant
3. (Sports) to observe as a referee or an umpire
Eucharist <j:krist> (the ) (the Lord's Supper); ();
1

acorn <ikrn> (oak )

acquisitive , ;
1. characterized by a strong desire to gain and possess
2. tending to acquire and retain ideas or information

acquittal () , ; , () ; ()
(Law) 1. judgment, as by a jury or judge, that a defendant is not guilty of a crime as charged
2. the state of being found or proved not guilty

acumen <kj:mn> , ,
quickness, accuracy, and keenness of judgment or insight

adage < did> , ,


a saying that sets forth a general truth and that has gained credit through long use

adamant < dmnt> ; , ;


impervious to pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding
impervious (, ) ; ( ) ;
1. incapable of being penetrated
2. incapable of being affected

addiction , ; ,
addict 1. to devote or give (oneself) habitually or compulsively
2. to cause to become compulsively and physiologically dependent on a habit-forming substance

adept very skilled

adjourn ( ) /
to suspend until a later stated time

adjunct < dkt> , ; ,

admissible ; ( )
1. that can be accepted; allowable
2. worthy of admission

admonish () , ; (warn); (remind, inform)


1. to reprove gently but earnestly
2. to counsel (another) against something to be avoided; caution
3. to remind of something forgotten or disregarded, as an obligation or a responsibility

adoration , ; ,
1. the act of worship
2. profound love or regard

adulation ,

adulterate to make impure by adding extraneous, improper, or inferior ingredients

adumbrate < dmbrit> , ; ()

excessive flattery or admiration

1. to give a sketchy outline of

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2. to prefigure indistinctly; foreshadow


3. to disclose partially or guardedly
2

adversary , (opponent)

adversity , ; ,
1. a state of hardship or affliction; misfortune
2. a calamitous event
calamity , (misfortune), (misery)
1. an event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster
2. dire distress resulting from loss or tragedy
dire (terrible), (dismal);

advocacy , ;
the act of pleading or arguing in favor of something, such as a cause an idea, or a policy; active
support

aerate ; () ;
1. to supply or charge (liquid) with a gas, especially to charge with carbon dioxide
2. to expose to the circulation of air for purification
3. to expose (a tissue) to oxygen, as in the oxygenation of the bloody by respiration

aesthete , ; ,
1. one who cultivates an unusually high a sensitivity to beauty, as in art or nature
2. one whose pursuit and admiration of beauty is regarded as excessive or affected

aesthetic , ;
1. relating to the philosophy or theories of aesthetics
2. of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste
3. characterized by a heightened sensitivity to beauty
4. artistic

affable , , (sociable); (courteous)


1. easy and pleasant to speak to; approachable
2. gentle and gracious

affectation , ... ; , ,

affection , ; , ; ,
1. a tender feeling toward another; fondness
2. feeling or emotion
3. a disposition to feel, do, or say; a propensity

affiliation , ; ,
affiliate , ; / (ascribe)
1. to adopt or accept as a member, subordinate associate, or branch
2. to associate (oneself) as a subordinate, subsidiary, employee, or member
3. to assign the origin of

affinity ; , ; , ,
1. a natural attraction or feeling of kinship
2. relationship by marriage
3. an inherent similarity between persons or things

affirmation , ; () ; ()
1. the act of affirming or the state of being affirmed; assertion
2. something declared to be true; a positive statement or judgment
3. (Law) a solemn declaration given in place of a sworn statement by a person who conscientiously
objects to taking an oath

afflict to inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on

affliction 1. a condition of pain, suffering, or distress


2. a cause of pain, suffering, or distress

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affluent < flunt> (abundant); ;


1. generously supplied with money, property, or possessions; prosperous or rich
2. plentiful; abundant
3. flowing freely; copious
copious 1. yielding or containing plenty; affording ample supply
2. large in quantity; abundant
3. abounding in matter, thoughts, or words; wordy

affront () , ; (, ) (confront)
1. to insult intentionally, especially openly
2. to meet defiantly; confront
confront 1. to come face to face with, especially with defiance or hostility
2. to bring face to face with
3. to come up against; encounter
defiance <difins> ( ); (, )
defy 1. a. to oppose or resist with boldness and assurance b. to refuse to submit to or cooperate
with
2. to be unaffected by; resist or withstand
3. to challenge or dare (someone) to do something

agenda a list or program of things to be done or considered

aggregate ; ... (amount)

aggrieved , ; ,
1. feeling distress or affliction
2. treated wrongly; offended
3. (Law) treated unjustly, as by denial of or infringement upon one's legal rights

agile 1. characterized by quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; nimble


2. mentally alert
nimble , ; , ;
1. quick, light, or agile in movement or action; deft
2. quick, clever, and acute in devising or understanding

agitate ; ; ; ,
1. to cause to move with violence or sudden force
2. to upset; disturb
3. to arouse interest in (a cause, for example) by use of the written or spoken word; debate

agnostic ()()
one who believes that there can be no proof of the existence of God but does not deny the
possibility that God exists
atheism 1. a. disbelief in or denial of the existence of God or gods b. the doctrine that there is no
God or gods
2. godlessness; immorality

agog (, ) , ;
full of keen anticipation or excitement; eager

agronomist

ail vt. ( ) , (afflict) vt.


to cause physical or mental pain or uneasiness to; trouble
to feel ill or have pain

airflow (, ) ,

airtight <rtit> ; ,
1. impermeable by air
2. having no weak points; sound

alacrity 1. cheerful willingness; eagerness

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2. speed or quickness; celerity


celerity ,
swiftness of action or motion; speed
1

albeit <:lb:it> ... , ... (even though, although, notwithstanding)

alcove < lkouv> 1. a recess or partly enclosed extension connected to or forming part of a room
2. a secluded structure, such as a bower, in a garden
bower , ; ; , (retreat)

alert , , ; ,
1. vigilantly attentive; watchful
2. mentally responsive and perceptive; quick
3. brisk or lively in action

alienate , , ; () (, , )

allay <li> ; ,
1. to reduce the intensity of; relieve
2. to calm or pacify; set to rest

allegation ( ) ,

allege <ld> ( ) , ; ( ) ,
1. to assert to be true; affirm
2. to assert without or before proof
3. to state (a plea or excuse, for example) in support or denial of a claim or accusation

allegiance ; , ; ,
1. loyalty or the obligation of loyalty, as to a nation, sovereign, or cause
2. the obligations of a vassal to a lord
vassal <v sl> (), ,

allergic <l:rdik>

; ,
1. of, characterized by, or caused by an allergy
2. having an allergy
3. (Informal) having a dislike; averse

allergy ; () , (antipathy)

alleviate to make (pain, for example) more bearable

allopathy <lpi>
a method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects different from those caused by the
disease itself
homeopathy <humipi>
a system for treating disease based on the administration of minute doses of a drug that in
massive amounts produces symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the disease itself

allude to make an indirect reference

allure to attract with something desirable; entice

allusive ;

ally <li> /

containing or characterized by indirect references


1. to place in a friendly association, as by treaty
2. to unite or connect in a personal relationship, as in friendship or marriage
2

aloof distant physically or emotionally; reserved and remote

amalgam [ ];

amalgamate
1. to combine into a unified or integrated whole; unite
2. to mix or alloy (a metal) with mercury

ambivalence () , ; , ,
1. the coexistence of opposite attitudes or feelings, such as love and hate, toward a person, an

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object, or an idea
2. uncertainty or indecisiveness as to which course to follow
1

ambivalent , ; ()

amble () ; ()
1. to walk slowly or leisurely; stroll
2. to move along at an easy gait by using both legs on one side alternately with both on the other.
used of a horse

ambush , ;

ameliorate , (improve, opp. deteriorate)

amenable <m:nbl> , ; () ; ( )

to make or become better; improve


1. responsive to advice, authority, or suggestion; tractable
2. responsible to higher authority; accountable
3. open to testing, criticism, or judgment
accountable , (responsible); ,
1. liable to being called to account; answerable
2. that can be explained
answerable ;
1. subject to being called to answer; accountable
2. that can be answered or refuted
1

amnesia <mn:> ; (forgetfulness)

amnesty < mnsti> , ,


a general pardon granted by a government, especially for political offenses

amorous < mrs> , ; , ;

amortize () () /

amphibious (); , ;
1. (Biology) living or able to live both on land and in water
2. able to operate both on land and in water
3. relating to or organized for a military landing by means of combined naval and land forces
4. of a mixed or twofold nature

anachronism ; /
1. representation of someone as existing or something as happening in other than the chronological,
proper, or historical order
2. one that is out of its proper or chronological order

anachronistic

analgesic

analogous ,

a medication that reduces or eliminates pain


similar or alike in such a way as to permit the drawing of an analogy
1

analogue ; ()

anarchy (lawlessness); (chaos),


1. absence of any form of political authority
2. political disorder and confusion
3. absence of any cohesive principle, such as a common standard or purpose

anathema ;
1. a formal ecclesiastical ban, curse, or excommunication
2. vehement denunciation; a curse
3. one that is cursed or damned
4. one that is greatly reviled, loathed, or shunned
excommunicate ,

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1. to deprive of the right of church membership by ecclesiastical authority


2. to exclude by or as if by decree from membership or participation in a group
vehement , ; , (passionate)
1. characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity of emotion or conviction; fervid
2. marked by or full of vigor or energy; strong
revile
to assail with abusive language; vituperate
1

anemia

anesthetic
1. an agent that causes loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness
2. something likened to this in effect

anguish , ,
agonizing physical or mental pain; torment
agonize ,
1. to suffer extreme pain or great anguish
2. to make a great effort; struggle

angularity , ;
1. the quality or condition being angular
2. angularities. angular forms, outlines, or corners

annex /; ( ) ; (, )
1. to append or attach, especially to a larger or more significant thing
2. to incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city
3. to add or attach, as an attribute, a condition or a consequence

annotation ,
1. the act or process of furnishing critical commentary or explanatory notes
2. a critical or explanatory note; a commentary

anodize () ,
to coat (a metallic surface) electrolytically with a protective or decorative oxide

anomalous , ; (abnormal),
1. deviating from the normal or common order, form, or rule
2. equivocal, as in classification or nature

anomaly , , ;
1. deviation or departure from the normal or common order, form, or rule
2. one that is peculiar, irregular, abnormal, or difficult to classify
3. (Astronomy) the angular deviation, as observed from the sun, of a planet from its perihelion
perihelion [ ]
aphelion <f:lin>

anonymity , ;
1. the quality or state of being unknown or unacknowledged
2. one that is unknown or unacknowledged

antagonize
1. to incur the dislike of
2. to counteract

antarctic < ntrktik> (opp. arctic)

antedate (, ) ... ; ()
1. to be of an earlier date than; precede in time
2. a. to assign to a date earlier than that of the actual occurrence b. to date as of a time before
that of actual execution

anthem ,
1. a hymn of praise or loyalty

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2. a sacred composition set to words from the Bible


3. a modern ballad accompanied rock music instrumentation
hymn , , ,
1. a son of praise or thanksgiving to God or a deity
2. a song of praise or joy; a paean
deity <d:ti> , , ; (god)
1. a god or goddess
2. a. he essential nature or condition of being a god; divinity b. Deity. God. used with the
paean <p:n> ;
1. (Music) a song of joyful praise or exultation
2. a fervent expression of joy or praise
3. an ancient Greek hymn of thanksgiving or invocation, especially to Apollo
4

anthology ,
1. a collection of literary pieces, such as poems, short stories, or plays
2. a miscellany, an assortment, or a catalog, as of complaints, comments, or ideas
assortment , ,
1. the act of assorting; separation into classes
2. a collection of various kinds; a variety

antibiotic

antibody ,
1. a protein substance produced in the blood or tissues in response to a specific antigen, such as a
bacterium or a toxin. antibodies destroy or weaken bacteria and neutralize organic poisons, thus
forming the basis of immunity
2. an object composed of antimatter

anticipate , ; ,
1. to feel or realize beforehand; foresee
2. to look forward to, especially with pleasure; expect
3. to act in advance so as to prevent; forestall
4. to foresee and fulfill in advance
5. to cause to happen in advance; accelerate
6. to use in advance, as income not yet available
7. to pay (a debt) before it is due

anticlimax ;

antidote ; ,
1. a remedy or other agent used to neutralize or counteract the effects of a poison
2. an agent that relieves or counteracts

antigen
a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. antigens
include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs

antihistamine [, ]

antipathy , ;
1. a strong feeling of aversion or repugnance
2. an object of aversion

antiseptic

antithesis (contrast),

antithetical , ,

a substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of disease-causing microorganisms

1. of, relating to, or marked by antithesis


2. being in diametrical opposition
diametric ; ,

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1. of, relating to, or along a diameter


2. exactly opposite; contrary
1

antitoxin
1. an antibody formed in response to and capable of neutralizing a specific toxin of biological origin
2. an animal or human serum containing antitoxins. it is used in medicine to prevent or treat
diseases caused by the action of biological toxins

anvil

aorta <ei rt>

apathetic ,
1. feeling or showing a lack of interest or concern; indifferent
2. feeling or showing little or no emotion; unresponsive

apathy ,
1. lack of interest or concern, especially regarding matters of general importance or appeal;
indifference
2. lack of emotion or feeling; impassiveness

aphorism , ,
1. a tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion; an adage
2. a brief statement of a principle
adage , ,
a saying that sets forth a general truth and that has gained credit through long use

aphoristic ,

apocrypha ;

apocryphal ;

apostrophe , , ;
the superscript sign (') used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the
possessive case, and the plurals of numbers, letters, and abbreviations

apparition (phantom), , (specter)


1. a ghostly figure; a specter
2. a sudden or unusual sight
3. the act of appearing; appearance

applicable / ; ,

apposite

that can be applied; appropriate


strikingly appropriate and relevant
1

appraisal , ,
1. the act or an instance of appraising
2. an expert or official valuation, as for taxation

appreciable ;
possible to estimate, measure, or perceive

appreciate ; ; ;
1. to recognize the quality, significance, or magnitude of
2. to be fully aware of or sensitive to; realize
3. to be thankful or show gratitude for
4. to admire greatly; value
5. to raise in value or price, especially over time

appreciation , ; , , ; , ; () , ()
1. recognition of the quality, value, significance, or magnitude of people and things
2. a judgment or opinion, especially a favorable one
3. an expression of gratitude
4. awareness or delicate perception, especially of aesthetic qualities or values

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5. a rise in value or price, especially over time


4

apprehension , ; (); ,
1. earful or uneasy anticipation of the future; dread
2. the act of seizing or capturing; arrest
3. the ability to apprehend or understand; understanding

apprehensive , ; ,
1. anxious or fearful about the future; uneasy
2. capable of understanding and quick to apprehend

apprise (inform),

approbation , , , ;

to give notice to; inform


1. an expression of warm approval praise
2. official approval
1

appropriate v. , ; () ( )
a. , ;
suitable for a particular person, condition, occasion, or place; fitting
1. to set apart for a specific use
2. to take possession of or make use of exclusively for oneself, often without permission

appropriation , (), ; , ; ()

aptitude , , ; , ;
1. an inherent ability, as for learning; a talent
2. quickness in learning and understanding; intelligence
3. the condition or quality of being suitable; appropriateness

aqueduct (); (); () ,

arabesque < rbsk> , ; [ ]

arable < rbl>

arbiter ,

fit for cultivation, as by plowing


1. one chosen or appointed to judge or decide a disputed issue; an arbitrator
2. one who has the power to judge or ordain at will
ordain <rdin> (, ) , ( ) ; ,
1. a. to invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on b. to authorize as a
rabbi
2. to order by virtue of superior authority; decree or enact
3. to prearrange unalterably; predestine
decree n. , () , ; , , v. () , () ; ()

arbitrary , ;
1. determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle
2. based on or subject to individual judgment or preference
3. established by a court or judge rather than by a specific law or statute
4. not limited by law; despotic
despot , , (tyrant)
1. a ruler with absolute power
2. a person who wields power oppressively; a tyrant
3. a. a Byzantine emperor or prince b. an Eastern Orthodox bishop or patriarch

arbitration , ;
the process by which the parties to a dispute submit their differences to the judgement of an
impartial person or group appointed by mutual consent or statutory provision

arboreal ;

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1. relating to or resembling a tree


2. living in trees; arboreous

arboreous , (wooded)
1. having many trees; wooded
2. resembling or characteristic of a tree; treelike
3. arboreal

arcane ;
known or understood by only a few

arch n. , () a. (chief); ,
1. chief; principal
2. mischievous; roguish
roguish <rugi> , ; ,
1. deceitful; unprincipled
2. playfully mischievous

archaic , (obsolete)
1. of, relating to, or characteristic of a much earlier, often more primitive period
2. no longer current or applicable; antiquated
3. of, relating to, or characteristic of words and language that were once common but are now used
chiefly to suggest an earlier style or period

archaism ,
1. an archaic word, phrase, idiom, or other expression
2. an archaic style, quality, or usage

archetypal <rkitipl> ;
1. an original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype
2. an ideal example of a type; quintessence

archivist ,

ardor , ; ;
1. fiery intensity of feeling
2. strong enthusiasm or devotion; zeal
3. intense heat or glow, as of fire

arduous , ; ; ,
1. demanding great effort or labor; difficult
2. testing severely the powers of endurance; strenuous
3. hard to traverse, climb, or surmount

arena , ; ,

arid , , ; (, ) ,
1. lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody plants
2. lacking interest or feeling; lifeless and dull

armada , ()
1. a fleet of warships
2. a large group of moving things

aroma , (fragrance); ( )
1. a. a quality that can be perceived by the olfactory sense b. a pleasant characteristic odor, as of a
plant, spice, or food
2. a distinctive, intangible quality; an aura

aromatic ,

arouse ; ,

arresting ,

having an aroma; fragrant or sweet-smelling

attracting and holding the attention; striking

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arrhythmic /

arson ()

arterial <artril> ; ( ) , ()
venous <v:ns>

artery (opp. vein); /,


1. (Anatomy) any of a branching system of muscular, elastic tubes that carry blood away from the
heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body
2. a major route of transportation into which local routes flow

articulate
1. endowed with the power of speech
2. composed of distinct, meaningful syllables or words, as human speech
3. expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language
4. characterized by the use of clear, expressive language

artifice ; ; , , ; ,
1. an artful or crafty expedient; a stratagem
2. subtle but base deception; trickery
3. cleverness or skill; ingenuity

artistry ; ;
1. artistic ability
2. artistic quality or craft

artless , ; , ; , (clumsy)

ascend
1. to go or move upward; rise
2. to slope upward

ascendancy , ,
superiority or decisive advantage; domination

ascetic ,
a person who renounces material comforts and leads a life of austere self-discipline, especially as
an act of religious devotion

aseptic <eisptik> ; ;
1. a. free of pathogenic microorganisms b. using methods to protect against infection by pathogenic
microorganisms
2. lacking animation or emotion

asperity , ; ,
1. a. roughness or harshness, as of surface, sound, or climate b. severity; rigor
2. harshness of manner; ill temper or irritability

aspersion , ; ,
1. a. an unfavorable or damaging remark; slander b. the act of defaming or slandering
2. a sprinkling, especially with holy water

aspiration , , ; (breathing)
1. the act of breathing in; inhalation
2. a. a strong desire for high achievement b. an object of such desire; an ambition
inhalation (opp. exhalation)

assail , ; (, )
1. to attack with or as if with violent blows; assault
2. to attack verbally, as with ridicule or ensure
3. to trouble; beset

assassination

assault , (violent attack); () ,


1. a violent physical or verbal attack

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2. a. a military attack, such as one launched against a fortified area or place b. the concluding
stage of an attack in which close combat occurs with the enemy
2

assay <si> (), /; ( )


1. to subject to chemical analysis
2. to examine by trial or experiment; put to a test
3. to evaluate; assess
4. to attempt; try

assess
1. to estimate the value of (property) for taxation
2. to set or determine the amount of (a payment, such as a tax or fine)
3. to charge (a person or property) with a special payment, such as a tax or fine
4. to determine the value, significance, or extent of; appraise

assessment , ; ,
1. the act of assessing; appraisal
2. an amount assessed, as for taxation
appraisal <prizl> , ,

asset < set> , ; ,


assets and liabilities

assiduous , ; ,
1. constant in application or attention; diligent
2. unceasing; persistent

assort ;
1. to separate into groups according to kind; classify
2. to supply with (an appropriate variety or assortment, as of goods)

assuage , , ; ( )
1. to make (something burdensome or painful) less intense or severe
2. to satisfy or appease (hunger or thirst, for example)
3. to pacify or calm

asterisk

asthma < zm> ()

astound ,

a star-shaped figure (*) used in printing to indicate an omission or a reference to a footnote

to astonish and bewilder


2

astringent a. , (severe) n. ,
1. (Medicine) tending to draw together or constrict tissues; styptic
2. sharp and penetrating; pungent or severe
styptic <stptik> a. ; n. ;
1. contracting the tissues or blood vessels; astringent
2. tending to check bleeding by contracting the tissues or blood vessels; hemostatic
hemostatic a. n.

astrologer <strldr>

astrology

astronomy

astute , ;

atherosclerosis < rousklirusis>

having or showing shrewdness and discernment, especially with respect to one's own concerns
1

atonement , ; [the A]

atrophy , ; (degeneration); ( )
1. (Pathology) a wasting or decrease in size of a bodily organ, tissue, or part owing to disease,
injury, or lack of use

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. a wasting away, deterioration, or diminution


1

attain /; ,
1. to gain as an objective; achieve
2. to arrive at, as by virtue of persistence or the passage of time

attentive , ; ,
1. giving care or attention; watchful
2. marked by or offering devoted and assiduous attention to the pleasure or comfort of others
3. expressing affectionate interest through close observation and gallant gestures
gallant , ; ,

attest , ; ...
1. to affirm to be correct, true, or genuine
2. a. to certify by signature or oath b. to certify in an official capacity
3. to supply or be evidence of
4. to put under oath

attic ,

attorney ; ()
a person legally appointed by another to act as his or her agent in the transaction of business,
specifically one qualified and licensed to act for plaintiffs and defendants in legal proceedings
plaintiff , (opp. defendant)

attune /; ( ) ,
1. to bring into a harmonious or responsive relationship
2. (Music) to put (an instrument) into correct tune

audacious ; ,
1. fearlessly, often recklessly daring; bold
2. unrestrained by convention or propriety; insolent
3. spirited and original

audacity , ; ;
1. fearless daring; intrepidity
2. bold or insolent heedlessness of restraints, as of those imposed by prudence, propriety, or
convention
3. an act or instance of intrepidity or insolent heedlessness
intrepid , (fearless)
resolutely courageous; fearless

audit ; ; ()
1. an examination of records or financial accounts to check their accuracy
2. an adjustment or correction of accounts
3. an examined and verified account

augment
1. to make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity
2. to add an augment to

augury ();

aura
1. an invisible breath, emanation, or radiation
2. a distinctive but intangible quality that seems to surround a person or thing; atmosphere

auspice < :spis> , , (patronage); , (favorable omen)


1. also auspices. protection or support; patronage
2. a sign indicative of future prospects; an omen
3. observation of and divination from the action of birds
divination ; ,
1. the art or act of foretelling future events or revealing occult knowledge by means of

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

augury or an alleged supernatural agency


2. an inspired guess or presentiment
3. something that has been divined
presentiment , ,
a sense that something is about to occur; a premonition
divine a. , , v. , , ;

auspicious , ,
1. attended by favorable circumstances; propitious
2. marked by success; prosperous
propitious , ; , ; ( ) ,
1. presenting favorable circumstances; auspicious
2. kindly; gracious

austere , ; ; , ;
1. severe or stern in disposition or appearance; somber and grave
2. strict or severe in discipline; ascetic
3. having no adornment or ornamentation; bare
ornamentation
1. a. the act or process of decorating, adorning, or embellishing b. the state of being
decorated, adorned, or embellished
2. something that decorates or adorns; an embellishment

authentic , ; (genuine)
1. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of trust, reliance, or belief
2. having a claimed and verifiable origin or authorship; not counterfeit or copied

authenticity , ;

authoritarian ,

the quality or condition of being authentic, trustworthy, or genuine


1. characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom
2. of, relating to, or expecting unquestioning obedience
3

authoritative , ; ; ,
1. having or arising from authority; official
2. of acknowledged accuracy or excellence highly reliable
3. wielding authority; commanding

authorize / , ;
1. to grant authority or power to
2. to give permission for; sanction
3. to be sufficient grounds for justify

autocrat /
1. a ruler having unlimited power; a despot
2. a person with unlimited power or authority

avaricious
immoderately desirous of wealth or gain; greedy

aver , ; ()
1. to affirm positively; declare
2. (Law) a. to assert formally as a fact b. to justify or prove

aversion (antipathy)
1. a fixed, intense dislike; repugnance
2. one that is intensely disliked and avoided
3. a feeling of extreme repugnance accompanied by avoidance or rejection

avert , ; (, ) ,
1. to turn away

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. to ward off (something about to happen); prevent


1

avid , ;
1. having an ardent desire or unbounded craving; greedy
2. marked by keen interest and enthusiasm

avow ( ) , ; ,
1. to acknowledge openly, boldly, and unashamedly; confess
2. to state positively

awe <:> ,
a mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder inspired by authority, genius, great
beauty, sublimity, or might
sublime <sblim> , , ,
1. characterized y nobility; majestic
2. a. of high spiritual, moral, or intellectual worth b. not to be excelled; supreme
3. inspiring awe; impressive

awl <:l> ( )

axiomatic (self-evident);

axle ,

of, relating to, or resembling an axiom; self-evident

B
1

backwater ; ;

badge <bd> , , ;
1. a. a device or emblem worn as an insignia of rank, office, or membership in an organization b.
an emblem given as an award or honor
2. a characteristic mark

badger n. v. () , ,
to harry or pester persistently
harry , ; ,
1. to disturb or distress by or as if by repeated attacks; harass
2. to raid, as in war; sack or pillage
sack ; , ; , ;
to place into a sack
to rob of goods or valuables, especially after capture
pester , , (vex),
to harass with petty annoyances; bother

bale , ; , ; , , ,
a large package of raw or finished material tightly bound with twine or wire and often wrapped
1. evil
2. mental suffering; anguish

baleful , ;
1. portending evil; ominous
2. harmful or malignant in intent or effect

balk <b:k> ,
1. to stop short and refuse to go on
2. to refuse obstinately or abruptly
3. a. (Sports) to make an incomplete or misleading motion b. (Baseball) to make an illegal motion
before pitching, allowing one or more base runners to advance one base

ballast ; () ; ()
1. heavy material that is placed in the hold of a ship or the gondola of a ballon to enhance stability
2. a. coarse gravel or crushed rock laid to form a bed for roads or railroads b. the gravel ingredient

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

of concrete
3. something that gives stability, especially in character
ingredient , , ; ,
an element in a mixture or compound; a constituent
1

ballot ;
1. a sheet of paper or a card used to cast or register a vote, especially a secret one
2. the act, process, or method of voting, especially in secret
3. a list of candidates running for office; a ticket
4. the total of all votes cast in an election
5. the right to vote; franchise
6. a small ball once used to register a secret vote

ballroom

balm , ; ;

banal ,
drearily commonplace and often predictable; trite
trite , ; ,
lacking power to evoke interest through overuse or repetition; hackneyed

banality ()
1. the condition or quality of being banal; triviality
2. something that is trite, obvious, or predictable; a commonplace

bane ; ,
1. fatal injury or ruin
2. a cause of death, destruction, or ruin
3. a deadly poison

bankruptcy , ; ( )

barge ;
1. a. a long, large, usually flat-bottomed boat for transporting freight that is generally unpowered
and towed or pushed by other craft b. a large, open pleasure boat used for parties, pageants, or
formal ceremonies
2. a powerboat reserved for the use of an admiral
pageant <p dnt> ; , ; ,

bark v. ; () n. ;

barrage <br:> ;
1. a. a heavy curtain of artillery fire directed in front of friendly troops to screen and protect them
b. a rapid, concentrated discharge of missiles, as from small arms
2. an overwhelming, concentrated outpouring, as of words

barter ,
to trade goods or services without the exchange of money

basement () ,
1. the substructure or foundation of a building
2. the lowest habitable story of a building, usually below ground level

bask , ; ( )
1. to expose oneself to pleasant warmth
2. to take great pleasure or satisfaction

baste ; ,
to sew loosely with large running stitches so as to hold together temporarily
1. to beat vigorously; thrash
2. to lambaste
thrash , ; () ; ( ) ,
lambaste , ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. to give a thrashing to; beat


2. to scold sharply; berate
1

bazaar ,

beetle ,

befriend ... ,
to behave as a friend to

befuddle ,
1. to confuse; perplex
2. to stupefy with or as if with alcoholic drink

behold
1. a. to perceive by the visual faculty; see b. to perceive through use of the mental faculty;
comprehend
2. to look upon; gaze at

beholder (spectator)

belabor ; , ; () , (abuse)
1. to attack with blows; hit, beat, or whip
2. to assail verbally
3. to discuss repeatedly or at length; harp on

belie , ( ) , ; ...
1. to picture falsely; misrepresent
2. to show to be false
3. to be counter to; contradict

belittle ,
1. to represent or speak of as contemptibly small or unimportant; disparage
2. to cause to seem less than another or little

belligerent ;
1. inclined or eager to fight; hostile or aggressive
2. of, pertaining to, or engaged in warfare

benefactor , ; ,

benevolence , ; , ;

one that gives aid, especially financial aid


1. an inclination to perform kind, chartable acts
2. a. a kindly act b. a gift given out of generosity
3. a compulsory tax or payment exacted by some English sovereigns without the consent of
Parliament
1

bent ; ,
1. altered from an originally straight or even condition
2. determined to take a course of action

bequeath ; (, ) ,
1. (Law) to leave or give (property) by will
2. to pass (something) on to another; hand down

berate
to rebuke or scold angrily and at length

beset , ; , ; ,
1. to attack from all sides
2. to trouble persistently; harass
3. to hem in; surround
4. to stud, as with jewels
hem ; , ,
stud ... ; ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

bespeak , , ; ( ) , ...
1. to be or give a sign of; indicate
2. to engage, hire, or order in advance
3. to foretell; portend
portend ... ,
1. to serve as an omen or a warning of; presage
2. to indicate by prediction; forecast
presage , (omen); ,
1. an indication or a warning of a future occurrence; an omen
2. a feeling or an intuition of what if going to occur; a presentiment
3. prophetic significance or meaning

betray , ; () ;

bettor

bias , , ,

bibliography ; ,

bile ; ,
2. bitterness of temper; ill humor; irascibility
irascible , ,
1. prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered
2. characterized by or resulting from anger

bilk () , (, ) ; ( )
1. a. to defraud, cheat, or swindle b. to evade payment of
2. to thwart or frustrate
3. to elude

bit , ; , ; ,

bizarre <bizr> ,

blackmail , ,

strikingly unconventional and far-fetched in style or appearance; odd


1. a. extortion of money or something else of value from a person by the threat of exposing a
criminal act or discreditable information b. something of value extorted in this manner
2. tribute formerly paid to freebooters along the Scottish border for protection from pillage
freebooter ,
a person who pillages an plunders, especially a pirate
1

bland ; ; , ; ; ,
1. characterized by a moderate, unperturbed, or tranquil quality, especially a. pleasant in manner;
smooth b. not irritating or stimulating; soothing c. exhibiting no personal worry, embarrassment, or
concern
2. dull and insipid

blandish ,

blandishment , ; ( )

blasphemy

to coax by flattery or wheedling; cajole

1. a. a contemptuous or profane act, utterance, or writing concerning God or a sacred entity b. the
act of claiming for oneself the attributes and right of God
2. an irreverent or impious act, attitude, or utterance in regard to something considered inviolable or
sacrosanct
inviolable ,
1. secure from violation or profanation
2. impregnable to assault or trespass; invincible
impregnable ; ;

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. impossible to capture or enter by force


2. difficult or impossible to attack, challenge, or refute with success
trespass , ;
invincible , ;
incapable of being overcome or defeated; unconquerable
sacrosanct <s krous kt> ,
regarded as sacred and inviolable
1

blatant , ; , ;
1. unpleasantly loud and noisy
2. totally or offensively conspicuous or obtrusive
obtrusive , ;
1. thrusting out; protruding
2. tending to push self-assertively forward; brash
3. undesirably noticeable

blaze , ; ;

bleach ,
1. to remove the color from, as by means of chemical agents or sunlight
2. to make white or colorless

bleak ; , ; ,
1. a. gloomy and somber; dreary b. providing no encouragement; depressing
2. cold and cutting; raw
3.exposed to the elements; unsheltered and barren

blemish , ,
an imperfection that mars or impairs; a flaw or defect

bliss ,
1. extreme happiness; ecstasy
2. the ecstasy of salvation; spiritual joy

blissful ,

blithe , ;
1. carefree and lighthearted
2. lacking or showing a lack of due concern; casual

blizzard ; ,

blotch , ; ,

blowhard ,
a boaster or braggart
braggart
one given to loud, empty boasting; bragger
bragger

blunt ; ,
1. having a dull edge or end; not sharp
2. abrupt and often disconcertingly frank in speech
3. slow to understand or perceive; dull
4. lacking in feeling; insensitive

blush ,
1. to become red in the face, especially from modesty, embarrassment, or shame; flush
2. to become red or rosy
3. to feel embarrassed or ashamed

boast
to glorify oneself in speech; talk in a self-admiring way

boastful , ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

boggle , , ; ,
1. to hesitate as if in fear or doubt
2. to shy away or be overcome with fright or astonishment
3. to botch; bungle
botch ; /
1. to ruin through clumsiness
2. to make or perform clumsily; bungle
3. to repair or mend clumsily
bungle ; ,
to work or act ineptly or inefficiently

bogus , (phoney)

boisterous , ; ; (, ) , ,

counterfeit or fake
1. rough and stormy; violent
2. loud, noisy, and lacking in restraint or discipline
4

bolster ; (, 0 , ;
1. to support or prop up with or as if with a long, narrow pillow or cushion
2. to buoy up
prop , ; /; ,
buoy n. , v. ; ,
1. to keep afloat or aloft
2. a. to maintain at a high level; support b. to hearten or inspire; uplift
3. to mark with or as if with a buoy
hearten ,
to give strength, courage, or hope to; encourage

bombast (tall talk),

bombastic ,

bondage / ; , ; ( )

grandiloquent, pompous speech or writing

1. the state of one who is bound as a slave or serf


2. a state of subjection to a force, a power, or an influence
3. the practice of being physically restrained, as with cords or handcuffs, as a means of attaining
sexual gratification
4. villeinage
serf ;
villein <vln>
gratify ,
1. to please or satisfy
2. to give what is desired to; indulge
1

booming ,

boor (rustic), ;
1. a person with rude, clumsy manners and little refinement
2. a peasant

boorish ; , (rude)

botany <btni> ; ( ) ,

boulder , ()

resembling or characteristic of a boor; rude and clumsy in behavior

a large rounded mass of rock lying on the surface of the ground or embedded in the soil
1

bouquet <bouki> ; ( ) ; ,
1. a cluster of flowers; a nosegay

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. the fragrance typical of a wine or liqueur


nosegay
a small bunch of flowers
1

bout ; ; ... ,
1. a contest between antagonists; a match
2. a period of time spent in a particular way; a spell

bower <bur> , ; ; (retreat)

brace , ; ,
1. to furnish with a brace
2. to support or hold steady with or as if with a brace; reinforce
3. to prepare or position so as to be ready for impact or danger
4. to confront with questions or requests
5. to increase the tension of
5. to invigorate; stimulate

bracket , ;

braid , ;
1. a. to interweave three or more strands, strips, or lengths of in a diagonally overlapping pattern b.
to create (something) by such interweaving c. to style (the hair) by such interweaving d. to mingle
(discrete elements, for example) as if by such interweaving
2. to decorate or edge (something) with a trim of interwoven strands
3. to fasten or decorate (hair) with a band or ribbon

braided , ; ()
1. a. produced by or as if by braiding b. having braids
2. decorated with braid
3. flowing in an interconnected network of channels that divide and reunite

braiding [] / ,
1. braided embroidery or trim
2. braids considered as a group
embroider ; ( ) ,
1. to ornament with needlework
2. to make by means of needlework
3. to add embellishments or fanciful details to

brand ; , ; ( ) ,

1. to mark with or as if with a hot iron


2. to mark with disgrace or infamy; stigmatize
3. to impress firmly; fix ineradicably
stigmatize , ; ( )
1. to characterize or brand as disgraceful or ignominious
2. to mark with stigmata or a stigma
3. to cause stigmata to appear on
ignominious <gnmnis> , ,
1. marked by shame or disgrace
2. deserving disgrace or shame; despicable
3. degrading; debasing
despicable , ,
deserving of contempt or scorn; vile

brash , ; , ;
1. a. hasty and unthinking; impetuous b. rash
2. lacking in sensitivity or tact

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

3. presumptuously forward; impudent


4. brittle
1

brat ,
a child, especially a spoiled or ill-mannered one

brazen , () , ; , ;
1. marked by flagrant and insolent audacity
2. having a loud, usually harsh, resonant sound
3. made of brass
4. resembling brass, as in color or strength

breach ; , ,
1. a. an opening, a tear, or a rupture b. a gap or rift, especially in or as if in a solid structure such
as a dike or fortification
2. a violation or infraction, as of a law, a legal obligation, or a promise
3. a breaking up or disruption of friendly relations; an estrangement
4, a leap of a whale from the water
5. the breaking of waves or surf
rupture , , ,
1. a. the process of breaking open or bursting b. the state of being broken open
2. a break in friendly relations
dike , ; , ; ,
1. en embankment of earth and rock built to prevent floods
2. a barrier blocking a passage, especially for protection
3. a raised causeway
4. a ditch; a channel
causeway ; ( )
1. a raised roadway, as across water or marshland
2 a paved highway
marsh ,
infraction ()
infringe ( ) , ,
to transgress or exceed the limits of; violate

breakthrough () (); , ; ()
1. an act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction
2. a military offensive that penetrates an enemy's lines of defense
3. a major achievement or success that permits further progress, as in technology

breeder (); ; , ;
1. a person who breeds animals or plants
2. an animal kept to produce offspring
3. a source or cause
4. a breeder reactor

brevity
1. the quality of state of being brief in duration
2. concise expression; terseness

bricklayer

brilliance , ; ()
1. the state or quality of being brilliant a. extreme brightness b. exceptional clarity and agility of
intellect or invention
2. splendor; magnificence

brisk , ; ( ) ,
1. marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. keen or sharp in speech or manner


3. stimulating and invigorating
4. pleasantly zestful
zestful , ;
4

brittle , ; ( ) ; ( )
1. a. likely to break, snap, or crack, as when subjected to pressure b. easily disrupted
2. a. difficult to deal with; snappish b. lacking warmth of feeling; cold
3. brilliantly sharp, as in percussive sound
4. a. perishable b. fleeting; transitory
snappish ; ,
1. likely to snap or bite
2. irritable and curt
percussive

broach <brout> n. ; () ; v. ( ) ; ()
1. a. to bring up (a subject) for discussion or debate b. to announce
2. to pierce in order to draw off liquid
3. to draw off (a liquid) by piercing a hole in a cask or other container
4. to shape or enlarge (a hole) with a tapered, serrated tool
cask [ . barrel , barrel ]; ( )
taper ;
1. to become gradually narrower or thinner toward one end
2. to diminish or lessen gradually. often used with off

brochure <brour> ,
a small booklet or pamphlet, often containing promotional material or product information

broil ; () ; ,
1. to cook by direct radiant heat, as over a grill or under an electric element
2. to expose to great heat
to engage in a rowdy argument
rowdy , ;
disorderly; rough

brook n. , (small stream) v. ,

bruise <bru:z> , ; ; ()

to put up with; tolerate


1. a. to injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of (part of the body) without breaking the skin, as
by a blow b. to damage (plant tissue), as by abrasion or pressure
2. to dent or mar
3. to pound (berries, for example) into fragments; crush
4. to hurt, especially psychologically
dent n. , () , (, ) , v. ,
1. a depression in a surface made by pressure or a blow
2. (Informal) a significant, usually diminishing effect or impression
3. (Informal) meaningful progress; headway
pound , ; /
1. to strike repeatedly and forcefully
2. to beat to a powder or pulp; pulverize or crush
3. to instill by persistent, emphatic repetition
4. to assault with heavy gunfire
pulverize , ; (, ) ,
1. to pound, crush, or grind to a powder or dust
2. to demolish

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

emphatic , ; , ; ,
1. expressed or performed with emphasis
2. forceful and definite in expression or action
3. standing out in a striking and clearly defined way
1

bucolic , ,
1. of or characteristic of the countryside or its people; rustic
2. of or characteristic of shepherds or flocks; pastoral

budget ; , ; () , ( ) (bundle)
1. a. an itemized summary of estimated or intended expenditures for a given period along with
proposals for financing them b. a systematic plan for the expenditure of a usually fixed resource,
such as money or time, during a given period c. the total sum of money allocated for a particular
purpose or period of time
2. a stock or collection with definite limits

bulb ; ,

bulge ( ) ; ; () ,
1. a protruding part; an outward curve or swelling
2. (Nautical) a bilge
3. a sudden, usually temporary increase in number or quantity
4. an advantage
bilge ; ()

bull ;

bulletin <bltin> , , ; ,
1. a brief report, especially an official statement on a matter of public interest issued for immediate
publication or broadcast
2. a brief update or summary of current news, as on television or radio or in a newspaper
3. a periodical, especially one published by an organization or society
4. a printed program, especially one listing the order of worship for a religious service

bullfight

bum , ;
1. to live by begging and scavenging from place to place
2. to loaf
scavenge
1. to search through for salvageable material
2. to collect and remove refuse from
3. to collect (salvageable material) by searching
4. a. to expel (exhaust gases) from a cylinder of an internal-combustion engine b. to expel
exhaust gases from (such a cylinder)
loaf n. v. ,
to pass time at leisure; idle

buoy n. , v. , ; , ( ) ,
1. to keep afloat or aloft
2. a. to maintain at a high level; support b. to hearten or inspire; uplift
3. to mark with or as if with a buoy

buoyant / ; ; ; ()
1. having or marked by buoyancy
2. lighthearted; gay

bureaucratize ,

burgeon , ,
1. a. to put forth new buds, leaves, or greenery; sprout b. to begin to grow or blossom
2. to grow and flourish

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

burgle ... ; ,
to burglarize
burglarize <b:rglriz>

() , ...
1. to enter and steal from (a building or other premises)
2. to commit burglary against
premise ; [pl.] , , , ,

burlesque ,
1. a literary or dramatic work that makes a subject appear ridiculous by treating it in an
incongruous way, as by presenting a lofty subject with vulgarity or an inconsequential one with
mock dignity
2. a ludicrous or mocking imitation; a travesty
3. a variety show characterized by broad ribald comedy, dancing, and striptease
ribald <rbld> ,
characterized by or indulging in vulgar, lewd humor
striptease

burnish , ;
1. to make smooth or glossy by or as if by rubbing; polish
2. to rub with a tool that serves especially to smooth or polish

bust <bst> , ; ; ()
1. a sculpture representing a person's head, shoulders, and upper chest
2. a. a woman's bosom b. the human chest

butcher ,

buttress n. ; , v. ; ,
1. a structure, usually brick or stone, built against a wall for support or reinforcement
2. something resembling a buttress, as a. the flared base of certain tree trunks b. a horny growth
on the heel of a horse's hoof
3. something that serves to support, prop, or reinforce

byline () ; (, )
a line at the head of a newspaper or magazine article carrying the writer's name

C
2

cacophony (opp. euphony)


1. jarring, discordant sound; dissonance
2. the use of harsh or discordant sounds in literary composition, as for poetic effect
jarring ; , ,

cadge (peddle); ;

caesura <sir> () (pause); ()

cajole , (coax)

to beg or get by begging

to urge with gentle and repeated appeals, teasing, or flattery; wheedle


wheedle ; ...
1. to persuade or attempt to persuade by flattery or guile; cajole
2. to obtain through the use of flattery or guile

calamity , , (misery)
1. an event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster
2. dire distress resulting from loss or tragedy

calcium <k lsim>

caliber , ; , , (ability); ,

calibrate ;
1. to check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative

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measuring instrument)
2. to determine the caliber of (a tube)
3. to make corrections in; adjust
2

calipers

callous () , ; ,
1. having calluses; toughened
2. emotionally hardened; unfeeling
callus <k ls> () (),

camouflage ,
1. the method or result of concealing personnel or equipment from an enemy by making them
appear to be part of the natural surroundings
2. concealment by disguise or protective coloring
3. fabric or a garment dyed in splotches of green, brown, tan, and black so as to make the wearer
indistinguishable from the surrounding environment
splotch <splat> , ,
an irregularly shaped spot, stain, or colored or discolored area

canal , ; (duct)

candidacy <k ndidsi>


1. a person who seeks or is nominated for an office, prize, or honor
2. one that seems likely to gain a certain position or come to a certain fate

candor , , ,
1. frankness or sincerity of expression; openness
2. freedom from prejudice; impartiality

cannibal ,
1. a person who eats the flesh of other human beings
2. an animal that feeds on others of its own kind

canon ; , (criterion)
1. an ecclesiastical law or code of laws established by a church council
2. a secular law, rule, or code of law
3. a. an established principle b. a basis for judgment; a standard or criterion
4. the books of the Bible officially accepted as Holy Scripture
5. the works of a writer that have been accepted as authentic

canonical () , ,
1. of, relating to, or required by canon law
2. of or appearing in the biblical canon
3. conforming to orthodox rules, as of procedure
4. of or belonging to a cathedral chapter

canopy <k npi> (),

cant , ; , (lingo); ,
1. monotonous talk filled with platitudes
2. hypocritically pious language
3. the special vocabulary peculiar to the members of an underworld group; argot
4. whining speech, such as that used by beggars
5. the special terminology understood among the members of a profession, discipline, or class but
obscure to the general population; jargon
1. angular deviation from a vertical or horizontal plane or surface; an inclination or a slope
2. a slanted or oblique surface
3. a. a thrust or motion that tilts something b. the tilt caused by such a thrust or motion
4. an outer corner, as of a building
argot <rgt> , (jargon)

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a specialized vocabulary or set of idioms used by a particular group


whine , ; () ;
1

cantankerous ,
1. ill-tempered and quarrelsome; disagreeable
2. difficult to handle

canvass (, ) , , ; ; ( )
1. to examine carefully or discuss thoroughly; scrutinize
2. a. to go through (a region) or go to (persons) to solicit votes or orders b. to conduct a survey
of (public opinion); poll

caper <kipr>

capillary <k plri> ,

capitulate () ,
1. to surrender under specified conditions; come to terms
2. to give up all resistance; acquiesce

capitulation ; ;
1. the act of surrendering or giving up
2. a document containing the terms of surrender
3. an enumeration of the main parts of a subject; a summary

capriccio
1. (Music) an instrumental work with an improvisatory style and a free form
2. a prank; a caper
3. a whim
prank , ,
a mischievous trick or practical joke

caprice <kpr:s> (whim); ;


a. an impulsive change of mind b. an inclination to change one's mind impulsively c. a sudden,
unpredictable action, change, or series of actions or changes

capricious (fickle),
characterized by or subject to whim; impulsive and unpredictable

captious , ,
1. marked by a disposition to find and point out trivial faults
2. intended to entrap or confuse, as in an argument

captivate , , (charm)
to attract and hold by charm, beauty, or excellence

cardboard n. , a. ; , ;
1. made of or consisting of cardboard
2. a. flimsy; insubstantial b. lacking depth; superficial

cardinal , ;
1. of foremost importance; paramount
2. (Color) dark to deep or vivid red

cardiology ()

carefree , ,
free of worries and responsibilities

caress <krs>

caret ()

a gentle touch or gesture of fondness, tenderness, or love


a proofreading symbol used to indicate where something is to be inserted in a line of printed or
written matter
1

carp , ,
to find fault in a disagreeable way; complain fretfully

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carrion ,

cartilage

cartographer

dead and decaying flesh

cartridge ,

carve ( ) ; , ; ( )
1. a. to divide into pieces by cutting; slice b. to divide by parceling out
2. to cut into a desired shape; fashion by cutting
3. to make or form by or as if by cutting
4. to decorate by cutting and shaping carefully

cast , ( ) , () , () ; (dismiss); ,

caste ; ;

castigate , , ,

1. to inflict severe punishment on


2. to criticize severely
2

castigation , , , ,

castrate ;
3. to deprive of virility or spirit; emasculate
virility ;
emasculate () ; ,
1. to castrate
2. to deprive of strength or vigor; weaken

casual , ; , ; ,

cataclysm <k tklzm> (deluge); ,

cataclysmic <k tklzmik>

catalyst

catalyze ,
1. to modify, especially to increase, the rate of (a chemical reaction) by catalysis
2. to bring about; initiate
3. to produce fundamental change in; transform

categorical ; , ; () (opp. hypothetical)


1. being without exception or qualification; absolute
2. a. of or relating to a category or categories b. according to or using categories

caterpillar , ; ,

cathedral

caucus
a. a meeting of the local members of a political party especially to select delegates to a convention
or register preferences for candidates running for office b. a closed meeting of party members
within a legislative body to decide on questions of policy or leadership c. a group within a
legislative or decision-making body seeking to represent a specific interest or influence a particular
area of policy

caulk ( ) ; /
1. to make watertight or airtight by filling or sealing
2. (Nautical) to make (a boat) watertight by packing seams with a waterproof material, such as
oakum or pitch
oakum <ukm> ( )

caustic n. a. ; , ; () ()
1. capable of burning, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action
2. corrosive and bitingly trenchant; cutting

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3. causing a burning or stinging sensation, as from intense emotion


4. of or relating to light emitted from a point source and reflected or refracted from a curved
surface
1

cauterize , ; ( )
1. to burn or sear with a cautery
2. to deaden, as to feelings or moral scruples; callous
cautery , (),

cautious , ; ...
1. showing or practicing caution; careful
2. tentative or restrained; guarded

cavalry <k vlri> ()

cavern ,
1. a large cave
2. a large underground chamber, as in a cave

celebrated ,
known and praised widely; noted

celebrity <silbrti> ; ()
1. a famous person
2. renown; fame

cement <simnt> , ; ,

censor ;
1. a person authorized to examine books, films, or other material and to remove or suppress what is
considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable
2. an official, as in the armed forces, who examines personal mail and official dispatches to remove
information considered secret or a risk to security
3. one that condemns or censures
4. one of two officials in ancient Rome responsible for taking the public census and supervising
public behavior and morals

censorious , ;
1. tending to censure; highly critical
2. expressing censure

censorship (); /

censure , , ,
1. an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism
2. an official rebuke, as by a legislature of one of its members

centrifuge

centurion ()
the commander of a century in the Roman army

cereal <sril> ,
1. a. a grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as food b. the
grain of such a grass
2. any of several other plants or their edible seed or fruit, such as buckwheat or grain amaranth
3. a food prepared from any of these plants, especially a breakfast food made from commercially
processed grain
starchy <strti> ; , ; ,
buckwheat ()
amaranth , ; ;

cessation <sesin> , ; ,
a bringing or coming to an end; a ceasing

channel ; , ; , ; () ; ()

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chantey < nti>

chapel , ;
1. a. a place of worship that is smaller than and subordinate to a church b. a place of worship in
an institution, such as a prison, college, or hospital c. a recess or room in a church set apart for
special or small services d. a place of worship for those not belonging to an established church e.
the services held at a chapel
2. (Music) a choir or orchestra connected with a place of worship at a royal court
3. a. a funeral home b. a room in a funeral home used for conducting funeral services

characterize , ; ...
1. to describe the qualities or peculiarities of
2. to be a distinctive trait or mark of; distinguish

charade <rid> , ; /

charisma
1. a. a rare personal quality attributed to leaders who arouse fervent popular devotion and
enthusiasm b. personal magnetism or charm
2. (Theology) an extraordinary power, such as the ability to perform miracles, granted to a
Christian by the Holy Spirit

charitable ; , (generous)
1. generous in giving money or other help to the needy
2. mild or tolerant in judging others; lenient
3. of, for, or concerned with charity

charter , ; ; [C] ,

chary <tri>

, ; (sparing)
1. very cautious; wary
2. not giving or expending freely; sparing

chase , ; , ; () , () (engrave)
1. to groove; indent
2. to cut (the thread of a screw)
3. to decorate (metal) by engraving or embossing

chastise <tstiz> , ;
1. to punish, as by beating
2. to criticize severely; rebuke

chastisement <tstizmnt> ,

chatterbox

chauvinism

an extremely talkative person


1. militant devotion to and glorification of one's country; fanatical patriotism
2. prejudiced belief in the superiority of one's own gender, group, or kind
militant , ; ,
1. fighting or warring
2. having a combative character; aggressive, especially in the service of a cause
warring <w :ri> , ;
1

chauvinist

cherish , ; () ; (, , )
1. to treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear
2. to keep fondly in mind; entertain

cherub <trb> () [9 2 ]; , () ,

cherubic <tir:bik> cherub; ;

chicanery , ; ,

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1. deception by trickery or sophistry


2. a trick; a subterfuge
1

chimera <kaimr> , ; (wild fancy); () [


]

chipmunk ()

chisel n. , v. , ; ,
1. to shape or cut with a chisel
2. (Informal) a. to cheat or swindle b. to obtain by deception

chivalrous , ; , ,
1. having the qualities of gallantry and honor attributed to an ideal knight
2. of or relating to chivalry
3. characterized by consideration and courtesy, especially toward women
gallantry , ; ; /
1. nobility of spirit or action; courage
2. chivalrous attention toward women; courtliness
3. the act or an instance of gallant speech or behavior

chlorine ()

chloroplast ()

choreograph /;

choreographer ; ()

choreography () , , ()
1. a. the art of creating and arranging dances or ballets b. a work created by this art
2. something, such as a situation or series of situations or a plan or series of plans, likened to
dance arrangements

chronic , ; ; () (opp. acute),


1. of long duration; continuing
2. lasting for a long period of time or marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases
3. subject to a habit or pattern of behavior for a long time

churl , ; ;
1. a rude, boorish person
2. a miserly person

churlish ; , ; ( )
1. of, like, or befitting a churl; boorish or vulgar
2. having a bad disposition; surly
3. difficult to work with, such as soil; intractable
surly <s:rli>

, ; () ,
sullenly ill-humored; gruff
gruff / ; ,
1. brusque or stern in manner or appearance
2. hoarse; harsh
brusque ,
abrupt and curt in manner or speech; discourteously blunt
curt , ; () ,
1. rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
2. using few words; terse
3. having been shortened

cinder <sndr> ( ) , ; ( ) , (slag); [pl.] (ashes)

cinnamon <snmn>

circuitous , ,
being or taking a roundabout, lengthy course

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circumlocution , ;
1. the use of unnecessarily wordy and indirect language
2. evasion in speech or writing
3. a roundabout expression

circumscribe , ; ; (opp. inscribe)


1. to draw a line around; encircle
2. to limit narrowly; restrict
3. to determine the limits of; define
4. a. to enclose (a polygon or polyhedron) within a configuration of lines, curves, or surfaces so
that every vertex of the enclosed object is incident on the enclosing configuration b. to erect (such
a configuration) around a polygon or polyhedron
polyhedron

circumspect , ;
heedful of circumstances and potential consequences; prudent

circumstantial ; ,
1. of, relating to, or dependent on circumstances
2. of no primary significance; incidental
3. complete and particular; full of detail
4. full of ceremonial display

circumvent , ; ; ( )
1. to surround (an enemy, for example); enclose or entrap
2. to go around; bypass
3. to avoid or get around by artful maneuvering

clam <klm> ; ()

clamor ; , (uproar)
1. a loud outcry; a hubbub
2. a vehement expression of discontent or protest
3. a loud, sustained noise

clan (tribe), ; ,
1. a traditional social unit in the Scottish Highlands, consisting of a number of families claiming a
common ancestor and following the same hereditary chieftain
2. a division of a tribe tracing descent from a common ancestor
3. a large group of relatives, friends, or associates
chieftain <t:ftn> , , ,
the leader or head of a group, especially a clan or tribe

clarify , ;
1. to make clear or easier to understand; elucidate
2. to clear of confusion or uncertainty
3. to make clear by removing impurities or solid matter, as by heating gently

clash ; , , ; ,
1. to collide with a loud, harsh, usually metallic noise
2. to come into conflict; be in opposition
3. to create an unpleasant visual impression when placed together

clasp <klsp> , ; (grasp); ,

claw ,

cleanse <klenz> , ; ; ,

cleavage , ;

to free from dirt, defilement, or guile; purge or clean


1. the act of splitting or cleaving
2. the state of being split or cleft; a fissure or division

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fissure
1. a long, narrow opening; a crack or cleft
2. the process of splitting or separating; division
3. a separation into subgroups or fraction; a schism
schism <sizm> , ; ()
1. a separation or division into factions
2. a. a formal breach of union within a Christian church b. the offense of attempting to
produce such a breach
3. disunion; discord
1

cleave , ; ; ,
( ) , ;
1. to split with or as if with a sharp instrument
2. to make or accomplish by or as if by cutting
3. to pierce or penetrate
1. to adhere, cling, or stick fast
2. to be faithful

cleaver ;
a heavy, broad-bladed knife or hatchet used especially by butchers
hatchet (tomahawk)
1. a small, short-handled ax for use in one hand
2. a tomahawk
tomahawk , ()

cleft a. , n. , ; ,
divided; split

clientele <klintl> ; (, ) , ; ,
1. the clients of a professional person or practice considered as a group
2. a body of customers or patrons

clinch ; , ; ; ,
1. a. to fix or secure (a nail or bolt, for example) by bending down or flattening the pointed end
that protrudes b. to fasten together in this way
2. to settle definitely and conclusively; make final

cling ; ; ( )
1. to hold fast or adhere to something, as by grasping, sticking, embracing, or entwining
2. to remain close; resist separation
3. to remain emotionally attached; hold on
entwine <intwin> , ; ( )
to twine around or together

clinical ; ; , ,
1. of, relating to, or connected with a clinic
2. involving or based on direct observation of the patient
3. very objective and devoid of emotion; analytical
4. suggestive of a medical clinic; austere and antiseptic

clip , ; ; ,
1. to cut, cut off, or cut out with or as if with shears
2. to make shorten by cutting; trim
3. to cut off the edge of
4. to cut short; curtail
5. a. to shorten (a word or words) by leaving out letters or syllables b. to enunciate with clarity
and precision
shear

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enunciate (, ) , ; (pronounce)
1. to pronounce; articulate
2. to state or set forth precisely or systematically
3. to announce; proclaim

cloister , ;

cloistered , , ;

clot
1. a thick, viscous, or coagulated mass or lump, as of blood
2. a clump, mass, or lump, as of clay
3. a compact group
viscous <vsks> ,
1. having relatively high resistance to flow
2. viscid
viscid ,
1. thick and adhesive. used of a fluid
2. covered with a sticky or clammy coating
clammy , ; ,
1. disagreeably moist, sticky, and cold to the touch
2. damp and unpleasant
3. uneasy; apprehensive
clump , ; ()(lump);
1. a clustered mass; a lump
2. a thick grouping, as of trees or bushes
3. a heavy, dull sound; a thud
thud <d> , ,
1. a dull sound, as that of a heavy object striking a solid surface
2. a blow or fall causing such a sound

cloture
a parliamentary procedure by which debate is ended and an immediate vote is taken on the matter
under discussion. also called closure

cloudburst ; ,

cloy , (satiate)

a sudden, heavy rainstorm; a downpour


to cause distaste or disgust by supplying with too much of something originally pleasant, especially
something rich or sweet; surfeit
1

cloying , ( )

clumsy , ; , ; ,
1. lacking physical coordination, skill, or grace; awkward
2. awkwardly constructed; unwieldy
3. gauche; inept
gauche <gou> , , , (awkward)
lacking social polish; tactless

coagulant

coagulate
to cause transformation of (a liquid or sol, for example) into or as if into a soft, semisolid, or solid
mass
sol [ ]

coagulation ()

coalesce (unite), (combine)


1. to grow together; fuse

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2. to come together so as to form one whole; unite


2

coax ...,
1. to persuade or try to persuade by pleading or flattery; cajole
2. to obtain by persistent persuasion

cob (corncob), (opp. pen),


1. a corncob
2. a male swan
3. a thickset, stocky, short-legged horse
4. a small lump or mass, as of coal
5. a mixture of clay and straw used as a building material
stocky (sturdy)

coda () ,

coddle ;
1. to cook in water just below the boiling point
2. to treat indulgently; baby

codify ,
1. to reduce to a code
2. to arrange or systematize

coerce , , (force)
1. to force to act or think in a certain way by use of pressure, threats, or intimidation; compel
2. to dominate, restrain, or control forcibly
3. to bring about by force or threat

coercion ,

coercive , ,

cogent <kudnt> , ,
appealing to the intellect or powers of reasoning; convincing

cogitate , ;
to take careful thought or think carefully about; ponder

cognizance , ;
1. conscious knowledge or recognition; awareness
2. the range of what one can know or understand
3. observance; notice

cohabit ;
1. to live together as spouses
2. to live together in a sexual relationship when not legally married

coherent , ; (, )
1. sticking together; cohering
2. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts
3. of or relating to a system of units of measurement in which a small number of basic units are
defined from which all others in the system are derived by multiplication or division only

coincide ; (, ) ,
1. to occupy the same relative position or the same area in space
2. to happen at the same time or during the same period
3. to correspond exactly; be identical
4. to agree exactly, as in opinion; concur

coincidence , ;
1. the state or fact of occupying the same relative position or area in space
2. a sequence of events that although accidental seems to have been planned or arranged

coincidental ;
1. occurring as or resulting from coincidence

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2. happening or existing at the same time


1

colander ()

collaborate
1. to work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort
2. to cooperate treasonably, as with an enemy occupation force in one's country
treason (); ,
1. violation of allegiance toward one's country or sovereign, especially the betrayal of one's
country by waging war against it or by consciously and purposely acting to aid its enemies
2. a betrayal of trust or confidence

collaboration , , , ; , ()

collage <kl:> (),


1. a. an artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with unifying lines
and color b. the art of creating such compositions
2. an assemblage of diverse elements

collate ,
1. to examine and compare carefully in order to note points of disagreement
2. to assemble in proper numerical or logical sequence
3. (Printing) a. to examine (gathered sheets) in order to arrange them in proper sequence before
binding b. to verify the order and completeness of (the pages of a volume)

colorable ; , ,
1. meant to deceive; not genuine
2. seemingly true or genuine; plausible

colossus <klss> (), ; ,


1. a huge statue
2. something likened to a huge statue, as in size or importance

column () ; ; () ()

coma () ()
a state of deep, often prolonged unconsciousness, usually the result of injury, disease, or poison, in
which an individual is incapable of sensing or responding to external stimuli and internal needs

combatant ;
one, such as a person or a combat vehicle, that takes part in armed strife

combative ,
eager or disposed to fight; belligerent

combustion , ; ,
1. the process of burning
2. a chemical change, especially oxidation, accompanied by the production of heat and light
3. violent anger or agitation

comeliness () , ;

comely
1. pleasing and wholesome in appearance; attractive
2. suitable; seemly

comic (opp. tragic),


1. characteristic of or having to do with comedy
2. of or relating to comic strips
3. amusing; humorous

comma (,)
1. (Grammar) a punctuation mark(,) used to indicate a separation of ideas or of elements within the
structure of a sentence
2. a pause or separation; a caesura
caesura <sir> () (pause); ()

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commence , ,

commencement ; [the ] /, /

to begin; start
1. a beginning; a start
2. a. a ceremony at which academic degrees or diplomas are conferred b. the day on which such a
ceremony occurs
diploma , (charter); ,
2

commend <kmnd> , ; , ; , (entrust)


1. to represent as worthy, qualified, or desirable; recommend
2. to express approval of; praise
3. to commit to the care of another; entrust

commendable , , (praiseworthy)

commensurate //; , ; ,
1. of the same size, extend, or duration as another
2. corresponding in size or degree; proportionate
3. measurable by a common standard; commensurable

commentator ; (, TV)
1. a broadcaster or writer who reports and analyzes events in the news
2. one who writes or delivers a commentary or commentaries

commingle
to become blended

commiseration , (compassion)
the feeling or expression of pity or sorrow

commitment , ; , ; , ,
1. the act or an instance of committing, especially a. the act of referring a legislative bill to
committee b. official consignment, as to a prison or mental health facility c. a court order
authorizing consignment to a prison
2. a. a pledge to do b. something pledged, especially an engagement by contract involving financial
obligation
3. the state of being bound emotionally or intellectually to a course of action or to another person
or persons

committed , ; ,

commodious , (spacious);
1. spacious; roomy
2. (Archaic) suitable; handy

commotion (agitation); , (riot);


1. a condition of turbulent motion
2. a. an agitated disturbance; a hubbub b. civil disturbance or insurrection; disorder
hubbub ; , (uproar)
1. loud noise; din
2. confusion; tumult
insurrection , ,
the act or an instance of open revolt against civil authority or a constituted government

commuter

compass n. ; (extent, range); (circuit), (roundabout way) v. , ;


() ; (plot); (comprehend)
1. to make a circuit of; circle
2. to surround; encircle
3. to understand; comprehend
4. to succeed in carrying out; accomplish

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5. to scheme; plot
2

compassion , ,
deep awareness of the suffering of another coupled with the wish to relieve it

compatible ,
1. capable of existing or performing in harmonious, agreeable, or congenial combination with another
or others
2. capable of orderly, efficient integration and operation with other elements in a system with no
modification or conversion required
3. capable of forming a chemically or biochemically stable system

compatriot ;
1. a person from one's own country
2. a colleague

competent , ; ,
1. properly or sufficiently qualified; capable
2. adequate for the purpose
3. (Law) legally qualified or fit to perform an act

competitive , ,
1. of, involving, or determined by competition
2. liking competition or inclined to compete

compile () , ( )
1. to gather into a single book
2. to put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources

complacence
1. contented self-satisfaction
2. total lack of concern

complacent ,
1. contented to a fault; self-satisfied and unconcerned
2. eager to please; complaisant

complaint , ; () ; () ()
1. an expression of pain, dissatisfaction, resentment
2. a cause or reason for complaining; a grievance
3. a. a bodily disorder or disease; a malady or an ailment b. the symptom or distress about which a
patient seeks medical assistance

complaisance , (politeness), ,

complaisant , ,

complementary

the inclination to comply willingly with the wishes of others; amiability


exhibiting a desire or willingness to please; cheerfully obliging
1. forming or serving as a complement; completing
2. supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks
3

compliant ,

complicate , ; ()

disposed or willing to comply; submissive


1. to make or become complex or perplexing
2. to twist or become twisted together
1

complication , (tangle)
1. the act of complicating
2. a confused or intricate relationship of parts
3. a factor, a condition, or an element that complicates

compliment , ; (pl.) ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. an expression of praise, admiration, or congratulation


2. a formal act of civility, courtesy, or respect
3. compliments. good wishes; regards
2

complimentary ;
1. expressing, using, or resembling a compliment
2. given free to repay a favor or as an act of courtesy

comply (, ) ,
to act in accordance with another's command, request, rule, or wish

composure ,

compound , , ;

comprehend ; ,

a calm or tranquil state of mind; self-possession

1. to take in the meaning, nature, or importance of; grasp


2. to take in as a part; include
8

compromise
1. a. a settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions b. the result of such a
settlement
2. something that combines qualities or elements of different things
3. a concession to something detrimental or pejorative
detrimental ,
causing damage or harm; injurious
pejorative ;
1. tending to make or become worse
2. disparaging; belittling

conceal ,
to keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; hide

concede , , ; (, )
1. to acknowledge, often reluctantly, as being true, just, or proper; admit
2. to yield or grant (a privilege or right, for example)

conceited , ;
holding or characterized by an unduly high opinion of oneself; vain

conceivable ,

conceive , , ;
1. to become pregnant with (offspring)
2. to form or develop in the mind; devise
3. to apprehend mentally; understand
4. to be of the opinion that; think

concession , ; ,

conciliate
1. to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease
2. to regain or try to regain (friendship or goodwill) by pleasant behavior
3. to make or attempt to make compatible; reconcile

conciliation , ; ,

conciliatory ,

concision , (conciseness)
the state or quality of being concise

conclusive ,
serving to put an end to doubt, question, or uncertainty; decisive

concrete ; , ; ,

concur , ; ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. to be of the same opinion; agree


2. to act together; cooperate
3. to occur at the same time; coincide
1

concurrence , ; , ;

condemn , ; , () (sentence);
1. to express strong disapproval of
2. to pronounce judgment against; sentence
3. to judge or declare to be unfit for use or consumption, usually by official order
4. (Law) to appropriate (property) for public use

condemned , ;

condensation , ; ,

condense
1. to reduce the volume or compass of
2. to make more concise; abridge or shorten
3. (Physics) a. to cause (a gas or vapor) to change to a liquid b. to remove water from (milk, for
example)

condescend , ; (lower oneself);


1. to descend to the level of one considered inferior; lower oneself
2. to deal with people in a patronizingly superior manner

condescending , ;

condescension , ;

condone ,
to overlook, forgive, or disregard (an offense) without protest or censure

conducive ,

confederacy <knfdrsi> ,

tending to cause or bring about; contributive


1. a. a union of persons, parties, or states; a league b. the persons, parties, or states joined in such
a union c. Confederacy. the 11 Southern states that seceded from the United States in 1860 and
1861
2. a group of people who have united for unlawful practices; a conspiracy
3

confidential , (trustworthy); , ; ,
1. done or communicated in confidence; secret
2. entrusted with the confidence of another
3. denoting confidence or intimacy
4. containing secret information, the unauthorized disclosure of which poses a threat to national
security

confidentiality ,

confine , ; ,
1. to keep within bounds; restrict
2. to shut or keep in, especially to imprison
3. to restrict in movement

confined , ()

confiscate ,
1. to seize (private property) for the public treasury
2. to seize by or as if by authority

conflate ,
1. to bring together; meld or fuse
2. to combine (two variant texts, for example) into one whole

conform (, ) ; ( ) ,
1. to correspond in form or character; be similar

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. to act or be in accord or agreement; comply


3. to act in accordance with current customs or modes
1

conformism ()

conformity , ; ,
1. similarity in form or character; agreement
2. action or behavior in correspondence with current customs, rules, or styles

confound ; , ; (, ) , (baffle)
1. to cause to become confused or perplexed
2. to fail to distinguish; mix up
3. to make (something bad) worse
4. to cause to be ashamed; abash
5. to damn
6. to frustrate

confrontation , ,
1. the act of confronting or the state of being confronted, especially a meeting face to face
2. a. a conflict involving armed forces b. discord or a clash of opinions and ideas
3. a focused comparison

congeal ,
1. to solidify by or as if by freezing
2. to coagulate; jell

congenial , , ; (, ) ,
1. having the same tastes, habits, or temperament; sympathetic
2. of a pleasant disposition; friendly and sociable
3. suited to one's needs or nature; agreeable

congeniality (, ) , ;

congregate ,

congregation , ; []

to bring or come together in a group, crowd, or assembly


1. the act of assembling
2. a body of assembled people or things; a gathering
3. a. a group of people gathered for religious worship b. the members of a specific religious group
who regularly worship at a church or synagogue
synagogue ;
1

congressman () , ()

congruent
1. corresponding; congruous
2. (Math) a. coinciding exactly when superimposed b. having a difference divisible by a modulus

congruity , ;
1. the quality or fact of being congruous
2. the quality or fact of being congruent
3. a point of agreement

congruous , ;
1. corresponding in character or kind; appropriate or harmonious
2. (Math) congruent

conifer

conjure ..., ; ( ) ,
1. a. to summon (a devil or spirit) by magical or supernatural power b. to influence or effect by or
as if by magic
2. a. to call or bring to mind; evoke b. to imagine; picture

connive ,

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. to cooperate secretly in an illegal or wrongful action; collude


2. to scheme; plot
3. to feign ignorance of or fail to take measures against a wrong, thus implying tacit
encouragement or consent
4

connoisseur ( ) , ,
1. a person with expert knowledge or training, especially in the fine arts
2. a person of informed and discriminating taste

connotative ,

connote
1. to suggest or imply in addition to literal meaning
2. to have as a related or attendant condition

conscientious , ; ,
1. guided by or in accordance with the dictates of conscience; principled
2. thorough and assiduous
assiduous , ; ,
1. constant in application or attention; diligent
2. unceasing; persistent

conscript ,
to enroll compulsorily into service; draft
draft
1. to select from a group for some usually compulsory service
2. to draw up a preliminary version of or plan for
3. to create by thinking and writing; compose

conservatism

conserve , , ;
1. a. to protect from loss or harm; preserve b. to use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
2. to keep (a quantity) constant through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary changes
3. to preserve (fruits) with sugar

consign , ; , ; (set apart), (assign)


1. to give over to the care of another; entrust
2. to turn over permanently to another's charge or to a lasting condition; commit irrevocably
3. to deliver (merchandise, for example) for custody or sale
4. to set apart, as for a special use or purpose; assign
custody , ; , ; ,
1. the act or right of guarding, especially such a right granted by a court
2. care, supervision, and control exerted by one in charge
3. the state of being detained or held under guard, especially by the police

console ,
to allay the sorrow or grief of

consolidate , ; ,
1. to unite into one system or whole; combine
2. to make strong or secure; strengthen
3. to make firm or coherent; form into a compact mass

consolidation ; ,
1. a. the act or process of consolidating b. the state of being consolidated
2. the merger of two or more commercial interests or corporations

conspicuous , ; , ,
1. easy to notice; obvious
2. attracting attention, as by being unusual or remarkable; noticeable

conspiracy ,

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1. an agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act


2. a group of conspirators
3. (Law) an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime or accomplish a legal
purpose through illegal action
4. a joining or acting together, as if by sinister design
subversive , ,
sinister , ; ,
1. suggesting or threatening evil
2. presaging trouble; ominous
3. attended by or causing disaster or inauspicious circumstances
4. on the left side; left
inauspicious ,
1

conspirator (plotter),

constable () ,

constant ; , ;
1. continually occurring; persistent
2. unchanging in nature, value, or extent; invariable
3. steadfast in purpose, loyalty, or affection; faithful

consternation ,
a state of paralyzing dismay
paralyze , , ,

constrain ..., ; , ;
1. to compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige
2. to keep within close bounds; confine
3. to inhibit or restrain; hold back
4. to produce in a forced or inhibited manner

constrict ,
1. to make smaller or narrower by binding or squeezing
2. to squeeze or compress
3. to restrict the scope or freedom of; cramp

consult
1. a. to seek advice or information of b. to refer to
2. to take into account; consider

consultation , ; ; , ; ,
1. the act or process of consulting
2. a. a conference at which advice is given or views are exchanged b. a meeting between
physicians to discuss the diagnosis or treatment of a case

consumerism ,

consummate , ; ()
1. a. to bring to completion or fruition; conclude b. to realize or achieve; fulfill
2. a. to complete (a marriage) with the first act of sexual intercourse after the ceremony b. to fulfill
(a sexual desire or attraction) especially by intercourse

contagious , (catching)
1. of or relating to contagion
2. transmissible by direct or indirect contact; communicable
3. capable of transmitting disease; carrying a disease
4. spreading or tending to spread from one to another; infectious

contaminate , ; (taint),
1. to make impure or unclean by contact or mixture
2. to expose to or permeate with radioactivity

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permeate , , ; (, ) ; ( ) ,
1. to spread or flow throughout; pervade
2. to pass through the openings or interstices of
2

contempt , , ; , , (disgrace)
1. disparaging or haughty disdain, as for something base or unworthy; scorn
2. the state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace
3. open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law or legislative body

contemptuous ,
manifesting or feeling contempt; scornful

contend vi. , ; vt. () (maintain)


vi. 1. to strive in opposition or against difficulties; struggle
2. to compete, as in a race; vie
3. to strive in controversy or debate; dispute
vt. to maintain or assert
vie ,
to strive for victory or superiority; contend

contented (satisfied),
satisfied with things as they are; content

contention , ;
1. the act or an instance of striving in controversy or debate
2. a striving to win in competition; rivalry
3. an assertion put forward in argument

contentious , ()
1. given to contention; quarrelsome
2. involving or likely to cause contention; controversial

contestant , ,
1. one taking part in a contest; a competitor
2. one that contests or disputes something, such as an election or a will

contested ,

contiguity (proximity), , ,
1. the state of being contiguous
2. a continuous mass or series

contiguous , ;
1. sharing an edge or boundary; touching
2. neighboring; adjacent
3. a. connecting without a break b. connected in time; uninterrupted

contingent ... (incidental), ... (conditional); , (accidental)


1. liable to occur but not with certainty; possible
2. dependent on conditions or occurrences not yet established; conditional
3. happening by chance or accident; fortuitous
4. (Logic) true only under certain conditions; not necessarily or universally true
fortuitous , (accidental)
1. happening by accident or chance
2. a. happening by a fortunate accident or chance b. lucky or fortunate

continuity , (); ,

contract n. , ; v. ; (, ) ; ,
n. 1. a. an agreement between two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable
by law b. the writing or document containing such an agreement
2. the branch of law dealing with formal agreements between parties
3. marriage as a formal agreement; betrothal

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

v. 1. to enter into by contract; establish or settle by formal agreement


2. to acquire or incur
3. a. to reduce in size by drawing together; shrink b. to pull together; wrinkle
4. (Grammar) to shorten (a word or words) by omitting or combining some of the letters or sounds
2

contraction , ; ; () , () , ()

contravene ( ) , ; , (conflict with)


1. to act or be counter to; violate
2. to oppose in argument; gainsay

contribute , ; () ; ,
1. to give or supply in common with others; give to a common fund or for a common purpose
2. to submit for publication

contrite <kntrait>
1. feeling regret and sorrow for one's sins or offenses; penitent
2. arising from or expressing contrition
penitent ,
feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins

contrition
sincere remorse for wrongdoing; repentance

contrive , , , , ; , ...(manage)
1. to plan with cleverness or ingenuity; devise
2. to invent or fabricate, especially by improvisation
3. to plan with evil intent; scheme
4. to bring about, as by scheming; manage

contrived ,

controversial , , ;

obviously planned or calculated; not spontaneous; labored


1. of, producing, or marked by controversy
2. fond of controversy; disputatious

controversy
1. a dispute, especially a public one, between sides holding opposing views
2. the act or practice of engaging in such disputes

controvert , ;
to raise arguments against; voice opposition to

convalesce , (get better)


to return to health and strength after illness; recuperate
recuperate (, )
1. to return to health or strength; recover
2. to recover from financial loss

convalescent <knvlsnt> ()(recovering),

convention ; , (agreement), ; , ,

converge (opp. diverge);


1. a. to tend toward or approach an intersecting point b. to come together from different directions;
meet
2. to tend toward or achieve union or a common conclusion or result
3. (Math) to approach a limit

conversance , ; ,

conversant ... , ; ...

the state of being conversant; familiarity


familiar, as by study or experience
1

convict ;

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

1. (Law) to find or prove (someone) guilty of an offense or crime, especially by the verdict of a
court
2. to how or declare to be blameworthy; condemn
3. to make aware of one's sinfulness or guilt
4

conviction ; (); ,
1. (Law) a. the judgment of a jury or judge that a person is guilty of a crime as charged b. the
state of being found or proved guilty
2. a. the act or process of convincing b. the state of being convinced
3. a fixed or strong belief

convincing ,
1. serving to convince
2. believable; plausible

convivial
1. fond of feasting, drinking, and good company; sociable
2. merry; festive

conviviality , ; ,

convoke (, ) (opp. dissolve)


to cause to assemble in a meeting; convene
convene (, ) ;
to come together usually for an official or public purpose; assemble formally

convoluted (spiral); ,
1. having numerous overlapping coils or folds
2. intricate; complicated

coop <kuap> (cooperative store), (cooperative society); , ,


1. an enclosure or cage, as for poultry or small animals
2. (Slang) a. an uncomfortably confined space b. a prison

coordinate
1. to place in the same order, class, or rank
2. to harmonize in a common action or effort

coordination ;

cordon , ; ( )
1. a line of people, military posts, or ships stationed around an area to enclose or guard it
2. a cord or braid worn as a fastening or an ornament
3. a ribbon usually worn diagonally across the breast as a badge of honor or a decoration

cornucopia <k rnkupi> ; (plenty)

corporeal , , ;
1. of, relating to, or characteristic of the body
2. of a material nature; tangible

corpuscle <k rpsl> () (), ; () ,

corral <k:r l> (pen); ( )


1. an enclosure for confining livestock
2. an enclosure formed by a circle of wagons for defense against attack during an encampment

correspond , ; /; /
1. to be in agreement, harmony, or conformity
2. to be similar or equivalent in character, quantity, origin, structure, or function
3. to communicate by letter, usually over a period of time

correspondent , . ; /
1. one who communicates by means of letters
2. one employed by the print or broadcast media to supply news stories or articles
3. one that has regular business dealings with another, especially at a distance

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4. something that corresponds; a correlative


1

corridor ,

corroborate ,
to strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain

corroboration

corroborative ,

corrode , ;
1. to destroy a metal or alloy gradually, expecially by oxidation or chemical action
2. to impair steadily; deteriorate

corrosion , ,
1. a. the act or process of corroding b. the condition produced by corroding
2. a substance, such as rust, formed by corroding

corrugate ,
to shape into folds or parallel and alternating ridges and grooves

corrugated ,

cosmopolitanism ,

costume , ;
1. a prevalent fashion of dress, including garments, accessories, and hairstyle
2. a. a style of dress characteristic of a particular country, period, or people, often worn in a play
or at a masquerade b. an outfit or a disguise worn on Mardi Gras, Halloween, or similar occasions
3. a set of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion or season

coterie <kutri> , ; (),


a. small, often select group of persons who associate with one another frequently

coterminous , ; (, )
1. having a boundary in common; contiguous
2. contained in the same boundaries; coextensive
3. having the same scope, range of meaning, or extent in time

countenance , ; () , ,
1. appearance, especially the expression of the face
2. the face or facial features
3. a. a look or expression indicative of encouragement or of moral support b. support or approval

counterargument
1. an argument in opposition to another
2. something that undermines an argument or deters someone from action

counterbalance , ; ;
1. to act as a counteracting force, influence, or weight to; counterpoise
2. to oppose with an equal force; offset

counterpoint ()

counterproductive

county (), (); [the , ]

tending to hinder rather than serve one's purpose


1. an administrative subdivision of a state in the United States
2. a. a territorial division exercising administrative, judicial, and political functions in Great Britain
and Ireland b. the territory under the jurisdiction of a count or earl
3. the people living in a county
count ( )
earl ()
1

coup <ku:> () ; ,

couplet <k plit> ()


1. a unit of verse consisting of two successive lines, usually rhyming and having the same meter

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

and often forming a complete thought or syntactic unit


2. two similar things; a pair
1

courteous <k:rtis>

, ;
characterized by gracious consideration toward others

covert , ; (opp. overt)


1. not openly practiced, avowed, engaged in, accumulated, or shown
2. covered or covered over; sheltered
3. (Law) being married and therefore protected by one's husband

covet <k vit> ( ) ,


1. to feel blameworthy desire for (that which in another's)
2. to wish for longingly

covetous ,
1. excessively and culpably desirous of the possessions of another
2. marked by extreme desire to acquire or possess
culpable ,
deserving of blame or censure as being wrong, evil, improper, or injurious

cow ;
bull
ox ;
calf
milk cow

cowardice ,
ignoble fear in the face of danger or pain

cower (, ) ,

cowhand

coy , ; () ,

to cringe in fear

1. tending to avoid people and social situations; reserved


2. affectedly and usually flirtatiously shy or modest
3. annoyingly unwilling to make a commitment
flirtatious <fl:rtis>

() , (coquettish); ,
flirt /; , ;
1. to make playfully romantic or sexual overtures
2. to deal playfully, triflingly, or superficially with
3. to move abruptly or jerkily
1

cracking n. () a. () ,

crafty ,

excellent; great
1. skilled in or marked by underhandedness, deviousness, or deception
2. (Chiefly British) skillful; dexterous

cramp , ; ,

cramped ; , ; ( ) , /

crass , ; ,
so crude and unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility

crate (, )

cravat <krv t>

crave ; /

a scarf or band of fabric worn around the neck as a tie


1. to have an intense desire for
2. to need urgently; require

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

3. to beg earnestly for; implore


3

craven , (cowardly)
characterized by abject fear; cowardly

crawl , ; ( ) ; ,

crease ,
a line made by pressing, folding, or wrinkling

credence , ; ()
1. acceptance as true or valid; belief
2. claim to acceptance; trustworthiness
3. recommendation; credentials
4. a small table or shelf for holding the bread, wine, and vessels of the Eucharist when they are
not in use at the altar

credulity ;
a disposition to believe too readily

credulous ,
1. disposed to believe too readily; gullible
2. arising from or characterized by credulity

crescendo ;

cringe (cower); (fawn)


1. to shrink back, as in fear; cower
2. to behave in a servile way; fawn

critique , ;
1. a critical review or commentary, especially one dealing with works of art or literature
2. a critical discussion of a specified topic
3. the art of criticism

croak (, ) ; , ,

crochet <krouti>

crockery <krkri> [] ,

cross-examine

a low, hoarse sound, as that characteristic of frogs and crows

earthenware
1. to question (a person) closely, especially with regard to answers or information given previously
2. (Law) to question (a witness already examined by the opposing side)
1

crossfire () ; () ,
1. lines of fire from two or more positions crossing each other at a single point
2. a confrontational situation in which opposing factions, forces, views, or opinions converge
3. rapid, heated discussion

crucial , ; ,
a. extremely significant or important b. vital to the resolution of a crisis; decisive

crumb , ; () (opp. crust); ,


1. a very small piece broken from a baked item, such as a cookie, cake, or bread
2. a small fragment, scrap, or portion
3. the soft inner portion of bread
4. (Slang) a contemptible, untrustworthy, or loathsome person

crumble ( ) ,
to break into small fragments or particles

crusade , () (holy war); / (campaign)

cryogenic <kridnik>

cryptic , , ;
1. having hidden meaning; mystifying

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BigBook Vocabulary, ver 1.01, hgycap@hotmail.com

2. secret or occult
3. using code or cipher
1

cuckoo , ; () ,

culminate , ; () /
1. a. to reach the highest point or degree; climax b. to come to completion; end
2. (Astronomy) to reach the highest point above an observer's horizon. used of stars and other
celestial bodies

culmination , , ,

culpable ,

cult , ; , ;

cultivate , ; (develop), ;

deserving of blame or censure as being wrong, evil, improper, or injurious

1. a. to improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till b. to loosen
or dig soil around (growing plants)
2. to grow or tend (a plant or crop)
3. to promote the growth of (a biological culture)
4. to nurture; foster
5. to form and refine, as by education
6. to seek the acquaintance or goodwill of; make friends with
1

cumbersome , ,

cumulonimbus <kj:mjulounmbs>

curator (, ) ,
one that manages or oversees, as the administrative director of a museum collection or a library

curb , ; , ; ( )
1. a concrete border or row of joined stones forming part of a gutter along the edge of a street
2. an enclosing framework, such as that around a skylight
3. a raised margin along an edge used to confine or strengthen
4. something that checks or restrains
5. a chain or strap that passes under a horse's lower jaw and serves in conjunction with the bit to
restrain the horse
gutter () , ( ) ; ( )

curiosity ; ,
1. a desire to know or learn
2. a desire to know about people or things that do not concern one; nosiness
3. an object that arouses interest, as by being novel or extraordinary
4. a strange or odd aspect

curmudgeon <k:rm dn>


an ill-tempered person full of resentment and stubborn notions

cursory , ,

curt , ; () ,

performed with haste and scant attention to detail


1. rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
2. using few words; terse
3. having been shortened
1

curtail , ; ( ) ; ( ) ,
to cut short; abbreviate

cutting
1. capable of or designed for incising, shearing, or severing
2. sharply penetrating; piercing
3. injuring or capable of injuring the feelings of others

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cynic , ; [C] ()
1. a person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness
2. Cynic. a member of a sect of ancient Greek philosophers who believed virtue to be the only
good and self-control to be the only means of achieving virtue

cynical , (sneering)
1. scornful of the motives, virtue, or integrity of others
2. expressing or exhibiting scorn and bitter mockery

cynicism ,
1. a scornful, bitterly mocking attitude or quality
2. a scornful, bitterly mocking comment or act
3. Cynicism. the beliefs of the ancient Cynics

D
1

daguerreotype <dgrtip>
1. an early photographic process with the image made on a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic
plate
2. a photograph made by this process

dainty <dinti> , , ; ,
1. delicately beautiful or charming; exquisite
2. delicious or choice
3. of refined taste; discriminating
4. overly fastidious; squeamish
exquisite , ; ; ; , (acute)
1. characterized by intricate and beautiful design or execution
2. of such beauty or delicacy as to arouse delight
3. excellent; flawless
4. acutely perceptive or discriminating
5. intense; keen
choice a. ( ) , , ; ( ) ,
1. a. of very fine quality b. appealing to refined taste
2. selected with care
3. of the U.S. Government grade of meat higher than good and lower than prime
fastidious , , (hard to please)
1. possessing or displaying careful, meticulous attention to detail
2. difficult to please; exacting
3. excessively scrupulous or sensitive, especially in matters of taste or propriety
squeamish , ,
1. a. easily nauseated or sickened b. nauseated
2. easily shocked or disgusted
3. excessively fastidious or scrupulous

dally , ; ,
1. to play amorously; flirt
2. to trifle; toy
3. to waste time; dawdle

damn , ; , ; ,
1. to pronounce an adverse judgment upon
2. to bring about the failure of; ruin
3. to condemn as harmful, illegal, or immoral
4. (Theology) to condemn to everlasting punishment or a similar fate; doom
5. to swear at

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damp ,

dampen ; ; ()

slightly wet
1. to make damp
2. to deaden, restrain, or depress
1

daredevil

darn ,

dart vt. (, ) , vi. () ,

daunt ,

recklessly bold

to abate the courage of; discourage


1

dawdle , ;
1. to take more time than necessary
2. to move aimlessly or lackadaisically
lackadaisical <l kdizikl> , ; ,
lacking spirit, liveliness, or interest; languid
languid , , ; ; ,
1. lacking energy or vitality; weak
2. showing little or no spirit or animation; listless
3. lacking vigor or force; slow

dawdler ,

dazzle ; ( ) ,
1. to dim the vision of, especially to blind with intense light
2. to amaze, overwhelm, or bewilder with spectacular display

deadlock ,
a standstill resulting from the opposition of two unrelenting forces or factions

deafen
1. to make deaf, especially momentarily by a loud noise
2. to make soundproof

deafening ; (soundproof)

dearth , ,
1. a scarce supply; a lack
2. shortage of food; famine

debacle , , , ; ()
1. a sudden, disastrous collapse, downfall, or defeat; a rout
2. a total, often ludicrous failure
3. the breaking up of ice in a river
4. a violent flood
rout ;
1. a. a disorderly retreat of flight following defeat b. an overwhelming defeat
2. a. a disorderly crowd of people; a mob b. people of the lowest class; rabble
3. a public disturbance; a riot
4. a company, as of knights or wolves, that are in movement
5. a fashionable gathering
rabble , , (mob); [the ] ,
1. a tumultuous crowd; a mob
2. the lowest or coarsest class of people
ludicrous ,
laughable or hilarious because of obvious absurdity or incongruity
hilarious , ; ,

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characterized by or causing great merriment


2

debilitate
to sap the strength or energy of; enervate

debrief
1. to question to obtain knowledge or intelligence gathered especially on a military mission
2. to instruct (a government agent, for example) not to reveal classified or secret information after
employment has ceased

decadence , ;
1. a process, condition, or period of deterioration or decline, as in morals or art; decay
2. often Decadence. a literary movement especially of late 19th-century France and England
characterized by refined aestheticism, artifice, and the quest for new sensations

deceit , ; ,
1. the act or practice of deceiving; deception
2. a stratagem; a trick
3. the quality of being deceitful; falseness

decelerate , (opp. accelerate)

decency , ; ; ,
1. the state or quality of being decent; propriety
2. conformity to prevailing standards of propriety or modesty
3. decencies. a. social or moral proprieties b. surroundings or services deemed necessary for an
acceptable standard of living
deem ... ,
1. to have as an opinion; judge
2. to regard as; consider

decent , ; ,
1. characterized by conformity to recognized standards of propriety or morality
2. free from indelicacy; modest
3. meeting accepted standards; adequate
4. a. morally upright; respectable b. kind or obliging

decided , ; ,
1. without doubt or question; definite
2. free from hesitation or vacillation; resolute

decimate () ; (, )
1. to destroy or kill a large part of (a group)
2. a. to inflict great destruction or damage on b. to reduce markedly in amount
3. to select by lot and kill one in every ten of

decimation

decipher (, ) , ,
1. to read or interpret (ambiguous, obscure, or illegible matter)
2. to convert from a code or cipher to plain text; decode

decisive , ;
1. having the power to decide; conclusive
2. characterized by decision and firmness; resolute
3. beyond doubt; unmistakable

declamation ; ,
1. a recitation delivered as an exercise in rhetoric or elocution
2. a. vehement oratory b. a speech marked by strong feeling; a tirade

decomposition , , ,

decontaminate , ; ( )
1. to eliminate contamination in

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2. to make safe by eliminating poisonous or otherwise harmful substances, such as noxious


chemicals or radioactive material
1

decorous , ; ;
characterized by or exhibiting decorum; proper

decorum ; ,
1. appropriateness of behavior or conduct; propriety
2. the conventions of polite behavior
3. the appropriateness of an element of an artistic or literary work, such as style or tone, to its
particular circumstance or to the composition as a whole

decry , ; () ( )
1. to condemn openly
2. to depreciate (currency, for example) by official proclamation or by rumor

deduct ,
1. to take away (a quantity) from another; subtract
2. to derive by deduction; deduce

deduction , ; , ; ()
1. the act of deducting; subtraction
2. an amount that is or may be deducted
3. the drawing of a conclusion by reasoning; the act of deducing
4. (Logic) a. the process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated
premises; inference by reasoning from the general to the specific b. a conclusion reached by this
process

deductive ; ()
1. of or based on deduction
2. involving or using deduction in reasoning

deed ; , (exploit); (reality); () ( )


1. something that is carried out; an act or action
2. a usually praiseworthy act; a feat or exploit
3. action or performance in general
4. (Law) a document sealed as an instrument of bond, contract, or conveyance, especially relating to
property

deface ,
1. to mar or spoil the appearance or surface of; disfigure
2. to impair the usefulness, value, or influence of

defamation ,

defame
to damage the reputation, character, or good name of by slander or libel
libel ;
1. a. a false publication in writing, printing, or typewriting or in signs or pictures that
maliciously damages a person's reputation b. the act or an instance of presenting such a
statement to the public
2. the written claims presented by a plaintiff in an action at admiralty law or to an
ecclesiastical court

default , ; , () ; (lack); ()
1. failure to perform a task or fulfill an obligation, especially failure to meet a financial obligation
2. (Law) failure to make a required court appearance
3. the failure of one or more competitors or teams to participate in a contest

defect n. , , , ; , v. , ; ,
1. the lack of something necessary or desirable for completion or perfection; deficiency
2. an imperfection that causes inadequacy or failure; a shortcoming

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1. to disown allegiance to one's country and take up residence in another


2. to abandon a position or an association, often to join an opposing group
1

defection (, ) , , ; , ; ,

defendant ()(opp. plaintiff)

deference , ,

(Law) the party against which an action is brought


1. submission or courteous yielding to the opinion, wishes, or judgment of another
2. courteous respect
1

deferential , (respectful)

defer , ; ;

marked by or exhibiting deference


1. to put off; postpone
2. to postpone the induction of (one eligible for the military draft)
to submit to the opinion, wishes, or decision of another through respect or in recognition of his or
her authority, knowledge, or judgment
eligible , , ,
1. qualified or entitled to be chosen
2. desirable and worthy of choice, especially for marriage
1

deferrable ,

defiance , / ; (, )
1. the act or an example of defying; bold resistance to an opposing force or authority
2. intentionally contemptuous behavior or attitude; readiness to contend or resist

deflate , ; ( )
1. a. to release contained air or gas from b. to collapse by releasing contained air or gas
2. to reduce or lessen the size or importance of
3. (Economics) a. to reduce the amount or availability of (currency or credit), effecting a decline in
prices b. to produce deflation in (an economy)

deflect (, ) , ; ( )
to turn aside or cause to turn aside; bend or deviate

deforestation ,

deform ,
1. to spoil the natural form of; misshape
2. to spoil the beauty or appearance of; disfigure

defuse (, ) ; ,
1. to remove the fuse from (an explosive device)
2. to make less dangerous, tense, or hostile

defy , ;
1. a. to appose or resist with boldness and assurance b. to refuse to submit to or cooperate with
2. to be unaffected by; resist or withstand
3. to challenge or dare (someone) to do something

dehumanize ,
1. to deprive of human qualities such as individuality, compassion, or civility
2. to render mechanical an d routine

dehydrate ,
1. to remove water from; make anhydrous
2. to preserve by removing water from(vegetables, for example)

deign ... (condescend); ...


to think it appropriate to one's dignity; condescend

deity , ;

delegate , ,

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1. a person authorized to act as representative for another; a deputy or an agent


2. a representative to a conference or convention
3. a member of a House for Delegates, the lower hose of the Maryland, Virginia, or West Virginia
legislature
4. an election or appointed representative of a U.S. territory in the House of Representatives who is
entitled to speak but not vote
1

deleterious ,
having a harmful effect; injurious

deliberation , ; ,
1. the act or process of deliberating
2. deliberations. discussion and consideration of all sides of an issue
3. thoughtfulness in decision or action
4. leisureliness in motion or manner

delicate , ; , , ; , , ; ,

delimit /
to establish the limits or boundaries of; demarcate
demarcate , ,
1. to set the boundaries of; delimit
2. to separate clearly as if by boundaries; distinguish

delineate , ,
1. to draw or trace the outline of; sketch out
2. to represent pictorially; depict
3. to depict in words or gestures; describe

delirium ; ,
1. a temporary state of mental confusion and clouded consciousness resulting from high fever,
intoxication, shock, or other causes. It is characterized by anxiety, disorientation, hallucinations,
delusions, trembling, and incoherent speech
2. a state of uncontrolled excitement or emotion

delude , , ...

deluge , ;

to deceive the mind or judgment of


1. a. a great flood b. a heavy downpour
2. something that overwhelms as if by a great flood
3. Deluge (Bible) in the Old Testament, the great flood that occurred in the time of Noah
1

demagogue

demanding ,

demean (, ) ; ,

requiring much effort or attention


to conduct or behave (oneself) in a particular manner
1. to debase, as in dignity or social standing
2. to jumble (oneself)
1

demeter [, , ]

demise , , ; () ,
1. a. death b. the end of existence or activity; termination
2. (Law) transfer of an estate by lease or will
3. the transfer of a ruler's authority by death or abdication
lease (); ,
1. a. a contract granting use or occupation of properly during a specified period in exchange
for a specified rent b. the term or duration f such a contract
2. property used or occupied under the terms of such a contract

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demographic ()

demography
the study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution,
and vital statistics

demonstrative , ; ,
1. serving to manifest or prove
2. involving or characterized by demonstration
3. given to or marked by the open expression of emotion

demoralize ; ,
1. to undermine the confidence or morale of; dishearten
2. to put into disorder; confuse
3. to debase the morals of; corrupt

demote / ; (op. promote)


to reduce in grade, rank, or status

demur ,
1. to voice opposition; object
2. (Law) to enter a demurrer
3. to delay

demurrer , ; () () , ()
1. one that demurs; an objector
2. an objection
3. (Law) a method of objecting that admits the facts of the opponent's argument but denies that
they sustain the pleading based upon them

den ( ) , ; ,

denigrate <dnigrit> , , ,
1. to attack the character or reputation of; speak ill of; defame
2. to disparage; belittle

denomination ; (title); , (), ; ,


1. a large group of religious congregations united under a common faith and name and organized
under a single administrative and legal hierarchy
2. one of a series of kinds, values, or sizes, as in a system of currency or weights
3. a name or designation, especially for a class or group

denounce , ; (, )
1. to condemn openly as being evil or reprehensible
2. to accuse formally
3. to give formal announcement of the ending of (a treaty)

dent , () ; (, ) , ; ( ) ,
1. a depression in a surface made by pressure or a blow
2. (Informal) a significant, usually diminishing effect or impression
3. (Informal) meaningful progress; headway
headway , , ; (, ) ; ()
1. forward movement or the rate of forward movement, especially of a ship
2. progress toward a goal
3. the clear vertical space beneath a ceiling or archway; clearance
4. the distance in time or space that separates two vehicles traveling the same route

denture ,

denunciation , , ; ( )
1. the act or an instance of denouncing, especially a public condemnation or censure
2. the act of accusing another of a crime before a public prosecutor

dependable //

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trustworthy
2

deplete ,
to decrease the fullness of; use up or empty out

depletion ,
1. the act or process of depleting
2. the state of being depleted; exhaustion
3. the gradual use or consumption of a resource, especially a natural resource

deport , ; , ; ,
1. to expel from a country
2. to behave or conduct (oneself) in a given manner; comport

deposition , ; , ;
1. the act of deposing, as from high office
2. the act of depositing, especially the laying down of matter by a natural process
3. something deposited; a deposit
4. (Law) testimony under oath, especially a statement by a witness that is written down or
recorded for use in court at a later date
5. Deposition. the removal lf Jesus from the cross

deprave , ; /
to debase, especially morally; corrupt

depravity , ;
1. moral corruption or degradation
2. a depraved act or condition

deprecation , ; ,

deprecate , ;
1. to express disapproval of; deplore
2. to belittle; depreciate

depreciate /;
1. to lessen the price or value of
2. to think or speak of as being of little worth; belittle

deprivation , ; , , ; ,
1. a. the act or an instance of depriving; loss b. the condition of being deprived; privation
2. a removal of rank or office

deputy , ; [D] ( )
1. a person appointed or empowered to act for another
2. n assistant exercising full authority in the absence of his or her superior and equal authority in
emergencies
3. a representative in a legislative body in certain countries

dereliction <drlkn> , ,
1. willful neglect, as of duty or principle
2. a. the act of abandoning; abandonment b. a state of abandonment or neglect
3. (Law) a. a gaining of land by the permanent recession of the water line b. the land so gained

deride , ,
to speak of or treat with contemptuous mirth
mirth , ,
gladness and gaiety, especially when expressed by laughter

derision , ,
1. a. contemptuous or jeering laughter; ridicule b. a state of being derided
2. an object of ridicule; a laughingstock

derisive /(mocking);
mocking; jeering

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derivative , ,
1. resulting from or employing derivation
2. copied or adapted from others

dermatologist

dermatology

derogatory (, ) ;
1. disparaging; belittling
2. tending to detract or diminish

desalinize, desalt ()

descry , ; (, )

to removes salts and other chemicals from (sea water or soil, for example)
1. to catch sight of (something difficult to discern)
2. to discover by careful observation or scrutiny; detect
1

desecrate (opp. consecrate)

deserter , , ,

deserving ... ,

to violate the sacredness of; profane

worthy, as of reward, praise, or aid


1

desiccant ;
a substance, such as calcium oxide or silica gel, that has a high affinity for water and is used as a
drying agent

desiccate ; ,
1. to dry out thoroughly
2. to preserve (foods) by removing the moisture
3. to make dry, dull, or lifeless

desiccation , ;

desirability

desirable , ,
1. worth having or seeking, as by being useful, advantageous, or pleasing
2. worth doing or achieving; advisable
3. arousing desire, especially sexual desire

desperate ; ; ,
1. having lost all hope; despairing
2. marked by, arising from, or showing despair
3. reckless or violent because of despair
4. undertaken out of extreme urgency or as a last resort
5. nearly hopeless; critical
6. suffering or driven by great need or distress
7. extremely intense

despicable ,
deserving of contempt or scorn; vile
vile , ; , , ; ;
1. loathsome; disgusting
2. unpleasant or objectionable
3. a. contemptibly low in worth or account; second-rate b. of mean or low condition
4. miserably poor and degrading; wretched
5. morally depraved; ignoble or wicked

despise , ;
1. to regard with contempt or scorn
2. to dislike intensely; loathe

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3. to regard as unworthy of one's interest or concern


1

despot , , (tyrant)
1. a ruler with absolute power
2. a person who wields power oppressively; a tyrant
3. a. a Byzantine emperor or prince b. an Eastern Orthodox bishop or patriarch

despotic ;

destitute , ... ; ,
1. utterly lacking; devoid
2. lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished

desultory ,
1. moving or jumping from one thing to another; disconnected
2. occurring haphazardly; random

detain , ; () /
1. to keep from proceeding; delay or retard
2. to keep in custody or temporary confinement
custody , ; , ; , (imprisonment)
1. the act or right of guarding, especially such a right granted by a court
2. care, supervision, and control exerted by one in charge
3. the state of being detained or held under guard, especially by the police

deter , , ()
to prevent or discourage from acting, as by means of fear or doubt

detergent ;
a cleansing substance that acts similarly to soap but is made from chemical compounds rather than
fast and lye
lye , ()

deterioration , (opp. amelioration)

deteriorate
to diminish or impair in quality, character, or value

determined , , ; ,
1. marked by or showing determination; resolute
2. decided or resolved

deterrent , ,
tending to deter

detrimental ,

devastate () ; ()

causing damage or harm; injurious


1. to lay waste; destroy
2. to overwhelm; confound; stun
1

devastating , ; ,

deviance <d:vins>, deviancy () ( )

deviant () , ,

deviation , ; ,

differing from a norm or from the accepted standards of a society


1. the act of deviating or turning aside
2. an abnormality; a departure
3. deviant behavior or attitudes
4. divergence from an accepted political policy or party line
5. deflection of a compass needle caused by local magnetic influence, especially on a ship
6. (Statistics) the difference, especially the absolute difference, between one number in a set and the
mean of the set

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devious , ; ,
1. not straightforward; shifty
2. departing from the correct or accepted way; erring
3. deviating from the straight or direct course; roundabout
4. away from a main road or course; distant or removed

devoid , ...

devoted , ; ,

completely lacking; destitute or empty


1. feeling or displaying strong affection or attachment; ardent
2. having been consecrated; dedicated
1

devotion , , ; (),
1. ardent, often selfless affection and dedication, as to a person
2. religious ardor or zeal; piety
3. often devotions a. an act of religious observance or prayer, especially when private b.
devotions. prayers or religious texts
4. the act of devoting or the state of being devoted

devotional , ;
of, relating to, expressive of, or used in devotion, especially of a religious nature

dew ; , (freshness)

diatribe //
a bitter, abusive denunciation

dichotomous , 2; (, )

dichotomy ,
1. division into two usually contradictory parts or opinions
2. (Astronomy) the phase of the moon, Mercury, or Venus when half of the disk is illuminated
2. (Botany) branching characterized by successive forking into two approximately equal divisions

diction , , ; ,
1. choice and use of words in speech or writing
2. degree of clarity and distinctness of pronunciation in speech or singing; enunciation
enunciate , ; () (pronounce)
1. to pronounce; articulate
2. to state or set forth precisely or systematically
3. to announce; proclaim

didactic , ; ,
1. intended to instruct
2. morally instructive
3. inclined to teach or moralize excessively

diffidence (opp. confidence), (shyness)


the quality or state of being diffident; timidity or shyness

diffident , ,
1. lacking or marked by a lack of self-confidence; shy and timid
2. reserved in manner

diffuse , ; ,
1. to pour out and cause to spread freely
2. to spread about or scatter; disseminate
3. to make less brilliant; soften

digestible , ,
readily or easily digested

digestion , ;

digress ,

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to turn aside, especially from the main subject in writing or speaking; stray
1

digression , ,

digressive ,
characterized by digressions; rambling

dilapidated , k, , ,
having fallen into a state of disrepair or deterioration, as through neglect; broken-down and shabby

dilate ,
to make wider or larger,; cause to expand

dilettante
1. a dabbler in an at or a field of knowledge
2. a lover of the fine arts; a connoisseur
dabbler ;
one who engages in an activity superficially or without serious intent

dilettantism <dlt:ntizm> , ,

dilute , ,
1. to make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water
2. to lessen the force, strength, purity, or brilliance of, especially by admixture

dim , , , ; , ,
1. a. lacking in brightness b. emitting only a small amount of light; faint
2. lacking luster; dull and subdued
3. a. faintly outlined; indistinct b. obscure to the mind or the senses
4. lacking sharpness or clarity of understanding or perception
5. lacking keenness or vigor
6. negative, unfavorable, or disapproving

diminutive <dimnjutiv> ,
1. extremely small in size; tiny
2. (Grammar) of or being a suffix that indicates smallness, youth, familiarity, affection, or contempt,
as -let in booklet, -kin in lambkin, or -et in nymphet
nymp () ;

din n. , v. ,
a jumble of loud, usually discordant sounds
1. to stun with deafening noise
2. to instill by wearying repetition

diplomat
1. one, such as an ambassador, who has been appointed to represent a government in its relations
with other governments
2. one who uses skill and tact in dealing with others

dire , , ;
1. warning of or having dreadful or terrible consequences; calamitous
2. urgent; desperate

directness ; ,

dirge , ,
1. (Music) a. a funeral hymn or lament b. a slow, mournful musical composition
2. a mournful or elegiac poem or other literary work
3. (Roman Catholicism) the office for the Dead

disabuse ( )

disaffect ()

to free from a falsehood or misconception


to cause to lose affection or loyalty
1

disarm , ; ( )

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1. a. to divest of a weapon or weapons b. to deprive of the means of attack or defense; render


harmless
2. a. to overcome or allay the suspicion, hostility, or antagonism of b. to win the confidence of
divest () ; ( ) , ,
1. to strip, as of clothes
2. a. to deprive, as of rights or property; dispossess b. to free of; rid
3. to sell off or otherwise dispose of (a subsidiary company or an investment)
subsidiary , , ;
1. serving to assist or supplement; auxiliary
2. secondary in importance; subordinate
3. or, relating to, or of the nature of a subsidy
subsidy ,
1

disarray , ;
1. a state of disorder; confusion
2. disorderly dress

disavow /

disbar () , /

to disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or association with


(Law) to expel (an attorney) from the practice of law by official action or procedure
2

disburse
to pay out, as from a fund; expend

discern , ,
1. to perceive with the eyes or intellect; detect
2. to recognize or comprehend mentally
3. to perceive or recognize as being different or distinct; distinguish

discernment , ;
1. the act or process of exhibiting keen insight and good judgment
2. keenness of insight and judgment

disciple , ; [D] 12 (Apostles)


1. a. one who embraces and assists in spreading the teachings of another b. an active adherent, as
of a movement or philosophy
2. often Disciple. one of the 12 original followers of Jesus
3. Disciple. a member of the Disciples of Christ

discipline , ; , , ; , ; ,

disclaim ( ) , ; ( )
1. to deny or renounce any claim to or connection with; disown
2. to deny the validity of; repudiate
3. (law) to renounce one's right or claim to

disclose , ,
1. to expose to view, as by removing a cover; uncover
2. to make known (something heretofore kept secret)

disclosure , ;
1. the act or process of revealing or uncovering
2. something uncovered; a revelation

discomfit , ; ( ) ,
1. to make uneasy or perplexed; disconcert
2. to thwart the plans of; frustrate

discomfort , ; ,
1. mental or bodily distress
2. something that disturbs one's comfort; annoyance

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disconcert , ; ( ) ,
1. to upset the self-possession of; ruffle
2. to frustrate (plans, for example) by throwing into disorder; disarrange

discordant () / ; ()
1. not being in accord; conflicting
2. disagreeable in sound; harsh or dissonant

discountenance ,
1. to view or treat with disfavor
2. to put out of countenance; disconcert

discourse <dskrs> , ; , ; ; () (narration)


1. verbal expression in speech or writing
2. verbal exchange; conversation
3. a formal, lengthy discussion of a subject, either written or spoken

discourteous <dsk:rtis>

, ,

discourtesy , ; (rudeness)

exhibiting no courtesy; rude


1. lack of courtesy; rudeness
2. a rude act or statement
courtesy , , , ; ,
1

discreet , ;
1. marked by, exercising, or showing prudence and wise self-restraint in speech and behavior;
circumspect
2. free from ostentation or pretension; modest
ostentation , ,
pretentious display meant to impress others; boastful showiness

discrete , ;
1. constituting a separate thing; distinct
2. consisting of unconnected distinct parts

discretion / , ; ,
1. the quality of being discreet; circumspection
2. ability or power to decide responsibly
3. freedom to act or judge on one's own

disenfranchise, disfranchise () / ; ( )
1. to deprive of a privilege, an immunity, or a right of citizenship, especially the right to vote
2. to deprive (a corporation, for example) of a privilege or franchise

disgrace , , ;
1. loss of honor, respect, or reputation; shame
2. the condition of being strongly and generally disapproved
3. one that brings disfavor or discredit

disillusion / ;
to free or deprive of illusion

disillusioned

disinclination , (unwillingness)
a lack of inclination; a mild aversion or reluctance

disingenuous , ,
not straightforward or candid; crafty

disinter ( ) ; ,
1. to dig up or remove from a grave or tomb; exhume
2. to bring to public notice; disclose
exhume , ; ( )

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1. to remove from a grave; disinter


2. to bring to light, especially after a period of obscurity
3

disinterested , (unselfish); , 3; , ,
1. free of bias and self-interest; impartial
2. a. not interested; indifferent b. having lost interest

disjunction ,
1. the act of disjoining or the condition of being disjointed
2. (Logic) a proposition that presents two or more alternative terms, with the assertion that only
one is true

dislodge , , ,
to remove or force out from a position or dwelling previously occupied

dismiss ; /, ; ; ( ) ,
1. to end the employment or service of; discharge
2. to direct or allow to leave
3. a. to stop considering; rid one's mind of; dispel b. to refuse to accept or recognize; reject

disobedient , ; ,

disobey , ,
to refuse or fail to follow an order or a rule

disparage , ; ,
1. to speak of in a slighting way; belittle
2. to reduce in esteem or rank

disparaging , ,

disparate ,
fundamentally distinct or different in kind; entirely dissimilar

disparity , , (),
1. the condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference
2. unlikeness; incongruity

dispassionate , ,
devoid of or unaffected by passion, emotion, or bias

dispatch ; , ; ,
1. to relegate to a specific destination or send on specific business
2. a. to complete, transact, or dispose of promptly b. to eat up (food); finish off (a dish or meal)
3. to put to death summarily

dispel ( ) , ( ) (disperse)
1. to rid one's mind of
2. to drive away or off by or as if by scattering

dispense , () ; () , ; () (exempt)
1. to deal out in parts or portions; distribute
2. to prepare and give out (medicines)
3. to administer (laws, for example)
4. to exempt or release, as from a duty or religious obligation

disperse , , ()
1. a. to drive off or scatter in different directions b. to strew or distribute widely
2. to cause to vanish or disappear
3. to disseminate (knowledge, for example)
4. to separate (light) into spectral rays
5. to distribute (particles) evenly throughout a medium
strew <stru:> () , ;
1. to spread here and there; scatter
2. to cover (an area or a surface) with things scattered or sprinkled

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3. to be or become dispersed over (a surface)


4. to spread (something) over a wide area; disseminate
disseminate ; (, ) (diffuse)
1. to scatter widely, as in sowing seed
2. to spread abroad; promulgate
promulgate , ; ( ) ,
1. to make known (a decree, for example) by public declaration; announce officially
2. to put (a law) into effect by formal public announcement
1

displace , ;
1. to move or shift from the usual place or position, especially to force to leave a homeland
2. to take the place of; supplant
3. to discharge from an office or position

dispose , ; ... ;
1. to place or set in a particular order; arrange
2. to put (business affairs, for example) into correct, definitive, or conclusive form
3. to put into a willing or receptive frame of mind; incline

disposed ... , , ... /

disproof ,
1. the act of refuting or disproving
2. evidence that refutes or disproves

disprove , (refute)

disputatious ,

to prove to be false, invalid, or in error; refute


inclined to dispute
1

dispute , ;
1. to argue about; debate
2. to question the truth or validity of; doubt
3. to strive to win (a prize, for example); contest for
4. to strive against; resist

disquiet ,
to deprive of peace or rest; trouble

disregard /,
1. to pay no attention or heed to; ignore
2. to treat without proper respect or attentiveness

disreputable , , ;
lacking respectability, as in character, behavior, or appearance

disrepute ,
damage to or loss of reputation

disrupt , ; (, ) , ; ()
1. to throw ito confusion or disorder
2. to interrupt or impede the progress, movement, or procedure of
3. to break or burst; rupture
rupture , ; ,
to break open; burst

disruptive ,
relating to, causing, or produced by disruption

dissect , ; /
1. to cut apart or separate (tissue), especially for anatomical study
2. to examine, analyze, or criticize in minute detail

dissemblance , ; ,

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dissemble , ; ,
1. to disguise or conceal behind a false appearance
2. to make a false shown of; feign

dissent , (disagree, opp. consent); ()


1. to differ in opinion or feeling; disagree
2. to withhold assent or approval

dissenting ,

dissertation , ; ,
a lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a
university; a thesis

dissident ,

dissociate ,

disagreeing, as in opinion or belief


to remove from association; separate
1

dissociation ,

dissolute , ,

dissolution (, ) ; () , ; ,

dissonance (opp. consonance); , (discord)

lacking moral restraint; indulging in sensual pleasures or vices

1. a harsh, disagreeable combination of sounds; discord


2. lack of agreement, consistency, or harmony; conflict
1

dissuade () , , ... (opp. persuade)

distend , ;
to swell out or expand from or as if from internal pressure

distension ,
the act of distending or the state of being distended

distillate <dstlit> ; ,
1. a liquid condensed from vapor in distillation
2. a purified form; an essence

distillation ();
1. the evaporation and subsequent collection of a liquid by condensation as a means of purification
2. the extraction of the volatile components of a mixture by the condensation and collection of the
vapors that are produced as the mixture is heated
3. a distillate

distinctive , ,
1. serving to identity; distinguishing
2. characteristic or typical

distort , ; ( ) ; (TV )
1. to twist out of a proper or natural relation of parts; misshape
2. to give a false or misleading account of; misrepresent
3. to cause to work in a twisted or disorderly manner; pervert
pervert , /;
1. to cause to turn away from what is right, proper, or good; corrupt
2. to bring to a bad or worse condition; debase
3. to put to a wrong or improper use; misuse
4. to interpret incorrectly; misconstrue or distort

distraught <distr :t> ,


1. deeply agitated, as from emotional conflict
2. mad; insane

distress n. , , , ; ; , ; v. , ; (exhaust);

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..., ; ()
1. to cause strain, anxiety, or suffering to
2. (Law) to hold the property of (a person) against the payment of debts
3. to mar or otherwise treat (an object or a fabric, for example) to give the appearance of an
antique or of heavy prior use
1

distressing , ,

diverge , , ; ; ( )
1. to go or extend in different directions from a common point; branch out
2. to differ, as in opinion or manner
3. to depart from a set course or norm; deviate

divert , ; ,
1. to turn aside from a course or direction
2. to distract
3. to entertain by distracting the attention from worrisome thoughts or cares; amuse

divest () ; ( ) , ,
1. to strip, as of clothes
2. a. to deprive, as of rights or property; dispossess b. to free of; rid
3. to sell off or otherwise dispose of (a subsidiary company or an investment)

divestiture <daivstitr>

dividend , (opp. divisor); ,


1. (Math) a quantity to be divided
2. a. a share of profits received by a stock holder or by a policyholder in a mutual insurance
society b. a payment prorata to a creditor of a person adjudged bankrupt
3. a. a share of a surplus; a bonus b. an unexpected gain, benefit, or advantage
prorata <pru-rit> ,
adjudge , ,
1. (Law) a. to determine or decide by judicial procedure; adjudicate b. to order judicially; rule
c. to award (damages, for example) by law
2. to regard, consider, or deem
adjudicate ,
1. (Law) to hear and settle (a case) by judicial procedure
2. to study and settle (a dispute or controversy)
deem , (consider)
1. to have as an opinion; judge
2. to regard as; consider

divulge ( ) ,

dizziness

docile , ,

to make known (something private or secret)

1. ready and willing to be taught; teachable


2. yielding to supervision, direction, or management; tractable
teachable , ;
1. that can be taught
2. able and willing to learn
1

doctrinaire ,
a person inflexibly attached to a practice or theory without regard to its practicality

dodge () , ; ( )
1. to avoid (a blow, for example) by moving or shifting quickly aside
2. to evade (an obligation, for example) by cunning, trickery, or deceit
3. to blunt or reduce the intensity of (a section of a photograph) by shading during the printing

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process
1

doff ( ) (opp. don); ( ) ,


1. to take off; remove
2. to tip or remove (one's hat) in salutation
3. to put aside; discard

doggerel /

dogma , (doctrine); , ; ,

crudely or irregularly fashioned verse, often of a humorous or burlesque nature


1. (Theology) a doctrine or a corpus of doctrines relating to matters such as morality and faith, set
forth in an authoritative manner by a church
2. an authoritative principle, belief, or statement of ideas or opinion, especially one considered to be
absolutely true
3. a principle or belief or a group of them
5

dogmatic(al) ,
1. relating to, characteristic of, or resulting from dogma
2. characterized by an authoritative, arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable principles

dogmatism ,
arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief

dolt ,

dome ;

a person regarded as stupid


1. a. a hemispherical roof or vault b. a structure or other object resembling such a hemispherical
roof or vault
2. (Slang) the human head
vault <v:lt> ; , ; ,
1. a. an arched structure, usually of stone, brick, or concrete, forming the supporting structure
of a ceiling or roof b. an arched overhead covering, such as the sky, that resembles the
architectural structure in form
2. a room or space, such as a cellar or storeroom, with arched walls and ceiling, especially
when underground
3. a room or compartment, often built of steel, for the safekeeping of valuables
4. a burial chamber, especially when underground
1

domesticity ; ;
1. the quality or condition of being domestic
2. home life or devotion to it
3. domesticities. household affairs

dominant , , ; ,
1. exercising the most influence or control
2. most prominent, as in position; ascendant

dominate /; ,
1. to control, govern, or rule by superior authority or power
2. to exert a supreme, guiding influence on or over
3. to enjoy a commanding, controlling position in
4. to overlook from a height

domination , ;
1. a. mastery or supremacy over another or others b. the exercise of such mastery or supremacy
2. dominations. (Theology) the fourth of the nine orders of angels

don , (opp. doff)


1. to put on (clothing)
2. to assume or take on

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donate ,

doom , ;

to present as a gift to a fund or cause; contribute


1. a decision or judgment, especially an official condemnation to a severe penalty
2. fate, especially a tragic or ruinous one
3. inevitable destruction or ruin
4. Judgment Day
1

doomed ,

doorway , ,

dormancy (), ,

dormant , , (opp. active),


1. lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive
2. latent but capable of being activated
3. temporarily quiescent
4. in a condition of biological rest or inactivity characterized by cessation of growth or development
and the suspension of many metabolic processes

dossier <d :sii>


a collection of papers giving detailed information about a particular person or subject

dote ; ,

downcast () ; ,

to show excessive love or fondness


1. directed downward
2. low I spirits; depressed
3

drab ; ; ,
1. (Color) a. of a dull light brown b. of a light olive brown or khaki color
2. faded and dull in appearance
3. dull or commonplace in character; dreary

draftsman ,
1. a man who draws plans or designs, as of structures to be built
2. a man who draws, especially an artist

drain , ; ( ) ; (, ) ,
1. to draw off (a liquid) by a gradual process
2. a. to cause liquid to go out from; empty b. to draw off the surface water of
3. to drink all the contents of
4. a. to deplete gradually, especially to the point of complete exhaustion b. to fatigue or spend
emotionally or physically

drawbridge

drawl ,
to speak with lengthened or drawn-out vowels

dread , ,
1. to be in terror of
2. to anticipate with alarm, distaste, or reluctance

dredge n. /, ( ) () v. ( ) (sprinkle), ()
1. any of various machines equipped with scooping or suction devices and used to deepen harbors
and waterways and in underwater mining
2. (Nautical) a boat or barge equipped with a dredge
3. an implement consisting of a net on a frame, used for gathering shellfish
to coat (food) by sprinkling with a powder, such as flour or sugar

dreary (, ) , , ; ( ) ; ( )
1. dismal; bleak

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2. boring; dull
bleak (, ) ; ( ) , , (dreary); ( )
1. a. gloomy and somber; dreary b. providing no encouragement; depressing
2. cold and cutting; raw
3. exposed to the elements; unsheltered and barren
1

drench (soak), ; ()
1. to wet through and through; soak
2. to administer a large oral dose of liquid medicine to (an animal)
3. to provide with something in great abundance; surfeit

drill ; ,
1. a. to make a hole in (a hard material) with a drill b. to make (a hole) with or as if with a drill
2. to strike or hit sharply
3. a. to instruct thoroughly by repetition in a skill or procedure b. to infuse knowledge of or skill in
by repetitious instruction
4. to train (soldiers) in marching and the manual of arms

droll ,

drone ; ; ,

droplet

dross , ; , ;

amusingly odd or whimsically comical

1. a waste product or an impurity, especially an oxide, formed on the surface of molten metal
2. worthless, commonplace, or trivial matter
1

drudge (/ ) ,
to do tedious, unpleasant, or menial work

duckling

duel ; ,
1. a prearranged, formal combat between two persons, usually fought to settle a point of honor
2. a struggle for domination between two contending persons, groups, or ideas

dullness , , , ; ; ,

dune ( )

dupe
1. an easily deceived person
2. a person who functions as the tool of another person or power

duplicity ; ,
1. a. deliberate deceptiveness in behavior or speech b. an instance of deliberate deceptiveness;
double-dealing
2. the quality or state of being twofold or double

durable , ,
1. capable of withstanding wear and tear or decay
2. lasting; stable

dwindle ; ; () ;

dysfunction ,

to become gradually less until little remains


abnormal or impaired functioning, especially of a bodily system or organ
1

dyslexia ,
a learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to recognize and comprehend written words

E
1

earring

eavesdrop <:vzdrp>

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to listen secretly to the private conversation of others


1

ebb , (opp. flood, flow); ,


1. ebb tide
2. a period of decline or diminution

ebullience ; ,
zestful enthusiasm
zestful ;

ecclesiastical , (opp. secular)


1. of or relating to a church, especially as an organized institution
2. appropriate to a church or to use in a church

eclectic (selecting); , ; (, )
1. selecting or employing individual elements from a variety of sources, systems, or styles
2. made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources

eclipse (, ) (); (, )
1. a. the partial or complete obscuring, relative to a designated observer, of one celestial body by
another b. the period of time during which such an obscuration occurs
2. a temporary or permanent dimming or cutting off of light
3. a. a fall into obscurity or disuse; a disgraceful or humiliating end; a downfall

ecology
a. the science of the relationships between organisms and their environments b. the relationship
between organisms and their environment

economical , ; (, ) ;
1. prudent and thrifty in management; not wasteful or extravagant
2. intended to save money, as by efficient operation or elimination of unnecessary features; economic

eddy , ; ; ()
1. a current, as of water or air, moving contrary to the direction of the main current, especially in
a circular motion
2. a drift or tendency that is counter to or separate from a main current, as of opinion, tradition, or
history

edible , (eatable)
fit to be eaten

edify ,
to instruct especially so as to encourage intellectual, moral, or spiritual improvement

edifying

efface , ; (, ) ; ()
1. to rub or wipe out; erase
2. to make indistinct as if by rubbing
3. to conduct (oneself) inconspicuously

efficacious <fikis> , ()

effrontery , ,

effusion , ;

producing or capable of producing a desired effect


brazen boldness; presumptuousness
1. a. the act or an instance of effusing b. liquid or other matter poured forth
2. an unrestrained outpouring of feeling, as in speech or writing
1

effusive , ()
1. unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression; gushy
2. profuse; overflowing
gushy, gushing , ; ,
marked by excessive displays of sentiment or enthusiasm

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profuse , (abundant); ,
1. plentiful; copious
2. giving or given freely and abundantly; extravagant
1

egress ;
1. the act of coming or going out; emergence
2. the right of going out
3. a path or opening for going out; an exit

elaborate , ,
1. planned or executed with painstaking attention to numerous parts or details
2. intricate and rich ind detail

elastic
1. a. easily resuming original shape after being stretched or expanded; flexible b. springy;
rebounding
2. (Physics) returning to or capable of returning to an initial form or state after deformation
3. quick to recover, as from disappointment
4. capable of adapting to change or a variety of circumstances

elasticity , ;

elate , ;
to make proud or joyful

elated , ,
exultantly proud and joyful
exultant , , (triumphant)

electrolytic

elegance , (grace, refinement); ,


1. a. refinement, grace, and beauty in movement, appearance, or manners b. tasteful opulence in
form, decoration, or presentation
2. a. restraint and grace of style b. scientific exactness and precision
3. something elegant

elegiac <lidik> ;
1. of, relating to, or involving elegy or mourning or expressing sorrow for that which is
irrecoverably past
2. of or composed in elegiac couplets

elegy , ,
1. a poem composed in elegiac couplets
2. a. a poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased person b. something
resembling such a poem or song
3. (Music) a composition that is melancholy or pensive in tone
pensive ; , ,
1. deeply, often wistfully dreamily thoughtful
2. suggestive or expressive of melancholy thoughtfulness

elicit ( ) , ; (, )
1. a. to bring or draw out (something latent); educe b. to arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic
2. to call forth (a reaction, for example)

ellipse

ellipsis ,
1. a. the omission of a word or phrase necessary for a complete syntactical construction but not
necessary for understanding b. an example of such omission
2. a mark or series of marks ( . . . or , for example) used in writing or printing to indicate
an omission, especially of letters or words

eloquence , ; ; ,

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1. a. persuasive, powerful discourse b. the skill or power of using such discourse


2. the quality of persuasive, powerful expression
1

elucidate (, ) , , ,
to make clear or plain, especially by explanation; clarify

elucidation ,

elude ( ) , ; ( ) ; /
1. to evade or escape from, as by daring, cleverness, or skill
2. to escape the understanding or grasp of

elusive () , ; ,
1. tending to elude capture, perception, comprehension, or memory
2. difficult to define or describe

emaciate (, ) , ; ()
to make or become extremely thin, especially as a result of starvation

emaciation , ,

embark (, ) , , , (opp. disembark); ( )


1. to cause to board a vessel or aircraft
2. to enlist (a person or persons) or invest (capital) in an enterprise

embarrass , ; ,
1. to cause to feel self-conscious or ill at ease; disconcert
2. to involve in or hamper with financial difficulties
3. to hinder with obstacles or difficulties; impede
4. to complicate

embarrassment , , ; , ; ( pl.) ,

embellish , ,
1. to make beautiful, as by ornamentation; decorate
2. to add ornamental or fictitious details to

embellishment , ,
1. the act of embellishing or the state of being embellished
2. something that embellishes; a decoration
3. (Music) a note that embellishes a melody

embezzle ,

embezzlement , , ()

embody ; , ; (... ...) ,

to take (money, for example) for one's own use in violation of a trust

1. to give a bodily form to; incarnate


2. to represent in bodily or material form
3. to make part of a system or whole; incorporate
1

emboss , ; ,
1. to mold or carve in relief
2. to decorate with or as if with a raised design
3. to adorn; decorate
4. to cover with many protuberances
protuberance , ;
1. something, such as a bulge, knob, or swelling, that protrudes
2. the condition of being protuberant

embrace , (hug); ( ) ; ,
1. to clasp or hold close with the arms, usually as an expression of affection
2. a. o surround; enclose b. to twine around
3. to include as part of something broader
4. to take up willingly or eagerly

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5. to avail oneself of
avail , ,
to be of use or advantage to; help
3

embroider ; ( ) ,
1. to ornament with needlework
2. to make by means of needlework
3. to add embellishments or fanciful details to

embroidery (); ,

emend (, ) /

emigrate , ;

emissary (messenger), ; ,

to improve by critical editing


to leave one country or region to settle in another
an agent sent on a mission to represent or advance the interests of another
1

emit , () , ( ) , ( ) , ( )
1. to give or send out matter or energy
2. a. to give out as sound; utter b. to voice; express
3. to issue with authority, especially to put (currency) into circulation

emollient ( ) ; () (soothing)
1. softening and soothing, especially to the skin
2. making less harsh or abrasive; mollifying

empathy ,
1. identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives
2. the attribution of one's own feelings to an object

emulate , ; ,
1. to strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation
2. to compete with successfully; approach or attain equality with

emulation , ; ()

enact () , ( ) , (... )
1. to make into law
2. to act (something) out, as on a stage

enamor ,
to inspire with love; captivate

enamored ,

encapsulate ; (, )
1. to encase in or as if in a capsule
2. to express in a brief summary; epitomize

enchant (bewitch), , (charm)


1. to cast a spell over; bewitch
2. to attract and delight; entrance
entrance n. , ; , , ; , v. ,
1. to put into a trance
2. to fill with delight, wonder, or enchantment
trance , (ecstasy); ,

encomium ,
1. warm, glowing praise
2. a formal expression of praise; a tribute

encompass , , ; ( )
1. to form a circle or ring around; surround
2. to enclose; envelop

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3. to constitute or include
4. to accomplish; achieve
1

encroach ( , ) , ; ( ) (infringe)
1. to take another's possessions or rights gradually or stealthily
2. to advance beyond proper or former limits

encumber , ; ( ) (choke up); ( ) (burden)


1. to put a heavy load on; burden
2. to hinder or impede the action or performance of
3. to burden with legal or financial obligations

endemic , ; (opp. exotic)


1. prevalent in or peculiar to a particular locality, region, or people
2. (Ecology) native to or confined to a certain region

endorse /; ,
1. to write one's signature on the back of (a check, for example) as evidence of the legal transfer
of its ownership, especially in return for the cash or credit indicated on its face
2. to place (one's signature), as on a contract, to indicate approval of its contents or terms
3. to acknowledge (receipt of payment) by signing a bill, draft, or other instrument
4. to give approval of or support to, especially by public statement; sanction

endorsement ; , ,

endow , /; (, )
1. to provide with property, income, or a source of income
2. a. to equip or supply with a talent or quality b. to imagine as having a usually favorable trait or
quality

endowment , ; () ,
1. the act of endowing
2. funds or property donated to an institution, an individual, or a group as a source of income
3. a natural gift, ability, or quality

endure , , ; ( ) ,
1. to carry on through, despite hardships; undergo
2. to bear with tolerance

enduring ; , (lasting)
1. lasting; continuing; durable
2. long-suffering; patient

energize
1. to give energy to; activate or invigorate
2. to supply with an electric current; connect to a source of electricity

enervate , /
to weaken or destroy the strength or vitality of

enforce ( ) , ; , ;
1. to compel observance of or obedience to
2. to impose (a kind of behavior, for example); compel
3. to give force to; reinforce

enforced ,

enfranchise ; , (set free); ()


1. to bestow a franchise on
2. to endow with the rights of citizenship, especially the right to vote
3. to free, as from bondage

engaging , , (winning)
charming; attractive

engender ( ) ,

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1. to bring into existence; give rise to


2. to procreate; propagate
1

engrave , ; () ,
1. to carve, cut, or etch into a material
2. to carve, cut, or etch a design or letters ito
3. a. to carve, cut, or etch into a block or surface used for printing b. to print from a block or
plate made by such a process
4. to impress deeply as if by carving or etching

engross , ; , ; , ()
1. to occupy exclusively; absorb
2. to acquire most or all of (a commodity); monopolize (a market)
3. a. to write or transcribe in a large, clear hand b. to write or print the final draft of (an official
document)

engrossing , ,

engulf (, ) , ,

enigma ; /

occupying one's complete attention; wholly absorbing


to swallow up or overwhelm by or as if by overflowing and enclosing
1. one that is puzzling, ambiguous, or inexplicable
2. a perplexing speech or text; a riddle
1

enigmatic , ; ,

enlist , ; //

of or resembling an enigma; puzzling


1. to engage (persons or a person) for service in the armed forces
2. to engage the support or cooperation of
1

enmesh ; ( ) ,

enmity , , , (antagonism)

to entangle, involve, or catch in or as if in a mesh


deep-seated, often mutual hatred
1

enrapture ,
to fill with rapture or delight

enroll , ; (enlist); , (record)


1. to enter or register in a roll, list, or record
2. to roll or wrap up
3. to write or print a final copy of; engross

ensemble ; () ; [ ]
1. a unit or group of complementary parts that contribute to a single effect, especially a. a
coordinated outfit or costume b. a group of supporting musicians, singers, dancers, or actors who
perform together
2. (Music) a. a work for two or more vocalists or instrumentalists b. the vocalists or
instrumentalists who perform such a work

ensign <nsn> ( ) (); (badge)

entangle ; , ; (, ) , (entrap)
1. to twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; snarl
2. to complicate; confuse
3. to involve in or as if in a tangle
snarl ( ) ; , ; ,

enthrall ; , , (captivate)
1. to hold spellbound; captivate
2. to enslave

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enthralling <inr :li> ,

enthusiasm , , ; ,
1. great excitement for or interest in a subject or cause
2. a source or cause of great excitement or interest

enthusiast
1. one who is filled with enthusiasm; one who is ardently absorbed in an interest or pursuit
2. a zealot; a fanatic

enthusiastic ,

entice

enticing , (tempting)

entreat ,

to attract by arousing hope or desire; lure

1. to make an earnest request of


2. to ask for earnestly; petition for
1

entrench (, ) ; ,
1. to provide with a trench, especially for the purpose of fortifying or defending
2. to fix firmly or securely

entrepreneur <:ntrprn:r>

;
a person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture

entrust (, ) , ; ( ) ,
1. to give over (something) to another for care, protection, or performance
2. to give as a trust to (someone)

enumerate ,
1. to count off or name one by one; list
2. to determine the number of; count

enunciate (, ) , ; (pronounce)
1. to pronounce; articulate
2. to state or set forth precisely or systematically
3. to announce; proclaim

enzyme <nzaim>

epaulet <plt> ( )
a shoulder ornament, especially a fringed strap worn on military uniforms
fringe (); ,

ephemeral , (short-lived); ,
1. lasting for a markedly brief time
2. living or lasting only for a day, as certain plants or insects do

epic ;

epicure ; ,
1. a person with refined taste especially in food and wine
2. a person devoted to sensuous pleasure and luxurious living

epidemic , ;
1. spreading rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or a
population at the same time
2. widely prevalent

epidermis ,

epigram <pgrm> ,
1. a short, witty poem expressing a single thought or observation
2. a concise, clever, often paradoxical statement
3. epigrammatic discourse or expression

episodic , ;

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1. relating to or resembling an episode


2. composed of a series of episodes
3. limited to the duration of an episode; temporary
1

epistemology
the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations,
and its extent and validity

epistle ,
1. a letter, especially a formal one
2 a literary composition in the form of a letter

epitaph ,
1. an inscription on a tombstone in memory of the one buried there
2. a brief literary piece commemorating a deceased person

epithet ; , ,
1. a. a term used to characterize a person or thing b. a term used as a descriptive substitute for
the name or title of a person
2. an abusive or contemptuous word or phrase

epitome <iptmi> , ; ...


1. a representative or an example of a class or type
2. a brief summary, as of a book or an article; an abstract

epitomize ... ; ... ,


1. to make an epitome of; sum up
2. to be a typical example of

equable (, ) , ; ()
1. a. unvarying; steady b. free from extremes
2. not easily disturbed; serene

equanimity , , ; ,

equilibrium , ; ,

the quality of being calm and even-tempered; composure


1. a condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others, resulting in a stable, balanced,
or unchanging system
2. mental or emotional balance; poise
1

equity , (fairness)

equivocal ; , ; ,
1. open o two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead; ambiguous
2. of uncertain significance
3. of a doubtful or uncertain nature

equivocate , ;
1. to use equivocal language intentionally
2. to avoid making an explicit statement

equivocation ( );

eradicate , ,
1. to tear up by the roots
2. to get rid of as if by tearing up by the roots

erasure <irir> , ; ,
1. the act or an instance of erasing
2. the state of being erased

erode , , (, )
1. to wear (something) away by or as if by abrasion
2. to eat into; corrode
3. to make or form by wearing away

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4. to cause to diminish, deteriorate, disappear as if by eating into or wearing away


1

errant , ; () , ()
1. roving, especially in search of adventure
2. straying from the proper course or standards
3. a. wandering outside the established limits b. aimless or irregular in motion

erratic , ;
1. having no fixed or regular course; wandering
2. lacking consistency, regularity, or uniformity
3. deviating from the customary course in conduct or opinion; eccentric

erudite <rjudit> ,
characterized by erudition; learned

erudition ,
deep, extensive learning

erupt , , ; () ()
1. to emerge violently from restraint or limits; explode
2. to become violently active
3. to force out or release something, such as steam, with violence or suddenness
4. a. to break through the gums in developing. used of teeth b. to appear on the skin. used of a
rash or blemish

eschew ( ) () ,
to avoid; shun

esophagus <isfgs> ()

espionage <spin:> ,
the act or practice of spying or of using spies to obtain secret information, as about another
government or a business competitor

espouse , ; (, ) ,
1. a. to take in marriage; marry b. to give (a woman) in marriage
2. to give one's loyalty or support to (a cause, for example); adopt

espy ( ) , ( )

esteem , ; ... ,

to catch sight of (something distant, partially hidden, or obscure); glimpse


1. to regard with respect; prize
2. to regard as; consider
1

estimable <stmbl> ; /
1. possible to estimate
2. deserving of esteem; admirable

estrange
1. to make hostile, unsympathetic, or indifferent; alienate
2. to remove from an accustomed place or set of associations

estrangement , ,

etch ; ,
1. a. to cut into the surface of (glass, for example) by the action of acid b. to make or create by
this method
2. to impress, delineate, or imprint clearly

ethical , ; () ,
1. of, relating to, or dealing with ethics
2. being in accordance with the accepted principles of right and wrong that govern the conduct of a
profession
3. of or relating to a drug dispensed solely on the prescription of a physician

ethics ; ,

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ethology , ;
1. the scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment
2. the study of human ethos and its formation

ethos , ,
the disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, culture, or
movement

etiquette , ,
the practices and forms prescribed by social convention or by authority

eucalyptus <j:klpts> ()

eulogize ,
to praise highly in speech or writing

eulogy , ,
1. a laudatory speech or written tribute, especially one praising someone who has died
2. high praise or commendation

euphemism <j:fmzm> ,
the act or an example of substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one considered harsh,
blunt, or offensive

euphoria ,
a feeling of great happiness or well-being

evacuate ; ; ,
1. a. to empty or remove the contents of b. to create a vacuum in
2. to excrete or discharge (waste matter), especially from the bowels
3. a. to relinquish military possession or occupation of (a town, for example) b. to withdraw or send
away (troops or inhabitants) from a threatened area
4. to withdraw or depart from; vacate
excrete ,
to separate and discharge (waste matter) from the blood, tissues, or organs

evade , ; ( ) (dodge), ( )
1. to escape or avoid by cleverness or deceit
2. a. to avoid fulfilling, answering, or performing b. to fail to make payment of (taxes)
3. to avoid giving a direct answer to
4. to baffle or elude

evanescent , , (transitory)
vanishing or likely to vanish like vapor

evenhanded (impartial)
showing no partiality; fair

even-tempered , ,
easygoing; calm
easygoing ; , ;

evict ( ) ; ; (recover)
1. to put out (a tenant, for example) by legal process; expel
2. to force out; eject
3. (Law) to recover (property, for example) by a superior claim or legal process

evince , ( )

evoke ( ) ; (, ) ,

to show or demonstrate clearly; manifest


1. to summon or call forth
2. to call to mind by naming, citing, or suggesting
3. to create anew, especially by means of the imagination
anew , , (afresh)

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exacerbate (, ) ; ()

exact ,

to increase the severity, violence, or bitterness of; aggravate


1. to force the payment or yielding of; extort
2. to demand and obtain by or as if by force or authority

exalt , ; ,
1. to raise in rank, character, or status; elevate
2. to glorify, praise, or honor
3. to increase the effect or intensity of; heighten

excavate (, ) , , ( )
1. to make a hole in; hollow out
2. to form by hollowing out
3. to remove by digging or scooping out
4. to expose or uncover by or as if by digging

exclamation , ,
1. an abrupt, forceful utterance
2. an outcry, as of protest

excoriate
1. to tear or wear off the skin of; abrade
2. to censure strongly; denounce

excoriation () ;

exculpate , () ; (, ) ,
to clear of guilt or blame

executor <igzkjutr>
1. a person who carries out or performs something
2. (Law) a person who is appointed by a testator to execute the testator's will
testator

exemplar , ,
1. one that is worthy of imitation; a model
2. one that is typical or representative; an example
3. an ideal that serves as a pattern; an archetype
4. a copy, as of a book
archetype ,
1. an original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype
2. an ideal example of a type; quintessence

exemplary , ;
1. worthy of imitation; commendable
2. serving as a model
3. serving as an illustration; typical
4. serving as a warning; admonitory

exertion , ; ()

exhale <ekshil> () , ( )

the act or an instance of exerting, especially a strenuous effort


1. a. to breathe out b. to emit air or vapor
2. to be given off or emitted
1

exhaustive , ; , (thoroughgoing)
1. treating all parts or aspects without omission; thorough
2. tending to exhaust

exhort , , (admonish)
to urge by strong, often stirring argument, admonition, advice, or appeal

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exigency <ksdnsi> , ,
1. the state or quality of requiring much effort or immediate action
2. a pressing or urgent situation
3. often exigencies. urgent requirements; pressing needs

exigent <ksdnt> , ; (exacting)


1. requiring immediate action or remedy
2. requiring much effort or expense; demanding

exile , , ; ,
1. a. enforced removal from one's native country b. self-imposed absence from one's country
2. the condition or a period of living away from one's native country
3. one who lives away from one's native country, whether because of expulsion or voluntary
absence

exonerate , (exculpate), (release)


1. to free from blame
2. to free from a responsibility, obligation, or task

exoneration , ,

exorbitant (, , ) , ,
exceeding all bounds, as of custom or fairness

exorcise , ; ( ) ,
1. to expel (an evil spirit) by or as if by incantation, command, or prayer
2. to free from evil spirits or malign influences
incantation , ,
1. ritual recitation of verbal charms or spells to produce a magic effect
2. a. a formula used in ritual recitation; a verbal charm or spell b. a conventionalized
utterance repeated without thought or aptness; a formula

exotic , ,
1. from another part of the world; foreign
2. intriguingly unusual or different; excitingly strange
3. of or involving striptease
striptease ( )

expectant , ; ( )
1. having or marked by expectation
2. pregnant

expediency , ;
1. appropriateness to the purpose at hand; fitness
2. adherence to self-serving means
3. a means; an expedient

expedient , (advisable), , (politic)


1. appropriate to a purpose
2. a. serving to promote one's interest b. based on or marked by a concern for self-interest rather
than principle; self-interested

expedition , ; , ; ,
1. a. a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite objective b. the group undertaking
such a journey
2. speed in performance; promptness

expeditious , (prompt)

expel ; ,

acting or done with speed and efficiency


1. to force or drive out
2. to discharge from or as if from a receptacle

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expertise /
1. expert advice or opinion
2. skill or knowledge in a particular area

expiate () ,
to make amends or reparation for; atone
atone , , (make amends)
to make amends, as for a sin or fault

explicit , ; (outspoken, opp. implicit)


1. a. fully and clearly expressed; leaving nothing implied b. fully and clearly defined or formulated
2. forthright and unreserved in expression
3. a. readily observable b. describing or portraying nudity or sexual activity in graphic detail

exploit ( ) , ; () ,
1. to employ to the greatest possible advantage
2. to make use of selfishly or unethically
3. to advertise; promote

exploitation , ; ,
1. the act of employing to the greatest possible advantage
2. utilization of another person or group for selfish purposes
3. an advertising or a publicity program

exploration , ; ( )
the act or an instance of exploring

explosive ,
1. relating to or having the nature of an explosion
2. tending to explode

exposition , , ; ,

expostulate , , /
to reason earnestly with someone in an effort to dissuade or correct; remonstrate
remonstrate , ;
to say or plead in protest, objection, or reproof

expressly (definitely);
1. in an express or a definite manner; explicitly
2. especially; particularly

extant ,
still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct

extemporaneous , ; , (makeshift)
1. carried out or performed with little or no preparation; impromptu
2. prepared in advance but delivered without notes or text
3. skilled at or given to unrehearsed speech or performance
4. provided, made, or adapted as an expedient; makeshift

extemporize ,
to do or perform (something) without prior preparation or practice

extenuate , ;
to lessen or attempt to lessen the magnitude or seriousness of, especially by providing partial
excuses

extenuating

exterminate ,

extirpate <kstrpit>

to get rid of by destroying completely; extirpate


1. to pull up by the roots
2. to destroy totally; exterminate

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3. to remove by surgery
1

extirpation

extol , ,
to praise highly; exalt

extort (exact); ( )
to obtain from another by coercion or intimidation

extraneous , , (unrelated)
1. not constituting a vital element or part
2. inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant
3. coming from the outside

extrapolate ;

extravagance , , ,

to infer or estimate by extending or projecting known information


1. the quality of being extravagant
2. immoderate expense or display
3. something extravagant
3

extravagant , ; , (exorbitant)
1. given to lavish or imprudent expenditure
2. exceeding reasonable bounds
3. extremely abundant; profuse
4. unreasonably high; exorbitant

extremist ,

extricable

extricate

extroversion () (); () (opp. introversion)

to release from an entanglement or difficulty; disengage


1. interest in one's environment or in others as opposed to or to the exclusion of oneself
2. a turning inside out, as of an organ or a part
1

exuberant , ; , (overflowing)
1. full of unrestrained enthusiasm or joy
2. lavish; extravagant
3. extreme in degree, size, or extent
4. growing, producing, or produced abundantly; plentiful

exult ,
to rejoice greatly; be jubilant or triumphant
jubilant ,
1. exultingly joyful
2. expressing joy

F
2

fabric , ; , ; , ; ()
1. a. a cloth produced especially by knitting, weaving, or felting fibers b. the texture or quality of
such cloth
2. a complex underlying structure
3. a. a method or style of construction b. a structural material, such as masonry or timber c. a
physical structure; a building

fabricate , ; ,
1. to make; create
2. to construct by combining or assembling diverse, typically standardized parts
3. to concoct in order to deceive

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concoct ; ,
1. to prepare by mixing ingredients, as in cooking
2. to devise, using skill and intelligence; contrive
1

fabrication , ; ; , , (forgery)

facade <fs:d> (front), ; , ,


1. (Architecture) the face of a building, especially the principal face
2. an artificial or deceptive front

facet (, )
1. one of the flat polished surfaces cut on a gemstone or occurring naturally on a crystal
2. one of numerous aspects, as of a subject; a phase

facetious <fs:s> ,

facilitate ,

playfully jocular; humorous


to make easy or easier

fad , ,
a fashion that is taken up with great enthusiasm for a brief period of time; a craze
craze , ; (rage); ( )
1. a short-lived popular fashion; a fad
2. a fine crack in a surface or glaze

faddish ,
1. having the nature of a fad
2. given to fads

fair ; , (opp. dark)

fallacious , ; ,
1. containing or based on a fallacy
2. tending to mislead; deceptive

fallacy ,
1. a false notion
2. a statement or an argument based on a false or an invalid inference
3. incorrectness of reasoning or belief; erroneousness
4. the quality of being deceptive

fallibility

fallow , ;
1. plowed but left unseeded during a growing season
2. characterized by inactivity

falsification , ; ; ,

falsify
1. to state untruthfully; misrepresent
2. a. to make false by altering or adding to b. to counterfeit; forge
3. to declare or prove to be false

falter ; , ; ,
1. to be unsteady in purpose or action, as from loss of courage or confidence; waver
2. to speak hesitatingly; stammer
3. a. to move ineptly or haltingly; stumble b. to operate or perform unsteadily or with a loss of
effectiveness

famish (starve)
1. to cause to endure severe hunger
2. to cause to starve to death

fanatic ,
a person marked or motivated by an extreme, unreasoning enthusiasm, as for a cause

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fanatical

fang () ; () ()

possessed with or motivated by excessive, irrational zeal


fang : ,
tusk : ,
1

fascination , ,
1. the capability of eliciting intense interest or of being very attractive
2. the state of being intensely interested or attracted
3. an intensely interesting, attractive quality or trait

fashionable , ; ,
1. conforming to the current style; stylish
2. associated with or frequented by persons of fashion

fastidious ,
1. possessing or displaying careful, meticulous attention to detail
2. difficult to please; exacting
3. excessively scrupulous or sensitive, especially in matters of taste or propriety

fast-talk
to persuade, mislead, or obtain with a smooth line of talk

fathom n. [ , 1.83m]; , v. , ( ) /
1. to determine the depth of; sound
2. to penetrate to the meaning or nature of; comprehend

fathomable <f mbl> /

fatuity , ; /
1. smug stupidity; utter foolishness
2. something that is utterly stupid or silly
smug , ; ,
exhibiting or feeling great or offensive satisfaction with oneself or with one's situation;
self-righteously complacent

fatuous <f tus> , ;


1. vacuously, smugly, and unconsciously foolish
2. delusive; unreal

faucet , (tap, cock)

fawn , ,
1. to exhibit affection or attempt to please, as a dog does by wagging its tail, whining, or cringing
2. to seek favor or attention by flattery and obsequious behavior
whine <hwain> , ; () ; ,

fawning , ,

fearsome ; , (timid)
1. causing or capable of causing fear
2. fearful; timid

feat , ,
1. a notable act or deed, especially an act of courage; an exploit
2. an act of skill, endurance, imagination, or strength; an achievement

feckless , , , ,
1. lacking purpose or vitality; feeble or ineffective
2. careless and irresponsible

feeble , ; (, ) , ;
1. a. lacking strength; weak b. indicating weakness
2. lacking vigor, force, or effectiveness; inadequate

feigned , ;

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1. not real; pretended


2. made-up; fictitious
1

felicitous ;
1. admirably suited; apt
2. exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style
3. marked by happiness or good fortune

felicity (bliss); (, ) ,
1. a. great happiness; bliss b. an instance of great happiness
2. a cause or source of happiness
3. a. an appropriate and pleasing manner or style b. an instance of appropriate and pleasing manner
or style

fell v. () , () a. , ,

felon ,

felony

ferment ; ( ) ,

misdemeanor ; ,
1. to produce by or as if by fermentation
2. to cause to undergo fermentation
3. to make turbulent; excite or agitate
1

fermentation ; ,
1. any of a group of chemical reactions induced by living or nonliving ferments that split complex
organic compounds into relatively simple substances, especially the anaerobic conversion of sugar to
carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast
2. unrest; agitation
anaerobe aerobe
an organism, such as a bacterium, that can live in the absence of atmospheric oxygen

ferocious , , ; () ,
1. extremely savage; fierce
2. marked by unrelenting intensity; extreme

ferocity , (fierceness);
the state or quality of being ferocious; fierceness

ferret ; ;
1. a. to hunt (rabbits, for example) with ferrets b. to dive out, as from a hiding place; expel
2. to uncover and bring to light by searching
3. to hound or harry persistently; worry
harry , , ; ,
1. to disturb or distress by or as if by repeated attacks; harass
2. to raid, as in war; sack or pillage
sack ; , ; , ;
to place into a sack
to rob of goods or valuables, especially after capture

ferrous

fertile , ; ,

fertilize () / ; ()

fervent , ; ,
1. having or showing great emotion or zeal; ardent
2. extremely hot; glowing

fervid , , (ardent)
1. marked by great passion or zeal
2. extremely hot; burning

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fervor , ;
1. great warmth and intensity of emotion
2. intense heat

festive , ; ,
1. of, relating to, or appropriate for a feast or festival
2. merry; joyous

fetid ,
having an offensive odor

fetter , (shackle); ,
1. a chain or shackle for the ankles or feet
2. something that serves to restrict; a restraint

feud , ; ,
a bitter, often prolonged quarrel or state of enmity, especially such a state of hostilities between
two families or clans

fickle ,
characterized by erratic changeableness or instability, especially with regard to affections or
attachments; capricious

fiddle ; ;
1. (Music) to play a violin
2. a. to move one's fingers or hands in a nervous fashion b. to occupy oneself in an aimless or
desultory way c. to meddle or tamper
3. to commit a fraud, especially to steal from one's employer

fidget , ,
1. to behave or move nervously or restlessly
2. to play or fuss; fiddle

figurative ; , ;
1. a. based on or making use of figures of speech; metaphorical b. containing many figures of
speech; ornate
2. represented by a figure or resemblance; symbolic or emblematic
3. of or relating to artistic representation by means of animal or human figures
ornate ,
1. elaborately, heavily, and often excessively ornamented
2. flashy, showy, or florid in style or manner; flowery
emblematic ,
of, relating to, or serving as an emblem; symbolic

figurehead ;
1. a person given a position of nominal leadership but having no actual authority
2. (Nautical) a carved figure on the prow of a ship

figurine (statuette)

filch (pilfer)

a small molded or sculptured figure; a statuette


to take (something, especially something of little value) in a furtive manner; snitch
furtive , ; ,
snitch (snatch), (steal)
to steal (something, usually something of little value); pilfer
pilfer ,
to steal (a small amount or item)
2

filibuster ; ;
1. a. the use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speechmaking, for he purpose of delaying
legislative action b. an instance of the use of this delaying tactic

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2. an adventurer who engages in a private military action in a foreign country


1

filigree (, )
1. delicate and intricate ornamental work made from gold, silver, or other fine twisted wire
2. a. an intricate, delicate, or fanciful ornamentation b. a design resembling such ornamentation

filing , ; , ; [pl.]

finesse <fins> , ; ,
1. refinement and delicacy of performance, execution, or artisanship
2. skillful, subtle handling of situation; tactful, diplomatic maneuvering
3. a stratagem I which one appears to decline an advantage

finicky ,
insisting capriciously on getting just what one wants; difficult to please; fastidious

firearm

fissure <fr> /
1. a long, narrow opening; a crack or cleft
2. the process of splitting or separating; division
3. a separation into subgroups or factions; a schism
schism () ,

fixate /;
1. to make fixed, stable, or stationary
2. to focus one's eyes or attention on
3. to command the attention or exclusively or repeatedly; preoccupy obsessively

flaccid (, ) , ; ( ) ,
1. lacking firmness, resilience, or muscle tone
2. lacking vigor or energy
resilience , (elasticity); (, ) ;
1. the ability to recover quickly from illness, change, or misfortune; buoyancy
2. the property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after
being bent, stretched, or compressed; elasticity

flag , /; ( ) , () , ( )
1. to hang limply; droop
2. to decline in vigor or strength
3. to decline in interest
limp v. , , ( ) a. , ; ,
droop , ; () , () ,
1. to bend or hand downward
2. to bend or sag gradually
3. to sag in dejection or exhaustion

flagrant ,
conspicuously bad, offensive, or reprehensible
reprehensible
deserving rebuke or censure; blameworthy

flail , () , ( )

flak ; ,
1. a. antiaircraft artillery b. the bursting shells fired from such artillery
2. (Informal) a. excessive or abusive criticism b. dissension; opposition
dissension <disnn> , ; , ,
difference of opinion; disagreement

flamboyance ,

flamboyant , ; ,

flammable ,

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easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; inflammable


1

flange <flnd> , ,
a protruding rim, edge, rib, or collar, as on a wheel or a pipe shaft, used to strengthen an object,
hold it in place, or attach it to another object

flatcar
a railroad freight car without sides or a roof

flaunt ( ) ; , ;
1. to exhibit ostentatiously or shamelessly
2. to show contempt for; scorn

flaunting
inclined to flaunt; ostentatious

flavor , ; , ;
1. distinctive taste; savor
2. a distinctive yet intangible quality felt to be characteristic of a given thing
3. a flavoring

flax () ;

fledge () ; /
1. to take care of (a young bird) until it its ready to fly
2. to cover with or as if with feathers
3. to provide (an arrow) with feathers

flee , , (withdraw), ; ,
1. to run away, as from trouble or danger
2. to pass swiftly away; vanish

fleeting , , (transient)

flex ,

flexible ; , ; ,

passing quickly; ephemeral

1. a. capable of being bent or flexed; pliable b. capable of being bent repeatedly without injury or
damage
2. susceptible to influence or persuasion; tractable
3. responsive to change; adaptable

flick , ; ( )
1. to touch or hit with a light, quick blow
2. to cause to move with a light blow; snap
3. to remove with a light, quick blow

flinch , ,
1. to start or wince involuntarily, as from surprise or pain
2. to recoil, as from something unpleasant or difficult; shrink
wince , ; ,
to shrink or start involuntarily, as in pain or distress; flinch
recoil , ; , ;
1. to spring back, as upon firing
2. to shrink back, as in fear or repugnance
3. to fall back; return

flint ;

flip , ; ()
1. to throw or toss with a light, brisk motion
2. to toss in the air, imparting a spin
3. a. to turn over or around, especially with a light, quick motion b. to turn through; leaf
4. to strike quickly or lightly; flick

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5. to move or act on with a quick motion


leaf ; ( )
1

flippant ,
marked by disrespectful levity or casualness; pert
levity ,
1. lightness of manner or speech, especially when inappropriate; frivolity
2. inconstancy; changeableness
3. the state or quality of being light; buoyancy
pert , , ,
1. trim and stylish in appearance; jaunty
2. high-spirited; vivacious
3. impudently bold; saucy
jaunty , ; , ; ,
1. having a buoyant or self-confident air; brisk
2. crisp and dapper in appearance; natty
dapper , ; ,
1. a. neatly dressed; trim b. very stylish in dress
2. lively and alert
saucy , , ; , ; ,
1. a. impertinent or disrespectful b. impertinent in an entertaining way; impossible to repress
or control
2. piquant; pert

flirt ; , ;
1. to make playfully romantic or sexual overtures
2. to deal playfully, triflingly, or superficially with
3. to move abruptly or jerkily

floodgate ;

flop , ; , ,
1. to fall or lie down heavily and noisily
2. to move about loosely or limply
3. (Informal) to fail utterly

florid () , (rosy); ,
1. flushed with rosy color; ruddy
2. very ornate; flowery

flounder , ; ,
1. to make clumsy attempts to move or regain one's balance
2. to move or act clumsily and in confusion

flourish , ; ,
1. to grow well or luxuriantly; thrive
2. to do or fare well; prosper
3. to be in a period of highest productivity, excellence, or influence
4. to make bold, sweeping movements

flout <flaut> ,
to show contempt for; scorn

fluctuate , ; (, ) ,
1. to vary irregularly
2. to rise and fall in or as if in waves; undulate

fluctuation , , ; [pl.] , (ups and downs)

fluent , , ; (, ) ,
1. a. able to express oneself readily and effortlessly b. flowing effortlessly; polished

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2. flowing or moving smoothly; graceful


3. flowing or capable of flowing; fluid
1

fluid (liquid); ( ) ; ()

fluidity ;

fluke , ; ( ) ;
1. (Nautical) the triangular blade at the end of an arm of an anchor, designed to catch in the
ground
2. a barb or barbed head, as on an arrow or a harpoon
3. either of the two horizontally flattened divisions of the tail of a whale
1. a stroke of good luck
2. a chance occurrence; an accident
barb , ;
harpoon

fluster ,

focus , , ()

fodder , ,

to make or become nervous or upset

1. feed for livestock, especially coarsely chopped hay or straw


2. raw material, as for artistic creation
3. a consumable, often inferior item or resource that is in demand and usually abundant supply
1

foible , , ; (opp. forte)


1. a minor weakness of failing of character
2. the weaker section of a sword blade, from the middle to the tip

foil v. , ; n. ()
1. to prevent from being successful; thwart
2. to obscure or confuse (a trail or scent) so as to evade pursuers

folly ; /

foment ; (, ) //
1. to promote the growth of; incite
2. to treat (the skin, for example) by fomentation

foolhardy ,

foolproof ,

unwisely bold or venturesome; rash


1. designed so as to be impervious to human incompetence, error, or misuse
2. effective; infallible
1

footlights (); ,
1. lights placed in a row along the front of a stage floor
2. the theater as a profession

foppish ,
of, relating to, or characteristic of a fop; dandified
fop
a man who is preoccupied with and often vain about his clothes and manners; a dandy
dandify
to dress as or cause to resemble a dandy

forage , ; ; ,
1. food for domestic animals; fodder
2. the act of looking or searching for food or provisions

forager ;

forbear ,
1. to refrain from; resist

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2. to desist from; cease


desist ,
to cease doing something; forbear
1

forbearance , ; , ; ()
1. the act of forbearing
2. tolerance and restraint in the face of provocation; patience
3. the quality of being forbearing
4. (Law) the act of a creditor who refrains from enforcing a debt when it falls due

forbearing ;

fordable

forebode , ; ()
1. to indicate the likelihood of; portend
2. to have a premonition of (a future misfortune)

foreboding , , ( ) (omen)
1. a sense of impending evil
2. an evil omen; a portent

foreclose /; , ; ()
1. a. to deprive (a mortgagor) of the right to redeem mortgaged property, as when payments have
not been made b. to bar an equity or a right to redeem (a mortgage)
2. to exclude or rule out; bar
3. to settle or resolve beforehand
redeem , () ; , ; ( ) ,

foreclosure
the act of foreclosing, especially a legal proceeding by which a mortgage is foreclosed

foreignness , ,

foreknowledge ,

foresee ,

knowledge or awareness of something before its existence or occurrence; prescience


to see or know beforehand
1

foreshadow () , , ...
to present an indication or a suggestion of beforehand; presage

foresight ; , ()
1. perception of the significance and nature of events before they have occurred
2. care in providing for the future; prudence
3. the act of looking forward

forestall , ; (),
1. to delay, hinder, or prevent by taking precautionary measures beforehand
2. to deal with or think of beforehand; anticipate
3. to prevent or hinder normal sales in (a market) by buying up merchandise, discouraging persons
from bringing their goods to market, or encouraging an increase in prices in goods already on sale

forfeit n. , (fine); (, ) , v. () ; () ,
/
1. to surrender, be deprived of, or give up the right to on account of a crime, an offense, an error,
or a breach of contract
2. to subject to seizure as a forfeit

forge () ; /; ( ) ; ( ) , ;
1. a. to form (metal, for example) by heating in a forge and beating or hammering into shape b. to
form (metal) by a mechanical or hydraulic press
2. to give form or shape to, especially by means of careful effort
3. to fashion or reproduce for fraudulent purposes; counterfeit

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1. to advance gradually but steadily


2. to advance with an abrupt increase of speed
fraudulent ,
1. engaging in fraud; deceitful
2. characterized by, constituting, or gained by fraud
1

forger , ;
1. the act of forging, especially the illegal production of something counterfeit
2. something counterfeit, forged, or fraudulent

formality , ; , , ()
1. the quality or condition of being formal
2. rigorous or ceremonious adherence to established forms, rules, or customs
3. an established form, rule, or custom, especially one followed merely for the sake of procedure or
decorum

formidable , ; ,
1. arousing fear, dread, or alarm
2. inspiring awe, admiration, or wonder
3. difficult to undertake, surmount, or defeat

forsake ( ) (desert); ( ) (give up)


1. to give up (something formerly held dear); renounce
2. to leave altogether; abandon

forte , ; (opp. foible)


1. something in which a person excels
2. the strong part of a sword blade, between the middle and the hilt
hilt () , ( ) (haft)
the handle of a weapon or tool
haft , (hilt)
a handle or hilt, especially the handle of a tool or weapon

forthright ; ; ,
direct and without evasion; straightforward

fortify , ; ( ) ,
to ma strong, as a. to strengthen and secure (a position) with fortifications b. to reinforce by
adding material c. to impart physical strength or endurance to; invigorate d. to give emotional,
moral or mental strength to; encourage e. to strengthen or enrich (food, for example), as by adding
vitamins

fortuitous , (accidental)
1. happening by accident or chance
2. a. happening by a fortunate accident or chance b. lucky or fortunate

foster (nurse), ; (cherish), /(promote)


1. to bring up; nurture
2. to promote the growth and development of; cultivate
3. to nurse; cherish

four-poster [ ]

foyer , (lobby)
1. a lobby or an anteroom, as of a theater or hotel
2. an entrance hall; a vestibule
anteroom < ntirm> ;
an outer room that opens into another room, often used as a waiting room
vestibule , ; ( ) ,
1. a small entrance hall or passage between the outer door and the interior of a house or
building

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2. an enclosed area at the end of a passenger car on a railroad train


2

fracas <friks> , ,
a noisy, disorderly fight or quarrel; a brawl
brawl ,
1. a noisy quarrel or fight
2. a loud party
3. a loud, roaring noise

fragile (brittle); , (frail); ()


1. easily broken, damaged, or destroyed; frail
2. lacking physical or emotional strength; delicate
3. lacking substance; tenuous or flimsy

fragility , , (delicateness);

fragrance , ,
1. the state or quality of having a pleasant odor
2. a sweet or pleasant odor; a scent

franchise , ; , , ,

frantic , ; () , ; () ,
1. highly excited with strong emotion or frustration; frenzied
2. characterized by rapid and disordered or nervous activity

fraud , ; , ;
1. a deception deliberately practiced in order to secure unfair or unlawful gain
2. a piece of trickery; a trick
3. a. one that defrauds; a cheat b. one who assumes a false pose; an imposter

freckle , ; ,
a small brownish spot on the skin, often turning darker or increasing in number upon exposure to
the sun

freight ; , ; ,
1. goods carried by a vessel or vehicle, especially by a commercial carrier; cargo
2. a burden; a load
3. a. commercial transportation of goods b. the charge for transporting goods
4. a railway train carrying goods only

frenetic , (frantic)
wildly excited or active; frantic; frenzied

frenzied ;

frenzy

affected with or marked by frenzy; frantic


1. a state of violent mental agitation or wild excitement
2. temporary madness or delirium
3. a mania; a craze
1

fresco [ ]

fret , ; (, ) ; ( ) , ( )

1. to cause to be uneasy; vex


2. a. to gnaw or wear away; erode b. to produce a hole or worn spot in; corrode
3. to form (a passage or channel) by erosion
4. to disturb the surface of (water or a stream); agitate
gnaw () , ; ,
1. a. to bite, chew on, or erode with the teeth b. to produce by gnawing c. to erode or
diminish gradually as if by gnawing
3. to afflict or worry persistently

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fretful , , (irritable)
1. inclined to be vexed or troubled; peevish
2. marked by worry and distress; troublesome

friction , , ,
1. the rubbing of one object or surface against another
2. conflict, as between persons having dissimilar ideas or interests; clash
3. (Physics) a force that resists the relative motion or tendency to such motion of two bodies in
contact

frieze () , (); ,

frigid , , ; (stiff)
1. extremely cold
2. lacking warmth of feeling
3. stiff and formal in manner
4. persistently averse to sexual intercourse

frigidity ; ; ()

frill ; (, ) ; [pl.] () ,

fringe (, ) ; , ; ; ;
1. a decorative border or edging of hanging threads, cords, or strips, often attached to a separate
band
2 something that resembles such a border or edging
3. a marginal, peripheral, or secondary part
4. those members of a group or political party holding extreme views
5. any of the light or dark bands produced by the diffraction or interference of light
6. a fringe benefit

fringe benefit
an employment benefit given in addition to one's wages or salary

frivolous , , ,
1. unworthy of serious attention; trivial
2. inappropriately silly

frolic , ; ,
1. gaiety; merriment
2. a gay, carefree time
3. a playful antic
antic , ,

frolicsome , (gay, merry)


full of high-spirited fun; frisky and playful
frisky ,
energetic, lively, and playful

frozen , ; ; ,
1. made into, covered with, or surrounded by ice
2. very cold
3. preserved by freezing
4. rendered immobile
5. expressive of cold unfriendliness or disdain
6. a. kept at a fixed level b. impossible to withdraw, sell, or liquidate

frugal , ;
1. practicing or marked by economy, as in the expenditure of money or the use of material
resources
2. costing little; inexpensive

frugality ,

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fruition ; , ,
1. realization of something desired or worked for; accomplishment
2. enjoyment derived from use or possession
3. the condition of bearing fruit

frustrate , ;
1. a. to prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart b. to cause feelings of
discouragement or bafflement in
2. to make ineffectual or invalid; nullify

frustration , , ; ,

full-bodied , ; ()
1. having richness and intensity of flavor or aroma
2. rich and intense

fulminate ; (flash); ,
1. to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation
2. to explode or detonate
detonate
to explode or cause to explode

fulmination , ,

fumble , ; , ; ,
1. to touch or handle nervously or idly
2. to grope awkwardly to find or to accomplish something
3. to proceed awkwardly and uncertainly; blunder
4. a. (Football) to drop a ball that is in play b. (Baseball) to mishandle a ground ball
grope , ; ; ,
1. to reach about uncertainly; feel one's way
2. to search blindly or uncertainly

fume , , ; ; ,
1. vapor, gas, or smoke, especially if irritating, harmful, or strong
2. a strong or acrid odor
3. a state of resentment or vexation

fumigate , ;

functionary ,

to subject to smoke or fumes, usually in order to exterminate pests or disinfect


one who holds an office or a trust or performs a particular function; an official
1

funnel n. ; v. ; ( ) ; ( )
1. to take the shape of a funnel
2. to move through or as if through a funnel

fur (, ) ;

furnace , , ; ; ( )
1. an enclosure in which energy in a nonthermal form is converted to heat, especially such an
enclosure in which heat is generated by the combustion of a suitable fuel
2. an intensely hot place
3. a severe test or trial

furtive , , (stealthy); ,
1. characterized by stealth; surreptitious
2. expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty
surreptitious , ;
1 obtained, done, or made by clandestine or stealthy means
2. acting with or marked by stealth
clandestine , ,

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kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose


1

fusillade , ; (, )
1. a discharge from a number of firearms, fired simultaneously or in rapid succession
2. a rapid outburst or barrage

fusion , ; ; ,
1. the act of procedure of liquefying or melting by the application of heat
2. the liquid or melted state induced by heat
3. a. the merging of different elements into a union b. a union resulting from fusing
4. (Physics) a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the
simultaneous release of energy
5. (Music) jazz-rock

fuss ; ,
1. needlessly nervous or useless activity; commotion
2. a. a state of excessive and unwarranted concern over an unimportant matter b. an objection; a
protest
3. a quarrel
4. a display of affectionate excitement and attention

futile , ; ,
1. having no useful result
2. trifling and frivolous; idle

futility , ; ; ,
1. the quality of having no useful result; uselessness
2. lack of importance or purpose; frivolousness
3. a futile act

G
1

gadget () ; ,
a small specialized mechanical or electronic device; a contrivance
contrivance , ; , ; ,

gaffe <gf> (, ) , (blunder)


1. a clumsy social error
2. a blatant mistake or misjudgment

gainsay ,
1. to declare false; deny
2. to oppose, especially by contradiction

gait , ,
1. a particular way or manner of moving on foot
2. any of the ways, such as a canter, trot, or walk, by which a horse can move by lifting the feet
in different order or rhythm
3. rate or manner of proceeding

gall ; , ;
2. a. bitterness of feeling; rancor b. something bitter to endure
3. outrageous insolence; effrontery

gallantry , ; /
1. nobility of spirit or action; courage
2. chivalrous attention toward women; courtliness
3. the act or an instance of gallant speech or behavior

gallon [ 4 quarts, 1/8 bushel]

gambit () ( ) ; /
1. (Games) an opening in chess in which a minor piece, or pieces, usually a pawn, is offered in

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exchange for a favorable position


2. a maneuver, stratagem, or ploy, especially one used at an initial stage
3. a remark intended to open a conversation
1

gambol (, )
to leap about playfully; frolic
frolic , ,

gangway (, ) ; ; (clear passage)

garble , () ;
1. to mix up or distort to such an extent as to make misleading or incomprehensible
2. to scramble (a signal or message), as by erroneous encoding or faulty transmission

gardenia <gard:nj> ()

gargoyle <grgil> () () ,

garish ; ,
1. a. marred by strident color or excessive ornamentation; gaudy b. loud and flashy
2. glaring; dazzling
strident <stridnt> ,
loud, harsh, grating, or shrill; discordant

garner , ; () ,
1. to gather and store in or as if in a granary
2. to amass; acquire
granary ;

garnishment ; () (notice),
1. (Law) a. a legal proceeding whereby money or property due a debtor but in the possession of
another is applied to the payment of the debt owed to the plaintiff b. a court order directing a third
party who holds money or property belonging to a defendant to withhold it and appear in court to
answer inquiries
2. ornamentation; embellishment

garrulity ,
excessive talkativeness; loquaciousness

garrulous (talkative), ; () ; ( )
1. given to excessive and often trivial or rambling talk; tiresomely talkative
2. wordy and rambling

gaseous <g sis> , ; , ; ( )


1. of, relating to, or existing as a gas
2. lacking substance or concreteness; tenuous or indefinite
3. full of or containing gas; gassy

gauche <gou> () , , ; (awkward)


lacking social polish; tactless

gaucherie , ; /
1. an awkward or tactless act, manner, or expression
2. a lack of tact; awkwardness

gaudy <g :> , ; , ;


showy in a tasteless or vulgar way

gavel (, ) ,

generic <dnrik> () (); ( ) , ;


1. relating to or descriptive of an entire group or class; general
2. (Biology) of or relating to a genus
3. not having a trademark or brand name

generous ; , ; , (plentiful); (fertile),


1. liberal in giving or sharing

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2. characterized by nobility and forbearance in thought or behavior; magnanimous


3. marked by abundance; ample
4. having a rich bouquet and flavor
1

geneticist

genuine ; , ; , ,
1. actually possessing the alleged or apparent attribute or character
2. not spurious or counterfeit; authentic
3. a. honestly felt or experienced b. actual; real
4. free from hypocrisy or dishonesty; sincere
5. being of pure or original stock
hypocrisy ()

geography
1. the study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including
human life and the effects of human activity
2. the physical characteristics, especially the surface features, of an area
3. a book on geography
4. an ordered arrangement of constituent elements

geology
1. the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth
2. the structure of a specific region of the earth's crust
3. a book on geology
4. the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the solid matter of a celestial body

geometric ,

geometrician

germ () , (); , ; [the ] , ,


1. (Biology) a small mass of protoplasm or cells from which a new organism or one of its parts
may develop
2. the earliest form of an organism; a seed, bud, or spore
3. a microorganism, especially a pathogen
4. something that may serve as the basis of further growth or development
protoplasm <prutpl zm>
pathogen ,

german ; ( /)
having the same parents or the same grandparents on either the mother's or the father's side

germane , (pertinent)
being both pertinent and fitting

gerontocracy <drntkrsi> ,

geyser <gizr> n. ( ) v. ,

giggle
to laugh with repeated short, spasmodic sounds
spasmodic ,
1. relating, to, affected by, or having the character of a spasm; convulsive
2. happening intermittently; fitful
3. given to sudden outbursts of energy or feeling; excitable
spasm ,
1. a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles
2. a sudden burst of energy, activity, or emotion
convulsion , ; ; () , , (, ) ,
1. an intense, paroxysmal, involuntary muscular contraction
2. an uncontrolled fit, as of laughter; a paroxysm

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3. violent turmoil
convulsive ,
paroxysm ; ()
1. a sudden outburst of emotion or action
2. (Medicine) a. a sudden attack, recurrence, or intensification of a disease b. a spasm or fit;
a convulsion
1

gild , ; , ,
1. to cover with or as if with a thin layer of gold
2. to give an often deceptively attractive or improved appearance to

gimmick (, ) , ; , ,

girder

gist <dist> , ,

a horizontal beam, as of steel or wood, used as a main support for a building or bridge
1. the central idea; the essence
2. (Law) the grounds for action in a suit
2

glacier

gladiator ; ,

gladness ,

gland () ()

glaring , ; , ; (, )
1. shining intensely and blindingly
2. tastelessly showy or bright; garish
3. conspicuous; obvious

glaze (, ) ; / ,
1. to fit, furnish, or secure with glass
2. to apply a glaze to
3. to coat or cover thinly with ice
4. to give a smooth, lustrous surface to

glean () ; (, )

glib , ; (, ) ,

to gather grain left behind by reapers


1. a. performed with a natural, offhand ease b. showing little thought, preparation, or concern
2. marked by ease and fluency of speech or writing that often suggests or stems from insincerity,
superficiality, or deceitfulness
1

glimmer , , (flicker)
1. to emit a dim or intermittent light
2. to appear faintly or indistinctly

gloat <glout> ; ( )
to feel or express great, often malicious, pleasure or self-satisfaction

gloomy , , , ; ,
1. partially or totally dark, especially dismal and dreary
2. showing or filled with gloom
3. a. causing or producing gloom; depressing b. marked by hopelessness; very pessimistic

gloss , ; , ; ,
1. a surface shininess or luster
2. a superficially or deceptively attractive appearance
1. a. a brief explanatory note or translation of a difficult or technical expression usually inserted in
the margin or between lines of a text or manuscript b. a collection of such notes; a glossary
2. an extensive commentary, often accompanying a text or publication
3. a purposefully misleading interpretation or explanation

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glossary , ;

glower <glur> ,

a list of difficult or specialized words with their definitions, often placed at the back of a book
to look or stare angrily or sullenly

gluttonous , (greedy)
1. given to or marked by gluttony
2. indulging in something, such as an activity, to excess; voracious

gluttony , ,
excess in eating or drinking

gnaw () , ; , ; (, ) ,
1. a. to bite, chew on, or erode with the teeth b. to produce by gnawing c. to erode or diminish
gradually as if by gnawing
2. to afflict or worry persistently

goad <goud> ( ) /; , , ; ,
to prod or urge with or as if with a long pointed stick
prod , ,
1. to jab or poke, as with a pointed object
2. to goad to action; incite

gong<ga>

gorge , ; , ; , , ,

gossamer <gsmr> ; , , ; /

gouge ; ; ,
1. a chisel with a rounded blade
2. a. a scooping or digging action, as with such a chisel b. a groove or hole scooped with or as if
with such a chisel
3. (Informal) a large amount, as of money, exacted or extorted

gourmand <grma:nd> , ;
1. a lover of good food
2. a gluttonous eater

graceful , , ; ,
showing grace of movement, form, or proportion

grade ; , ; , ; (, ) , ;

graft , () ; /
1. a. to unite (a shoot or bud) with a growing plant by insertion or by placing in close contact b.
to join (a plant or plants) by such union
2. to transplant or implant (living tissue, for example) surgically into a bodily part to replace a
damaged part or compensate for a defect
3. to join or unite closely

grafting (), ()

grain ; ; ,

grandeur , , ; , ; , ,
1. the quality or condition of being grand; magnificence
2. nobility or greatness of character

grandiloquence , ,

grandiloquent ,

grandiose <gr ndius> , ; ,

pompous or bombastic speech or expression

1. characterized by greatness of scope or intent; grand


2. characterized by feigned or affected grandeur; pompous
1

grate , , ; ,

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1. to reduce to fragments, shreds, or powder by rubbing against an abrasive surface


2. to cause to make a harsh grinding or rasping sound through friction
3. to irritate or annoy persistently
2

gratitude ,

gratuitous , ; , /

the state of being grateful; thankfulness


1. given or granted without return or recompense; unearned
2. given or received without cost or obligation; free
3. unnecessary or unwarranted; unjustified
2

gratuity , , ,
a favor or gift, usually in the form of money, given in return for service

grave n. ; , a. , ; , , ; v. , ;

gravel , (ballast)

graze () , ; , ,
to feed on growing grasses and herbage
1. to touch lightly in passing; brush
2. to scrape or scratch slightly; abrade

grazing ,

gregarious , ;
1. seeking and enjoying the company of others; sociable
2. tending to move in or form a group with others of the same kind

grenade

gridiron <grdirn> ,

grievance ,
1. a. an actual or supposed circumstance regarded as just cause for protest b. a complaint or
protestation based on such a circumstance
2. indignation or resentment stemming from a feeling of having been wronged
protestation , ;
1. an emphatic declaration
2. a strong or formal expression of dissent
emphatic , ; , ,
1. expressed or performed with emphasis
2. forceful and definite in expression or action
3. standing out in a striking and clearly defined way

grieve ,

grievous , ; , ; , ,

to cause to be sorrowful; distress


1. causing grief, pain, or anguish
2. serious or dire; grave
dire , (terrible); (dismal);
1. warning of or having dreadful or terrible consequences; calamitous
2. urgent; desperate
1

grill , ;
1. to broil on a gridiron
2. to torture or afflict as if by broiling
3. (Informal) to question relentlessly; cross-examine
4. to mark or emboss with a gridiron

grindstone , (millstone)

gripping / ,

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grisly , ; ,

gristle ( )

inspiring repugnance; gruesome


in the gristle ,
1

groan <groun> ; ;
1. to voice a deep, inarticulate sound, as of pain, grief, or displeasure
2. to make a sound expressive of stress or strain

groom n. ; v. () ; ; ( )
1. to care for the appearance of; to make neat and trim
2. to clean and brush (an animal)
3. to prepare, as for a specific position or purpose

groove , ; ,
1. a long, narrow furrow or channel
2. (Slang) a settled routine
3. (Slang) a situation or an activity that one enjoys or to which one is especially well suited
4. (Slang) a very pleasurable experience
furrow , ; , ,

grouch ;
1. a habitually complaining or irritable person
2. a grumbling or sulky mood
3. a complaint; a grudge

grouse n. () () v. ,
to complain; grumble

grovel <grvl> ; , ;
1. to behave in a servile or demeaning manner; cringe
2. to lie or creep in a prostrate position, as in subservience or humility
3. to give oneself over to base pleasures
prostrate a. , /; , v. ; , ;

1. to make (oneself) bow or kneel down in humility or adoration


2. to throw down flat
3. to lay low; overcome
subservience , ; , ,
subservient
1. subordinate in capacity or function
2. obsequious; servile
3. useful as a means or an instrument; serving to promote an end

growl <graul> ( ) ; () ,
1. to emit a low, guttural sound or utterance
2. to speak in an angry or surly manner
guttural ,

grudge , ; ( ) ,
1. to be reluctant to give or admit
2. to resent for having; begrudge
begrudge , ; , ...
1. a. to envy the possession or enjoyment of b. to envy for the possession of
2. to give or expend with reluctance

grudging ; ; ,

gruesome , ,
causing horror and repugnance; frightful and shocking

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grumble , ;
1. to complain in a surly manner; mutter discontentedly
2. to rumble or growl

guile , ,
1. treacherous cunning; skillful deceit
2. (Obsolete) a trick or stratagem

guileless , (frank)
free of guile; artless

guilt ; ,
1. the fact of being responsible for the commission of an offense
2. (Law) culpability for a crime or lesser breach of regulations that carries a legal penalty
3. a. remorseful awareness of having done something wrong b. self-reproach for supposed
inadequacy or wrongdoing
4. guilty conduct; sin

gullibility

gullible

gulp , ; ; ( ) , ,

easily deceived or duped


1. to swallow greedily or rapidly in large amounts
2. to choke back by or as if by swallowing
greedily , ;
greedy ; , ; ;
1. excessively desirous of acquiring or possessing, especially wishing to possess more than
what one needs or deserves
2. wanting to eat or drink more than one can reasonably consume; gluttonous
3. extremely eager or desirous
1

guru ; ,

gush , ,
1. to flow forth suddenly n great volume
2. to emit a sudden and abundant flow, as of tears
3. to make an excessive display of sentiment or enthusiasm

gusher ; ();
one that gushes, especially an abundantly flowing gas or oil well

gust , ; ; (outburst)
1. a strong, abrupt rush of wind
2. a sudden burst, as of rain or smoke
3. an outburst of emotion

gutter () , ( ) ; ,

guzzle , ,
1. to drink greedily or habitually
2. to consume to excess

H
1

habitat () , (); , ,
1. the area or type of environment in which an organism or ecological community normally lives or
occurs
2. the place in which a person or thing is most likely to be found

habituate
to accustom by frequent repetition or prolonged exposure

habituation

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1. the process of habituating or the state of being habituated


2. a. physiological tolerance to a drug resulting from repeated use b. psychological dependence on a
drug
3. (Psychology) the decline of a conditioned response following repeated exposure to the conditioned
stimulus
1

hack , , ; ( )

hackneyed , ; ,
overfamiliar through overuse; trite

hail , ; [a hail of ] ...

halcyon n. [ ] a. ; ,
1. calm and peaceful; tranquil
2. prosperous; golden

hallmark () ;
1. a mark indicating quality or excellence
2. a mark used in England to stamp gold and silver articles that meet established standards of
purity
3. a conspicuous feature or characteristic

hallow ,
1. to make or set apart as holy
2. to respect or honor greatly; revere

hallucinate

hallucination , (delusion)
1. a. false or distorted perception of objects or events with a compelling sense of their reality,
usually resulting from a mental disorder or as a response to a drug b. the objects or events so
perceived
2. a false or mistaken idea; a delusion

hallucinatory ;

halo <hilou> (, ) ; , (nimbus); (glory)

halting ; , ; (stumbling)
1. hesitant or wavering
2. imperfect; defective
3. limping; lame

hamper , ; /
to prevent the free movement, action, or progress of

hangar , (shed),
a shelter especially for housing or repairing aircraft

haphazard (chance)
dependent upon or characterized by mere chance

hapless ,

harangue , (tirade),
1. a long, pompous speech, especially one delivered before a gathering
2. a speech or piece of writing characterized by strong feeling or expression; a tirade

harbinger <hrbindr> ; ,
one that indicates or foreshadows what is to come; a forerunner

hardheaded , ;
1. stubborn; willful
2. realistic; pragmatic

harp ,

harrow ;
1. to break up and level (soil or land) with a harrow

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2. to inflict great distress or torment on


1

hasty , ; ,
1. characterized by speed; rapid
2. done or made too quickly to be accurate or wise; rash
3. easily angered; irritable

hatch () , ; (contrive),
1. to produce (young) from an egg
2. to cause (an egg or eggs) to produce young
3. to devise or originate, especially in secret

hatred ,
intense animosity or hostility

haul <h:l> , ; ,
1. to pull or drag forcibly; tug
2. to transport, as with a truck or cart
3. (Informal) to compel to go, especially for trial
4. (Nautical) to change the course of (a ship), especially in order to sail closer into the wind

haunting ,
continually recurring to the mind; unforgettable

haven <hivn> , ; , (shelter)


1. a harbor or an anchorage; a port
2. a place of refuge or rest; a sanctuary
sanctuary , , ; ,

haze n. ; ( ) , v. , (bully)
1. to persecute or harass with meaningless, difficult, or humiliating tasks
2. to initiate, as into a college fraternity, by exacting humiliating performances from or playing
rough practical jokes upon

headstrong ,
1. determined to have one's own way; stubbornly and often recklessly willful
2. resulting from willfulness and obstinacy

hearten ,
to give strength, courage, or hope to; encourage

heartless , ; ,
1. devoid of compassion or feeling; pitiless
2. (Archaic) devoid of courage or enthusiasm; spiritless

heavy-handed ;
1. clumsy; awkward
2. tactless; indiscreet
3. oppressive; harsh

heckle , ; (, )
1. to try to embarrass and annoy (another) by questions, gibes, or objections; badger
gibe <daib> , , (jeer)
to make taunting, heckling, or jeering remarks

hedge ; , (barrier)
1. a row of closely planted shrubs or low-growing trees forming a fence or boundary
2. a line of people or objects forming a barrier
3. a. a means of protection or defense, especially against financial loss b. a securities transaction
that reduces the risk on an existing investment position
4. an intentionally noncommittal or ambiguous statement
noncommittal , ;
refusing commitment to a particular opinion or course of action; not revealing what one feels

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or thinks

hedonism ,
1. pursuit of or devotion to pleasure, especially to the pleasures of the senses
2. (Philosophy) the ethical doctrine holding that only what is pleasant or has pleasant consequences
is intrinsically good
3. (Psychology) the doctrine holding that behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the
avoidance of pain

hedonistic

heedless (careless),

hegemony <hidmni> , ,

heinous <hins> , ,

marked by or paying little heed; unmindful or thoughtless


the predominant influence of one state over others
grossly wicked or reprehensible; abominable
1

hemophilia

hemorrhage <hmrid> (bleeding)


1. excessive discharge of blood from the blood vessels; profuse bleeding
2. a copious loss of something valuable

herbaceous , ,
1. relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant
2. green and leaflike in appearance or texture

herd ; () , ; ,
1. a. a group of cattle or other domestic animals of a single kind kept together for a specific
purpose b. a number of wild animals of one species that remain together as a group
2. a. a large number of people; a crowd b. the multitude of common people regarded as a mass

heresy , ,
1. a. an opinion or a doctrine at variance with established religious beliefs, especially dissension
from or denial of Roman Catholic dogma by a professed believer or baptized church member b.
adherence to such dissenting opinion or doctrine
2. a. a controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in politics, philosophy, or science b.
adherence to such controversial or unorthodox opinion

heretic ,
a person who holds controversial opinions, especially one who publicly dissents from the officially
accepted dogma of the Roman Catholic Church

heretical , ,
1. of or relating to heresy or heretics
2. characterized by, revealing, or approaching departure from established beliefs or standards

heretofore
up to the present time; before this; previously

heterodox , (opp. orthodox)


1. not in agreement with accepted beliefs, especially in church doctrine or dogma
2. holding unorthodox opinions

hew ( ) , , (chop);
1. to make or shape with or as if with an ax
2. to cut down with an ax; fell
3. to strike or cut; cleave

hibernate , (), ,
1. to pass the winter in a dormant or torpid state
2. to be in an inactive or dormant state or period
dormant , ; , ; ,

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hibernation

hide ; ; ()
the skin of an animal, especially the thick, tough skin or pelt of a large animal

hieroglyph <hirglf> , ;

hieroglyphic , ,
1. a. of, relating to, or being a system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial
symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound b.
written with such symbols
2. difficult to read or decipher

highbrow , ; (opp. lowbrow)


of, relating to, or being highly cultured or intellectual

hiss (, ) ;
1. a sharp, sibilant sound similar to a sustained s
2. an expression of disapproval, contempt, or dissatisfaction conveyed by use of this sharp, sibilant
sound
sibilant (hissing);
of, characterized by, or producing a hissing sound like that of (s) or (sh)

histocompatibility /
a state or condition in which the absence of immunological interference permits the grafting of
tissue or the transfusion of blood without rejection

histrionics <hstriniks> ; ( )
1. (used with a pl. verb) theatrical arts or performances
2. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) exaggerated emotional behavior calculated for effect

hoard (, ) , ; ()

hoax ,

a hidden fund or supply stored for future use; a cache


1. an act intended to deceive or trick
2. something that has been established or accepted by fraudulent means
fraudulent ,
1. engaging in fraud; deceitful
2. characterized by, constituting, or gained by fraud
2

hoist (, ) ,
to raise or haul up with or as if with the help of a mechanical apparatus

hollow ; , ; ; , , ;
1. having a cavity, gap, or space within
2. deeply indented or concave; sunken
3. without substance or character
4. devoid of truth or validity; specious
5. having a reverberating, sepulchral sound
reverberate , ; (, ) ,
1. to resound in or as if in a succession of echoes; reecho
2. to be repeatedly reflected, as sound waves, heat, or light
3. to be forced or driven back; recoil or rebound
sepulchral <sip lkrl> , ; (),

holster ( )
1. a leather case shaped to hold a pistol
2. a belt with loops or slots for carrying small tools or other equipment

homeopathy (opp. allopathy)


a system for treating disease based on t administration of minute doses of a drug that in massive
amounts produces symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the disease itself

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allopathy <lpi>
a method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects different from those caused
by the disease itself
1

homiletics

homogeneous ,

the art of preaching


1. of the same or similar nature or kind
2. uniform in structure or composition throughout
3. (Math) consisting of terms of the same degree or elements of the same dimension
3

homogenize <houmdniz>
1. to make homogeneous
2. a. to reduce to particles and disperse throughout a fluid b. to make uniform in consistency,
especially to render (milk) uniform in consistency by emulsifying the fat content
emulsify ,

hone ( )
1. a fine-grained whetstone for giving a keen edge to a cutting tool
2. a tool with a rotating abrasive tip for enlarging holes to precise dimensions

honeybee

hoodwink ( ) ; (deceive), (blindfold)


1. to take in by deceptive means; deceive
2. (Archaic) to blindfold
3. (Obsolete) to conceal

hoof

hormone
1. a substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed by the
bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism
2. any of various similar substances found in plants and insects that regulate development

horrified , ,

horrify
1. to cause to feel horror
2. to cause unpleasant surprise to; shock

hospitable ; , ; ( )
1. disposed to treat guests with warmth and generosity
2. indicative of cordiality toward guests
3. having an open mind; receptive
4. favorable to growth and development; agreeable
cordiality ,
cordial (hearty), (sincere);
1. warm and sincere; friendly
2. strongly felt; fervent
3. serving to invigorate; stimulating

hospitality ,
1. cordial and generous reception of or disposition toward guests
2. an instance of cordial and generous treatment of guests

hostility , (enmity); , ;
1. the state of being hostile; antagonism or enmity
2. a. a hostile act b. hostilities. acts of war; overt warfare

hot-headed , (impetuous)
1. easily angered; quick-tempered
2. impetuous; rash

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hull , ;

humble
1. marked by meekness or modesty in behavior, attitude, or spirit; not arrogant or prideful
2. showing deferential or submissive respect
3. low in rank, quality, or station; unpretentious or lowly

humiliate

humiliation ;

humility ,

hurdle ;

hurl ; ( )

to lower the pride, dignity, or self-respect of

the quality or condition of being humble

1. to throw with great force; fling


2. to send with great vigor; thrust
3. to throw down; overthrow
4. to utter vehemently
fling ; ; ,
1. to throw with violence
2. to put or send suddenly or unexpectedly
3. to throw (oneself) into an activity with abandon and energy
4. to cast aside; discard
abandon
1. unbounded enthusiasm; exuberance
2. a complete surrender of inhibitions
1

hurly-burly (uproar),
noisy confusion; tumult

hush , ; ( ) ,
1. to make silent or quiet
2. to calm; soothe
3. to keep from public knowledge; suppress mention of

husk ,
1. the outer membranous or green envelope of some fruits or seeds, as that of a walnut or an ear
of corn
2. a shell or outer covering, especially when considered worthless
3. a framework serving as a support

hybrid , ,
1. (Genetics) the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring
produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties, species, or races
2. a. something of mixed origin or composition b. something, such as a computer or power plant,
having two kinds of components that produce the same or similar results
3. a word whose elements are derived from different languages

hydroelectric ,

hymen <himn> ; [ ];

hymn , ,
1. a song of praise or thanksgiving to God or a deity
2. a song of praise or joy; a paean
paean <p:n> ,
1. (Music) a song of joyful praise or exultation
2. a fervent expression of joy or praise
3. an ancient Greek hymn of thanksgiving or invocation, especially to Apollo

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hyperactive ,
1. highly or excessively active
2. a. having behavior characterized by constant overactivity b. afflicted with attention deficit
disorder

hyperbole <haip:rbli>

()
a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect

hyperbolic , ;

hypertension

hypocrisy ()
1. the practice of professing beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not hold or possess; falseness
2. an act or instance of such falseness

hypocrite ,
a person given to hypocrisy

hypocritical ,
1. characterized by hypocrisy
2. being a hypocrite

hypothesis , ,
1. a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation;
a theory
2. something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption
3. the antecedent of a conditional statement

hysteria ; ,
1. a neurosis characterized by the presentation of a physical ailment without an organic cause,
sleepwalking, amnesia, episodes of hallucinations, and other mental and behavioral aberrations
2. excessive or uncontrollable emotion, such as fear or panic

I
1

icicle <isikl> ; () ,

iconoclast ,
1. one who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional or popular ideas or institutions
2. one who destroys sacred religious images

idiosyncrasy , ; (); ()
1. a structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or a group
2. a physiological or temperamental peculiarity
3. an unusual individual reaction to food or a drug

idiosyncratic , , ;

idolatrous <aidltrs> , ()

idolatry <aidltri> , ,
1. worship of idols
2. blind or excessive devotion to something

idyll , ; /
1. a. a short poem or prose piece depicting a rural or pastoral scene, usually in idealized terms b. a
narrative poem treating an epic or romantic theme
2. a scene or an event of a simple and tranquil nature
3. a. a carefree episode or experience b. a romantic interlude

ignite , ; ()
1. a. to cause to burn b. to set fire to
2. to subject to great heat, especially to make luminous by heat
3. to arouse the passions of; excite

illegality <lli:g lti> ,

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1. the quality or state of being illegal


2. an illegal act
1

illegibility

illegible

illegitimate <llidtmt> ; , ; ,

not legible or decipherable


1. against the law; illegal
2. born out of wedlock
3. (Grammar) not in correct usage
4. incorrectly deduced; illogical
2

illicit , ,

illiterate , ; (, )

not sanctioned by custom or law; unlawful


1. a. unable to read and write b. having little or no formal education
2. a. marked by inferiority to an expected standard of familiarity with language and literature b.
violating prescribed standards of speech or writing
3. ignorant of the fundamentals of given art or branch of knowledge
1

illusive , , ; ,
illusory

illusory ,
produced by, based on, or having the nature of an illusion; deceptive

imaginary ,
having existence only in the imagination; unreal

imaginative ;
1. having a lively imagination, especially a creative imagination
2. created by, indicative of, or characterized by imagination or creativity
3. tending to indulge in the fanciful or in make-believe
4. having no truth; false

imbue ( ) , ; (, )
1. to inspire, permeate, or invade
2. to stain or dye deeply

imitative ; , ;
1. of or involving imitation
2. not original; derivative
3. tending to imitate
4. onomatopoeic
onomatopoeic <nm tp:ik> ,

immaculate , ; ,
1. impeccably clean; spotless
2. free from stain or blemish; pure
3. free from fault or error
4. having no markings

immaterial , ; , ; ,
1. of no importance or relevance; inconsequential or irrelevant
2. having no material body or form

immerse , ; /; ...
1. to cover completely in a liquid; submerge
2. to baptize by submerging in water
3. to engage wholly or deeply; absorb

imminent ,

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about to occur; impending


1

immobility , ,

immovable , ; , ; ,
1. a. impossible to move b. incapable of movement
2. impossible to alter
3. unyielding in principle, purpose, or adherence; steadfast
4. incapable of being moved emotionally
5. (Law) not liable to be removed; permanent

immutability , (, unchangeableness)

immutable ,
not subject or susceptible to change

impair , ; ,
to cause to diminish, as in strength, value, or quality

impalpable , ;
1. not perceptible to the touch; intangible
2. difficult to perceive or grasp by the mind

impassion ,
to arouse the passions of

impassioned ; ,

impassive , ; (unconscious); ,

filled with passion; fervent


1. devoid of or not subject to emotion
2. revealing no emotion; expressionless
3. incapable of physical sensation
4. motionless; still
1

impassivity <mpsvti> ; , ; ,

impatient , ; (eager),
1. unable to wait patiently or tolerate delay; restless
2. unable to endure irritation or opposition; intolerant
3. expressing or produced by impatience
4. restively eager to desirous; anxious

impeccable , ; ,
1. having no flaws; perfect
2. incapable of sin or wrongdoing

impecunious ,
lacking money; penniless

impede ,
to retard or obstruct the progress of

impenetrable ; , ; , ,
1. impossible to penetrate or enter
2. impossible to understand; incomprehensible
3. impervious to sentiment or argument

imperative , ; , ,
1. expressing a command or plea; peremptory
2. having the power or authority to command or control
3. (Grammar) of, relating to, or constituting the mood that expresses a command or request
4. impossible to deter or evade; pressing

imperceptible , ; ,
1. impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses
2. so subtle, slight, or gradual as to be barely perceptible

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imperfection ; ,

imperil , (endanger)
to put into peril; endanger
peril , ;
1. a. imminent danger b. exposure to the risk of harm or loss
2. something that endangers or involves risk

imperious , ; ; , ,
1. arrogantly domineering or overbearing
2. urgent; pressing

impermeability

impermeable ,

impermissible

impossible to permeate
not permitted; not permissible
1

impertinence , ; /; ,
1. the quality or condition of being impertinent, especially a. insolence b. irrelevance
2. an impertinent act or statement

impertinent , , (impudent); ,
1. exceeding the limits of propriety or good manners; improperly forward or bold
2. not pertinent; irrelevant

imperturbable , ,

impervious , ; ( ) , ; ,

unshakably calm and collected


1. incapable of being penetrated
2. incapable of being affected
1

impetuosity , , ;

impetuous , ; , , (rash)
1. characterized by sudden and forceful energy or emotion; impulsive and passionate
2. having or marked by violent force

impiety ; ,

impious , ; ,
1. lacking reverence; not pious
2. lacking due respect or dutifulness

implacable , ; ,

implant , ; ( ) ,

impossible to placate or appease


1. to set in firmly, as into the ground
2. to establish securely, as in the mind or consciousness; instill
2

implausible ,

implementation , ; ,

implicate , ; () /; ,

difficult to believe; not plausible

1. to involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly


2. to have as a consequence or an inference; imply
3. (Archaic) to interweave or entangle; entwine
2

implicit , ; , ;
1. implied or understood though not directly expressed
2. contained in the nature of something though not readily apparent
3. having no doubts or reservation; unquestioning

implode ()

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to collapse inward violently


2

implosion (opp. explosion)


1. a violent collapse inward, as of a highly evacuated glass vessel
2. violent compression
3. the inward collapse of a building that is being demolished in a controlled fashion by the
weakening and breaking of structural members by explosives

importune , ,
1. to beset with insistent or repeated requests; entreat pressingly
2. (Archaic) to ask for urgently or repeatedly
3. to annoy; vex

imposter, impostor ,

imposture ,

one who engages in deception under an assumed name or identity


the act or instance of engaging in deception under an assumed name or identity

impracticable ; ( )
1. impossible to do or carry out
2. unfit for passage

impractical , ; ( ) ,
1. unwise to implement or maintain in practice
2. incapable of dealing efficiently with practical matters, especially finances
3. not a part of experience, fact, or practice; theoretical
4. impracticable

imprecise , (vague)

impregnable ; ;
1. impossible to capture or enter by force
2. difficult or impossible to attack challenge, or refute with success

impressed ,

impressionable , ,
1. readily or easily influenced; suggestible
2. capable of receiving an impression; plastic
suggestible ;
readily influenced by suggestion

improbable ,
unlikely to take place or be true

improbity , ;

impromptu , ;
1. prompted by the occasion rather than being planned in advance
2. spoken, performed, done, or composed with little or no preparation; extemporaneous

improvidence ;

improvident
1. not providing for the future; thriftless
2. rash; incautious

improvisation , ;

improvisatory, improvisatorial ,

improvise , ;
1. to invent, compose, or recite without preparation
2. to make or provide from available materials

imprudent , , (indiscreet)
unwise or indiscreet; not prudent

impudent , ,

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1 characterized by offensive boldness; insolent or impertinent


2. (Obsolete) immodest
2

impugn ,
to attack as false or questionable; challenge in argument

impunity //
exemption from punishment, penalty, or harm

inadmissible ,

inadvertence ,

inadvertent , , ; ,
1. not duly attentive
2. marked by unintentional lack of care

inane ; ,
lacking sense or substance; empty

inapplicable ; ,

inapt (unskillful); (unfit)


1. inappropriate
2. inept

inattention , ; ;

inaudible ,

inborn , (opp. acquired)

impossible to hear
1. possessed by an organism at birth
2. inherited or hereditary

incantation ( ), ,
1. ritual recitation of verbal charms or spells to produce a magic effect
2. a. a formula used in ritual recitation; a verbal charm or spell b. a conventionalized utterance
repeated without thought or aptness; a formula

incense <nsens> , ;
to cause to be extremely angry; infuriate
1. to perfume with incense
2. to burn insense to, as a ritual offering

incentive , , , (encouraging)
serving to induce or motivate

incessant

inchoate <inkut> ,

continuing without interruption


1. in an initial or early stage; incipient
2. imperfectly formed or developed
1

incidental ; , ,
1. occurring or likely to occur as an unpredictable or minor accompaniment
2. of a minor, casual, or subordinate nature

incinerate ,
to cause to burn to ashes

incipient , ,

incise , ; ,

beginning to exist or appear


1. to cut into, as with a sharp instrument
2. a. to engrave (designs or writing, for example) into a surface; carve b. to engrave designs,
writing, or other marks into
1

incised , ; ,

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1. cut into a surface; engraved


2. made with or as if with a sharp instrument
3. deeply and sharply cut
1

incisive , , ; ,

incite , , ; ( )

inclusion , ;

incoherent , ;

penetrating, clear, and sharp, as in operation or expression


to provoke and urge on

1. lacking cohesion, connection, or harmony; not coherent


2. unable to think or express one's thoughts in a clear or orderly manner
1

incompetence, incompetency ,

incompetent , , (incapable); () ,
1. not qualified in legal terms
2. inadequate for or unsuited to a particular purpose or application
3. devoid of those qualities requisite for effective conduct or action

inconclusive , ,

incongruous , ; ,
1. lacking in harmony; incompatible
2. not in agreement, as with principles; inconsistent
3. not in keeping with what is correct, proper, or logical; inappropriate

inconsequential ,
1. lacking importance
2. not following from premises or evidence; illogical

incontrovertible ,
impossible to dispute; unquestionable

incorporate , ; ; ; ,
1. to unite (one thing) with something else already in existence
2. to admit as a member to a corporation or similar organization
3. to cause to merge or combine together into a united whole
4. to cause to form into a legal corporation
5. to give substance or material form to; embody

incorrigible , ,
1. incapable of being corrected or performed
2. firmly rooted; ineradicable
3. difficult or impossible to control or manage

incorruptible ;
1. incapable of being morally corrupted
2. not subject to corruption or decay

incriminate ,
1. to accuse of a crime or other wrongful act
2. to cause to appear guilty of a crime or fault; implicate

incubate
1. to sit on (eggs) to provide heat, so as to promote embryonic development and the hatching of
young; brood
2. a. to maintain (eggs, organisms, or living tissue) at optimal environmental conditions for growth
and development b. to maintain (a chemical or biochemical system) under specific conditions in
order to promote a particular reaction
3. to form or consider slowly and protectively, as if hatching

incubation ; ,

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incubus <kjubs> (), , ; /


1. an evil spirit believed to descend upon and have sexual intercourse with women as they sleep
2. a nightmare
3. an oppressive or nightmarish burden

incumbent ,
1. imposed as an obligation or a duty; obligatory
2. lying, leaning, or resting on something else
3. currently holding a specified office

incursion , ;
1. an aggressive entrance into foreign territory; a raid or an invasion
2. the act of entering another's territory or domain
3. the act of entering or running into

indebted ,
morally, socially, or legally obligated to another; beholden

indecision
reluctance or an inability to make up one's mind; irresolution

indecisive ; , ; ()
1 prone to or characterized by indecision; irresolute
2. inconclusive
3. not clearly defined; indefinite

indecorous

indefatigable <ndif tigbl> ,

lacking propriety or good taste


incapable or seemingly incapable of being fatigued; tireless
2

indelibility //

indelible ,
1. impossible to remove, erase, or wash away; permanent
2. making a mark not easily erased or washed away

indelicate , ,
1. offensive to established standards of propriety; improper
2. marked by a lack of good taste; coarse
3. lacking in consideration for the feelings of others; tactless

indemnify , () ; ,
1. to protect against damage, loss, or injury; insure
2. to make compensation to for damage, loss, or injury suffered

indented ,

indeterminate , (),
a. not precisely determined, determinable, or established b. not precisely fixed, as to extent, size,
nature, or number c. lacking clarity or precision, as in meaning; vague d. not fixed or known in
advance e. not leading up to a definite result or ending

indict /
1. to accuse of wrongdoing; charge
2. (Law) to make a formal accusation or indictment against (a party) by the findings of a jury,
especially a grand jury

indictment , ;
1. a. the act of indicting b. the condition of being indicted

indigence ,
poverty; neediness

indigenous , , ,
1. originating and growing or living in an area or environment

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2. intrinsic; innate
1

indignantly ,

indignation
anger aroused by something unjust, mean, or unworthy

indignity , , ;
1. humiliating, degrading, or abusive treatment
2. a source of offense, as to a person's pride or sense of dignity; an affront
3. (Obsolete) lack of dignity or honor

indiscretion , ;
1. lack of discretion; injudiciousness
2. an indiscreet act or remark

indiscriminate ,
1. a. not making or based on careful distinctions; unselective b. widespread; wholesale
2. random; haphazard
3. confused; chaotic
4. unrestrained or wanton; profligate

indistinct , ,
1. not clearly or sharply delineated
2. faint; dim
3. a. hazy; vague b. difficult to understand or make out

indistinguishable ,
1. not distinguishable, especially a. impossible to differentiate or tell apart b. impossible to discern;
imperceptible
2. difficult to understand or make out; vague

indite (, ) ,
1. to write; compose
2. to set down in writing

indolence ,
habitual laziness; sloth
sloth <sl:> , , (laziness); ()

indolent , ,
1. a. disinclined to exert oneself; habitually lazy b. conducive to inactivity or laziness; lethargic
2. a. causing little or no pain b. slow to heal, grow, or develop; inactive

indomitable ,

induce , ...(persuade); , ; () ;

incapable of being overcome, subdued, or vanquished; unconquerable


1. to lead or move, as to a course of action, by influence or persuasion
2. to bring about or stimulate the occurrence of; cause
3. to infer by inductive reasoning
1

induction ; (opp. deduction)

indulgent , ,

industrialist

ineffectual ,

showing, characterized by, or given to indulgence; lenient

1. a. insufficient to produce a desired effect b. useless; worthless


2. lacking forcefulness or effectiveness; weak
1

inefficacious <nefkis> /
not capable of producing a desired effect or result; ineffective

inept , ; ,
1. not apt or fitting; inappropriate

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2. a. displaying a lack of judgment, sense, or reason; foolish b. bungling or clumsy; incompetent


1

ineptitude , ; /

inerrant
1. incapable of erring; infallible
2. containing no errors
erring ; ,
err <r>
1. to make an error or a mistake
2. to violate accepted moral standards; sin

inert , ; , (inactive)
1. unable to move or act
2. sluggish in action or motion; lethargic
3. (Chemistry) not readily reactive with other elements; forming few or no chemical compounds

inertia , ; ,
1. (Physics) the tendency of a body to resist acceleration; the tendency of a body at rest to remain
at rest or of a body in motion to stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by an outside
force
2. resistance or disinclination to motion, action, or change

inestimable ,
1. impossible to estimate or compute
2. of immeasurable value or worth; invaluable

inexact ,
1. not strictly accurate or precise; not exact
2. not rigorous or meticulous

inexcusable <nikskj:zbl> ,
impossible to excuse or justify; unpardonable

inexhaustible ;
1. that cannot be entirely consumed or used up
2. never wearying; tireless

inexplicable ,
difficult or impossible to explain or account for

infamous , ; , ; ,
1. having an exceedingly bad reputation; notorious
2. causing or deserving infamy; heinous
heinous , ,
grossly wicked or reprehensible; abominable

infantile , ; ,
1. of or relating to infants or infancy
2. displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity; extremely childish

infantry
the combat arm made up of units trained to fight on food

infatuation , ;
1. a foolish, unreasoning, or extravagant passion or attraction
2. an object of extravagant, short-lived passion

infectious , (catching)
1. capable of causing infection
2. caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection
3. caused by a pathogenic microorganism or agent
4. easily or readily communicated

infelicitous <nfilsts> , ;

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1. inappropriate; ill-chosen
2. not happy; unfortunate
1

inferable

inferno [the Inferno] [ , ]; ,


1. a place or condition suggestive of hell, especially with respect to human suffering or death
2. a place of fiery heat or destruction

infertility ,
1. absent or diminished fertility
2. the persistent inability to conceive a child

infest , ,
1. to inhabit or overrun in numbers large enough to be harmful, threatening, or obnoxious
2. to live as a parasite in or on tissues or organs or on the skin and its appendages

infidelity ; , , ()
1. a. unfaithfulness to a sexual partner, especially a spouse b. an act of sexual unfaithfulness
2. lack of fidelity or loyalty
3. lack of religious belief

infiltrate , ,
1. a. to pass (troops, for example) surreptitiously into enemy-held territory b. to penetrate with
hostile intent
2. to enter or take up positions in gradually or surreptitiously, as for purposes of espionage or
takeover
3. to cause (a liquid, for example) to permeate a substance by passing through its interstices or
pores
4. to permeate (a porous substance) with a liquid or gas
surreptitious , , ;
1. obtained, done, or made by clandestine or stealthy means
2. acting with or marked by stealth

infiltration , ,

inflame ; , ; ( )
1. to arouse to passionate feeling or action
2. to make more violent; intensify
3. a. to cause (the skin) to redden or grow hot, as from strong emotion or stimulants b. to turn red
or make glow
4. to produce inflammation in (a tissue or an organ)
5. to set on fire; kindle

inflammability ,

inflammable
1. easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; flammable
2. quickly or easily aroused to strong emotion; excitable

inflate ; () ;
1. to fill (something) with air or gas so as to make it swell
2. a. to enlarge or amplify unduly or improperly; aggrandize b. to raise or expand abnormally or
improperly
3. to cause (a currency or an economy) to undergo inflation

infraction ()
the act or an instance of infringing; a violation

infringe
to transgress or exceed the limits of; violate

infuriate
to make furious; enrage

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infuriating

infuse , ; ( ) , ; (, ) ,
1. to put into or introduce as if by pouring
2. to fill or cause to be filled with something
3. (Chemistry) to steep or soak without boiling in order to extract soluble elements or active
principles
4. to introduce (a solution) into the body through a vein for therapeutic purposes

infusion , ; ,

ingenious , , ; ,
1. marked by inventive skill and imagination
2. having or arising from an inventive or cunning mind; clever
3. (Obsolete) having genius; brilliant

ingenuity , ; ,
1. inventive skill or imagination; cleverness
2. imaginative and clever design or construction
3. an ingenious or imaginative contrivance

ingenuous , , ; ,
1. lacking in sophistication or worldliness; artless
2. openly straightforward or frank; candid

ingest ( )
to take into the body by the mouth for digestion or absorption

ingestion

ingrained , ; ,
1. firmly established; deep-seated
2. worked deeply into the texture or fiber

ingrate

ingredient , , ; ,

an ungrateful person
an element in a mixture or compound; a constituent
1

inherent , ,
existing as an essential constituent or characteristic; intrinsic

inhibit
1. to hold back; restrain
2. to prohibit; forbid

inhibition , ; ,
1. the act of inhibiting or the state of being inhibited
2. something that restrains, blocks, or suppresses

inhibitor /
one that inhibits, as a substance that retards or stops a chemical reaction

inhospitable , ; ,
1. displaying no hospitality; unfriendly
2. unfavorable to life or growth; hostile
hospitality
1. cordial and generous reception of or disposition toward guests
2. an instance of cordial and generous treatment of guests

inimical , ; ,
1. injurious or harmful in effect; adverse
2. unfriendly; hostile

inimitable ,
defying imitation; matchless

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iniquitous , ,

iniquity , ,

characterized by iniquity; wicked


1. gross immorality or injustice; wickedness
2. a grossly immoral act; a sin
1

initiative <intiv> , ; , ;
1. the power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task; enterprise
and determination
2. a beginning or introductory step; an opening move
3. a. the power or right to introduce a new legislative measure b. the right and procedure by which
citizens can propose a law by petition and ensure its submission to the electorate

innocuous /
1. having no adverse effect; harmless
2. not likely to offend or provoke to strong emotion; insipid

inoculate ; ( ) ; ,
1. to introduce a serum, a vaccine, or an antigenic substance into (the body of a person or an
animal), especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease
2. to communicate a disease to (a living organism) by transferring its causative agent into the
organism
3. to implant microorganisms or infectious material into (a culture medium)
4. to safeguard as if by inoculating; protect
5. to introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of

inoculation () ; ( ) ; ,

inoffensive ; ,
1. giving no offense; unobjectionable
2. causing no harm; harmless

inopportune , ; ,
inappropriate or ill-timed; not opportune

inorganic (inanimate); ;
1. a. involving neither organic life nor the products of organic life b. not composed of organic
matter
2. (Chemistry) of or relating to compounds not containing hydrocarbon groups
3. not arising in normal growth; artificial
4. lacking system or structure

inquisitive
1. unduly curious and inquiring
2. inclined to investigate; eager for knowledge

insatiable , (greedy)
impossible to satiate or satisfy

inscribe , ; ; ; ; (opp. circumscribe)


1. a. to write, print, carve, or engrave (words or letters) on or in a surface b. to mark or engrave
(a surface) with words or letters
2. to enter (a name) on a list or in a register
3. a. to sign one's name or write a brief message in or on (a gift book or photograph, for example)
b. to dedicate to someone

inscrutability , ,

inscrutable
difficult to fathom or understand; impenetrable

insider , ; () ,
1. an accepted member of a group

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2. one who has special knowledge or access to confidential information

insidious , ; ,
1. working or spreading harmfully in a subtle or stealthy manner
2. intended to entrap; treacherous
3. beguiling but harmful; alluring

insignia , , ; ,
1. a badge of office, rank, membership, or nationality; an emblem
2. a distinguishing sign

insincere , (deceitful)

insincerity ,

insinuate , ; ( ) ,

not sincere; hypocritical

1. to introduce or otherwise convey (a thought, for example) gradually and insidiously


2. to introduce or insert (oneself) by subtle and artful means
3

insipid , ; ,
1. lacking flavor or zest; not tasty
2. lacking excitement, stimulation, or interest; dull

insistent , ; ,
1. firm in asserting a demand or an opinion; unyielding
2. demanding notice
3. repetitive and persistent

insolence , ; /
1. the quality or condition of being insolent
2. an instance of insolent behavior, treatment, or speech

insolent , (arrogant),
1. presumptuous and insulting in manner or speech; arrogant
2. audaciously rude or disrespectful; impertinent

insoluble , ; ,
1. that cannot be dissolved
2. difficult or impossible to solve or explain; insolvable

insomnia

inspiration ; , ; , ; (opp. expiration)

instigate , ...(incite); () ,
1. to urge on; goad
2. to stir up; foment

instigation , ; ,

instinctive , ;
1. of, relating to, or prompted by instinct
2. arising from impulse; spontaneous and unthinking

instrumentation () ; ,

insubordinate , ;

insular <nslr> , ; , ; ,

not submissive to authority


1. a. of, relating to, or constituting an island b. living or located on an island
2. a. suggestive of the isolated life of an island b. circumscribed and detached in outlook and
experience; narrow or provincial
3. (Anatomy) of or relating to isolated tissue or an island of tissue
1

insularity ,

insulate , ; ()
1. to cause to be in a detached or isolated position

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2. to prevent the passage of heat, electricity, or sound into or out of, especially by surrounding with
a nonconducting material
2

insulin [ ]

insured a. n. ,
1. the party who stands to benefit from an insurance policy
2. the party insured. also called assured

intact , ; ;
1. remaining sound, entire, or uninjured; not impaired in any way
2. having all physical part, especially a. having the hymen unbroken b. not castrated
castrate ;

intangibility , ;

intangible
1. incapable of being perceived by the senses
2. incapable of being realized or defined

integrity , ; ,
1. steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code
2. the state of being unimpaired; soundness
3. the quality or condition of being whole or undivided; completeness

intellectuality , ,

intelligibility , ,

intelligible , ; (cf. sensible)


1. capable of being understood
2. capable of being apprehended by the intellect alone

intemperance , , ; ,
1. lack of temperance, as in the indulgence of an appetite or a passion
2. excessive use of alcoholic beverages

intemperate , ; , ;
not temperate or moderate; excessive, especially in the use of alcoholic beverages

intercede ,
1. to plead on another's behalf
2. to act as mediator in a dispute

interfere , ; ( ) , ; , ; ,
1. to come between os as to be hindrance or an obstacle
2. (Sports) to perform an act of interference
3. to intervene or intrude in the affairs of others; meddle
4. to strike one hoof against the opposite hoof or leg while moving. used of a horse

interim <ntrim> , ; ,
an interval of time between one event, process, or period and another

interminable , ;
1. being or seeming to be without an end; endless
2. tiresomely long; wearisome

interplay ,
reciprocal action and reaction; interaction

interpolate (, ) ;
1. to insert or introduce between other elements or parts
2. a. to insert (material) into a text b. to insert into a conversation
3. to change or falsify (a text) by introducing new or incorrect material
4. (Math) to estimate a value of (a function or series) between two known values

interpose , ; ,
1. a. to insert or introduce between parts b. to place (oneself) between

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2. to introduce or interject (a comment, for example) during discourse or a conversation


3. to exert (influence or authority) in order to interfere or intervene
1

interregnum ( ) () , ;
1. the interval of time between the end of a sovereign's reign and the accession of a successor
2. a period of temporary suspension of the usual functions of government or control
3. a gap in continuity

interrogate
1. to examine by questioning formally or officially
2. (Computer Science) to transmit a signal for setting off an appropriate response

interrogation , , ;

intersperse <ntrsp:rs>

,
1. to distribute among other things at intervals
2. to supply or diversity with things distributed at intervals

interstice , , (crevice);

intertwine , , (interlace)

a space, especially a small or narrow one, between things or parts


to join or become joined by twining together
twine , , ;
1. to twist together (threads, for example); intertwine
2. to form by twisting, intertwining, or interlacing
3. to encircle or coil about
4. to wind, coil, or wrap around something
1

intervene , ; ; , ,
1. to come, appear, or lie between two things
2. to come or occur between two periods or points of time
3. to occur as an extraneous or unplanned circumstance
4. a. to come in or between so as to hinder or alter an action b. to interfere, usually through force
or threat of force, in the affairs of another nation
5. (Law) to enter into a suit as a third party for one's own interests

intimacy ,

intimate a. , ; , ; , ; , v. ,

1. marked by close acquaintance, association, or familiarity


2. relating to or indicative of one's deepest nature
3. essential; innermost
4. marked by informality and privacy
5. very personal; private
6. of or involved in a sexual relationship
1. to make known subtly and indirectly; hint
2. to announce; proclaim

intimation , (hint); , (announcement)

intimidate , ...
1. to make timid; fill with fear
2. to coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats

intimidation ,

intolerance ; , (narrow-mindedness)
1. the quality or condition of being intolerant; lack of tolerance
2. (Medicine) extreme sensitivity or allergy to a drug, food, or other substance

intolerant ; , ; ( )
not tolerant, especially a. unwilling to tolerate differences in opinions or beliefs, especially religious

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beliefs b. unable or unwilling to endure or support


1

intractability , ,

intractable , (stubborn); ; ()
1. difficult to manage or govern; stubborn
2. difficult to mold or manipulate
3. difficult to alleviate, remedy, or cure

intransigent (uncompromising)
refusing to moderate a position, especially an extreme position; uncompromising

intrepid ,

intricacy <ntriksi> ();

resolutely courageous; fearless


1. the condition or quality of being intricate; complexity
2. something intricate
2

intricate , ;
1. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate
2. solvable or comprehensible only with painstaking effort

intrigue , ;
1. a. a secret or underhand scheme; a plot b. the practice of or involvement in such schemes
2. a clandestine love affair

intriguing ,

intrinsic , , (inherent, opp. extrinsic)


1. of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent
2. (Anatomy) situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. used
of certain nerves and muscles

introspection , (self-examination)
contemplation of one's own thoughts, feelings, and sensations; self-examination

intrude ; , ; ()
1. to put or force in inappropriately, especially without invitation, fitness, or permission
2. (Geology) to thrust (molten rock) into preexisting rock

intrusive ; ,

inundate , ; , ;
1. to cover with water, especially floodwaters
2. to overwhelm as if with a flood; swamp

inundation , , ; ,

inure ,
to habituate to something undesirable, especially by prolonged subjection; accustom

invective , ,
1. denunciatory or abusive language; vituperation
2. denunciatory or abusive expression or discourse

inveigle , , ;
1. to win over by coaxing, flattery, or artful talk
2. to obtain by cajolery

inventory , ; ;
1. a. a detailed, itemized list, report, or record of things in one's possession, especially a periodic
survey of all goods and materials in stock b. the process of making such a list, report, or record c.
the items listed in such a report or record d. the quantity of goods and materials on hand; stock
2. an evaluation or a survey, as of abilities, assets, or resources

investigate , ,
to observe or inquire into in detail; examine systematically

investigative , ; (TV, )

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1. of or relating to investigation
2. characterized by or engaged in investigation; specializing in uncovering and reporting hidden
information
1

investor

inveterate , , ;
1. firmly and long established; deep-rooted
2. persisting in an ingrained habit; habitual

invigorate ,
to impart vigor, strength, or vitality to; animate

invigoration ,

invincible , ; ,

invocation , ; ()

incapable of being overcome or defeated; unconquerable


1. the act or an instance of invoking, especially an appeal to a higher power for assistance
2. a prayer or other formula used in invoking, as at the opening of a religious service
3. a. the act of conjuring up a spirit by incantation b. an incantation used in conjuring
incantation , ,
2

invulnerable , ,
1. immune to attack; impregnable
2. impossible to damage, injure, or wound

iodine <idin> ; ()

irascible , ,
1. prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered
2. characterized by or resulting from anger
prone
1. lying with the front or face downward
2. having a tendency; inclined

irate ,
1. extremely angry; enraged
2. characterized or occasioned by anger

ire <air> , (anger)

iridescence ,

iridescent

anger; wrath

1. producing a display of lustrous, rainbowlike colors


2. brilliant, lustrous, or colorful in effect or appearance
1

iris <iris> () ; () ; ( )

irksome , (tedious)
causing annoyance, weariness, or vexation; tedious

ironclad ; () (, ) ,
1. sheathed with iron plates for protection
2. rigid; fixed
sheath <i:> ; ,

irony , ; ()
1. a. the use of words to express something different fro and often opposite to their literal meaning
b. an expression or utterance marked by a deliberate contrast between apparent and intended
meaning c. a literary style employing such contrasts for humorous or rhetorical effect
2. a. incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs b. an occurrence, a
result, or a circumstance notable for such incongruity

irrational ,

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1. a. not endowed with reason b. affected by loss of usual or normal mental clarity; incoherent, as
from shock c. marked by a lack of accord with reason or sound judgment
2. a. being a syllable in Greek and Latin prosody whose length does not fit the metric pattern b.
being a metric foot containing such a syllable
3. (Math) of or relating to an irrational number
1

irreconcilable , , ,
reconcile
1. to reestablish a close relationship between
2. to settle resolve
3. to bring (oneself) to accept
3. to make compatible or consistent

irrefutable
impossible to refute or disprove; incontrovertible

irrelevance , , /
1. the quality or state of being unrelated to the matter at hand
2. something unrelated to the matter at hand

irrelevant , , ;
unrelated to the matter at hand

irreparable / ,

irreproachable , (blameless)

irresolute , ,

impossible to repair, rectify, or amend


perfect or blameless in every respect; faultless
1. unsure of how to act or proceed; undecided
2. lacking in resolution; indecisive
1

irreverence ,
1. lack of reverence or due respect
2. a disrespectful act or remark

irrevocable ,

irrigate , (water)

impossible to retract or revoke


1. to supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; water artificially
2. to wash out (a body cavity or wound) with water or a medicated fluid
3. to make fertile or vital as if by watering
2

itinerary <aitnrri> , ; ;
1. a route or proposed route of a journey
2. an account or a record of a journey
3. a guidebook for travelers

J
1

jabber (babble), ( )

jagged <d gid> ,

to talk rapidly, unintelligibly, or idly


1. marked by irregular projections and indentations on the edge or surface
2. having a rough or harsh quality
2

jamb
1. one of a pair of vertical posts or pieces that together form the sides of a door, window frame, or
fireplace, for example
2. a projecting mass or columnar part

jargon , ; ; (cant), ; ,

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1. nonsensical, incoherent, or meaningless talk


2. a hybrid language or dialect; a pidgin
3. the specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group

jar n. , , v. ; ( ) ; ; (, )
;
1. to make or utter a harsh sound
2. to be disturbing or irritating; grate
3. to shake or shiver from impact
4. to clash or conflict

jarring ; , ,

jeer ,

jeopardize <dprdiz>

to speak or shout derisively; mock


to expose to loss or injury; imperil
1

jeopardy <dprdi> ; ()
1. risk of loss or injury; peril or danger
2. (Law) a defendant's risk or danger of conviction when put on trial

jest , , ;
1. a playful or amusing act; a prank
2. a frolicsome or frivolous mood
3. an object of ridicule; a laughingstock
4. a witty remark
prank , ,
a mischievous trick or practical joke
frolicsome ,
full of high-spirited fun; frisky and playful
frisky ,
energetic, lively, and playful
frivolous ; , ;
1. unworthy of serious attention; trivial
2. inappropriately silly

jibe ,
to be in accord; agree

jingoism () ,

jockey <dki> () , ( ) ; ,

extreme nationalism characterized especially by a belligerent foreign policy; chauvinistic patriotism


1. (Sports) to ride (a horse) as jockey
2. to direct or maneuver by cleverness or skill
3. to trick; cheat
1

jocular , (humorous)
1. characterized by joking
2. given to joking

jovial , , (merry)
marked by hearty conviviality and good cheer
convivial ; (jovial)
1. fond of feasting, drinking, and good company; sociable
2. merry; festive

judicious ,
having or exhibiting sound judgment; prudent

juggernaut ( ) (Krishna) ; ,

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juggle ; ,
1. to keep (two or more objects) in the air at one time by alternately tossing and catching them
2. to have difficulty holding; balance insecurely
3. to keep (more than two activities, for example) in motion or progress at one time
4. to manipulate in order to deceive

jumble ,
1. to mix in a confused way; throw together carelessly
2. to muddle; confuse

jupiter () ( Zeus);

justifiable
having sufficient grounds for justification; possible to justify

justification ,

K
1

kernel <k:rnl>

(, ) (); (grain); ( ) , (gist)


1. a grain or seed, as of a cereal grass, enclosed in a husk
2. the inner, usually edible seed of a nut or fruit stone
3. the most material and central part; the core

kidney ()

kindle , , ; ( ) , , (stir up)


1. a. to build or fuel (a fire) b. to set fire to; ignite
2. to cause to glow; light up
3. to arouse (an emotion, for example)

knead <ni:d> , ; ; ; ; ()
1. to mix and work into a uniform mass, as by folding, pressing, and stretching with the hands
2. to make or shape by or as if by folding, pressing, and stretching with the hands
3. to squeeze, press, or roll with the hands, as in massaging

kneecap ();

knit , ; , ; ; ,
1. to make (a fabric or garment) by intertwining yarn or thread in a series of connected loops
either by hand with knitting needles or on a machine

knowing
1. possessing knowledge, information, or understanding
2. showing clever awareness and resourcefulness; shrewd
3. suggestive of secret or private knowledge
4. deliberate; conscious

knowledgeable , ,
possessing or showing knowledge or intelligence; perceptive and well-informed

L
1

labile <libail> ,
1. open to change; adaptable
2. (Chemistry) constantly undergoing or likely to undergo change; unstable

labored ; , ; ,

labyrinth , ; ; ,

labyrinthine , ; ,

lace ; ; ( )
1. a cord or ribbon used to draw and tie together two opposite edges, as of a shoe
2. a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern
3. gold or silver braid ornamenting an officer's uniform

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lackluster ; , ;

laconic ,

lacking brightness, luster, or vitality; dull


using or marked by the use of few words; terse or concise
1

lactate
to secrete or produce milk
secrete , ;
to generate and separate (a substance) fro cells or bodily fluids
1. to conceal in a hiding place; cache
2. to steal secretly; filch
filch ( ) , (pilfer)
to take (something, especially something of little value) in a furtive manner; snitch

lag ; , (linger); (, ) ; , (arrest)


1. to fail to keep up a pace; straggle
2. to proceed or develop with comparative slowness
3. to fail, weaken, or slacken gradually; flag
1. to arrest
2. to send to prison

lair <lr> () , ; ( ) , ; ,
1. the den or dwelling of a wild animal
2. a den or hideaway

laity <liti> (laymen), ;


1. laypeople considered as a group
2. all those persons who are not members of a given profession or other specialized field

lambaste <lmbist> ; , ,
1. to give a thrashing to; beat
2. to scold sharply; berate

lame a. , ; , n. ,
1. disabled so that movement, especially walking, is difficult or impossible
2. marked by pain or rigidness
3. weak and ineffectual; unsatisfactory
a thin metal plate, especially one of the overlapping steel plates in medieval armor

lampoon ,
1. a broad satirical piece that uses ridicule to attack a person, a group, or an institution
2. a light, good-humored satire

lancet , ; () ()
1. (Medicine) a surgical knife with a short, wide, pointed double-edged blade, used especially for
making punctures and small incisions
2. (Architecture) a lancet arch

landlocked ( ) ; ()
1. entirely or almost entirely surrounded by land
2. confined to inland waters, as certain salmon

landlord ; (landowner)
1. a person who owns and rents land, buildings, or dwelling units
2. a man who runs a rooming house or an inn; an innkeeper

landmark ; ;
1. a prominent identifying feature of a landscape
2. a fixed marker, such as a concrete block, that indicates a boundary line
3. an event marking an important stage of development or a turning point in history
4. a building or site that has historical significance, especially one that is marked for preservation

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by a municipal or national government


municipal , ;
1. a. of, relating to, or typical of a municipality b. having local self-government c. issued on
the authority of a local or state government
2. of or relating to the internal affairs of a nation
1

landslide ;
1. a. the downward sliding of a relatively dry mass of earth and rock b. the mass that slides
2. a. an overwhelming majority of votes for a political party or candidate b. an election that sweeps
a party or candidate into office
3. a great victory

languor
1. lack of physical or mental energy; listlessness
2. a dreamy, lazy mood or quality
3. oppressive quiet or stillness

languorous , ; ;

largesse <lards> ( )
1. a. liberality in bestowing gifts, especially in a lofty or condescending manner b. money or gifts
bestowed
2. generosity of spirit or attitude

lassitude , , ;
a state or feeling of weariness, diminished energy, or listlessness

lasso
a long rope with a running noose at one end, used especially to catch horses and cattle

latency ,

latent , ; ,
1. present or potential but not evident or active
2. (Pathology) in a dormant or hidden stage
3. (Biology) undeveloped but capable of normal growth under the proper condition
4. (Psychology) present in the unconscious mind but not consciously expressed

lateral ,
1. of, relating to, or situated at or on the side
2. of or constituting a change within an organization or a hierarchy to a position at a similar level,
as in salary or responsibility, to the one being left

lathe <lei>
a machine for shaping a piece of material, such as wood or metal, by rotating it rapidly along its
axis while pressing against a fixed cutting or abrading tool

latitude (cf. longitude), ( ) ; (, ) ,


1. a. the angular distance north or south of the earth's equator, measured in degrees along a
meridian, as on a map or globe b. a region of the earth considered in relation to its distance from
the equator
2. (Astronomy) the angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the ecliptic
3. freedom from normal restraints, limitations, or regulations
4. a range of values or conditions, especially the range of exposures over which a photographic film
yields usable images
5. extent; breadth

laudable ,

laudatory ,

deserving commendation; praiseworthy


expressing or conferring praise
1

laureate

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1. worthy of the greatest honor or distinction


2. crowned or decked with laurel as a mark of honor
deck , ;
1. to clothe with finery; adorn
2. to decorate
1. to furnish with or as if with a deck
2. (Slang) to knock down with force

laurel <l :rl> ; ; , ,

lava ;

lavish , (generous); , ; , ;
1. characterized by or produced with extravagance and profusion
2. immoderate in giving or bestowing; unstinting

laxative
a food or drug that stimulates evacuation of the bowels

leaflet <l:flit> ; ,

leafstalk

leaven , ; ... (tinge)


1. an agent, such as yeast, that causes batter or dough to rise, especially by fermentation
2. an element, influence, or agent that works subtly to lighten, enliven, or modify a whole
batter ; (batsman)

lectern () ;
1. a reading de with a slanted top holding the books from which scriptural passages are read
during a church service
2. a stand that serves as a support for the notes or books of a speaker
scriptural
1. of or relating to writing; written
2. often Scriptural. of, relating to, based on, or contained in the Scriptures

ledger () (); () ();


1. a. a book in which the monetary transactions of a business are posted in the form of debits and
credits b. a book to which the record of accounts is transferred as final entry from original postings
2. a slab of stone laid flat over a grave
3. a horizontal timber in a scaffold, attached to the uprights and supporting the putlogs
debit ()
credit ()
posting () ()
putlog ()

leer , ;
to look with a sidelong glance, indicative especially of sexual desire or sly and malicious intent

legend ; ( ) (inscription); ( )
1. a. an unverified story handed down from earlier times, especially one popularly believed to be
historical b. a body or collection of such stories c. a romanticized or popularized myth of modern
times
2. one that inspires legends or achieves legendary fame
3. a. an inscription or a title on an object, such as a coin b. an explanatory caption accompanying
an illustration c. an explanatory table or list of the symbols appearing on a map or chart

legislature ; ()
an officially elected or otherwise selected body of people vested with the responsibility and power to
make laws for a political unit, such as a state or nation

legitimacy , ;

legitimate , ; ; , ,

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1. being in compliance with the law; lawful


2. being in accordance with established or accepted patterns and standards
3. based on logical reasoning; reasonable
4. authentic; genuine
5. born of legally married parents
6. of, relating to, or ruling by hereditary right
7. of or relating to drama of high professional quality that excludes burlesque, vaudeville, and some
forms of musical comedy
vaudeville <v :dvl> [, , ]
1. a. stage entertainment offering a variety of short acts such as slapstick turns,
song-and-dance routines, and juggling performances b. a theatrical performance of this kind; a
variety show
2. a light comic play that often includes songs, pantomime, and dances
2

legitimize

leisurely ,

leniency <l:ninsi> , ,

to legitimate
acting, proceeding, or done without haste; unhurried
1. the condition or quality of being lenient
2. a lenient act

lenient , , ;

lethal <l:l> , (fatal)

inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent


1. capable of causing death
2. of, relating to, or causing death
3. extremely harmful; devastating
3

lethargic ( ), ,
of, causing, or characterized by lethargy

lethargy ; ,
1. a state of sluggishness, inactivity, and apathy
2. a state of unconsciousness resembling deep sleep

lettuce <ltis> () ; () ,

levee , (embankment); , (quay);


1. an embankment raised to prevent a river from overflowing
2. a small ridge or raised area bordering an irrigated field
3. a landing place on a river; a pier
1. a reception held, as by royalty, upon arising from bed
2. a formal reception, as at a royal court

leverage ; ( ) ; ,

levity ,
1. lightness of manner or speech, especially when inappropriate; frivolity
2. inconstancy; changeableness
3. the state or quality of being light; buoyancy
frivolity ,

levy ( ) , ; ; ; ()
1. to impose or collect (a tax, for example)
2. to draft into military service
3. to declare and wage (a war)

liability , , ; [pl.] (debts, opp. assets); (...) , ...


1. the state of being liable

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2. a. something for which one is liable; an obligation, a responsibility, or a debt b. liabilities. the
financial obligations entered in the balance sheet of a business enterprise
3. something that holds one back; a handicap
4. likelihood
2

liaison <l:zn> , ; (),


1. a. an instance or a means of communication between different groups or units of an organization,
especially in the armed forces b. one that maintains communication
2. a. a close relationship, connection, or link b. an adulterous relationship; an affair

liberality , ; ,

libertine ,
1. one who acts without moral restraint; a dissolute person
2. one who defies established religious precepts; a freethinker

lid ; (eyelid)

lien () ;
(Law) the right to take and hold or sell the property of a debtor as security or payment for a debt
or duty

lighthearted , ; ,
not being burdened by trouble, worry, or care; happy and carefree

limb , , ; (bough)
1. one of the larger branches of a tree
2. one of the jointed appendages of an animal, such as an arm, a leg, a wing, or a flipper, used for
locomotion or grasping
3. an extension or a projecting part, as of a building or mountain range
4. one that is considered to be an extension, a member, or a representative of a larger body or
group

limerick [ 5 ()

limestone <limstun>

limn () ;
1. to describe
2. to depict by painting or drawing

limousine

limp v. ; , ( ) a. (opp. stiff); , ,


1. to walk lamely, especially with irregularity, as if favoring one leg
2. to move or proceed haltingly or unsteadily
1. lacking or having lost rigidity, as of structure or substance
2. lacking strength or firmness; weak or spiritless

limpid , ;
1. characterized by transparent clearness; pellucid
2. easily intelligible; clear
3. calm and untroubled; serene

linen (),
1. a. thread made from fibers of the flax plant b. cloth woven from this thread
2. also linens. articles or garments made from linen or a similar cloth, such as cotton; bed sheets
and tablecloths
3. paper made from flax fibers or having a linenlike luster

linger ( ) , ,
1. to be slow in leaving, especially out of reluctance; tarry
2. to remain feebly alive for some time before dying
3. to persist
4. to proceed slowly; saunter

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5. to be tardy in acting; procrastinate


tarry , ; , ,
1. to delay or be late in doing, coming, or doing
2. to wait
3. to remain or stay temporarily, as in a place; sojourn
sojourn ,
to reside temporarily
saunter , ;
to walk at a leisurely pace; stroll
procrastinate ,
to put off doing something, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness
2

linoleum [ ]

lint [ ]; [ ]; , (fuzz)

lionize ,

literacy

literati <ltr:ti:>

to look on or treat (a person) as a celebrity


the condition or quality of being literate, especially the ability to read and write
the literary intelligentsia
1

lithography ,

liturgy ,

lizard

loan ; , ; (loanword),

a prescribed form or set of forms for public Christian ceremonies; ritual

1. a. something lent for temporary use b. a sum of money lent at interest


2. an act of lending; a grant for temporary use
3. a temporary transfer to a duty or place away from a regular job
1

loathsome , ;
arousing loathing; abhorrent

locomotion , ; ;
1. the act of moving from place to place
2. the ability to move from place to place

locomotive n. a. , ,

lofty , (towering); , ,
1. of imposing height
2. elevated in character; exalted
3. affecting grandness; pompous
4. arrogant; haughty

logistics

loll ( ) , /;
1. to move, stand, or recline in an indolent or relaxed manner
2. to hang or droop laxly

longitudinal ; , (opp. lateral)


1. a. of or relating to longitude or length b. concerned with the development of persons or groups
over time
2. placed or running lengthwise

long-winded ; , ,
1. wearisomely verbose
2. able to maintain breathing power during exertion

loom n. , v. ; (, )

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1. to come into view as a massive, distorted, or indistinct image


2. to appear to the mind in a magnified and threatening form
3. to seem imminent; impend
1

lope ( ) ;

loquacious ;

loquacity ,

lottery ; ,

lubricant ,

to run or ride with a steady, easy gait


very talkative; garrulous

1. a substance, such as grease or oil, that reduces friction when applied as a surface coating to
moving parts
2. one that helps reduce difficulty or conflict
1

lubricate ,
1. to apply a lubricant to
2. to make slippery or smooth

lucid , ; , ; , ;
1. easily understood; intelligible
2. mentally sound; sane or rational
3. translucent or transparent

lucidity , ; , ; ,

ludicrous , ;
laughable or hilarious because of obvious absurdity or incongruity
hilarious , ;
characterized by or causing great merriment

lugubrious , , ,

lull <ll> () , ; (, ) /; ( )

mournful, dismal, or gloomy, especially to an exaggerated or ludicrous degree


1. to cause to sleep or rest; soothe or calm
2. to deceive into trustfulness
1

lullaby (cradlesong)

lumber n. ; , v. ,
1. timber sawed into boards, planks, or other structural members of standard or specified length
2. something useless or cumbersome
1. to walk or move with heavy clumsiness
2. to move with a rumbling noise

lumen [ ]

luminant ,

luminary , ; ,
1. an object, such as a celestial body, that gives light
2. a person who is an inspiration to others
3. a person who has achieved eminence in a specific field

luminous , , ; ; ,
1. emitting light, especially emitting self-generated light
2. full of light; illuminated
3. a. easily comprehended; clear b. enlightened and intelligent; inspiring

lurk , ; ; ,
1. to lie in wait, as in ambush
2. to move furtively; sneak
3. to exist unobserved or unsuspected

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lustrous ,
1. having a sheen or glow
2. gleaming with or as if with brilliant light; radiant
sheen , ,

luxuriant , , ; ,
1. a. characterized by rich or profuse growth b. producing or yielding in abundance
2. excessively florid or elaborate
3. marked by or displaying luxury; luxurious

lyric , ; ,

M
1

macabre <mk:br> ,
1. suggesting the horror of death and decay; gruesome
2. constituting or including a representation of death

mace , ; () [, ]
1. a ceremonial staff borne or displayed as the symbol of authority of a legislative body
2. a macebearer
3. a heavy medieval war club with a spiked or flanged metal head, used to crush armor

macerate ;
1. to make soft by soaking or steeping in a liquid
2. to separate into constituents by soaking
3. to cause to become lean, usually by starvation; emaciate

machination <m knin> ,


1. the act of plotting
2. a crafty scheme or cunning design for the accomplishment of a sinister end

maculate , (defile)

magisterial , ;

to spot, blemish, or pollute


1. a. of, relating to, or characteristic of a master or teacher; authoritative b. sedately dignified in
appearance or manner
2. dogmatic; overbearing
3. of or relating to a magistrate or a magistrate's official functions
1

magistrate , , ;
a civil officer with power to administer and enforce law, as a. a local member of the judiciary
having limited jurisdiction, especially in criminal cases b. a minor official, such as a justice of the
peace, having administrative and limited judicial authority

magnanimity , , ;

magnanimous , ;
1. courageously noble in mind and heart
2. generous in forgiving; eschewing resentment or revenge; unselfish

maize <meiz> ()

makeshift , ,
a temporary or expedient substitute for something else

maladroit , ;

malapropism <m lprpizm> ;

malevolent ,

marked by a lack of adroitness; inept

1. having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others; malicious


2. having an evil or harmful influence
1

malign , (opp. benign)

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1. evil in disposition, nature, or intent


2. evil in influence; injurious
3. having or showing malice or ill will; malevolent
2

malinger

malleable () , ; (pliable)

to feign illness or other incapacity in order to avoid duty or work


1. capable of being shaped or formed, as by hammering or pressure
2. easily controlled or influenced; tractable
3. able to adjust to changing circumstances; adaptable
1

malnutrition /

management , ; , , , ; ,
1. the act, manner, or practice of managing; handling, supervision, or control
2. the person or persons who control or direct a business or other enterprise
3. skill in managing; executive ability

mandate , ; () ()
1. an authoritative command or instruction
2. a command or an authorization given by a political electorate to its representative
3. a. a commission from the League of Nations authorizing a member nation to administer a
territory b. a region under such administration
4. (Law) a. an order issued by a superior court or an official to a lower court b. a contract by
which one party agrees to perform services for another without payment
electorate [the ]

mandatory ; ; (obligatory),
1. required or commanded by authority; obligatory
2. of, having the nature of, or containing a mandate
3. holding a League of Nations mandate over a territory

maneuver ; ;
1. a. a strategic or tactical military or naval movement b. often maneuvers. a large-scale tactical
exercise carried out under simulated conditions of war
2. a controlled change in movement or direction of a moving vehicle or vessel, as in the flight path
of an aircraft
3. a movement or procedure involving skill and dexterity
4. a. a strategic action undertaken to gain an end b. artful handling of affairs that is often marked
by scheming and deceit

maniacal <mnikl>, maniac ,


1. suggestive of or afflicted with insanity
2. characterized by excessive enthusiasm or excitement

manipulative , ;

mannered [] ...; ,
1. having manners of a specific kind
2. a. having or showing a certain manner b. artificial or affected
3. of, relating to, or exhibiting mannerisms

mar ,
1. to inflict damage, especially disfiguring damage, on
2. to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil

mare , ()

marginal ; , ; ,
1. of, relating to, located at, or constituting a margin, a border, or an edge
2. being adjacent geographically
3. written or printed in the margin of a book

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4. barely within a lowe standard or limit of quality


2

martial ; ; (opp. civil)


1. of, relating to, or suggestive of war
2. relating to or connected with the armed forces or the profession of arms
3. characteristic of or befitting a warrior

martinet ;
1. a rigid military disciplinarian
2. one who demands absolute adherence to forms and rules

martyr <mrtr> , ; ( )
1. one who chooses to suffer death rather than renounce religious principles
2. one who makes great sacrifices or suffers much in order to further a belief, cause, or principle
3. a. one who endures great suffering b. one who makes a great show of suffering in order to
arouse sympathy

marvel ,
1. one that evokes surprise, admiration, or wonder
2. strong surprise; astonishment

marvelous , ; ()
1. causing wonder or astonishment
2. miraculous; supernatural
3. of the highest or best kind or quality; first-rate

mason ,

massacre <m skr> ; ( )


1. the act or an instance of killing a large number of human beings indiscriminately and cruelly
2. the slaughter of a large number of animals
3. (Informal) a severe defeat, as in a sports event

mast , ;

mastery , ; , ; , ,
1. possession of consummate skill
2. the status of master or ruler; control
3. full command of a subject of study

masticate (chew), ( )
1. to chew (food)
2. to grind and knead (rubber, for example) into a pulp

match ; , , ; , ;

maudlin ,
effusively or tearfully sentimental

maul <m:l> n. , v. , ; , ;
1. to injure by or as if by beating
2. to handle roughly
3. to split (wood) with a maul and wedge
wedge , ( ); , ; ,

maverick ; () ,
1. an unbranded range animal, especially a calf that has become separated from its mother,
traditionally considered the property of the first person who brands it
2. one that refuses to abide by the dictates of or resists adherence to a group; a dissenter

meadow ,

meager ; , ;

a tract of grassland, either in its natural state or used as pasture or for growing hay
1. deficient in quantity, fullness, or extent; scanty
2. deficient in richness, fertility, or vigor; feeble

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3. having little flesh; lean


1

meander ,
1. to follow a winding and turning course
2. to move aimlessly and idly without fixed direction

meddle , ; ( ) ,
1. to intrude into other people's affairs or business; interfere
2. to handle something idly or ignorantly; tamper

mediate , ,
1. to resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties
2. to bring about (a settlement, for example) by working with all the conflicting parties
3. to effect or convey as an intermediate agent or mechanism

mediation , ;
1. the act of mediating; intervention
2. the state of being mediated
3. (Law) an attempt to bring about a peaceful settlement or compromise between disputants through
the objective intervention of a neutral party

mediocre <m:aiukr> , (commonplace)


moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary

mediocrity , ;
1. the state or quality of being mediocre
2. mediocre ability, achievement, or performance
3. one that displays mediocre qualities

meditation ,
1. a. the act or process of meditating b. a devotional exercise of or leading to contemplation
2. a contemplative discourse, usually on a religious or philosophical subject

meditative <mdtitiv> ;

medley , ; () , ;

characterized by or prone to meditation


1. an often jumbled assortment; a mixture
2. (Music) an arrangement made from a series of melodies, often from various sources
1

melodious ;
1. of, relating to, or containing a pleasing succession of sounds; tuneful
2. agreeable to hear
tuneful
1. full of tune; melodious
2. producing musical sounds

melodrama
1. a. a drama, such as a play, film, or television program, characterized by exaggerated emotions,
stereotypical characters, and interpersonal conflicts b. the dramatic genre characterized by this
treatment
2. behavior or occurrences having melodramatic characteristics

membrane () () (); (parchment)

memoir <mmwar> , ; ,
1. an account of the personal experiences of an author
2. often memoirs. an autobiography
3. a biography or biographical sketch
4. a report, especially on a scientific or scholarly topic
5. memoirs. the report of the proceedings of a learned society

menace , , (threat);
1. a. a possible danger; a threat b. the act of threatening

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2. a troublesome or annoying person


1

mendacious , ;
1. lying; untruthful
2. false; untrue

mendacity ; ,
1. the condition of being mendacious; untruthfulness
2. a lie; a falsehood

mercenary , ; ( ) (hired)
1. motivated solely by a desire for monetary or material gain
2. hired for service in a foreign army

mercurial ; , ; , , ; ,
1. often Mercurial. a. of or relating to the god Mercury b. (Astronomy) of or relating to the planet
Mercury
2. having the characteristics of eloquence, shrewdness, swiftness, and thievishness attributed to the
god Mercury
3. containing or caused by the action of the element mercury
4. quick and changeable in temperament; volatile

meretricious <mrtrs> , ; ,
1. a. attracting attention in a vulgar manner b. plausible but false or insincere; specious
2. of or relating to prostitutes or prostitution

metamorphism ()
(Geology) the process by which rocks are altered in composition, texture, or internal structure by
extreme heat, pressure, and the introduction of new chemical substances

metamorphose ,
1. to change into a wholly different form or appearance; transform
2. to subject to metamorphosis or metamorphism

metamorphosis , ; ()

metaphor
1. a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to
designate another, thus making an implicit comparison
2. one thing conceived as representing another; a symbol

metaphorical ,

metaphysics ; ,

meteoric ; , ; ,
1. of, relating to, or formed by a meteoroid
2. of or relating to the earth's atmosphere
3. similar to a meteor in speed, brilliance, or brevity
meteoroid
a solid body, moving in space, that is smaller than an asteroid and at least as large as a
speck of dust
meteor ,
a bright trail or streak that appears in the sky when a meteoroid is heated to incandescence
by friction with the earth's atmosphere. also called falling star, shooting star
incandescence
1. the emission of visible light by a hot object
2. the light emitted by an incandescent object
3. a high degree of emotion, intensity, or brilliance

meteorology , ( )
the science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather
conditions

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methodical , (systematic); , (orderly)


1. arranged or proceeding in regular, systematic order
2. characterized by ordered and systematic habits or behavior

methodology

meticulous , (overscrupulous); ,
1. extremely careful and precise
2. extremely or excessively concerned with details

mettle , ; , ,
1. courage and fortitude; spirit
2. inherent quality of character and temperament

mettlesome , ; (spirited)

microbe ,

full of mettle; spirited and; plucky


a minute life form; a microorganism, especially a bacterium that causes disease
1

milestone ;
1. a stone marker set up on a roadside to indicate the distance in miles from a given point
2. an important event, as in a person's career, the history of a nation, or the advancement of
knowledge in a field; a turning point

milliner <mlnr>

millinery [] ;

one that makes, trims, designs, or sells hats


1. articles, especially women's hats, sold by a milliner
2. the profession or business of a milliner
1

mimicry ;

minatory <mnt :ri> (menacing)

a. the act, practice, or art of mimicking b. an instance of mimicking


of a menacing or threatening nature; minacious
menace <mns> , , (threat); ; ,
1. a. possible danger; a threat b. the act of threatening
2. a troublesome or annoying person
minacious of a menacing or threatening nature; minatory
3

mince , ; ;
1. a. to cut or chop into very small pieces b. to subdivide (land, for example) into minute parts
2. to pronounce in an affected way, as with studied elegance and refinement
3. to moderate or restrain (words) for the sake of politeness and decorum; euphemize

minimize ; ,
1. a. to reduce to the smallest possible amount, extent, size, or degree b. to reduce
2. to represent as having the least degree of importance, value or size

minnow , ,

minuscule <mnskj:l> ;

minute <mainj:t> ; , ; ,
1. exceptionally small; tiny
2. beneath notice; insignificant
3. characterized by careful scrutiny and close examination

minutia <minj:i> pl. -tiae <-i:> , ; (trifles)


a small or trivial detail

misanthrope
one who hates or mistrusts humankind

misconduct <mskndkt> (), , () ; ,

misconstrue <msknstr:> , (misunderstand)

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to mistake the meaning of; misinterpret


1

miscreant <mskrint> ;

miserly ,
of, relating to, or characteristic of a miser; avaricious, grasping, and penurious
avaricious < vrs> , (greedy)
immoderately desirous of wealth or gain; greedy
penurious 1. ungenerously or pettily unwilling to spend money
2. yielding little; barren
3. poverty-stricken; destitute
pettily ,
destitute ... , ; ,
1. utterly lacking; devoid
2. lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished
subsistence , , (livelihood); , (existence)

misery <mzri> () , ; , ; ,
1. a. the state of suffering and want as a result of physical circumstances or extreme poverty b.
mental or emotional unhappiness or distress
2. a cause or source of suffering

misjudge , () to judge wrongly

mislead , ; ;
1. to lead in the wrong direction
2. to lead into error of thought or action, especially by intentionally deceiving

misrepresent , ;
1. to give an incorrect or misleading representation of
2. to serve incorrectly or dishonestly as an official representative of

misty /; , , ,
1. consisting of or marked by mist
2. obscured or clouded by or as if by mist
3. a. vague; hazy b. full of tender emotion; sentimental
hazy , (misty); ,
1. marked by the presence haze
2. not clearly defined; unclear or vague

mitigate , , , ( )
to moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate

mitten <mtn> ; ()

moan <moun> ; , ,
1. a. a low, sustained, mournful cry, usually indicative of sorrow or pain b. a similar sound
2. lamentation

moat <mout> (), (, ) ()

mock <mak> , ; ; /; ( ) ,
1. to treat with ridicule or contempt; deride
2. a. to mimic, as in sport or derision b. to imitate; counterfeit
3. to frustrate the hopes of; disappoint

mockery , ; ; , ;

moderate , ; , ; , ; ( )
1. being within reasonable limits; not excessive or extreme
2. not violent or subject to extremes; mild or calm; temperate
3. a. of medium or average quantity or extent b. of limited or average quality; mediocre
4. opposed to radical or extreme views or measures, especially in politics or religion
mediocre <m:diukr> , , (commonplace); 2

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moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary


1

modesty ; ; ,
1. the state or quality of being modest
2. reserve or propriety in speech, dress, or behavior
3. lack of pretentiousness; simplicity

mollify (, ) , , , (appease)
1. to calm in temper or feeling; soothe
2. to lessen in intensity; temper
3. to reduce the rigidity of; soften

mollycoddle n. (), () v. ,
to be overprotective and indulgent toward

molt <moult> () , ()
to shed periodically part or all of a coat or an outer covering, such as feathers, cuticle, or skin,
which is then replaced by a new growth
cuticle , ();

momentous ,

monastery <mnstri> ( )

of utmost importance; of outstanding significance or consequence


1. a community of persons, especially monks, bound by vows to a religious life and often living in
partial or complete seclusion
2. the dwelling place of such a community
convent <knvnt> , () ;
1. a community, especially of nuns, bound by vows to a religious life under s superior
2. the building or buildings occupied by such a community
nun
1

monocle <mnkl>

monolithic <mnlik> ; (, ) , ;

1. constituting a monolith
2. massive, solid, and uniform
3. constituting or acting as a single, often rigid, uniform whole
monolith ; ()

monopolization ,

monopoly , ; /
1. exclusive control by one group of the means of producing or selling a commodity or service
2. (Law) a right granted by a government giving exclusive control over a specified commercial
activity to a single party
3. a. a company or group having exclusive control over a commercial activity b. a commodity or
service so controlled
4. a. exclusive possession or control b. something that is exclusively possessed or controlled

monotony
1. uniformity or lack of variation in pitch, intonation, or inflection
2. tedious sameness or repetitiousness

moralistic ,
1. characterized by or displaying a concern with morality
2. marked by a narrow-minded morality

moratorium
1. (Law) a. an authorization to a debtor, such as a bank or nation, permitting temporary suspension
of payments b. an authorized period of delay in the performance of an obligation
2. a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity

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morbid , ; , ; ,
1. a. of, relating to, or caused by disease; pathological or diseased b. psychologically unhealthy or
unwholesome
2. characterized by preoccupation with unwholesome thoughts or feelings
3. gruesome; grisly
gruesome , ,
causing horror and repugnance; frightful and shocking
grisly <grzli> ,
inspiring repugnance; gruesome

morose <mrus> , , , (sullen)


sullenly melancholy; gloomy

mortar , ; ,

mortgage (),
1. a temporary, conditional pledge of property to a creditor as security for performance of an
obligation or repayment of a debt
2. a contract or deed specifying the terms of a mortgage
3. the claim of a mortgagee upon mortgaged property
pledge , ; , ; ,

mortify , ;
1. to cause to experience shame, humiliation, or wounded pride; humiliate
2. to discipline (one's body and physical appetites) by self-denial or self-inflicted privation

mortuary <m rturi> ,

mosaic <mouziik> (/); (M)

motto
1. a brief statement used to express a principle, a goal, or an ideal
2. a sentence, phrase, or word of appropriate character inscribed on or attached to an object
3. a maxim adopted as a gide to one's conduct

mourn <mrn> , ; ,
1. to feel or express grief or sorrow
2. to show grief for a death by conventional signs, as by wearing black clothes
3. to make a low, indistinct, mournful sound. used especially of a dove

muffle , ; ()
1. to wrap up, as in a blanket or shawl, for warmth, protection or secrecy
2. a. to wrap or pad in order to deaden the sound b. the deaden (a sound)
3. to make vague or obscure
4. to repress; stifle
stifle ... , ; ( ) , ; ( )
1. to interrupt or cut off (the voice, for example)
2. to keep in or hold back; repress
3. to kill by preventing respiration; smother or suffocate
smother <sm r> , (suffocate); () , ()
1. a. to suffocate (another) b. to deprive (a fire) of the oxygen necessary for combustion
2. to conceal, suppress, or hide
3. to cover (a foodstuff) thickly with another foodstuff
4. to lavish a surfeit of a given emotion on (someone)
suffocate <s fkit> , ; ; ( ) , ( )

1. to kill or destroy by preventing access of air or oxygen


2. to impair the respiration of; asphyxiate
3. to cause discomfort to by or as if by cutting off the supply of fresh air

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4. to suppress the development, imagination, or creativity of; stifle


asphyxiate <sfksiit> (suffocate) to cause a asphyxia in; smother
asphyxia <sfksi> a condition in which an extreme decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body
accompanied by an increase of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death.
asphyxia can be induced by choking, drowning, electric shock, injury, or the inhalation of
toxic gases
1

mumble , ;
1. to utter indistinctly by lowering the voice or partially closing the mouth
2. to chew slowly or ineffectively without or as if without teeth

mundane , ; (earthly); , ; ,
1. of, relating to, or typical of this world; secular
2. relating to, characteristic of, or concerned with commonplaces; ordinary
secular , , ; ,
1. worldly rather than spiritual
2. not specifically relating to religion or to a religious body
3. relating to or advocating secularism
4. not bound by monastic restrictions, especially not belonging to a religious order. used of
the clergy
5. occurring or observed once in an age or a century
6. lasting from century to century

munition , ; ( ) ,

murky , , (, ) ;
1. dark, dim, or gloomy
2. a. heavy and thick with smoke, most, or fog; hazy b. darkened or clouded with sediment
3. lacking clarity or distinctness; cloudy or obscure

murmur
1. a low, indistinct, continuous sound
2. an indistinct, whispered, or confidential complaint; a mutter

musculature <m skjultr>

muse , ;
to be absorbed in one's thoughts; engage in meditation

musicologist
musicology the historical and scientific study of music

musket [ , rifle ]

muslim <m zlim>

mutate ; () ; ()

muted , () ; () ; ,

mutineer
mutiny open rebellion against constituted authority, especially rebellion of sailors against superior
officers

mutter ,
1. to speak indistinctly in low tones
2. to complain or grumble morosely
morose <mrus> , , ,
sullenly melancholy; gloomy

mythologize ; /

mythology ()

N
2

nadir <nidir> (opp. zenith); (, ) ,

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1. (Astronomy) a point on the celestial sphere directly below the observer, diametrically opposite the
zenith
2. the lowest point
1

nag , ,
1. to annoy by constant scolding, complaining, or urging
2. to torment persistently, as with anxiety or pain

naivete ,
1. the state or quality of being artless, credulous, or uncritical
2. an artless, credulous, or uncritical statement or act

narcotic , ; (, ) ;

nascent <n snt> ,

natty (, ) , ,

coming into existence; emerging


neat, trim, and smart; dapper
dapper , ; ,
1. a. neatly dressed; trim b. very stylish in dress
2. lively and alert
1

nausea <n :ai> ; ; ,


1. feeling or sickness in the stomach characterized by an urge to vomit
2. strong aversion; disgust

nauseating <n :ziiti> , ,

nave <neiv> ( ) ; () (hub)

nebulous <nbjuls> , , , ;
1. cloudy, misty, or hazy
2. lacking definite form or limits; vague
3. of, relating to, or characteristic of a nebula

necessitate ... ,
1. to make necessary or unavoidable
2. to require or compel

negation , , ;
negate 1. to make ineffective or invalid; nullify
2. to rule out; deny

negligent <ngldnt> ; ,
1. characterized by or inclined to neglect, especially habitually
2. characterized by careless ease or informality; casual
3. (Law) guilty of negligence

neologism <ni:ldzm> ( ); ()

neophyte <n:fit> ; ,
1. a recent convert to a belief; a proselyte
2. a beginner or novice
proselyte <prslit> ; a new convert to a doctrine or religion

neptune ( ) [(), Poseidon]; , ;

nest , ; , ; ,

neurology <njurldi>

neutrality ()

neutralize ; ; ()
1. to make neutral
2. to counterbalance or counteract the effect of; render ineffective
3. to declare neutral and therefore inviolable during a war
4. (Chemistry) a. to make (a solution) neutral b. to cause (an acid or a base) to undergo

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neutralization
5. (Medicine) to counteract the effect of (a drug or toxin)
1

nexus , ; ,
1. a means of connection; a link or tie
2. a connected series or group
3. the core or center

nib ( ), () ; () /

nibble , ; ,
1. to bite at gently and repeatedly
2. to eat with small, quick bites or in small morsels
3. to wear away or diminish bit by bit
morsel <m rsl> (mouthful), ; , (fragment);

noisome <n ism> , ,


1. offensive to the point of arousing disgust; foul
2. harmful or dangerous

nomenclature <numnklitr> ();


1. a system of names used in an art or a science
2. the procedure of assigning names to the kinds and groups of organisms listed in a taxonomic
classification

nominal , (opp. effective); ,

nonchalance <nnl:ns> , casual lack of concern

nonchalant <nnl:nt> seeming to be coolly unconcerned or indifferent

nonconformist ; () (dissenter)
1. one who does not conform to, or refuses to be bound by, accepted beliefs, customs, or practices
2. (N) a member of a Protestant church not observing the doctrines, usage, or polity of a national
or established church, especially the Church of England

nonconformity ; (, ) ()
1. refusal or failure to conform to accepted customs, beliefs, or practices
2. (N) refusal to accept or conform to the doctrines, usage, or polity of the Church of England

nondescript , , (indefinite)
lacking distinctive qualities; having no individual character or form

nonflammable ()(opp. inflammable)

nonplus <nnpl s> ,


a state of perplexity, confusion, or bewilderment

norm , a standard, model, or pattern regarded as typical

nosegay ( ) a small bunch of flowers

nostrum <nstrm> () , ; ( )

notch , ;
1. a. a V-shaped cut b. such a cut used for keeping a record
2. a narrow pass between mountains

notched , ; ()

noteworthy ,
deserving notice or attention; notable

noticeable , , ; ,
1. evident; observable
2. worthy of notice; significant

novelty , /
1. the quality of being novel; newness
2. something new and unusual; an innovation
3. a small mass-produced article, such as a toy or trinket

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trinket ;
1. a small ornament, such as a piece of jewelry
2. a trivial thing; a trifle
2

noxious ;
1. harmful to living things; injurious to health
2. harmful to the mind or morals; corrupting

nuance , , ;
1. a subtle or slight degree of difference, as in meaning, feeling, or tone; a gradation
2. expression or appreciation of subtle shades of meaning, feeling, or tone

nucleate , , ...
1. to bring together into a nucleus
2. to act as a nucleus for
3. to provide a nucleus for

nugatory <nj:gt :ri> , (trifling)


1. of little or no importance; trifling
2. having no force; invalid

nullify () , ,
1. to make null; invalidate
2. to counteract the force or effectiveness of

numb ; ,

numismatist <nju:mzmtist> ()

nurture () , ; ,
1. to nourish; feed
2. to educate; train
3. to help grow or develop; cultivate

nutrient /

O
4

obdurate <bdjurt> , ;
1. a. hardened in wrongdoing or wickedness; stubbornly impenitent b. hardened against feeling
2. not giving in to persuasion; intractable
impenitent ;
not penitent; unrepentant
penitent feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins

obedience , ; () , ; ,
1. a. the quality or condition of being obedient b. the act of obeying
2. a. a sphere of ecclesiastical authority b. a group of people under such authority
ecclesiastical <ikl:zi stikl> , (opp. secular)

obeisance <oubisns> , ; ,
1. a gesture or movement of the body, such as a curtsy, that expresses deference or homage
2. an attitude of deference or homage
deference 1. submission or courteous yielding to the opinion, wishes, or judgment of another
2. courteous respect

obesity <oubsti> ,

obligate (, ) ;

obese <oubs>
1. to bind, compel, or constrain by a social, legal, or moral tie
2. to cause to be grateful or indebted; oblige
3. to commit (money, for example) in order to fulfill an obligation
1

obligatory ; ( )

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1. morally or legally constraining; binding


2. imposing or recording an obligation
3. of the nature of an obligation; compulsory
2

oblivion ; (forgetfulness)
1. the condition or quality of being completely forgotten
2. the act or an instance of forgetting; total forgetfulness
3. official overlooking of offenses; amnesty
amnesty , ,
a general pardon granted by a government, especially for political offenses

oblivious ,

obnoxious , ,
1. very objectionable; odious
2. exposed to harm, injury, or evil

obscure , ; , (humble); , ,

obscurity , , ; , ;

obsequious , (fawning)

obsess () , ()

full of or exhibition servile compliance; fawning


to have the mind excessively preoccupied with a single emotion or topic
2

obsession (, ) ; , , ,
1. compulsive preoccupation with a fixed idea or an unwanted feeling or emotion, often accompanied
by symptoms of anxiety
2. a compulsive, often unreasonable idea or emotion

obstinacy <bstnsi> , ; ()
1. the state or quality of being stubborn or refractory
2. the act or an instance of being stubborn or refractory
refractory , , ; () ; ()
1. obstinately resistant to authority or control
2. difficult to melt or work; resistant to heat
3. resistant to treatment

obstinate , , ; ()
1. stubbornly adhering to an attitude, an opinion, or a course of action; obdurate
2. difficult to manage, control, or subdue; refractory
3. difficult to alleviate or cure
obdurate , ;
1. a. hardened in wrongdoing or wickedness; stubbornly impenitent b. hardened against
feeling; hardhearted
2. not giving in to persuasion; intractable
impenitent ,
not penitent; unrepentant
penitent ,
feeling or expressing remorse for one's misdeeds or sins
intractable , ; ; ()
1. difficult to manage or govern; stubborn
2. difficult to mold or manipulate
3. difficult to alleviate, remedy, or cure

obtuse <btjs> (, () ) , ; (stupid)


1. lacking quickness of perception or intellect
2. not sharp, pointed, or acute in form; blunt

obverse <bv:rs> , ;

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1. the side of a coin, medal, or badge that bears the principal stamp or design
2. the more conspicuous of two possible alternatives, cases, or sides
4

obviate (, ) , ( )
to anticipate and dispose of effectively; render unnecessary

occlude
1. to cause to become closed; obstruct
2. to prevent the passage of

occult <k lt> ; , ; ,

octogenarian 80/ ()

ode <oud> , () [ , ]

odious , ; ,

odium , , ; ,

arousing or meriting strong dislike, aversion, or intense displeasure


1. the state or quality of being odious
2. strong dislike, contempt, or aversion
3. a state of disgrace resulting from hateful or detestable conduct
1

odometer <oudmtr> ()

odor <udr> , () ; , ; , ,
1. the property or quality of a thing that affects, stimulates, or is perceived by the sense of smell
2. a sensation, stimulation, or perception of the sense of smell
3. a strong, pervasive quality
4. esteem; repute

offhand , ; ,
without preparation or forethought; extemporaneously

officious ,
1. marked by excessive eagerness in offering unwanted services or advice to others
2. informal; unofficial

off-key ; , ;
1. (Music) pitched higher or lower than the correct notes of a melody
2. being out of accord with what is considered normal or appropriate

ogle <ugl> (make eyes)


1. to stare at
2. to stare at impertinently, flirtatiously, or amorously
impertinent , , ; ,
flirtatious <fl:rtis>

() , (coquettish); ,

ominous <mns> , , (threatening)


1. menacing; threatening
2. of or being an omen, especially an evil one

oncology

onerous , , (burdensome)

tumor ()
1. troublesome or oppressive; burdensome
2. (Law) entailing obligations that exceed advantages
1

opalescent <uplsnt>

opaque , , , (, ) , (stupid)
1. a. impenetrable by light; neither transparent nor translucent b. not reflecting light; having no
luster
2. impenetrable by a form of radiant energy other than visible light
3. a. so obscure as to be unintelligible b. obtuse of mind; dense

opium ( )

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opportune <prtj:n> , () ; ,
1. suited or right for a particular purpose
2. occurring at a fitting or advantageous time

oppressive , ; , ; () ,
1. difficult to bear; burdensome
2. exercising power arbitrarily and often unjustly; tyrannical
3. weighing heavily on the senses or spirit

opprobrious <prubris> , ; ,
1. expressing contemptuous reproach; scornful or abusive
2. bringing disgrace; shameful or infamous

opprobrium , ; , (abuse)
1. disgrace arising from exceedingly shameful conduct; ignominy
2. scornful reproach or contempt
3. a cause of shame or disgrace
ignominy <gnmni> , ,
1. great personal dishonor or humiliation
2. shameful or disgraceful action, conduct, or character

optometrist ,

orate ,

oration , , ; (narration)

to speak in a formal, pompous manner


1. a formal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion
2. a speech delivered in a high-flown or pompous manner
1

ordeal <rd:l> ; () [ , ]

ore

orient , ( ) ; ( )
vi. 1. to turn toward the east
2. to become adjusted or aligned

originate , ; , ,

ornamental ,

ornate , ; ()

to bring into being; create


of, relating to, or serving as an ornament or a decoration
1. elaborately, heavily, and often excessively ornamented
2. flashy, showy, or florid in style or manner; flowery
2

orthodox , ; , ; , ,
1. adhering to the accepted or traditional and established faith, especially in religion
2. adhering to the Christian faith as expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds
3. [O] a. of or relating to any of the churches or rites of the Eastern Orthodox Church b. of or
relating to Orthodox Judaism
4. adhering to what is commonly accepted, customary, or traditional

orthodoxy , , , ( )
1. the quality or state of being orthodox
2. orthodox practice, custom, or belief
3. [O] a. the beliefs and practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church b. Orthodox Judaism

osmosis <azmusis> ()
1. a. diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane until there is an equal concentration of
fluid on both sides of the membrane b. the tendency of fluids to diffuse in such a manner
2. a gradual, often unconscious process of assimilation or absorption

ossify , ; /

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1. to change into bone; become bony


2. to become set in a rigidly conventional pattern
1

ostensible , ,
represented or appearing as such; ostensive
ostensive seeming or professed; ostensible

ostentation , ,

ostentatious ,

pretentious display meant to impress others; boastful showiness


characterized by or given to ostentation; pretentious
3

ostracism <strszm> ;

ostrich <strit> ;

other-directed < r-dirktid> , (opp. inner-directed)


directed or guided chiefly by external standards as opposed to one's own standards or values

otter <tr> ()

outgrowth /; , ;
1. the act or process of growing out
2. a product of growing out; an offshoot
3. a result or consequence

outlandish , ; ,
1. conspicuously unconventional; bizarre
2. strikingly unfamiliar
3. located far from civilized areas

outlaw ; , ; /
1. a. a fugitive from the law b. a habitual criminal c. a rebel; a nonconformist
2. a person excluded from normal legal protection and rights
3. a wild or vicious horse or other animal
fugitive , ; , ,

outlet , (opp. inlet); ( ) ; () ,

outmode /

outmoded

to cause to become unfashionable or obsolete


1. not in fashion; unfashionable
2. no longer usable or practical; obsolete
1

outset , ,
1. the beginning; the start
2. an initial stage, as of an activity

outspoken
1. spoken without reserve; candid
2. frank and unreserved in speech

outstrip , () ; ... , (surpass)


1. to leave behind; outrun
2. to exceed or surpass

ovation , ; () ()
1. enthusiastic, prolonged applause
2. a show of public homage or welcome
3. an ancient Roman victory ceremony of somewhat less importance than a triumph

overawe <uvr :> , ...


to control or subdue by inspiring awe

overbearing , (haughty), , (domineering)


1. domineering in manner; arrogant

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2. overwhelming in power or significance; predominant


1

overdose an excessive dose, especially of a narcotic


narcotic , ; (, ) , ;

overhaul <uvrh :l> ; / ; ,


1. a. to examine or go over carefully for needed repairs b. to dismantle in order to make repairs
2. to make extensive renovations or revisions on; renovate
3. to catch up with; overtake

overpower ( ) ; ( ) (subdue)
1. to overcome or vanquish by superior force; subdue
2. to affect so strongly as to make helpless or ineffective; overwhelm
3. to supply with excessive mechanical power

overreach ( ) ; , ; ...

overshadow , ; ; () , (outshine)
1. to cast a shadow over; darken or obscure
2. to make insignificant by comparison; dominate

overt , (opp. covert)


1. open and observable; not hidden, concealed, or secret
2. of, relating to, or being military or intelligence operations sanctioned or mandated by Congress

overtake , ; , ; (, ) ,
1. a. to catch up with; draw even or level with b. to pass after catching up with
2. to come upon unexpectedly; take by surprise

overt <ouv:rt>

, (opp. covert); ( ) , ( )
1. open and observable; not hidden, concealed, or secret
2. of, relating to, or being military or intelligence operations sanctioned or mandated by Congress

overturn , ;
1. to cause to turn over or capsize; upset
2. a. to cause the ruin or destruction of; overthrow b. (Law) to invalidate or reverse (a decision) by
legal means

overwrought <uvrr :t> /;


1. excessively nervous or excited; agitated
2. extremely elaborate or ornate; overdone

P
2

pacifist

pacify , ; () ; ( ) , (appease)
1. to ease the anger or agitation of
2. to end war, fighting, or violence in; establish peace in

padding , ; , ; (, ) ;
1. the act of stuffing, filling, or lining
2. a soft material used to make pads or a pad
3. extraneous material added to written work, such as a speech, to make it longer

paean <p:n> [Homer Apollo ] ,

pageant <p dnt> ( ) , ; () ; , ;


,
1. an elaborate public dramatic presentation that usually depicts a historical or traditional event
2. a spectacular procession or celebration
3. colorful, showy display; pageantry or pomp
pageantry , , ; ,
1. pageants and their presentation
2. a. grand display; pomp b. empty pomp or show; flashy display

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pomp , ; , ,
1. dignified or magnificent display; splendor
2. vain or ostentatious display
1

painstaking <pinztiki> ,

palate <p lt> , ; , ; ,

paleontologist <piliantldist>

palpable ;

marked by or requiring great pains; very careful and diligent

1. capable of being handled, touched, or felt; tangible


2. easily perceived; obvious
tangible , (corporeal); ,
1. a. discernible by the touch; palpable b. possible to touch c. possible to be treated as fact;
real or concrete
2. possible to understand or realize
1

palpitate , ; ; (, )
1. to move with a slight tremulous motion; tremble, shake, or quiver
2. to beat with excessive rapidity; throb
throb <rab> () , ; , ; ,
1. to beat rapidly or violently, as the heart; pound
2. to vibrate, pulsate, or sound with a steady pronounced rhythm

panacea <p ns:>

pancreas <p kris>

pandemonium , ; ,

a remedy for all diseases. evils, difficulties; a cure-all

1. a very noisy place


2. wild uproar or noise
1

panegyric <p ndrik> , ,


1. a formal eulogistic composition intended as a public compliment
2. elaborate praise or laudation; an encomium
encomium ,
1. warm, glowing praise
2. a formal expression of praise; a tribute

panther <p nr> (leopard), ()

pantry , ,

papyrus <ppirs> (paper reed); ( ) ,

parable (),

paradigmatic <p rdigm tik> , ; ()

a simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson


paradigm <p rdim> ; , ,
2

paragon ,
1. a model of excellence or perfection of a kind; a peerless example
2. a. an unflawed diamond weighting at least 100 carats b. a very large spherical pearl

parallelism ; , , ;
1. the quality or condition of being parallel; a parallel relationship
2. likeness, correspondence, or similarity in aspect, course, or tendency

paralysis , ; , ;
1. a. loss or impairment of the ability to move a body part, usually as a result of damage to its
nerve supply b. loss of sensation over a region of the body
2. inability to move or function; total stoppage or severe impairment of activity

paranoia ,

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1. a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur, often strenuously


defended with apparent logic and reason
2. extreme, irrational distrust of others
persecution ; ,
3

paranoid ,
1. relating to, characteristic of, or affected with paranoia
2. exhibiting or characterized by extreme fear or distrust of others

parasite , ; ,

parcel
1. something wrapped up or packed; a package
2. a plot of land, usually a division of a larger area
3. a quantity of merchandise offered for sale
4. a group or company; a pack

parch <part> , (roast), (scorch);


1. to make extremely dry, especially by exposure to heat
2. to make thirsty
3. to dry or roast (corn, for example) by exposing to heat
scorch , ; ,
1. to burn superficially so as to discolor or damage the texture of
2. to wither or parch with intense heat
3. to destroy by or as if by fire (all land and buildings in one's path) so as to leave nothing
salvageable to an enemy army
4. to subject to severe censure; excoriate
salvage <s lvid> , , ;

parenthesis , ;

parquet <prkei> ; () () 1 ,
1. a floor made of parquetry
2. the art or process of making parquetry
3. a. the part of the main floor of a theater between the orchestra pit and the parquet circle b. the
entire main floor of a theater

parquetry <prkitri> ()
inlay of wood, often of different colors, that is worked into a geometric pattern or mosaic and is
used especially for floors

parry () , ; ( ) ,
1. to deflect or ward off (a fencing thrust, for example)
2. to deflect, evade, or avoid

parse (, ) ; ()
1. to break (a sentence) down into its component parts of speech with an explanation of the form,
function, and syntactical relationship of each part
2. to describe (a word) by stating its part of speech, form, and syntactical relationships in a
sentence
3. to examine closely or subject to detailed analysis, especially by breaking up into components

parsimonious <prsmunis> ,
excessively sparing or frugal
frugal 1. practicing or marked by economy, as in the expenditure of money or the use of material
resources
2. costing little; inexpensive

partisan , , ; ,
1. a fervent, sometimes militant supporter or proponent of a party, cause, faction, person, or idea
2. a member of an organized body of fighters who attack or harass, especially within occupied

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territory; a guerrilla
harass ,
1

partition , ; ,

passivity , , , ,

pastiche <pst:> , ,

the condition or quality of being passive; inactivity, quiescence, or submissiveness


1. a dramatic, literary, or musical piece openly imitating the previous works of other artists, often
with satirical intent
2. a pasticcio of incongruous parts; a hodgepodge
pasticcio <pst:iu> = pastiche
hodgepodge <hdpd> ,
1

pasture <p str> , ; ;

paternalism <pt:rnlzm>

( ) ,
a policy or practice of treating or governing people in a fatherly manner, especially by providing for
their needs without giving them rights or responsibilities

pathogenic , ()
1. capable of causing disease
2. originating or producing disease
3. of or relating to pathogenesis
pathogenesis (), ; ()

pathology (); /
1. the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and
consequences
2. the anatomic or functional manifestations of a disease
3. a departure or deviation from a normal condition

patio <p tiu> ( ) (inner court),

patronage , , ;

paucity , ;
1. smallness of number; fewness
2. scarcity; dearth
dearth , ;
1. a scarce supply; a lack
2. shortage of food; famine

pawnbroker

peach n. ; [ ] v.

pebble ,
1. a small stone, especially one worn smooth by erosion
2. a. clear, colorless quartz; rock crystal b. a lens made of such quartz
3. an irregularly rough, grainy surface, as on leather or paper
quartz <kwrts>
rock crystal ( )

peccadillo , a small sin or fault

pedagogue ,
1. a schoolteacher; an educator
2. one who instructs in a pedantic or dogmatic manner
pedantic , ,
characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book learning and formal rules
ostentatious ;
ostentation pretentious display meant to impress others; boastful showiness

pedagogy , ;

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pedant , ;
1. one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules
2. one who exhibits one's learning or scholarship ostentatiously

pedantic , ,
characterized by a narrow, often ostentatious concern for book learning and formal rules
ostentatious ;
ostentation pretentious display meant to impress others; boastful showiness

pedantry <pdtri> , ; ; ,
1. pedantic attention to detail or rules
2. an instance of pedantic behavior
3. the habit of mind or manner characteristic of a pedant

pedestal <pdistl> ( ) (), ; , (foundation)


1. an architectural support or base, as for a column or statue
2. a support or foundation
3. a position of high regard or adoration

pedestrian ,

pediatrics /

peel ... ,

equestrian , ; one who rides a horse or performs on horseback

1. to strip or cut away the skin, rind, or bark from; pare


2. to strip away; pull off
rind <raind> , ; ,
rind , peel , skin ,
pare ( ) ; ( ) , ;
1. to remove the outer covering or skin of with a knife or similar instrument
2. to remove by or as if by cutting, clipping, or shaving
3. to reduce as if by cutting off outer parts; trim
2

peer n. , ; v. , ; ,
n. 1. a person who has equal standing with another or others, as in rank, class, or age
2. a. a nobleman b. a man who holds a peerage by descent or appointment
v. 1. to look intently, searchingly, or with difficulty
2. to be partially visible; show
peerage (/); ,

peevish , , ; ,
1. a. querulous or discontented b. ill-tempered
2. contrary; fractious
querulous , ; (peevish)
1. given to complaining; peevish
2. expressing a complaint or grievance; grumbling
fractious , ,
1. inclined to make trouble; unruly
2. having a peevish nature; cranky

pell-mell , ; ,

pellucid , ; ,
1. admitting the passage of light; transparent or translucent
2. transparently clear in style or meaning

penchant , , (liking)
a definite liking; a strong inclination

penurious , , (lack); (stingy)


1. ungenerously or pettily unwilling to spend money

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2. yielding little; barren


3. poverty-stricken; destitute
pettily ,
petty , , ; , ; ,
1. of small importance; trivial
2. marked by narrowness of mind, ideas, or views
3. marked by meanness or lack of generosity, especially in trifling matters
4. secondary in importance or rank; subordinate
2

penury <pnjri> , ;
1. extreme want or poverty; destitution
2. extreme dearth; barrenness or insufficiency
destitute , .. ; ,
1. utterly lacking; devoid
2. lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished
subsistence , , ; ,

peppery , ; , ; ,
1. of, containing, or resembling pepper; sharp or pungent in flavor
2. vigorously sharp-tempered
3. sharp and stinging in style or content; vivid or fiery

perceptible , ();
capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind

perch <p:rt> () (roost); / , ; ,

peremptory , ; , ; ,
1. putting an end to all debate or action
2. not allowing contradiction or refusal; imperative
3. having the nature of or expressing a command; urgent
4. offensively self-assured; dictatorial

perennial ; , ; ()
1. lasting or active through the year or through many years
2. a. lasting an indefinitely long time; enduring b. appearing again and again; recurrent
3. (Botany) living three or more years

perfidious ,
of, relating to, or marked by perfidy; treacherous
perfidy <p:rfdi>

, ()
1. deliberate breach of faith; calculated violation of trust; treachery
2. the act or an instance of treachery
treachery , ,
1. willful betrayal of fidelity, confidence, or trust; perfidy
2. the act or an instance of such betrayal

perforate , ;
1. to pierce, punch, or bore a hole or holes in; penetrate
2. to pierce or stamp with rows of holes, as those between postage stamps, to allow easy
separation

perfunctory , , ; ,
1. done routinely and with little interest or care
2. acting with indifference; showing little interest or care

peripatetic <prpttik> [ ] ; ,

peripheral , ;
periphery , ; () , ; (the ) () , ; ()
1. a line that forms the boundary of an area; a perimeter

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2. the surface of a solid


3. a. the outermost part or region within a precise boundary b. a zone constituting an imprecise
boundary
1

periscope , ( )

perish () , ; , , ; /
1. to die or be destroyed, especially in a violent or untimely manner
2. to pass from existence; disappear gradually

perjury , ;
1. (Law) the deliberate, willful giving of false, misleading, or incomplete testimony under oath
2. the breach of an oath or a promise

permanence , , ,
permanent , ; ,
1. lasting or remaining without essential change
2. not expected to change in status, condition, or place

permeable / , /
that can be permeated or penetrated, especially by liquids or gases

permeate ( ) , ; (, ) , ; ( )
1. to spread or flow throughout; pervade
2. to pass through the openings or interstices of
interstice <int:rstis>

, , (crevice),
a space, especially a small or narrow one, between things or parts

permissive , ; ; ,
1. granting or inclined to grant permission; tolerant or lenient
2. permitting discretion; optional
lenient <l:nint> , ,
inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent

pernicious , , (fatal)
a. tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly b. causing great harm; destructive

peroration <prrin> () ;
perorate 1. to conclude a speech with a formal recapitulation
2. to speak at great length, often in a grandiloquent manner; declaim
recapitulation ; ; ()
1. the act or process of recapitulating
2. a summary or concise review
recapitulate to repeat in concise form
declaim ,
1. to deliver a formal recitation, especially as an exercise in rhetoric or elocution
2. to speak loudly and vehemently; inveigh
vehement <v:mnt> , ; , (passionate)
1. characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity of emotion or conviction; fervid
2. marked by or full of vigor or energy; strong
fervid , , (ardent)
1. marked by great passion or zeal
2. extremely hot; burning
inveigh ,
to give vent to angry disapproval; protest vehemently

perpetrate <p:rptrit>

( , ) ,
to be responsible for; commit

perpetual (everlasting), ; ;

perpetuate ; ( )

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1. to cause to continue indefinitely; make perpetual


2. to prolong the existence of; cause to be remembered
1

perplexed
1. filled with confusion or bewilderment; puzzled
2. full of complications or difficulty; involved

perquisite <p:rkwzit>

( ) , () ; ,
1. a payment or profit received in addition to a regular wage or salary, especially a benefit expected
as one's due
2. a tip; a gratuity
3. something claimed as an exclusive right
gratuity , ,
a favor or gift, usually in the form of money, given in return for service

persecute (oppress), ; () ,
1. to oppress or harass with ill-treatment, especially because of race, religion, sexual orientation, or
beliefs
2. to annoy persistently; bother

perseverance , ; ()
1. steady persistence in adhering to a course of action, a belief, or a purpose; steadfastness
2. (Theology) the Calvinistic doctrine that those who have been chosen by God will continue in a
state of grace to the end and will finally be saved

persevere , (endure); ,
to persist in or remain constant to a purpose, an idea, or a task in the face of obstacles or
discouragement

persevering , ,

persist
1. to be obstinately repetitious, insistent, or tenacious
2. to hold firmly and steadfastly to a purpose, a state, or an undertaking despite obstacles,
warnings, or setbacks
3. to continue in existence; last

personification , ; ,

personnel , ; ,
1. the body of persons employed by or active in an organization, business, or service
2. an administrative division of an organization concerned with the body of persons employed by or
active in it and often acting as a liaison between different departments

perspicacious <p:rspkis>

,
having or showing penetrating mental discernment; clear-sighted

perspire , ; , ;
to excrete perspiration through the pores of the skin
excrete ,
to separate and discharge (waste matter) from the blood, tissues, or organs

persuasion (); , ; , ; ,

pertain , ; , ;
1. to have reference; relate
2. to belong as an adjunct, part, holding, or quality
3. to be fitting or suitable

pertinent , ; ,

perturb

having logical, precise relevance to the matter at hand


1. to disturb greatly; make uneasy or anxious
2. to throw into great confusion

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peruse <pr:z> ,

pervade , ; (, ) , ; ,

to read or examine, typically with great care


to be present throughout; permeate
permeate ( ) , ; ( ) , ; ( )
1. to spread or flow throughout; pervade
2. to pass through the openings or interstices of
1

pervasive , , , (permeative)
having the quality or tendency to pervade or permeate

pessimism , (opp. optimism)


1. a tendency to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view
2. the doctrine or belief that this is the worst of all possible worlds and that all things ultimately
tend toward evil
3. the doctrine or belief that the evil in the world outweighs the good

pessimistic ,

pest , ; , ; , ,
1. an annoying person or thing; a nuisance
2. an injurious plant or animal, especially one harmful to human beings
3. a deadly epidemic disease; a pestilence
nuisance <nj:sns> /; /
1. one that is inconvenient, annoying, or vexatious; a bother
2. (Law) a use of property or course of conduct that interferes with the legal rights of others
by causing damage, annoyance, or inconvenience
pestilence <pstlns>, , (epidemic); ,

pester , , (vex)
to harass with petty annoyance; bother

pestle ,

petal <pl> ,

petition , ; , ,
1. a solemn supplication or request to a superior authority; an entreaty
2. a formal written document requesting a right or benefit from a person or group in authority
3. (Law) a. a formal written application requesting a court for a specific judical action b. the
judicial action asked for in any such request
4. something requested or entreated

petrify , ; / ; ,
1. to convert (wood or other organic matter) into a stony replica by petrifaction
2. to cause to become stiff or stonelike; deaden
3. to stun or paralyze with terror; daze
stun ; ,
1. to daze or render senseless, by or as if by a blow
2. to overwhelm or daze with a loud noise
3. to stupefy, as with the emotional impact of an experience; astound
paralyze ; , ;
1. to affect with paralysis; cause to be paralytic
2. to make unable to move or act
3. to impair the progress or functioning of; make inoperative or powerless
paralysis , ; , ; ,
daze ;
1. to stun, as with a heavy blow or shock; stupefy
2. to dazzle, as with strong light

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stupefy <std:pfi> , ; ;
1. to dull the senses or faculties of
2. to amaze; astonish
1

pettily ,

petty , ; , ; , ; ,
1. of small importance; trivial
2. marked by narrowness of mind, ideas, or views
3. marked by meanness or lack of generosity, especially in trifling matters
4. secondary in importance or rank; subordinate
petit <pti> (Law) lesser, minor

petulant <ptulnt> , , ,
1. unreasonably irritable or ill-tempered; peevish
2. contemptuous in speech or behavior
peevish , ; ,
1. a. querulous or discontented b. ill-tempered
2. contrary; fractious

pharmacist <frmsist> ,

philanthropy (), //

philatelist <fil tlist> /

philately //

philistine <flst:n> [Palestine ]; ,

2. a. a smug, ignorant, especially middle-class person who is regarded as being indifferent or


antagonistic to artistic and cultural values b. one who lacks knowledge in a specific area
smug , ; ,
exhibiting or feeling great or offensive satisfaction with oneself or with one's situation;
self-righteously complacent

phlegmatic <flegm tik> , ; ,


2. having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional

phobia , /
1. a persistent, abnormal, or irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid
the feared stimulus
2. a strong fear, dislike, or aversion

1
1

phonetic , ; ,
physician ;
surgeon ; , ()

physiology
1. the biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
2. all the functions of a living organism or any of its parts

picker / , / ; , ; (, )

pidgin ( )
a simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages, has a rudimentary
grammar and vocabulary, is used for communication between groups speaking different languages,
and is not spoken as a first or native language

pied ,
patchy in color; splotched or piebald
patchy , ;
1. made up of or marked by patches
2. uneven in quality or performance
splotch <splat> ,

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an irregularly shaped spot, stain, or colored or discolored area


piebald , ;
spotted or patched, especially in black and white
1

pigment ,
1. a substance used as coloring
2. dry coloring matter, usually an insoluble powder to be mixed with water, oil, or another base to
produce paint and similar products
3. a substance, such as chlorophyll or melanin, that produces a characteristic color in plant or
animal tissue

pillage ;
1. to rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; plunder
2. to take as spoils
spoil v. , ; ( ) ; ,
n. , ; , , ; ,

pillar , ;
1. a. a slender, freestanding, vertical support; a column b. such a structure or one similar to it used
for decoration
2. one who occupies a central or responsible position
freestanding ,
standing or operating independently of anything else

pinch , , , () ; ,

pine v. , ; , n. ,
1. to feel a lingering, often nostalgic desire
2. to wither or waste away from longing or grief

pinpoint n. , ; ; , v. ,
n. 1. something extremely small or trifling
2. a very small or sharp point
3. a point on a map marking a precise location or target
v. 1. to locate or identify with precision
2. to take precise aim at
3. to direct attention to

pious , ; ,
1. having or exhibiting religious reverence; earnestly compliant in the observance of religion; devout
2. a. marked by conspicuous devoutness b. marked by false devoutness; solemnly hypocritical
3. devotional
4. professing or exhibiting a strict, traditional sense of virtue and morality; high-minded
5. commendable; worthy
hypocritical <hpkrtikl> ,
hypocrisy <hipkrsi> ()
1. the practice of professing beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not hold or possess;
falseness
2. an act or instance of such falseness

piquant ( ) ; ; ,
1. pleasantly pungent or tart in taste; spicy
2. a. appealingly provocative b. charming, interesting, or attractive

pique <pi:k> ,

pirate ; , ;

a state of vexation caused by a perceived slight or indignity; a feeling of wounded pride


1. a. one who robs at sea or plunders the land from the sea without commission from a sovereign
nation b. a ship used for this purpose

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2. one who preys on others; a plunderer


3. one who makes use of or reproduces the ow of another without authorization
4. one that operates an unlicensed, illegal television or radio station
1

pirouette <prut> () ;

pith <pi> () ; () , ; , ; ,
1. (Botany) the soft, spongelike, central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plant, composed
mainly of parenchyma
2. (Zoology) the soft inner substance of a feather or hair
3. the essential or central part; the heart or essence
4. strength; vigor; mettle
5. significance; importance
mettle , ; , ;
1. courage and fortitude; spirit
2. inherent quality of character and temperament

placate <plikeit> , ;
to allay the anger of, especially by making concessions; appease
allay <li> (calm); ,
1. to reduce the intensity of; relieve
2. to calm or pacify; set to rest
concession , ; , ,

placid , ,
1. undisturbed by tumult or disorder; calm or quiet
2. satisfied; complacent
complacent ,
1. contented to a fault; self-satisfied and unconcerned
2. eager to please; complaisant
complaisant , , ,
exhibiting a desire or willingness to please; cheerfully obliging

plagiarist <plidrist>
plagiarize /
1. to use and pass off as one's own (the ideas or writings of another)
2. to appropriate for use as one's own passages or ideas from (another)

plaintive , , (complaining)
expressing sorrow; mournful or melancholy

plait ; (braid), () (pleat)


1. a braid, especially of hair
2. a pleat
braid ,
pleat ( )

planetary ; , , ;
1. of, relating to, or resembling the physical or orbital characteristics of a planet or the planets
2. a. of or relating to the earth; terrestrial or earthly b. of or affecting the entire world; global
3. wandering; erratic
4. being or relating to a gear train consisting of a central gear with an internal ring gear and one
or more pinions
pinion ( ); ()

plaster , ,

plasticity , ; ,

platitude , , ; ,
1. a trite or banal remark or statement, especially one expressed as if it were original or significant

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2. lack of originality; triteness


1

platitudinous ; ,

plausible , ;
1. seemingly or apparently valid, likely, or acceptable; credible
2. giving a deceptive impression of truth, acceptability, or reliability; specious
specious ,
1. having the ring of truth or plausibility but actually fallacious
2. deceptively attractive

playful , , ; ,
1. full of fun and high spirits; frolicsome or sportive
2. humorous; jesting
frolicsome , (gay, merry)
full of high-spirited fun; frisky and playful
frisky ,
energetic, lively, and playful
sportive , ; /
1. playful; frolicsome
2. relating to or interested in sports
jesting , (jocose); (trivial)

plea , ; ,

plead , ; ,
1. to appeal earnestly; beg
2. to offer reasons for or against something; argue earnestly
3. to provide an argument or appeal

pleading , ; ; ()

pleat ( )

pledge , ; , ; , ; () ;

a fold in cloth made by doubling the material upon itself and then pressing or stitching it into place
1. a solemn binding promise to do, give, or refrain from doing something
2. a. something given or held as security to guarantee payment of a debt or fulfillment of an
obligation b. the condition of something thus given or held
3. (Law) a. delivery of goods or personal property as security for a debt or an obligation b. the
contract by which such delivery is made
4. a token or sign
5. a person who has been accepted for membership in a fraternity or similar organization and has
promised to join but has not yet been initiated
6. the act of drinking in honor of someone; a toast
7. a vow to abstain from alcoholic liquor
3

plethora <plr> , ; ()
1. a superabundance; an excess
2. an excess of blood in the circulatory system or in one organ or area

pliant, pliable , ; (docile); (opp. rigid)


1. easily bent or flexed; pliable
2. easily altered or modified to fit conditions; adaptable
3. yielding readily to influence or domination; compliant

plod ; ,
1. to move or walk heavily or laboriously; trudge
2. to work or act perseveringly or monotonously; drudge
trudge
to walk in a laborious, heavy-footed way; plod

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drudge (/ ) ,
to do tedious, unpleasant, or menial work
1

plot , ; (, ) , , ;
1. a. a small piece of ground, generally used for a specific purpose b. a measured area of land; a
lot
2. a ground plan, as for a building; a diagram
3. the plan of events or main story in a narrative or drama
4. a secret plan to accomplish a hostile or illegal purpose; a scheme

ploy ,
an action calculated to frustrate an opponent or gain an advantage indirectly or deviously; a
maneuver

pluck v. , ; (jerk) n. , ; , , ; ()
n. 1. the act or an instance of plucking
2. resourceful courage and daring in the face of difficulties; spirit
3. the heart, liver, windpipe, and lungs of a slaughtered animal

plucky ,

plumb a. , , ; , v. ; , ; , ;

having or showing courage and spirit in trying circumstances



1. to determine the depth of with a plumb; sound
2. to test the verticality or alignment of with a plumb
3. to straighten or make perpendicular
4. to examine closely or deeply; probe
5. to seal with lead
to work as a plumber
1

plumbing , ;
1. the pipes, fixtures, and other apparatus of a water, gas, or sewage system in building
2. the work or trade of a plumber
sewage <s:id> ()

plummet n. , v. , (plunge),
1. to fall straight down; plunge
2. to decline suddenly and steeply

plunder , ,
1. to rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; pillage
2. to seize wrongfully or by force; steal

plutocracy <plu:tkrsi> /
1. government by the wealthy
2. a wealthy class that controls a government
3. a government or state in which the wealthy rule

ply <plai> ( ) , /; ; ( ) , ; (
) , ; ( ) , ,
1. to join together, as by molding or twisting
2. to double over (cloth, for example)
1. to use diligently; wield
2. to engage in diligently; practice
3. to traverse or sail over regularly
4. to continue supplying or offering to
5. to assail vigorously
wield ( ) , () ; , ; ( )
1. to handle (a weapon or tool, for example) with skill and ease

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2. to exercise (authority or influence, for example) effectively


2

podiatry <pditri> ()(chiropody <krpdi>)


the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the
human foot

podium () , ; (arena) , () (dais)


1. an elevated platform, as for an orchestra conductor or a public speaker
2. a stand for holding the notes of a public speaker; a lectern
3. (Architecture) a. a low wall serving as a foundation b. a wall circling the arena of an ancient
amphitheater
dais <diis> , ,
a raised platform, as in a lecture hall, for speakers or honored guests

poignant <p injnt> , ; , ; (, ) , ,

poise , ; ( ) , ;
to carry or hold in equilibrium; balance
n. 1. a state of balance or equilibrium; stability
2. freedom from affectation or embarrassment; composure
3. the bearing or deportment of the head or body; mien
4. a state or condition of hovering or being suspended
deportment , , , ,
a manner of personal conduct; behavior
mien <mi:n> , , ,
1. bearing or manner, especially as it reveals an inner state of mind
2. an appearance or aspect
hover <h vr> ; , (loiter); , (waver)
1. to remain floating, suspended, or fluttering in the air
2. to remain or linger in or near a place
3. to remain in an uncertain state; waver

poised , ; , ;

polarize , ; ;
1. to induce polarization in; impart polarity to
2. to cause to concentrate about two conflicting or contrasting positions

polemic ,
1. a controversial argument, especially one refuting or attacking a specific opinion or doctrine
2. a person engaged in or inclined to controversy, argument, or refutation
a. of or relating to a controversy, an argument, or a refutation

polish
1. to make smooth and shiny by rubbing or chemical action
2. to remove the outer layers from (grains of rice) by rotation in drums
3. to free from coarseness; refine
4. to remove flaws from; perfect or complete

polite , ; ( ) , , ; (opp. vulgar)

pollen <pln>

pollination ()

pomposity ; , ; /

pompous , ; , ; ,
1. characterized by excessive self-esteem or exaggerated dignity; pretentious
2. full of high-sounding phrases; bombastic
3. characterized by pomp or stately display; ceremonious
pomp , ; ,
1. dignified or magnificent display; splendor

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2. vain or ostentatious display


vain , ; , ; , ,
1. not yielding the desired outcome; fruitless
2. lacking substance or worth
3. excessively proud of one's appearance or accomplishments; conceited
ostentatious ;
characterized by or given to ostentation; pretentious
1

poncho <pnou> [ ]

ponderous , , ; ; (, ) ,
1. having great weight
2. unwieldy from weight or bulk
3. lacking grace or fluency; labored and dull
unwieldy <nwldi> () , ; , ;
1. difficult to carry or manage because of bulk or shape
2. clumsy; ungainly
ungainly , ;
1. lacking grace or ease of movement or form; clumsy
2. difficult to move or use; unwieldy

pontifical , ; ,
1. relating to, characteristic of, or suitable for a pope or a bishop
2. having the dignity, pomp, or authority of a pontiff or a bishop
3. pompously dogmatic or self-important; pretentious
pope ; /
pontiff () ; () (Pope)

porcelain <p RSin> ()

pore <pr> n. v. , (ponder); (stare); /


1. to read or study carefully and attentively
2. to gaze intently; stare
3. to meditate deeply; ponder

porous , ; ,
1. full of or having pores
2. admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices
3. easily crossed or penetrated

portent , (omen); , /
1. an indication of something important or calamitous about to occur; an omen
2. prophetic or threatening significance
3. something amazing or marvelous; a prodigy
calamitous , ,
calamity , (misfortune), (misery)

portfolio , ; ; /;
1. a. a portable case for holding material, such as loose papers, photographs, or drawings b. the
materials collected in such a case, especially when representative of a person's work
2. the office or post of a cabinet member or minister of state
3. a group of investments

poseur <pouz:r>


one who affects a particular attitude, character, or manner to impress others

posit , ; () ,
1. to affirm or assume the existence of; postulate
2. to put forward, as for consideration or stud; suggest
3. to place firmly in position

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posse <psi> ,
1. a group of people summoned by a sheriff to aid in law enforcement
2. a search party
3. a Jamaican gang involved in crimes such as running guns and illegal narcotics trafficking
sheriff <rif> () () /; ()
narcotic ,
search party
trafficker ;

potpourri <pupur:> [ ]; ; ()
1. a combination of incongruous things
2. a miscellaneous anthology or collection
3. a mixture of dried flower petals and spices used to scent the air
anthology ,

potshot
1. a random or easy shot
2. a criticism made without careful thought and aimed at a handy target for attack

practitioner (, ) , () ,
one who practices something, especially an occupation, a profession, or a technique

prank , , ()

prate ,

prattle , ; ( )

a mischievous trick or practical joke


to talk idly and at length; chatter
to talk or chatter idly or meaninglessly; babble or prate
1

preach ,
1. to proclaim or put forth in a sermon
2. to advocate, especially to urge acceptance of or compliance with
3. to deliver (a sermon)

preamble <pr:: mbl> , ,


1. a preliminary statement, especially the introduction to a formal document that serves to explain
its purpose
2. an introductory occurrence or fact; a preliminary

precarious ; , ;
1. dangerously lacking in security or stability
2. subject to chance or unknown conditions
3. based on uncertain, unwarranted, or unproved premises

precept <pr:sept> , ; (maxim); () ,


1. a rule or principle prescribing a particular course of action or conduct
2. (Law) an authorized direction or order; a writ
writ , ; ()
1. (Law) a written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to
perform or cease performing a specified act
2. writings

precious , ; , ;
1. of high cost or worth; valuable
2. highly esteemed; cherished
3. dear; beloved
4. affected dainty or overrefined
dainty , ; , ;

precipitant , ; ,

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1. rushing or falling headlong


2. acting with or marked by impulsiveness in thought or action; rash
3. abrupt or unexpected; sudden
8

precipitate , ; , ; ( ) ; /
1. to throw from or as if from a great height; hurl downward
2. to cause to happen, especially suddenly or prematurely
3. (Meteorology) to cause (water vapor) to condense and fall from the air as rain, snow, sleet or
hail
4. (Chemistry) to cause (a solid substance) to be separated from a solution
sleet
hail ,

precipitous , ; , ; ,
precipice , ;
1. an overhanging or extremely steep mass of rock, such as a crag or the face of a cliff
2. the brink of a dangerous or disastrous situation
crag
brink ;

precis <preis:> , (summary)


a concise summary of a book, an article, or another text; an abstract

preclude ; /(exclude); , (prevent)

precursor , ; , ;
1. one that precedes and indicates, suggests, or announces someone or something to come
2. one that precedes another; a forerunner or predecessor
3. a biochemical substance, such as an intermediate compound in a chain of enzymatic reaction, that
given rise to a more stable or definitive product

precursory
1. preceding or preliminary; introductory
2. suggesting or indicating something to follow

predator
1. an organism that lives by preying on other organisms
2. one that victimizes, plunders, or destroys, especially for one's own gain

predecessor
1. one who precedes another in time, especially in holding an office or a position
2. something that has been succeeded by another

predestination ,
1. the act of predestining or the condition of being predestined
2. (Theology) a. the doctrine that God has foreordained all things, especially that God has elected
certain souls to eternal salvation b. the divine decree foreordaining all souls to either salvation or
damnation c. the act of God
3. destiny; fate
foreordain ()
to determine or appoint beforehand; predestine

predestine
1. to fix upon, decide, or decree in advance; foreordain
2. (Theology) to foreordain or elect by divine will or decree

predicament ,
1. a situation, especially an unpleasant, troublesome, or trying one, from which extrication is difficult
2. (Logic) one of the basic states or classifications described by Aristotle into which all things can
be placed; a category

predictable / ;

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that can be stated or predicated


1

predilection , ,
a partiality or disposition in favor of something; a preference

predisposition ,
the state of being predisposed; tendency, inclination, or susceptibility
susceptible ... , (capable); , ;
1. easily influenced or affected
2. likely to be affected with
3. especially sensitive; highly impressionable
4. capable of accepting or permitting

preeminent ,

preempt ; , ;

superior to or notable above all others; outstanding


1. to appropriate, seize, or take for oneself before others
2. a. to take the place of; displace b. to have precedence or predominance over
3. to gain possession of by prior right or opportunity, especially to settle on (public land) so as to
obtain the right to buy before others
1

preemptive , ; ()

preen () ; , ; ,
1. a. to smooth or clean (feathers) with the beak or bill b. to trim or clean (fur) with the tongue,
as cats do
2. to dress or groom (oneself) with elaborate care; primp
3. to take pride or satisfaction in (oneself); gloat
bill (, ); , , ,
beak
primp ,
to dress or groom (oneself) with meticulous or excessive attention to detail
groom n. , v. () ;
1. to care for the appearance of; to make neat and trim
2. to clean and brush (an animal)
3. to prepare, as for a specific position or purpose
gloat ; ( )
to feel or express great, often malicious, pleasure or self-satisfaction

prefigure ... , ;
1. to suggest, indicate, or represent by an antecedent form or model; presage or foreshadow
2. to imagine or picture to oneself in advance
presage <prsid> , (omen); ,
1. an indication or a warning of a future occurrence; an omen
2. a feeling or an intuition of what is going to occur; a presentiment
3. prophetic significance or meaning
presentiment , ,
a sense that something is about to occur; a premonition

pregnancy (); ,
1. a. the condition of being pregnant b. an instance of being pregnant c. the period during which
one is pregnant
2. the quality or condition of being rich in significance, import, or implication
3. creativity; inventiveness

prehistory , ; ,
1. history of humankind in the period before recorded history
2. the circumstances or developments leading up to or surrounding a current situation, event, or

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development; background
1

prejudice ; ... ,
1. to cause (someone) to judge prematurely and irrationally
2. to affect injuriously or detrimentally by a judgment or an act

premeditated , ,
characterized by deliberate purpose, previous consideration, and some degree of planning

premeditation
1. the act of speculating, arranging, or plotting in advance
2. (Law) the contemplation of a crime well enough in advance to show deliberate intent to commit
the crime; forethought

preoccupation (); , ; ,

preponderance / ; ,
superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence

preponderate ,
1. to exceed something else in weight
2. to be greater than something else, as in power, force, quantity, or importance; predominate

prerequisite , ,
required or necessary as a prior condition

prerogative ,
1. an exclusive right or privilege held by a person or group, especially a hereditary or official right
2. the exclusive right and power to command, decide, rule, or judge
3. a natural gift or advantage that confers superiority
4. characteristic superiority; preeminence

presage <prsid> , (omen); ,


1. an indication or a warning of a future occurrence; an omen
2. a feeling or an intuition of what is going to occur; a presentiment
3. prophetic significance or meaning

prescience <pr:ins> (foresight), ,


knowledge of actions or events before they occur; foresight

prescribe , ; , ;
1. to set down as a rule or guide; enjoin
2. to order the use of (a medicine or other treatment)

presenter , ; , ; ; () (anchorman)

preside <prizid> , ; ; /
1. to hold the position of authority; act as chairperson or president
2. to possess or exercise authority or control

prestigious ,
having prestige; esteemed
prestige , , , ,
1. the level of respect at which one is regarded by others; standing
2. a person's high standing among others; honor or esteem
3. widely recognized prominence, distinction, or importance

presume
1. to take for granted as being true in the absence of proof to the contrary
2. to give reasonable evidence for assuming; appear to prove
3. to venture without authority or permission; dare

presumption , ; , ; ;, ,
1. behavior or language that is boldly arrogant or offensive; effrontery
2. the act of presuming or accepting as true
3. acceptance or belief based on reasonable evidence; assumption or supposition

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4. a condition or basis for accepting or presuming


5. (Law) a conclusion derived from a particular set of facts based on law, rather than probable
reasoning
6

presumptuous , ,

presupposition , ; ()

going beyond what is right or proper; excessively forward


presuppose /;
1. to believe or suppose in advance
2. to require or involve necessarily as an antecedent condition
2

pretense , (pretext); ,
1. the act of pretending; a false appearance or action intended to deceive
2. a false or studied show; an affectation
3. a professed but feigned reason or excuse; a pretext
4. something imagined or pretended
5. mere show without reality; outward appearance
6. a right asserted with or without foundation; a claim
7. the quality or state of being pretentious; ostentation
ostentation , ,
pretentious display mean to impress others; boastful showiness

pretension , ; (claim), ; ,
1. a specious allegation; a pretext
2. a claim to something, such as a privilege or right
3. the advancing of a claim
4. ostentatious display; pretentiousness
allegation ( ) ,

preternatural (supernatural), (abnormal),

prevalent , , ;
widely or commonly occurring, existing, accepted, or practiced

prevaricate , ;

preventive , ,

to stray from or evade the truth; equivocate


1. intended or used to prevent or hinder; acting as an obstacle
2. carried out to deter expected aggression by hostile forces
3. preventing or slowing the course of an illness or a disease; prophylactic
prophylactic <prufl ktik> () (preventive);
1

priggish , ; ,
prig / ; ,
a person who demonstrates an exaggerated conformity or propriety, especially in an irritatingly
arrogant or smug manner
smug , ; ,
exhibiting or feeling great or offensive satisfaction with oneself or with one's situation;
self-righteously complacent

primeval , ,

pristine (original), , (primitive); , ,


1. a. remaining in a pure state; uncorrupted by civilization b. remaining free from dirt or decay;
clean
2. of, relating to, or typical of the earliest time or condition; primitive or original

probe ;
1. to explore with or as if with a probe
2. to delve into; investigate

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delve (, ) , ; ( )
1. to search deeply and laboriously
2. to dig the ground, as with a spade
spade ,
3

probity , ,
complete and confirmed integrity; uprightness

procession (parade), ; ,
1. the act of moving along or forward; progression
2. origination; emanation; rise
3. a. a group of persons, vehicles, or objects moving along in an orderly, formal manner b. the
movement of such a group
4. an orderly succession

proclamation , , ; ,
1. the act of proclaiming or the condition of being proclaimed
2. something proclaimed, especially an official public announcement

proclivity , ,
a natural propensity or inclination; predisposition
propensity , , , (inclination)
an innate inclination; a tendency

procrastinate ,
to put off doing something, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness

proctor
n. a dormitory and examination supervisor in a school
v. to supervise (an examination)

procure ; , ; ()
1. to get by special effort; obtain or acquire
2. to bring about; effect
3. to obtain for another (a person) for sex acts

prod v. , ,
1. to jab or poke, as with a pointed object
2. to goad to action; incite
goad to prod or urge with or as if with a long pointed stick

prodigal, ; , ;
1. rashly or wastefully extravagant
2. marked by rash or wasteful extravagance
3. giving or given in abundance; lavish or profuse

prodigious , ; , ,
1. impressively great in size, force, or extent; enormous
2. extraordinary; marvelous

prodigy , , ; ,
1. a person with exceptional talents or powers
2. an act or event so extraordinary or rare as to inspire wonder
3. a portentous sign or event; an omen
portentous ; , ; ,

profane , ; (opp. sacred)


1. marked by contempt or irreverence for what is sacred
2. nonreligious in subject matter, form, or use; secular
3. not admitted into a body of secret knowledge or ritual; uninitiated
4. vulgar; coarse
ritual ,

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proficient ,
having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or
branch of learning

profitable , ; ,
yielding profit; advantageous or lucrative
lucrative , (profitable)
producing wealth; profitable

profiteer <prftr> ( )
one who makes excessive profits on goods in short supply

profligacy <prfligsi> , , ;

profligate , ;
1. given over to dissipation; dissolute
2. recklessly wasteful; wildly extravagant
dissolute , ,
lacking moral restraint; indulging in sensual pleasures or vices

profundity , ,
1. great depth
2. depth of intellect, feeling, or meaning
3. something profound or abstruse

profuse , (abundant); ,
1. plentiful; copious
2. giving or given freely and abundantly; extravagant

prohibitive , (, ) , ()
1. prohibiting; forbidding
2. so high or burdensome as to discourage purchase or use
3. so likely to win as to discourage competition

projectile /,

proliferate () /;
1. to grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, or offspring
2. to increase or spread at a rapid rate

prolific / , ; ,
1. producing offspring or fruit in great abundance; fertile
2. producing abundant works or results

prolix ,
1. tediously prolonged; wordy
2. tending to speak or write at excessive length

prologue
1. an introduction or a preface, especially a poem recited to introduce a play
2. an introduction or introductory chapter, as to a novel
3. an introductory act, event, or period

prominent , ; , ;
1. projecting outward or upward from a line or surface; protuberant
2. immediately noticeable; conspicuous
3. widely known; eminent

promoter , , ; , ; ( )

prompt , ;
1. being on time; punctual
2. carried out or performed without delay

prone ( ) ; , ; , ,
1. lying with the front or face downward

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2. having a tendency; inclined


1

pronounced , ; ; , (decided)
1. spoken; voiced
2. strongly marked; distinct

prop , ,
1. an object placed beneath or against a structure to keep it from falling or shaking; a support
2. one that serves as a support or stay

propagation , ; , ; ( ) , ;
1. multiplication or increase, as by natural reproduction
2. the process of spreading to a larger area or greater number; dissemination
3. (Physics) the act or process of propagating, especially the process by which a disturbance, such
as the motion of electromagnetic or sound waves, is transmitted through a medium such as air or
water
dissemination , ; , (propagation)

propensity , , ,
an innate inclination; a tendency

property , (possessions); , (ownership); ( ) , ; ,

propitiate , ;
to conciliate (an offended power); appease
conciliate , , (reconcile)
1. to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease
2. to regain or try to regain (friendship or goodwill) by pleasant behavior
3. to make or attempt to make compatible; reconcile

propitiatory , ,

propitious , ; , ; (, ) ,
1. presenting favorable circumstances; auspicious
2. kindly; gracious
auspicious , ,
1. attended by favorable circumstances; propitious
2. marked by success; prosperous

proponent ; ,

proportion , (); , ; ,

proposition , , ; , (); () , () ()

propound ,

one who argues in support of something; an advocate

to put forward for consideration; set forth


3

propriety , , ; , [pl.]
1. the quality of being proper; appropriateness
2. conformity to prevailing customs and usages
3. [pl.] the usages and customs of polite society

propulsion ()
1. the process of driving or propelling
2. a driving or propelling force

prosaic (); , ; ,
1. a. consisting or characteristic of prose b. matter-of-fact; straightforward
2. lacking in imagination and spirit; dull
matter-of-fact 1. relating or adhering to facts; literal
2. straightforward or unemotional

proscribe (outlaw), ; ,
1. to denounce or condemn

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2. to prohibit; forbid
3. a. to banish or outlaw (a person) b. to publish the name of (a person) as outlawed
3

prose (opp. verse); , ; ,


1. ordinary speech or writing, without metrical structure
2. commonplace expression or quality

prosecute , ; ( ) , ; ,
1. (Law) a. to initiate civil or criminal court action against b. to seek to obtain or enforce by legal
action
2. a. to pursue (an undertaking, for example) until completion; follow to the very end b. to chase or
pursue (a vessel)
3. to carry on, engage in, or practice

protest ; , ;
1. to object to, especially in a formal statement
2. to promise or affirm with earnest solemnity
3. (Law) to declare (a bill) dishonored or refused

protract () ,

provident ; , ; ,

to draw out or lengthen in time; prolong


1. providing for future needs or events
2. frugal; economical
3

provision , ; , ,
1. the act of supplying or fitting out
2. something provided
3. a preparatory action or measure
4. [pl.] a stock of necessary supplies, especially food
5. a stipulation or qualification, especially a clause in a document or an agreement

provisional , , ,
provided or serving only for the time being; temporary

provocation , , , ; , ,
1. the act of provoking or inciting
2. something that provokes

provocative , ; () ,
tending to provoke

provoke , ; ..., ; (, ) ,
1. to incite to anger or resentment
2. to stir to action or feeling
3. to give rise to; evoke
4. to bring about deliberately; induce

prow <prau> n. , ; () a. () , (brave)

proximate , /, ; , (approximate)
1. closely related in space, time, or order; very near
2. approximate

proximity
the state, quality, sense, or fact of being near or next; closeness

prude , (opp. coquette)


one who is excessively concerned with being or appearing to be proper, modest, or righteous

prudence , , ; ,
1. the state, quality, or fact of being prudent
2. careful management; economy

prudent , (cautious), ; ; ,

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1. wise in handling practical matters; exercising good judgment or common sense


2. careful in regard to one's own interests; provident
3. careful about one's conduct; circumspect
circumspect , ; ()
heedful of circumstances and potential consequences; prudent
1

prudery ; [pl.]
1. the state or quality of being prudish
2. an instance of prudish behavior or talk

prudish , ;
marked by or exhibiting the characteristics of a prude; priggish
priggish , ; ,

prune () , ; , () , ()
1. to cut off or remove dead or living parts or branches of (a plant, for example) to improve shape
or growth
2. to remove or cut out as superfluous
3. to reduce

pry (peep), ; ,
/; ( )
to look or inquire closely, curiously, or inquisitively, often in a furtive manner; snoop
1. to raise, move, or force open with a lever
2. to obtain with effort or difficulty
furtive , (stealthy); ,
snoop ,
to pry into the private affairs of others, especially by prowling about
prowl <praul> , , (wander)
to roam through stealthily, as in search of prey or plunder

psychiatrist <sikitrist> /

psychiatry ;
the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and
emotional disorders

psychoanalysis (/)

psychological , ; ,
1. of or relating to psychology
2. of, relating to, or arising from the mind or emotions
3. influencing or intended to influence the mind or emotions

psychosis ,

psychotic ,

publicize , ,
to give publicity to

pucker , ;
to gather into small wrinkles or folds

puddle ; ; () ,

pugnacious (quarrelsome)
combative in nature; belligerent

puissance ( ) ,
power; might

pulley <pli> ,

pulp () , ( ) , ; [ ]; ()

pulverize , ; (, ) ,
1. to pound, crush, or grind to a power or dust

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2. to demolish
1

pundit ; ,
1. a source of opinion; a critic
2. a learned person
3. (Hinduism) pandit
pandit 1. a Brahman scholar or learned man
2. used as a title of respect for a learned man in India

pungent / , ; , ;
1. affecting the organs of taste or smell with a sharp, acrid sensation
2. a. penetrating, biting, or caustic b. to the point; sharp
3. pointed

purge (, ) ; , ; , ;
1. a. to free from impurities; purify b. to remove (impurities and other elements) by or as if by
cleansing
2. to rid of sin, guilt, or defilement
3. (Law) to clear (a person) of a charge or an imputation. often used with respect to contempt of
court
4. a. to rid (a nation or political party, for example) of people considered undesirable b. to get rid of
(people considered undesirable)

purity
1. the quality or condition of being pure
2. a quantitative assessment of homogeneity or uniformity
3. freedom from sin or guilt; innocence; chastity
4. the absence in speech or writing of slang or other elements deemed inappropriate to good style
chaste , ; (pure); (decent), ;
1. morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
2. a. not having experienced sexual intercourse; virginal b. abstaining from unlawful sexual
intercourse c. abstaining from sexual intercourse; celibate
3. pure or simple in design or style; austere
celibate
1. one who abstains from sexual intercourse, especially by reason of religious vows
2. one who is unmarried

putrefaction ();

pylon <pilan> (, ) ; ( ) ; ()

pyre <pair> () /

Q
1

quack v. ( ) ; n. ;
the characteristic sound uttered by a duck
1. an untrained person who pretends to be a physician and dispenses medical advice and treatment
2. a charlatan; a mountebank

quaff ,
to drink (a beverage) heartily

quaint ,
1. odd, especially in an old-fashioned way
2. unfamiliar or unusual in character; strange

qualify , ; ... ; ... , ; /;


1. to describe by enumeration the characteristics or qualities of; characterize
2. to make competent or eligible for an office, a position, or a task
3. a. to declare competent or capable; certify b. to make legally capable; license

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4. to modify, limit, or restrict, as by giving exceptions


5. to make less harsh or severe; moderate
eligible , , , ;
3

qualm , (nausea); ,
1. a sudden feeling of sickness, faintness, or nausea
2. a sudden disturbing feeling
3. an uneasy feeling about the propriety or rightness of a course of action

quandary <kwadri> ,
a state of uncertainty or perplexity

quantify
1. to determine or express the quantity of
2. (Logic) to limit the variables of (a proposition) by prefixing an operator such as 'all' or 'some'

quarantine <kw :rnt:n> , ; , ; [ 40]


1. a. a period of time during which a vehicle, person, or material suspected of carrying a contagious
disease is detained at a port of entry under enforced isolation to prevent disease from entering a
country b. a place for such detection
2. enforced isolation or restriction of free movement imposed to prevent the spread of contagious
disease
3. a condition of enforced isolation
4. a period of 40 days

quarry , ; (, ) , ,
,
1. a. a hunted animal; prey b. hunted animals considered as a group; game
2. an object of pursuit
1. an open excavation or pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting
2. a rich or productive source
blasting , ; ( ) ,

quash <kwa> ( ) , ; () (, ) ,
to set aside or annul, especially by judicial action
to put down or suppress forcibly and completely

quell , ;
1. to put down forcibly; suppress
2. to pacify; quiet

quench (, ) ; (, ) ,
1. to put out (a fire, for example); extinguish
2. to suppress; squelch
3. to put an end to; destroy
4. to slake; satisfy
5. to cool (hot metal) by thrusting into water or other liquid
slake (, ) , ( ) ; ; ()
1. to satisfy (a craving); quench
2. to lessen the force or activity of; moderate
3. to cool or refresh by wetting or moistening
4. to combine (lime) chemically with water or moist air

querulous ,
1. given to complaining; peevish
2. expressing a complaint or grievance; grumbling
grievance ( )
1. a. an actual or supposed circumstance regarded as just cause for protest b. a complaint or
protestation based on such a circumstance

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2. indignation or resentment stemming from a feeling of having been wronged


3

quibble ; , , (evasion)
1. to evade the truth or importance of an issue by raising trivial distinctions and objections
2. to find fault or criticize for petty reasons; cavil
cavil ,
to find fault unnecessarily; raise trivial objections

quick-witted , , ,
mentally alert and sharp; keen

quiescent , ;

quill () , () ; (feather stem); ; (quill pen)

quilt ; ( ) , (coverlet)

being quiet, still, or at rest; inactive

1. a coverlet or blanket made of two layers of fabric with a layer of cotton, wool, feathers, or down
in between, all stitched firmly together, usually in a decorative crisscross design
2. a thick protective cover similar to or suggestive of a quilt
crisscross , ; ,
1

quirk (, ) , ; , ;
1. a peculiarity of behavior; an idiosyncrasy
2. an unpredictable or unaccountable act or event
3. a sudden sharp turn or twist
4. an equivocation; a quibble
idiosyncrasy ( ) ,

quirky ,

quisling <kwzli> 5(fifth columnist), , (traitor)

quiver (vibrate),
to shake with a slight, rapid, tremulous movement

quixotic , ; ,
1. caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals; idealistic without
regard to practicality
2. capricious; impulsive
practicality ; /

quorum ;

quotidian , , , (trivial)
1. everyday; commonplace
2. recurring daily. used especially of attacks of malaria

R
2

raconteur
one who tells stories and anecdotes with skill and wit

radiant , , ; ; ,
1. emitting heat or light
2. consisting of or emitted as radiation
3. a. filled with light; bright b. glowing; beaming

radiate , ; ( )
1. to send out rays or waves
2. to issue or emerge in rays or waves
3. to extend in straight lines from or toward a center; diverge or converge like rays

radical ; ,
1. arising from or going to a root or source; basic
2. departing markedly from the usual or customary; extreme

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3. favoring or effecting fundamental or revolutionary changes in current practices, conditions, or


institutions
1

radicalism

rafter

raid , ; ; ( )

rail ,
, ; ;
to express objections or criticisms in bitter, harsh, or abusive language

rambling , ; (, ) , ;
1. often or habitually roaming; wandering
2. extended over an irregular area; sprawling
3. lengthy and digressive
sprawl , ;
1. to sit or lie with the body and limbs spread out awkwardly
2. to spread out in a straggling or disordered fashion

ramification , ; ; ( ) (consequence)
1. a development or consequence growing out of and sometimes complicating a problem, plan, or
statement
2. a. the act or process of branching out or dividing into branches b. a subordinate part extending
from a main body; a branch c. an arrangement of branches or branching parts

rampage <r mpeid> ,


a course of violent, frenzied action or behavior
frenzied <frnzid> ;
affected with or marked by frenzy; frantic

rampant ; ( ) , ; ()
1. extending unchecked; unrestrained
2. occurring without restraint and frequently; widely, or menacingly; rife
rife ( ) , () ; ( ) ,
1. in widespread existence, practice, or use; increasingly prevalent
2. abundant or numerous

rancor , ,

rancorous ,

ranger <rindr> ; /;

rank-and-file , ,

bitter, long-lasting resentment; deep-seated ill will

1. made up of or coming from the ordinary members of a group, excluding leaders and officers
2. made up of or coming from the common people
1

rant , ;
to speak or declaim in a violent, loud, or vehement manner; rave
vehement , ; , (passionate)
1. characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity or emotion or conviction; fervid
2. marked by of full of vigor or energy; strong
rave , , ; , ; (, )
1. to speak wildly, irrationally, or incoherently
2. to roar; rage
3. to speak with wild enthusiasm
roar , ; , ,
1. to utter a loud, deep, prolonged sound, especially in distress, rage, or excitement
2. to laugh loudly or excitedly
3. to make or produce a loud noise or din

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4. to be disorderly or rowdy
5. to breathe with a rasping sound. used of a horse
rage , ; ,
rowdy , ;
disorderly; rough
rasping (irritating), (grating); ,
1

rapacious , ; ,
1. taking by force; plundering
2. greedy; ravenous
3. subsisting on live prey
plunder , , , ,
1. to rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; pillage
2. to seize wrongfully or by force; steal
ravenous ;
1. extremely hungry; voracious
2. rapacious; predatory
3. greedy for gratification
gratification ,
subsist , , ; ,
1. a. to exist; be b. to remain or continue in existence
2. to maintain life; live
3. to be logically conceivable

rapid [pl.],
an extremely fast-moving part of a river, caused by a steep descent in the riverbed. often used in
the plural

rapport <rp r> (, ) ; ( )

rapture , , (ecstasy)

relationship, especially one of mutual trust or emotional affinity


1. the state of being transported by a lofty emotion; ecstasy
2. often raptures. an expression of ecstatic feeling
3. the transporting of a person from one place to another, especially to heaven
1

rarefaction

rarefy (opp. condense); /(purify); ,


1. to make thin, less compact, or less dense
2. to purify or refine

ratification ,
ratify ,
to approve and give formal sanction to; confirm

ration , ; ,
1. a fixed portion, especially an amount of food allotted to persons in military service or to civilians
in times of scarcity
2. rations. food issued or available to members of a group

rationale <r n l> /; ,


1. fundamental reasons; the basis
2. an exposition of principles or reasons

rationality ,
1. the quality or condition of being rational
2. a rational belief or practice

rationalization ;

rationalize ,

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1. to make rational
2. to interpret from a rational standpoint
3. to devise self-satisfying but incorrect reasons for (one's behavior)
1

raucous <r :ks> ,


1. rough-sounding and harsh
2. boisterous and disorderly

ravage , ; ,
1. to bring heavy destruction on; devastate
2. to pillage; sack
pillage ;
1. to rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; plunder
2. to take as spoils
sack ; , ; , ;
to place into a sack
to rob of goods or valuables, especially after capture

rave , , , ; ; (, )
1. to speak wildly, irrationally, or incoherently
2. to roar; rage
3. to speak with wild enthusiasm

raze ,
1. to level to the ground; demolish
2. to scrape or shave off
scrape , , ; , () ;

reactant ,
a substance participating in a chemical reaction, especially a directly reacting substance present at
the initiation of the reaction

reactionary , ; ,
characterized by reaction, especially opposition to progress or liberalism; extremely conservative

reactive , ; ,
1. tending to be responsive or to react to a stimulus
2. characterized by reaction

reagent
a substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure, examine, or produce other substances

reassess

reassurance ; ,

reassure , ;
1. to restore confidence to
2. to assure again
3. to reinsure
reinsure
to insure again, especially by transferring in whole or in part a risk or contingent liability
already covered under an existing contract
contingent ... , ... ; ,
1. liable to occur but not with certainty; possible
2. dependent on conditions or occurrences not yet established; conditional
3. happening by chance or accident; fortuitous
fortuitous , (accidental)
happening by accident or chance

reassuring , (encouraging),

rebuff ,

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1. a blunt or abrupt repulse or refusal, as to an offer


2. a check or an abrupt setback to progress or action
1

rebus <r:bs> /

recalcitrance , ,

recalcitrant , ,
marked by stubborn resistance to and defiance of authority or guidance

recant (, ) ,
to make a formal retraction or disavowal of (a statement or belief to which one has previously
committed oneself)

recapitulate ,
1. to repeat in concise form
2. (Biology) to appear to repeat (the evolutionary stages of the species) during the embryonic
development of the individual organism

recast /;
1. to mold again
2. to set down or present (ideas, for example) in a new or different arrangement
3. to change the cast of (a theatrical production)

recede , ; ( ) ; (, ) ,
1. to move back or away from a limit, point, or mark
2. to slope backward
3. to become or seem to become fainter or more distant
4. to withdraw or retreat

receipt <ris:t> , , ;
1. a. the act of receiving b. the fact of being or having been received
2. often receipts. a quantity or amount received
3. a written acknowledgement that a specified article, sum of money, or shipment of merchandise
has been received
4. a recipe

receptacle , ; , (shelter); () ; () ,

receptive , /
1. capable of or qualified for receiving
2. ready or willing to receive favorably

recess <r:ses> , () ;
1. a. a temporary cessation of the customary activities of an engagement, occupation, or pursuit b.
the period of such cessation, occupation, or pursuit b. the period of such cessation
2. often recesses. a remote, secret, or secluded place
3. a. an indentation or small hollow b. an alcove
alcove , ; ; (, ) , (summerhouse)
1. a recess or partly enclosed extension connected to or forming part of a room
2. a secluded structure, such as a bower, in a garden

recessive , ;
1. tending to go backward or recede
2. a. (Genetics) of, relating to, or designating an allele that does not produce a characteristic effect
when present with a dominant allele b. of or relating to a trait that is expressed only when the
determining allele is present in the homozygous condition
allele <l:l> /

recipe <rsp:> , ; (prescription); ,


1. a set of directions with a list of ingredients for making or preparing something, especially food
2. a formula for or means to a desired end
3. a medical prescription

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reciprocate , , ; , ,
1. to give or take mutually; interchange
2. to show, feel, or give in response or return

reciprocation , , ;
1. an alternation back-and-forth movement
2. the act or fact of reciprocating; interchange

reciprocity <rsprsti> ,
1. a reciprocal condition or relationship
2. a mutual or cooperative interchange of favors or privileges, especially the exchange of rights or
privileges of trade between nations

recite , , ; ,
1. to repeat or utter aloud (something rehearsed or memorized), especially before an audience
2. to relate in detail
3. to list or enumerate

reckless ;
1. a. heedless or careless b. headstrong; rash
2. indifferent to or disregardful of consequences

reclaim ; , ; (tame), (civilize)


1. to bring into or return to a suitable condition for use, as cultivation or habitation
2. to procure (usable substances) from refuse or waste products
3. to bring back, as from error, to a right or proper course; reform
4. to tame (a falcon, for example)

recluse <rklu:s> , ; ,
withdrawn from the world; reclusive

reclusive ; ,
1. seeking or preferring seclusion or isolation
2. providing seclusion

recompense <rkmpns> , ,
1. to award compensation to
2. to award compensation for; make a return for

reconcile ; /(harmonize); ... ,


1. to reestablish a close relationship between
2. to settle or resolve
3. to bring (oneself) to accept
4. to make compatible or consistent

reconciliation , , , ; ,

recondite , ;
1. not easily understood; abstruse
2. concerned with or treating something abstruse or obscure
3. concealed; hidden

reconnaissance <riknzns> () (); ,

recourse <r:krs> , ; ()

an inspection or exploration of an area, especially one made to gather military information


1. the act or an instance of turning or applying to a person or thing for aid or security
2. one that is turned or applied to for aid or security
3. (Law) the right to demand payment from the endorser of a commercial paper when the first
party liable fails to pay
1

recriminate , ()
to accuse in return

rectify /, ; ( ) ; ()

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1. to set right; correct


2. to correct by calculation or adjustment
3. (Chemistry) to refine or purify, especially by distillation
4. (Electronics) to convert (alternating current) into direct current
5. to adjust (the proof of alcoholic beverages) by adding water or other liquids
1

rectitude , ;
1. moral uprightness; righteousness
2. the quality or condition of being correct in judgment
3. the quality of being straight

recumbent , (inclining); ; ,
1. lying down, especially in a position of comfort or rest; reclining
2. resting; idle
3. (Biology) resting on the surface from which it arises. used of an organ or other structure

recuperate (, 0
1. to return to health or strength; recover
2. to recover from financial loss

recurrent , ,
occurring or appearing again or repeatedly

redeem , () ; () () ; , ; ( ) ,

1. to recover ownership of by paying a specified sum


2. to pay off (a promissory note, for example)
3. to turn in (coupons, for example) and receive something in exchange
4. to fulfill (a pledge, for example)
5. to convert into cash
6. to set free; rescue or ransom
7. to save from a state of sinfulness and its consequences
8. to make up for
9. to restore the honor, worth, or reputation of
promissory
1. containing, involving, or having the nature of a promise
2. indicating how the provisions of an insurance contract will be carried out after it has been
signed

redemptive , , , ; ,

redolent ; , (suggestive)
1. having or emitting fragrance; aromatic
2. suggestive; reminiscent
reminiscent , ; ,
1. having the quality of or containing reminiscence
2. inclined to engage in reminiscence
3. tending to recall or suggest something in the past

redoubtable , ;
1. arousing fear or awe; formidable
2. worthy of respect or honor

redundant , ; ,
1. exceeding what is necessary or natural; superfluous
2. needlessly repetitive; verbose
3. (Electronics) of or involving redundancy in electronic equipment
4. of or involving redundancy in the transmission of messages

reenact <r:in kt> ; ,

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1. to enact again
2. to perform again
3. to go through a second time
1

referent ()
1. something that refers, especially a linguistic item in its capacity of referring to a meaning
2. something referred to

refine , , (clarify); ( )
1. to reduce to a pure state; purity
2. to remove by purifying
3. to free from coarse, unsuitable, or immoral characteristics

refined ; , ; ; ,
1. free from coarseness or vulgarity; polite
2. free of impurities; purified
3. precise to a fine degree

reflect
1. to throw or bend back (light, for example) from a surface
2. to form an image of (an object); mirror
3. to manifest as a result of one's actions
manifest ,
clearly apparent to the sight or understanding; obvious

refract ()
1. to deflect (light, for example) from a straight path by refraction
2. to alter by viewing through a medium
3. (Medicine) to determine the refraction of (an eye, for example)

refractory , ;
1. obstinately resistant to authority or control
2. difficult to melt or work; resistant to heat
3. resistant to treatment

refrain v. , n. ,
to hold oneself back; forbear
1. a. a phrase, verse, or group of verses repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem, especially
at the end of each stanza b. music for the refrain of a poem
2. a song or melody
3. a repeated utterance or theme

refulgent ,
shining radiantly; resplendent
resplendent ,
splendid or dazzling in appearance; brilliant

refutable

refutation ,

refute , ;
1. to prove to be false or erroneous
2. to deny the accuracy or truth of

regain , ;
1. to recover possession of; get back again
2. to manage to reach again

regale , ;
1. to provide with great enjoyment; entertain
2. to entertain sumptuously with food and drink; provide a feast for
sumptuous , ; ,

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of a size or splendor suggesting great expense; lavish


1

regality , ; ,

regiment () ;
1. a military unit of ground troops consisting of at least two battalions, usually commanded by a
colonel
2. a large group of people

regimental ,
1. the uniform and insignia of a particular regiment
2. military dress
insignia , , ; ,
1. a badge of office, rank, membership, or nationality; an emblem
2. a distinguishing sign
emblem , ; , (type)
1. an object or a representation that functions as a symbol
2. a distinctive badge, design, or device
3. an allegorical picture usually inscribed with a verse or motto presenting a moral lesson

regimentation ; , , ;

rehabilitate , ; /
1. to restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education
2. to restore to good condition, operation, or capacity
3. to reinstate the good name of
4. to restore the former rank, privileges, or rights of
reinstate , ; /;
1. to bring back into use or existence
2. to restore to a previous condition or position

rehabilitation , , ; , ; ,

rehabilitative , /, ;

reimburse () , (repay), ,
1. to repay (money spent); refund
2. to pay back or compensate (another party) for money spent or losses incurred

reinstate , ; /;
1. to bring back into use or existence
2. to restore to a previous condition or position

reiterate ,

rejoice

rejuvenation ,

rekindle <r:kndl> , ;

to say or do again or repeatedly


to feel joyful; be delighted

1. to relight (a fire)
2. to revive or renew
2

relapse ( ) , ; /
1. to fall or slide back into a former state
2. to regress after partial recovery from illness
3. to slip back into bad ways; backslide

relegate , ; (, ) , ; , /
1. to assign to an obscure place, position, or condition
2. to assign to a particular class or category; classify
3. to refer or assign (a matter or task, for example) for decision or action
4. to send to a place of exile; banish

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relent ;

relentless ,

to become more lenient, compassionate, or forgiving


1. unyielding in severity or strictness; unrelenting
2. steady and persistent; unremitting
3

relevance
1. pertinence to the matter at hand
2. applicability to social issues
3. (Computer science) the capability of an information retrieval system to select and retrieve data
appropriate to a user's needs

relevant

relic , (ruins); , ; [pl.] (remains)

having a bearing on or connection with the matter at hand


1. something that has survived the passage of time, especially an object or a custom whose original
culture had disappeared
2. something cherished for its age or historic interest
3. an object kept for its association with the past; a memento
4. an object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a saint
5. relics. a corpse; remains
cherish , ; ; (, )
1. to treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear
2. to keep fondly in mind; entertain
memento ;
a reminder of the past; a keepsake
keepsake , (memento)
something given or kept; a memento
2

relinquish , ; /;
1. to retire from; give up or abandon
2. to put aside or desist from (something practiced, professed, or intended)
3. to let go; surrender
4. to cease holding physically; release
desist ,
to cease doing something; forbear

reluctant
1. unwilling; disinclined
2. exhibiting or marked by unwillingness
3. offering resistance; opposing

remarkable , ; ,
1. worth of notice
2. attracting notice as being unusual or extraordinary

reminisce ,

remnant , , ; , (relic)

to recollect and tell of past experiences or events


1. something left over; a remainder
2. a leftover piece of fabric remaining after the rest has been used or sold
3. a surviving trace or vestige
4. often remnants. a small surviving group of people
vestige , ,
2

remorse , ;
moral anguish arising from repentance for past misdeeds; bitter regret

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remunerate , ; (, )
1. to pay (a person) a suitable equivalent in return for goods provided, services rendered, or losses
incurred; recompense
2. to compensate for; make payment for

remuneration , (reward), (pay)

renegade , ; ,
1. one who rejects a religion, a cause, an allegiance, or a group for another; a deserter
2. an outlaw; a rebel

renege <ring> () ( ) [ ];
1. to fail to carry out a promise or commitment
2. (Games) to fail to follow suit in cards when able and required by the rules to do so

renovate
1. to restore to an earlier condition, as by repairing or remodeling
2. to impart new vigor to; revive

renown ,
the quality of being widely honored and acclaimed; fame
acclaim ,
to praise enthusiastically and often publicly; applaud

renowned ,

rent , ; ( ) , ; ,

reparation ()

having renown; famous

1. the act or process of repairing or the condition of being repaired


2. the act or process of making amends; expiation
3. something done or paid to compensate or make amends
4. reparations. compensation or remuneration required from a defeated nation as indemnity for
damage or injury during a war
amends <mndz> (reparation)
recompense for grievance or injury
grievance ,
1. a. an actual or supposed circumstance regarded as just cause for protest b. a complaint or
protestation based on such a circumstance
2. indignation or resentment stemming from a feeling of having been wronged
expiate () ,
to make amends or reparation for; atone
atone , , (make amends)
to make amends, as for a sin or fault
1

repatriate (, )
to restore or return to the country of birth, citizenship, or origin

repeal ( ) ,
to revoke or rescind, especially by an official or formal act
rescind
to make void; repeal or annul

repercussion () ; () , () ;
1. an often indirect effect, influence, or result that is produced by an event or action
2. a recoil, rebounding, or reciprocal motion after impact
3. a reflection, especially of sound
recoil , ; , ;
1. to spring back, as upon firing
2. to shrink back, as in fear or repugnance

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3. to fall back; return


1

repertoire <rptsr>
1. the stock of songs, plays, operas, readings, or other pieces that a player or company is prepared
to perform
2. the range or number of skills, aptitudes, or special accomplishments of a particular person or
group

repetition , ; , ,
1. the act or process or an instance of repeating or being repeated
2. a recitation or recital, especially of prepared or memorized material

repine ,
1. to be discontented or low in spirits; complain or fret
2. to yearn after something
fret , ; , (ruffle); ( ) , ( )

1. to cause to be uneasy; vex
2. a. to gnaw or wear away; erode b. to produce a hole or worn spot in; corrode
3. to form (a passage or channel) by erosion
4. to disturb the surface of (water or a stream); agitate
gnaw , ; ,
1. a. to bite, chew on, or erode with the teeth b. to produce by gnawing c. to erode or
diminish gradually as if by gnawing
2. to afflict or worry persistently
yearn <j:rn> , ; ; ,
1. to have a strong, often melancholy desire
2. to feel deep pity, sympathy, or tenderness

replenish ; ; /
1. to fill or make complete again; add a new stock or supply to
2. to inspire or nourish

reportorial , ;

repose , ; , ; , ; ,
1. the act of resting or the state of being at rest
2. freedom from worry; peace of mind
3. calmness; tranquillity

reprehensible ,

representative

deserving rebuke or censure; blameworthy


1. one that serves as an example or a type for others of the same classification
2. one that serves as a delegate or an agent for another
3. a. a member of a governmental body, usually legislative, chosen by popular vote b. a member of
the U.S. House of Representatives or of the lower house of a state legislature
2

repress , ; (check),
1. to hold back by an act of volition
2. to put down by force, usually before total control has been lost; quell
volition <vouln> , ; , ; ,
1. the act or an instance of making a conscious choice or decision
2. a conscious choice or decision
3. the power or faculty of choosing; the will

repression ; ,

reprimand , (reproof); ,
to reprove severely, especially in a formal or official way

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reprobate ; ,
1. morally unprincipled; shameless
2. (Theology) rejected by God and without hope of salvation
unprincipled , ; , ,
lacking principles or moral scruples; unscrupulous

reptile ; ,

repudiate , ; ( )
1. to reject the validity or authority of
2. to reject emphatically as unfounded, untrue, or unjust
3. to refuse to recognize or pay
4. a. to disown (a child, for example) b. to refuse to have any dealings with
emphatic , ; ; ,
1. expressed or performed with emphasis
2. forceful and definite in expression or action
3. standing out in a striking and clearly defined way
disown , ; ()

repudiation , ; ; ,
1. the act of repudiating or the state of being repudiated
2. the refusal, especially by public authorities, to acknowledge a contract or debt

repugnant
1. arousing disgust or aversion; offensive or repulsive
2. (Logic) contradictory; inconsistent

repulse (repel), , ,
1. to drive back; repel
2. to rebuff or reject with rudeness, coldness, or denial

repulsion , , ; ,
1. the act of repulsing or the condition of being repulsed
2. extreme aversion
3. (Physics) the tendency of particles or bodies of the same electric charge or magnetic polarity to
separate

requite (reward); (avenge)


1. to make repayment or return for
2. to avenge

rescind (, ) ,

reservation ; ; ; , ,

reserve , , ; , ; ,

to make void; repeal or annul

1. to keep back, as for future use or for a special purpose


2. to set or cause to be set apart for a particular person or use
3. to keep or secure for oneself; retain
1

reside , ; ( )
1. to live in a place permanently or for an extended period
2. to be inherently present; exist
3. to be vested, as a power or right
vest ; () , ;
1. to place (authority, property, or rights, for example) in the control of a person or group,
especially to give someone an immediate right to person or future possession or enjoyment of
(an estate, for example). used with 'in' : vested his estate in his daughter
2. to invest or endow (a person or group) with something, such as power or rights. used with
'with' : vested the council with broad powers

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3. to clothe or robe, as in ecclesiastical vestments


ecclesiastical , (opp. secular)
1

residence , , ;
1. the place in which one lives; a dwelling
2. the act or a period of residing in a place
3. a medical residency
4. the official home or location of a corporation

residue , ; ,

resignation , ; (a letter of resignation); , ,


1. the act or an instance of resigning
2. an oral or written statement that one is resigning a position or an office
3. unresisting acceptance of something as inescapable; submission

resilience , , (elasticity); (, ) ,
1. the ability to recover quickly from illness, change, or misfortune; buoyancy
2. the property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after being
bent, stretched, or compressed; elasticity

resilient , ; , ; , (buoyant)
1. marked by the ability to recover readily, as from misfortune
2. capable of returning to an original shape or position, as after having been compressed

resolute (determined), ,
firm or determined; unwavering

resolution , ; , ; , (solution)
1. the state or quality of being resolute; firm determination
2. a resolving to do something
3. a course of action determined or decided on
4. a formal statement of a decision or expression of opinion put before or adopted by an assembly
such as the U.S. Congress
6. the fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image, as on a video display terminal
9. a. an explanation, as of a problem or puzzle; a solution b. the part of a literary work in which
the complications of the plot are resolved or simplified
11. the substitution of one metrical unit for another, especially the substitution of two short
syllables for one long syllable in quantitative verse

resonant ( ) , , ; ,
1. a. strong and deep in tone; resounding b. continuing to sound in the ears or memory; echoing
2. producing or exhibiting resonance
3. resulting from or as if from resonance

resort ( ) ; , ,
1. to have recourse
2. to go customarily or frequently; repair
repair /, , /; ()
1. to betake oneself; go
2. to go frequently or habitually
betake , ; ,
to cause (oneself) to go or move

resourceful , / (quickwitted); ,
able to act effectively or imaginatively, especially in difficult situations

resplendent ,
splendid or dazzling in appearance; brilliant

responsive ; , ;
1. answering or replying; responding

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2. readily reacting to suggestions, influences, appeals, or efforts


3. containing or using responses
3

restitution , ; ; ,
1. the act of restoring to the rightful owner something that has been taken away, lost, or
surrendered
2. the act of making good or compensating for loss, damage, or injury; indemnification
3. a return to or restoration of a previous state or position
indemnify , () ; ,
1. to protect against damage, loss, or injury; insure
2. to make compensation to for damage, loss, or injury suffered

restive ( ) ; , ; ,
1. uneasily impatient under restriction, opposition, criticism, or delay
2. resisting control; difficult to control
3. refusing to move. used of a horse or other animal

restrained , ; ,
restrain 1. a. to hold back or keep in check; control b. to hold (a person) back; prevent
2. to deprive of freedom or liberty
3. to limit or restrict

resume <riz:m> ; ( ) ;

resurgence ,

<rzumi> , (summary); ()
1. a continuing after interruption; a renewal
2. a restoration to use, acceptance, activity, or vigor; a revival
1

resurrect ; () , (exhume)
1. to bring back to life; raise from the dead
2. to bring back into practice, notice, or use

resuscitate <AIS stit> ( ) , ( )


to restore consciousness, vigor, or life to

retain , ; ( ) (hire);
1. to maintain possession of
2. to keep or hold in a particular place, condition, or position
3. to keep in mind; remember
4. to hire (an attorney, for example) by the payment of a fee
5. to keep in one's service or pay

retaliate , ;
to return like for like, especially evil for evil

retard (opp. accelerate), ; ,


to cause to move or proceed slowly; delay or impede

reticent
1. inclined to keep one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs to oneself
2. restrained or reserved in style
3. reluctant; unwilling

retire , , /, ()
1. to withdraw, as for rest or seclusion
2. to go to bed
3. to withdraw from one's occupation, business, or office; stop working
4. to fall back or retreat, as from battle
5. to move back or away; recede

retract , ; ( ) ,
1. to take back; disavow

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2. to draw back or in
disavow /

retribution , ; ,
1. something justly deserved; recompense
2. something given or demanded in repayment, especially punishment
3. (Theology) punishment or reward distributed in a future life based on performance in this one

revelation , ; ()
1. a. the act of revealing or disclosing b. something revealed, especially a dramatic disclosure of
something not previously known or realized
2. (Theology) a manifestation of divine will or truth

reverberate (echo), ; (, ) ,
1. to resound in or as if in a succession of echoes; reecho
2. to be repeatedly reflected, as sound waves, heat, or light
3. to be forced or driven back; recoil or rebound
recoil , ; , ,
1. to spring back, as upon firing
2. to shrink back, as in fear or repugnance
3. to fall back; return

revere ,

reverence

to regard with awe, deference, and devotion


1. a feeling of profound awe and respect and often love; veneration
2. an act showing respect, especially a bow or curtsy
3. the state of being revered
1

reverent ,
marked by, feeling, or expressing reverence

revert , ;
1. to return to a former condition, practice, subject, or belief
2. (Law) to return to the former owner or to the former owner's heirs. used of money or property

revile ,
to assail with abusive language; vituperate
vituperate ,
to rebuke or criticize harshly or abusively; berate

revise /, ; ( )
1. to prepare a newly edited version of (a text)
2. to reconsider and change or modify

revoke (, ) ,
to void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing

revolt , ; ,
1. to attempt to overthrow the authority of the state; rebel
2. to oppose or refuse to accept something
3. a. to feel disgust or repugnance b. to turn away in revulsion or abhorrence

rhetoric
1. a. the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively b. a treatise or book discussing
this art
2. skill in using language effectively and persuasively
3. a. a style of speaking or writing, especially the language of a particular subject b. language that
is elaborate, pretentious, insincere, or intellectually
4. verbal communication; discourse

rhinestone ( )

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rhubarb <r:barb> () ()

rhyme ,
1. correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verse
2. a. a poem or verse having a regular correspondence of sounds, especially at the ends of lines b.
poetry or verse of this kind
3. a word that corresponds with another in terminal sound, as 'behold' and 'cold'

riddle n. , v. ( ) ; ( ) ; ( )

v. 1. to pierce with numerous holes; perforate


2. to spread throughout
3. to put (gravel, for example) through a coarse sieve
n. 1. a question or statement requiring thought to answer or understand; a conundrum
2. one that is perplexing; an enigma
sieve ,

ridge (crest), , ,

rife ( ) , ()
1. in widespread existence, practice, or use; increasingly prevalent
2. abundant or numerous

rift , , (split)
1. a narrow fissure in rock
2. a break in friendly relations

rigid ; ; , ; ,
1. not flexible or pliant; stiff
2. not moving; fixed
3. marked by a lack of flexibility; rigorous and exacting
4. scrupulously maintained or performed

rind <raind> [, . peel . , , skin]

ringlet , ; (curl)
1. a long, spirally curled lock of hair
2. a small circle or ring

rite () , ; ,
1. the prescribed or customary form for conducting a religious or other solemn ceremony
2. a ceremonial or series of acts
3. [R] the liturgy or practice of a branch of the Christian church
liturgy <ltrdi> , ()

ritual a. , n. ; , ()

rivet ; ; ( ) ,
1. to fasten or secure with or as if with a rivet
2. to hammer the headless end of so as to form a head and fasten something
3. to fasten or secure firmly; fix
4. to engross or hold (the attention, for example)

riveting <rviti> () ,
wholly absorbing or engrossing one's attention; fascinating

roadway , ()
a road, especially the part over which vehicles travel
pavement ; (); ()
a. a hard, smooth surface, especially of a public area or thoroughfare, that will bear travel b. the
material with which such a surface is made
sidewalk () () ,
a paved walkway along the side of a street

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footpath
a narrow path for persons on food
1

roast ,
1. to cook with dry heat, as in an oven or near hot coals
2. to dry, brown, or parch by exposing to heat
3. to expose to great or excessive heat

rod , , ; , ; ,

roe <rou> () [ . spawn ]

rogue , , , ;
1. an unprincipled, deceitful, and unreliable person; a scoundrel or rascal
2. one who is playfully mischievous; a scamp
3. a wandering beggar; a vagrant
4. a vicious and solitary animal, especially an elephant that had separated itself from its herd
5. an organism, especially a plant, that shows an undesirable variation from a standard
scoundrel <skundrl> , ,
a villain; a rogue
rascal ,
1. one that is playfully mischievous
2. an unscrupulous, dishonest person; a scoundrel
scamp , ; ,
1. a rogue; a rascal
2. a mischievous youngster
vagrant ,
1. one who wanders from place to place without a permanent home or a means of livelihood
2. a wanderer; a rover
3. one who lives on the streets and constitutes a public nuisance
villain <vln> ,
1. a wicked or evil person; a scoundrel
2. a dramatic or fictional character who is typically at odds with the hero
3. something said to be the cause of particular trouble or an evil

rookie ;
1. (Slang) a. an untrained or inexperienced recruit, as in the army or police b. an inexperienced
person; a novice
2. (Sports) a first-year player, especially in a professional sport

roster <rstr> () ; ( )
1. a list, especially of names
2. a list of the names of military officers and enlisted personnel enrolled for active duty

rot , ; ()
1. to undergo decomposition, especially organic decomposition; decay
2. a. to become damaged, weakened, or useless because of decay b. to disappear or fall by decaying
3. to languish; decline
4. to decay morally; become degenerate

rubbish , ; ,
1. refuse; garbage
2. worthless material
3. foolish discourse; nonsense

rudder () , () ; ;

ruddy ( ) ,
a. having a healthy, reddish color b. reddish; rosy

rudimentary , (elementary); () ,

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1. of or relating to basic facts or principles; elementary


2. being in the earliest stages of development; incipient
3. (Biology) imperfectly or incompletely developed; embryonic
incipient ,
beginning to exist or appear
1

rue <ru:> ,

ruffian <r fin> , ,

ruffle , ; , ; () , ; ()

to feel regret, remorse, or sorrow for


1. to disturb the smoothness or regularity of; ripple
2. to pleat or gather (fabric) into a ruffle
3. to erect (the feathers). used of birds
4. to discompose; fluster
5. to flip through (the pages of a book)
fluster ,
to make or become nervous or upset
1

rug ,

ruler , , ;
1. one, such as a monarch or dictator, that rules or governs
2. a straightedged strip, as of wood or metal, for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths
straightedge

rumination ,
1. the act of pondering; meditation
2. the act or process of chewing cud
cud ;

rummage , , ; ( )
1. to search thoroughly by handling, turning over, or disarranging the contents of
2. to discover by searching thoroughly

rumple (, ) , ( )
to wrinkle or form into folds or creases
crease ;

rung () ; () (spoke); ()
1. a rod or bar forming a step of a ladder
2. a crosspiece between the legs of a chair
3. the spoke in a wheel

runic ;
rune ; /
1. a. any of the characters in several alphabets used by ancient Germanic peoples from the 3rd to
the 13th century b. a similar character in another alphabet, sometimes believed to have magic
powers
2. a poem or an incantation of mysterious significance, especially a magic charm
incantation , ,
1. ritual recitation of verbal charms or spells to produce a magic effect
2. a. a formula used in ritual recitation; a verbal charm or spell b. a conventionalized
utterance repeated without thought or aptness; a formula

rust () ; ; ()

ruthless <r:lis> , (pitiless), , (cruel)


having no compassion or pity; merciless

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S
1

sacred ; ; () ;
1. dedicated to or set apart for the worship of a deity
2. worthy of religious veneration
3. made or declared holy
4. dedicated or devoted exclusively to a single use, purpose, or person
5. worthy of respect; venerable
6. of or relating to religious objects, rites, or practices
deity <d:ti> , , ;
1. a god or goddess
2. a. the essential nature or condition of being a god; divinity b. [Deity] God. used with 'the'

saddle ;

sag , , ; , ; ,
1. to sink, droop, or settle from pressure or weight
2. to lose vigor, firmness, or resilience
3. to decline, as in value or price

sagacity , ,
the quality of being discerning, sound in judgment, and farsighted wisdom

sage , , ; ,
1. having or exhibiting wisdom and calm judgment
2. proceeding from or marked by wisdom and calm judgment

salesclerk () , (, shop assistant)

salient , ; , ;
1. projecting or jutting beyond a line or surface; protruding
2. strikingly conspicuous; prominent
3. springing; jumping

saliva <sliv> , (spittle)

salmon

salubrious (, )

salutary <s ljutri> ( ) , ;

conducive or favorable to health or well-being


1. effecting or designed to effect an improvement; remedial
2. favorable to health; wholesome
1

salutation (); () ,
1. a. a polite expression of greeting or goodwill b. (s) greetings indicating respect and affection;
regards
2. a gesture of greeting, such as a bow or kiss
3. a word or phrase of greeting used to begin a letter

salvage ; , ;

salvation , ; ,
a. preservation or deliverance from destruction, difficulty, or evil b. a source, means, or cause of
such preservation or deliverance

sanction , ; , , (approval); ( ) , ; /
1. authoritative permission or approval that makes a course of action valid
2. support or encouragement, as from public opinion or established custom
3. a consideration, an influence, or a principle that dictates an ethical choice
4. a. a law or decree b. the penalty for noncompliance specified in a law or decree
5. a penalty, specified or in the form of moral pressure, that acts to ensure compliance or
conformity
6. a coercive measure adopted usually by several nations acting together against a nation violating

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international law
coerce ; , ,
1. to force to act or think in a certain way by use of pressure, threats, or intimidation;
compel
2. to dominate, restrain, or control forcibly
3. to bring about by force or threat
1

sane , ; (, ) ,
1. of sound mind; mentally healthy
2. having or showing sound judgment; reasonable

sanitation , ; ()
1. formulation and application of measures designed to protect public health
2. disposal of sewage
sewage <s:id> ,

sanity ; ,
1. the quality or condition of being sane; soundness of mind
2. soundness of judgment or reason

sap n. , , v. ;
v. ... ; (, ) ,
1. to drain of sap
2. to hit or knock out with a sap
1. to undermine the foundation of (a fortification)
2. to deplete or weaken gradually; devitalize

sarcasm , , [ . irony ]
1. a cutting, often ironic remark intended to wound
2. a form of wit that is marked by the use of sarcastic language and is intended to make its victim
the buff of contempt or ridicule
3. the use of sarcasm

sash <s> , ( ) (), ; ,


a band or ribbon worn about the waist, as for ornament, or over the shoulder as a symbol of rank
a frame in which the panes of a window or door are set

sate ,
1. to satisfy (an appetite) fully
2. to satisfy to excess

satiate ; , (sate)
1. to satisfy (an appetite or a desire) fully
2. to satisfy to excess

satire ; , [ , . sarcasm ]
1. a. a literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit b. the
branch of literature constituting such works
2. irony, sarcasm, or caustic wit used to attack or expose folly, vice, or stupidity

satirize ;

saturn

saunter <s :ntr> , ; (idle)

savant <sv:nt> ,

to ridicule or attack by means of satire

to walk at a leisurely pace; stroll


1. a learned person; a scholar
2. an idiot savant
1

saving , ; , ; () ,

savor , , ; , ; (),

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1. the taste or smell of something


2. a specific taste or smell
3. a distinctive quality or sensation
1

sawdust

scabbard ,

scaffold , ; ; ,

the small particles of wood or other material that fall from an object being sawed

1. a temporary platform, either supported from below or suspended from above, on which workers
sit or stand when performing tasks at heights above the ground
2. a raised wooden framework or platform
3. a platform used in the execution of condemned prisoners, as by hanging or beheading
2

scalpel <sk lpl>

scandal , , ; , ; ,
1. a publicized incident that brings about disgrace or offends the moral sensibilities of society
2. a person, thing, or circumstance that causes or ought to cause disgrace or outrage
3. damage to reputation or character caused by public disclosure of immoral or grossly improper
behavior; disgrace
4. talk that is damaging to one's character; malicious gossip
grossly , ; ,

scanty ,
1. barely sufficient or adequate
2. insufficient, as in extent or degree

scarce , , ; ,
1. insufficient to meet a demand or requirement; short in supply
2. hard to find; absent or rare

scarcity , ; , ;

scenery <s:nri> ; ,
1. a view or views of natural features, especially in open country
2. the painted backdrops on a theatrical stage

scent , ; ; ; ,
1. a distinctive, often agreeable odor
2. a perfume
3. an odor left by the passing of an animal
4. the trail of a hunted animal or fugitive
5. the sense of smell
6. a hint of something imminent; a suggestion

sceptic, skeptic ,
1. one who instinctively or habitually doubts, questions, or disagree with assertions or generally
accepted conclusions
2. one inclined to skepticism in religious matters

schematic ; ,

scheme , ; , ; , ; , ; ,

of, relating to, or in the form of a scheme or diagram


1. a systematic plan of action
2. a secret or devious plan; a plot
3. an impractical or unrealistic plan
4. an orderly combination of related parts
5. a chart, a diagram, or an outline of a system or an object

schism <sizm> () ,
1. a separation or division into factions

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2. a. a formal breach of union within a Christian church b. the offense of attempting to produce
such a breach
3. disunion; discord
1

scholarly , ; , (opp. popular)

scoop , ; , ; () ,

scorch <skrt> , ; ,

of, relating to, or characteristic of scholars or scholarship

1. to burn superficially so as to discolor or damage the texture of


2. to wither or parch with intense heat
3. to destroy by or as if by fire (all land and buildings in one's path) so as to leave nothing
salvageable to an enemy army
4. to subject to severe censure; excoriate
1

scotch <skat> ( ) , , (, ) , ; ,
; ,
1. to put an abrupt end to
2. to injure so as to render harmless
3. to cut or score
to block (a wheel, for example) with a prop to prevent rolling or slipping

scourge <sk:rd> , ; , ; ,
1. a source of widespread, dreadful affliction and devastation such as that caused by pestilence or
war
2. a means of inflicting severe suffering, vengeance, or punishment
3. a whip used to inflict punishment
devastation , ; ,
devastate () , () ,
1. to lay waste; destroy
2. to overwhelm; confound; stun
confound (confuse); / ; (, ) ,
stun , ,
pestilence <pstlns> , ; (epidemic)

scribble , ; (, )
1. to write hurriedly without heed to legibility or style
2. to cover with scribbles, doodles, or meaningless marks
doodle ( ) ;
1. to scribble aimlessly, especially when preoccupied
2. to kill time

scruple , ; ; ; ,
1. an uneasy feeling arising from conscience or principle that tends to hinder action
2. (Abbreviation) sc. scr. a unit of apothecary weight equal to about 1.3 grams, or 20 grains
3. a minute part or amount
apothecary <pkri> ; ()
1. one that prepares and sells drugs and other medicines; a pharmacist
2. pharmacy
pharmacy , ; ,
1. the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
2. a place where drugs are sold; a drugstore
dispense , () ; () , ; () (exempt)
1. to deal out in parts or portions; distribute
2. to prepare and give out (medicines)
3. to administer (laws, for example)

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4. to exempt or release, as from a duty or religious obligation


2

scrupulous , ; , ; ,
1. conscientious and exact; painstaking
2. having scruples; principled

C 1. Someone who is scrupulous takes great care to do what is fair, honest, or morally right.

C 2. Scrupulous means thorough, exact, and careful about details.


conscientious , ; ,

scrutinize , ; /
to examine or observe with great care; inspect critically

scrutiny ,
1. a close, careful examination or study
2. close observation; surveillance
surveillance <srvilns> , ,
1. close observation of a person or group, especially one under suspicion
2. the act of observing or the condition of being observed

sculpt (sculpture)
1. to sculpture (an object)
2. to shape, mold, or fashion especially with artistry or precision

scurvy <sk:rvi>

n. [vitamin C ] a. , ,

seafloor = seabed
the bottom of a sea or an ocean

seam , ; , ; , , ; ()

seamy /; , ; ,
1. sordid; base
2. having, marked with, or showing a seam
sordid ( ) , ; (, ) , ,

sear , ; , ;
1. to char, scorch, or burn the surface of with or as if with a hot instrument
2. to cause to dry up and wither
char ,
scorch , ;
1. to burn superficially so as to discolor or damage the texture of
2. to wither or parch with intense heat
3. to destroy by or as if by fire (all land and buildings in one's path) so as to leave nothing
salvageable to an enemy army
4. to subject to severe censure; excoriate
excoriate / ;
1. to tear or wear off the skin of; abrade
2. to censure strongly; denounce

seasoning , ; , ; , ,
1. something, such as a spice or herb, used to flavor food
2. the act or process by which something is seasoned

season () , (spice); ; () , () (mature);


,
1. to improve or enhance the flavor of (food) by adding salt, spices, herbs, or other flavorings
2. to add zest, piquancy, or interest to
3. to treat or dry (lumber, for example) until ready for use; cure
4. to render competent through trial and experience
5. to accustom or inure; harden
6. to moderate; temper

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zest () ; , ; ,
1. a. flavor or interest; piquancy b. the outermost part of the rind of an orange or a lemon,
used as flavoring
2. spirited enjoyment; gusto
gusto , ;
1. vigorous enjoyment; zest
2. individual taste
piquant ( ) ; ; ,
1. pleasantly pungent or tart in taste; spicy
2. a. appealingly provocative b. charming, interesting, or attractive
inure ,
to habituate to something undesirable, especially by prolonged subjection; accustom
2

seclude , /; [ oneself]
1. to set or keep apart, as from social contact with others
2. to screen from view; make private

secrecy <s:krsi> , ;
1. the quality or condition of being secret or hidden; concealment
2. the ability or habit of keeping secrets; closeness

secrete , ; ()
1. to conceal in a hiding place; cache
2. to steal secretly; filch
to generate and separate (a substance) from cells or bodily fluids

secretion , ; () ()

security , ; , ; , ; [pl.] (stocks and bonds)

sedative
an agent or a drug having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect

sedentary , ; ,

sediment , ; ()

seductive (enticing), , (attractive)


tending to seduce
seduce , , ; ( ) , (attract)
1. to lead away from duty, accepted principles, or proper conduct
2. to induce to engage in sex
3. a. to entice or beguile into a desired state or position b. to win over; attract

sedulity

sedulous <sduls> , ;
persevering and constant in effort or application; assiduous
persevere , ,
to persist in or remain constant to a purpose, an idea, or a task in the face of obstacles or
discouragement
assiduous , ; ,
1. constant in application or attention; diligent
2. unceasing; persistent

seeming , , ; ,
apparent; ostensible
apparent , ; ,
1. readily seen; visible
2. readily understood; clear or obvious
3. appearing as such but not necessarily so; seeming
ostensible , ,

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represented or appearing as such


1

seemly , ; ,
1. conforming to standards of conduct and good taste; suitable
2. of pleasing appearance; handsome

segregate ,
1. to separate or isolate from others or from a main body or group
2. to impose the separation of 9a race or class) from the rest of society

seine <sein> , ; ()
a large fishing net made to hang vertically in the water by weights at the lower edge and floats at
the top

self-assured ;

self-possession ,

having or showing confidence and poise


full command of one's faculties, feelings, and behavior
1

self-reliance
reliance on one's own capabilities, judgment, or resource; independence

self-righteous
1. piously sure of one's own righteousness; moralistic
2. exhibiting pious self-assurance

seminal , ; , ; ,

senator <sntr>
congressman () , ()
representative , ; , ()
the House of Representatives ()
parliament () , (the House of Lords, the House of Commons)
congress () , (the Senate, the House of Representatives)

sensible , , ; , (appreciable); /

sensitize ,

sensual , ; (lewd)
1. relating to or affecting any of the senses or a sense organ; sensory
2. a. of, relating to, given to, or providing gratification of the physical and especially the sexual
appetites b. suggesting sexuality; voluptuous c. physical rather than spiritual or intellectual d.
lacking in moral or spiritual interests; worldly
voluptuous , ; , ; ,

sensuous ; ;
1. of, relating to, or derived from the senses
2. appealing to or gratifying the senses
3. a. readily affected through the senses b. highly appreciative of the pleasures of sensation

sentient <snint> ; ,
1. having sense perception; conscious
2. experiencing sensation or feeling

sentimentality , ; /
1. the quality or condition of being excessively of affectedly sentimental
2. a sentimental idea or an expression of it

sere ,
withered; dry

serene , , ; ,
1. unaffected by disturbance; calm and unruffled
2. unclouded; fair

serenity , ; , ,

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the state or quality of being serene; tranquillity


1

serf ;

serrated <sritid> = serrate <sreit>


notched like the edge of a saw; saw-toothed; serrate

serration ;

servile
1. abjectly submissive; slavish
2. a. of or suitable to a slave or servant b. of or relating to servitude or forced labor

servility /,

sever <svr> , ; , ; (, )
1. to set or keep apart; divide or separate
2. to cut off (a part) from a whole
3. to break up (a relationship, for example); dissolve

sewage <s:id> ,

sewer <s:r> , ; /

shaft , ; ; , , ;

shallow (opp. deep); ,

liquid and solid waste carried off in sewers or drains


an artificial, usually underground conduit for carrying off sewage or rainwater

1. measuring little from bottom to top or surface; lacking physical depth


2. lacking depth of intellect, emotion, or knowledge
3. marked by insufficient inhalation of air; weak
inhalation (opp. exhalation)
2

shard , (fragments); (scale), (shell)

shatter , ; ( ) , ( ) ; ,
1. to cause to break or burst suddenly into pieces, as with a violent blow
2. a. to damage seriously; disable b. to cause the destruction or ruin of; destroy

shave , ; , ; , ; ( )

shear ( ) , ; /
1. to remove (fleece or hair) by cutting or clipping
2. to remove the hair or fleece from
3. to cut with or as if with shears
4. to divest or deprive as if by cutting
fleece ; , ,

sheath <i:> , (cover); ( )


1. a. a case for a blade, as of a sword b. any of various similar coverings
2. a close-fitting dress

sheer ; , ; ;
1. thin, fine, and transparent
2. a. completely such, without qualification or exception b. free from admixture or adulterants;
unmixed c. considered or operating apart from anything else
3. almost perpendicular; steep

shelf , ; , ,

sheriff () ; () /
1. the chief law enforcement officer for the courts in a U.S. county
2. an officer of a county or administrative region in England, Northern Ireland, and Scotland,
charged mainly with judicial duties
county (), ()

shirk , ,
to avoid or neglect (a duty or responsibility)

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shoddy <di> /; ,
1. made of or containing inferior material
2. a. of poor quality or craft b. rundown; shabby
3. dishonest or reprehensible
4. conspicuously and cheaply imitative
shabby , , ; , ;
conspicuous , ; ; ,
1. easy to notice; obvious
2. attraction attention, as by being unusual or remarkable; noticeable

shortfall
1. a failure to attain a specified amount or level; a shortage
2. the amount by which a supply falls short of expectation, need, or demand

shortsighted ,
1. nearsighted; myopic
2. lacking foresight
nearsighted unable to see distant objects clearly; myopic
farsighted 1. able to see distant objects better than objects at close range; hyperopic
2. capable of seeing to a great distance
3. planning prudently for the future; foresighted
foresight 1. perception of the significance and nature of events before they have occurred
2. care in providing for the future; prudence
3. the act of looking forward

shove () ,
1. to push forward or along
2. to push rudely or roughly

showing ; , ; , ; , ;
1. the act of presenting or displaying
2. performance, as in a competition or test of skill
3. a presentation of evidence, facts, or figures

shred , ; ,
1. a long, irregular strip cut or torn off
2. a small amount; a particle
v. to cut or tear into shreds

shrewd , ; , ; ,
1. characterized by keen awareness, sharp intelligence, and often a sense of the practical
2. disposed to artful and cunning practices; tricky
3. sharp; penetrating

shriek <ri:k> , , (, )

shrill , ; (, ) , ,
1. high-pitched and piercing in tone or sound
2. producing a sharp, high-pitched tone or sound
3. sharp or keen to the senses; harshly vivid

shrine , ; ,

shrug ()

shuck (, ) , ; (, ) , ; ()

shun ,

to raise (the shoulders), especially as a gesture of doubt, disdain, or indifference

to avoid deliberately; keep away from


1

shunt , ; (, ) ,
1. to turn or move aside or onto another course

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2. to evade by putting aside or ignoring


3. to switch (a train or car) from one track to another
1

sibyl <sbil> , ; ,

sidereal
1. of, relating to, or concerned with the stars or constellations; stellar
2. measured or determined by means of the apparent daily motion of the stars
constellation , ; (galaxy); ,

sideshow ;
1. a small show offered in addition to the main attraction, as at a circus
2. a diversion or spectacle that is incidental to a larger set of circumstances or a bigger issue of
concern

sidestep
1. to step aside
2. to dodge an issue or a responsibility
dodge , ; ()

signatory ,

signify , , ; ... ,

bound by signed agreement


1. to denote; mean
2. to make known, as with a sign or word
1

sill , , (windowsill)
the horizontal member that bears the upright portion of a frame, especially the horizontal member
that forms the base of a window

silt [ ]

silversmith

simper ,
to smile in a silly, self-conscious, often coy manner
coy , ; () ,

sinecure <sinikjr>

sinewy , ; ; ()

single-minded ( ) , ,

a position or an office that requires little or no work but provides a salary

1. having one overriding purpose or goal


2. steadfast; resolute
1

sinkhole , ( ) ; ()

sinuous , ; ,
1. characterized by many curves or turns; winding
2. characterized by supple and lithe movements
3. not direct; devious
4. sinuate
supple , ; ,
1. readily bent; pliant
2. moving and bending with agility; limber
3. yielding or changing readily; compliant or adaptable
limber ( ) , ;
1. bending or flexing readily; pliable
2. capable of moving, bending, or contorting easily; supple
lithe <lai> ,
1. readily bent; supple
2. marked by effortless grace

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sip

skeptical
1. marked by or given to doubt; questioning
2. relating to or characteristic of skeptics or skepticism

skepticism
1. a doubting or questioning attitude or state of mind; dubiety
2. (Philosophy) the doctrine that absolute knowledge is impossible and that inquiry must be a
process of doubting in order to acquire approximate or relative certainty
3. doubt or disbelief of religious tenets

sketchy ; , ;

skiff ;

skimp , ; ( )
1. to deal with hastily, carelessly, or with poor material
2. to give inadequate funds to; be stingy with

skinflint
one who is very reluctant to spend money; a miser

skirmish , ;
1. a minor battle in war, as one between small forces or between large forces avoiding direct
conflict
2. a minor or preliminary conflict or dispute

skit () ; ,
1. a short, usually comic dramatic performance or work; a theatrical sketch
2. a short humorous or satirical piece of writing

skyscraper a very tall building

slab () ; ;
1. a broad, flat, thick piece, as of cake, stone, or cheese
2. an outside piece cut from a log when squaring it for lumber

slack , ; , ; , ; ;

slag ,
the vitreous mass left as a residue by the smelting of metallic ore
vitreous <vtris> , , ;

slake (, ) , ( ) ; , ()
1. to satisfy (a craving); quench
2. to lessen the force or activity of; moderate
3. to cool or refresh by wetting or moistening
4. to combine (lime) chemically with water or moist air
lime

slanderous , ,

slay ; ; () ,
1. to kill violently
2. (Slang) to overwhelm, as with laughter or love

sleet

slender , , ; , , ; ,
1. a. having little width in proportion to height or length; long and thin b. thin and delicate in
build; gracefully slim
2. small in amount or extent; meager

slew () , ,
(Informal) a large amount of number; a lot

slick , ; , ; ,
1. smooth, glossy, and slippery

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2. deftly executed; adroit


3. shrewd; wily
4. superficially attractive or plausible but lacking depth or soundness; glib
wily <wili> , , (sly)
wile , ,
1. a stratagem or trick intended to deceive or ensnare
2. a disarming or seductive manner, device, or procedure
3. trickery; cunning
ensnare , ; (allure)
glib , ; (, ) ,
1. a. performed with a natural, offhand ease b. showing little thought, preparation, or concern
2. marked by ease and fluency of speech or writing that often suggests or stems from
insincerity, superficiality, or deceitfulness
1

slippage ; , ,

slither
1. to slip and slide, as on a loose or uneven surface, often with friction and noise
2. to glide or slide like a reptile

sliver /, ; ()

sloppy ; , ;
1. marked by a lack of neatness or order; untidy
2. marked by a lack of care or precision; slipshod
3. of, resembling, or covered with slop; muddy or slushy
4. watery and unappetizing
5. spotted or splashed with liquid
slipshod ; ; (slovenly),
1. marked by carelessness; sloppy or slovenly
2. slovenly in appearance; shabby or seedy
seedy ; , ,
1. having many seeds
2. resembling seeds or a seed
3. worn and shabby; unkempt
4. tired or sick; unwell
5. somewhat disreputable; squalid
unkempt () ; ( ) ,
1. a. not combed b. not properly maintained; disorderly or untidy
2. unpolished; rude
squalid , , ; ,
1. dirty and wretched, as from poverty or lack of care
2. morally repulsive; sordid
slop ,
slushy ; , ,
watery , ; , , , ; ( )
unappetizing , ,
splash ( ) , ;

slouch , ; () ,

slough <slu:> , ; , ; , ()

sluggard ,

sluggish , ; , ; ,

<slf> ( ) , ; /

1. displaying little movement or activity; slow; inactive

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2. lacking alertness, vigor, or energy; inert or indolent


3. slow to perform or respond to stimulation
3

slur , ; (, ) ,
1. to pronounce indistinctly
2. to speak slightingly of; disparage
3. to pass over lightly or carelessly; treat without due consideration

smart , ; , ; ;
1. a. to cause a sharp, usually superficial, stinging pain b. to be the location of such pain c. to feel
such a pain
2. to suffer acutely, as from mental distress, wounded feelings, or remorse
3. to suffer or pay a heavy penalty

smear , ; ( ) , ; ,

smelt () , ()
to melt or fuse (ores) in order to separate the metallic constituents

smirk
to smile in an affected, often offensively self-satisfied manner

smolder , ; () ,
1. to burn with little smoke and no flame
2. to exist in a suppressed state
3. to show signs of repressed anger or hatred

smother , (suffocate); () ; ()
1. a. to suffocate (another) b. to deprive (a fire) of the oxygen necessary for combustion
2. to conceal, suppress, or hide
3. to cover (a foodstuff) thickly with another foodstuff
4. to lavish a surfeit of a given emotion on (someone)
surfeit , ; , , (satiety)

smudge , ; () , ( )
1. to make dirty, especially in one small area
2. to smear or blur (something)
3. to fill (an orchard or another planted area) with dense smoke from a smudge pot in order to
prevent damage from insects or frost

smug ,
exhibiting or feeling great or offensive satisfaction with oneself or with one's situation;
self-righteously complacent

snare , ; ,

snatch , ,
1. to grasp or seize hastily, eagerly, or suddenly
2. to grasp or seize illicitly
illicit ,
not sanctioned by custom or law; unlawful

sneer , ; ,
1. a scornful facial expression characterized by a slight raising of one corner of the upper lip
2. a contemptuous facial expression, sound, or statement

snide ; , ; , (derogatory)

snip ,

snobbish ,

derogatory in a malicious, superior way; sarcastic


to cut, clip, or separate (something) with short, quick strokes
snob ;
1

snub , ; , ; ; ()

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1. to ignore or behave coldly toward; slight


2. to dismiss, turn down, or frustrate the expectations of
3. to stub out (a cigarette, for example)
1

soak , ; ; () , ( ) ; ,
1. a. to make thoroughly wet or saturated by or as if by placing in liquid b. to immerse in liquid
for a period of time
2. to absorb (liquid, for example) through or as if through pores or interstices
3. to remove (a stain, for example) by continued immersion

soar , ; (, ) , ; ( ) ,
1. to rise, fly, or glide high and with little apparent effort
2. to climb swiftly or powerfully
3. to glide in an aircraft while maintaining altitude
4. to ascend suddenly above the normal or usual level

sober <subr> , ; , ; ,
1. habitually abstemious in the use of alcoholic liquors or drugs; temperate
2. not intoxicated or affected by the use of drugs
3. plain or subdued
4. devoid of frivolity, excess, exaggeration, or speculative imagination; straightforward
5. marked by seriousness, gravity, or solemnity of conduct or character
6. marked by circumspection and self-restraint
frivolous , (trifling), , (silly)
1. unworthy of serious attention; trivial
2. inappropriately silly

sodden , ; ;
1. thoroughly soaked; saturated
2. soggy and heavy from improper cooking; doughy
3. expressionless, stupid, or dull, especially from drink
4. unimaginative; torpid
doughy , (halfbaked); ()
torpid , ; , ;
1. deprived of the power of motion or feeling; benumbed
2. dormant; hibernating
3. lethargic; apathetic

soggy , ; ( ) ;
1. saturated or sodden with moisture; soaked
2. lacking spirit; dull
3. humid; sultry
sultry , ; , ; ,
1. a. very humid and hot b. extremely hot; torrid
2, sensual; voluptuous
voluptuous <vl ptus> , ; , ; ,
1. giving, characterized by, or suggesting ample, unrestrained pleasure to the senses
2. a. devoted to or indulging in sensual pleasures b. directed toward or anticipating sensual
pleasure c. arising from or contributing to the satisfaction of sensuous or sensual desires

solder <sdr> [ ]; , , (bond)


1. any of various fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join metallic parts
2. something that joins or cements

solicit , , ; , ( )
1. to seek to obtain by persuasion, entreaty, or formal application
2. to petition persistently; importune

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3. to entice or incite to evil or illegal action


4. to approach or accost (a person) with an offer of sexual services
importune , ,
1. to beset with insistent or repeated requests; entreat pressingly
2. to annoy; vex
1

solicitation , ;

solicitous , ; , ,
1. a. anxious or concerned b. expressing care or concern
2. full of desire; eager
3. marked by or given to anxious care and often hovering attentiveness
4. extremely careful; meticulous
meticulous , (overscrupulous); ,
1. extremely careful and precise
2. extremely or excessively concerned with details

solicitude , , ; , ;

solidarity , , ;
a union of interests, purposes, or sympathies among members of a group; fellowship of
responsibilities and interests

soliloquy ();

solubility , ;
1. the quality or condition of being soluble
2. the amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent

soluble
1. that can be dissolved, especially easily dissolved
2. possible to solve or explain

solvency ;

solvent
1. capable of meeting financial obligations
2. (Chemistry) capable of dissolving another substance

somatic ,

somber <smbr> , , ; ,
1. a. dark; gloomy b. dull or dark in color
2. a. melancholy; dismal b. serious; grave

soot ,

sophisticated
1. having acquired worldly knowledge or refinement; lacking natural simplicity or naivete
2. very complex or complicated
3. suitable for or appealing to the tastes of sophisticates

sophistry ; ,

soporific , ,
1. inducing or tending to induce sleep
2. drowsy

sordid , ; , ,
1. filthy or dirty; foul
2. depressingly squalid; wretched
3. morally degraded
4. exceedingly mercenary; grasping
squalid , ; ,
1. dirty and wretched, as from poverty or lack of care
2. morally repulsive; sordid

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mercenary ; (hired)
1. motivated solely by a desire for monetary or material gain
2. hired for service in a foreign army
grasping , ;
exceedingly eager for material gain; avaricious
1

sow v. n.

sparing ; ;
1. given to or marked by prudence and restraint in the use of material resources
2. deficient or limited in quantity, fullness, or extent
3. forbearing; lenient

sparring <sp:ri> ; ,

sparse
occurring, growing, or settled at widely spaced intervals; not thick or dense

spatula

spawn (, ) ; ; () , ; ()

spear , ; () ,

specify
1. to state explicitly or in detail
2. to include in a specification
3. to state as a condition

specious
1. having the ring of truth or plausibility but actually fallacious
2. deceptively attractive

spectacular ; , ; (dramatic)

speculation , ; , ; , ;

of the nature of a spectacle; impressive or sensational


1. a. contemplation or consideration of a subject; meditation b. a conclusion, an opinion, or a theory
reached by conjecture c. reasoning based on inconclusive evidence; conjecture or supposition
2. a. engagement in risky business transactions on the chance of quick or considerable profit b. a
commercial or financial transaction involving speculation
1

speculative , ; ,
1. of, characterized by, or based upon contemplative speculation
2. a. given to conjecture or speculation b. marked by inquisitive interest
3. a. engaging in, given to, or involving financial speculation b. spent in speculation c. involving
chance; risky

spendthrift

spice ; , ; ,

spine , ; ; , ; , (thorn)

spite , , , (grudge)

one who spends money recklessly or wastefully

1. malicious ill will prompting an urge to hurt or humiliate


2. an instance of malicious feeling
1

splendor
1. great light or luster; brilliance
2. a. magnificent appearance or display; grandeur b. something grand or magnificent
3. great fame; glory

splice ( ) , ; ( ) , ; ()
1. a. to join (film, for example) at the ends b. to join (ropes, for example) by interweaving strands
2. to join (pieces of wood) by overlapping and binding at the ends
3. to join together or insert (segments of DNA or RNA) so as to form new genetic combinations or

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alter a genetic structure


4. (Slang) to join in marriage
1

splinter , , ; ( ) ;
1. a sharp, slender piece, as of wood, bone, glass, or metal, split or broken off from a main body
2. a splinter group

spontaneity
1. the quality or condition of being spontaneous
2. spontaneous behavior, impulse, or movement

spontaneous
1. happening or arising without apparent external cause; self-generated
2. arising from a natural inclination or impulse and not from external incitement or constraint
3. unconstrained and unstudied in manner or behavior
4. growing without cultivation or human labor; indigenous
indigenous , , ,
1. originating and growing or living in an area or environment
2. intrinsic; innate

sporadic, sporadical
1. occurring at irregular intervals; having no pattern or order in time
2. appearing singly or at widely scattered localities, as a plant or disease
3. isolated; unique

spot , ; ; () ; (, TV)

spur ; , ,

spurious , ; ,
1. lacking authenticity or validity in essence or origin; not genuine; false
2. of illegitimate birth
3. (Botany) similar in appearance but unlike in structure or function. used of plant parts

spurn ; ,
1. to reject disdainfully or contemptuously; scorn
2. to kick at or treat on disdainfully

squalid , ; ,
1. dirty and wretched, as from poverty or lack of care
2. morally repulsive; sordid

squalor <skwlr> , (filth);


a filthy and wretched condition or quality

squander ,
to spend wastefully or extravagantly; dissipate

squat , ; ; () ,

squelch , ; ; (, )
1. to crush by or as if by trampling; squash
2. to put down or silence, as with a crushing retort
retort , ; , ,
1. a. to reply, especially to answer in a quick, caustic, or witty manner b. to present a
counterargument to
2. to return in kind; pay back

stable n. , ; a. , ; ,

stagnation , ; ,
stagnant 1. not moving or flowing; motionless
2. foul or stale from standing
3. a. showing little or no sign of activity or advancement; not developing or progressing; inactive b.
lacking vitality or briskness; sluggish or dull

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stain
1. to discolor, soil, or spot
2. to bring into disrepute; taint or tarnish
3. to color (glass, for example) with a coat of penetrating liquid dye or tint
4. to treat (specimens for the microscope) with a reagent or dye that makes visible certain
structures without affecting others

stake , ; , ( )

stalk n. , v. , ; ,
1. to walk with a stiff, haughty, or angry gait
2. to move threateningly or menacingly
3. to track prey or quarry
quarry , ; ( ) ,
;
1. a. a hunted animal; prey b. hunted animals considered as a group; game
2. an object of pursuit
1. an open excavation or pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting
2. a rich or productive source

stall ;

stanch () , ; ()
1. to stop or check the flow of (blood or tears, for example)
2. to stop the flow of blood from (a wound)
3. to check or allay

stanza
one of the division of a poem, composed of two or more lines usually characterized by a common
pattern of meter, rhyme, and number of lines

stark , ; , ; , ; ,
1. bare; blunt
2. complete or utter; extreme
3. harsh; grim
grim , ; , ; , ; ,

stasis ; , ; ()
1. a condition of balance among various forces; motionlessness
2. (Pathology) stoppage of the normal flow of a body substance, as of blood through an artery or
of intestinal contents through the bowels
intestinal ,

state ; , , ; , ;

statuary , ; ;

statute , , ; ,
1. (Law) a law enacted by a legislature
2. a decree or an edict, as of a ruler
3. an established law or rule, as of a corporation
edict , ;
1. a decree or proclamation issued by an authority and having the force of law
2. a formal pronouncement or command
decree
1. an authoritative order having the force of law
2. (Law) the judgment of a court of equity, admiralty, probate, or divorce

statutory , ,

steadfast
1. fixed or unchanging; steady

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2. firmly loyal or constant; unswerving


1

stealth ,
1. the act of moving, proceeding, or acting in a covert way
2. the quality or characteristic of being furtive or covert
covert , (opp. overt);
1. not openly practiced, avowed, engaged in, accumulated, or shown
2. covered or covered over; sheltered
furtive , , ; ,
1. characterized by stealth; surreptitious
2. expressive of hidden motives or purposes; shifty
surreptitious
1. obtained, done, or made by clandestine or stealthy means
2. acting with or marked by stealth
shifty
1. having, displaying, or suggestive of deceitful character; evasive or untrustworthy
2. distinguished by frequent changes in direction
3. able to accomplish what is needed; resourceful
clandestine
kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose

steep , ; ( ) , ;
1. having a sharp inclination; precipitous
2. at a rapid or precipitous rate
3. a. excessive; stiff b. ambitious; difficult

stem ,
1. to stop or hold back by or as if by damming; stanch
2. to plug or tamp (a blast hoe, for example)
tamp (, ) ; ( )

stereochemistry

stereotype ; /; , ;
1. a conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image
2. one that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type
3. (Printing) a metal printing plate cast from a matrix molded from a raised printing surface, such
as type

stereotyped ; ,
1. lacking originality or creative force
2. (Printing) printed or reproduced from stereotype plates

sterile
1. not producing or incapable of producing offspring
2. a. not producing or incapable of producing seed, fruit spores, or other reproductive structures.
used of plants or their parts b. producing little or no vegetation; unfruitful
3. free from live bacteria or other microorganisms
4. lacking imagination, creativity, or vitality
5. lacking the power to function; not productive or effective; fruitless

sterilize ; , ; /;
1. to make free from live bacteria or other microorganisms
2. to deprive (a person or an animal) of the ability to produce offspring, as by removing the
reproductive organs
3. a. to make incapable of bearing fruit or germinating b. to render (land) unfruitful
4. to make inoffensive or innocuous
germinate , ; (, )

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stern a. , ; , n. , ;

stethoscope <stskup>

stickler , (, ) ; ()
1. one who insists on something unyieldingly
2. something puzzling or difficult

sticky , ; ;
1. having the property of adhering or sticking to a surface; adhesive
2. covered with an adhesive agent
3. warm and humid; muggy
4. (Informal) painful or difficult
muggy warm and extremely humid

stifle , (suffocate); ( ) , ( ) , ( )
1. to interrupt or cut off (the voice, for example)
2. to keep in or hold back; repress
3. to kill by preventing respiration; smother or suffocate

stigma , , ; , ;

stigmatize ... ,
1. to characterize or brand as disgraceful or ignominious
2. to mark with stigmata or a stigma
3. to cause stigmata to appear on
ignominious <gnmnis> , ,
1. marked by shame or disgrace
2. deserving disgrace or shame; despicable
3. degrading; debasing

stimulant ; ,
1. an agent, especially a chemical agent such as caffeine, that temporarily arouses or accelerates
physiological or organic activity
2. a stimulus or an incentive
3. a food or drink, especially an alcoholic drink, believed to have a stimulating effect

stimulation , ; ,

stint , ; ,

stipple ,

stipulate /; (, ) ,

to restrict or limit, as in amount or number; be sparing with

1. a. to lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract b. to specify or arrange in an


agreement
2. to guarantee or promise (something) in an agreement
1

stitch , ;
ex. He wouldn't do a stitch of work.

stock , , ; [] ; ; () ; ,

stockade ,

stoic a. ; , ; (impassive) n. ; /

stolid , , (dull)
having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; impassive

stomach , ; ; ( ) (bear, tolerate)

strand v. ; n. () , () ; ,
1. to drive or run ashore or aground
2. to bring into or leave in a difficult or helpless position

stratagem
1. a military maneuver designed to deceive or surprise an enemy

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2. a clever, often underhand scheme for achieving an objective


1

strategist <str tidist> ,

strategy
1. a. the science and art of using all the forces of a nation to execute approved plans as effectively
as possible during peace or war b. the science and art of military command as applied to the
overall planning and conduct of large-scale combat operations
2. a plan of action resulting from strategy or intended to accomplish a specific goal
3. the art of skill of using stratagems in endeavors such as politics and business

stratum () ; () ,

stray , , ; ,
1. a. to move away from a group, deviate from the correct course, or go beyond established limits
b. to become lost
2. to wander about without a destination or purpose; roam
3. to follow a winding course; meander
4. to deviate from a moral, proper, or right course; err
5. to become diverted from a subject or train of thought; digress
meander ; ;
1. to follow a winding and turning course
2. to move aimlessly and idly without fixed direction

streak (); , ; ,
1. a line, mark, smear, or band differentiated by color or texture from its surroundings
2. a slight contrasting element; a trace

stria <stri> , , ()
1. a thin, narrow groove or channel
2. a thin line or band, especially one of several that are parallel or close together

striate <strieit> ... ()

strident <stridnt> ,
loud, harsh, grating, or shrill; discordant

strive , ; , (struggle); ,
1. to exert much effort or energy; endeavor
2. to struggle or fight forcefully; contend

stroll
1. to go for a leisurely walk
2. to travel from place to place seeking work or gain

strolling ( ) ;

strut v. , n. ,

sturdy , , ; ,

to walk with pompous bearing; swagger


1. having or showing rugged physical strength
2. substantially made or build; stout
3. marked by resoluteness or determination; firm
4. vigorous or robust
1

stygian (Styx); ,
1. a. gloomy and dark b. infernal; hellish
2. of or relating to the river Styx
infernal (opp. supernal); , (hellish)

stylish , ,
conforming to the current fashion; modish

stylize ; /
1. to restrict or make conform to a particular style

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2. to represent conventionally; conventionalize


1

stymie <stimi> ,
1. an obstacle or obstruction
2. (Sports) a situation in golf in which an opponent's ball obstructs the line of play of one's own
ball on the putting green

subdue , ; () ; (, ) ,
1. to conquer and subjugate; vanquish
2. to quiet or bring under control by physical force or persuasion; make tractable
3. to make less intense or prominent; tone down
4. to bring (land) under cultivation

subliminal () ,

submerge , ; ;
1. to place under water
2. to cover with water; inundate
3. to hide from view; obscure

submission , , ; , ; , ;
1. a. the act of submitting to the power of another b. the state of having submitted
2. the state of being submissive or compliant; meekness
3. a. the act of submitting something for consideration b. something so submitted
meek , ; ,

subordinate
1. belonging to a lower or inferior class or rank; secondary
2. subject to the authority or control of another

suborn <sb rn> ,


1. to induce (a person) to commit an unlawful or evil act
2. (Law) a. to induce (a person) to commit perjury b. to procure (perjured testimony)
perjury ;
1. (Law) the deliberate, willful giving of false, misleading, or incomplete testimony under oath
2. the breach of an oath or a promise
procure , ;
1. to get by special effort; obtain or acquire
2. to bring about; effect
3. to obtain for another (a person) for sex acts

subpoena

subservience , ; , ; ,

subside ( ) ; () , , ()
1. to sink to a lower or normal level
2. to sink or settle down, as into a sofa
3. to sink to the bottom, as a sediment
4. to become less agitated or active; abate

subsidiary , ;
1. serving to assist or supplement; auxiliary
2. secondary in importance; subordinate
3. of, relating to, or of the nature of a subsidy

subsidize ;
1. to assist or support with a subsidy
2. to secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy

subsidy , ;
1. monetary assistance granted by a government to a person or group in support of an enterprise
regarded as being in the public interest

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2. financial assistance given by one person or government to another


3. money formerly granted to the British Crown by Parliament
3

substantial , ; , ; , ;
1. of, relating, or having substance; material
2. true or real; not imaginary
3. solidly built; strong
4. ample; sustaining
5. considerable in importance, value, degree, amount, or extent
6. possessing wealth or property; well-to-do

substantiate , ; (prove)
1. to support with proof or evidence; verify
2. a. to give material form to; embody b. to make firm or solid
3. to give substance to; make real or actual

substantiation , ; ;

substantive ; , ; ,
1. substantial; considerable
2. independent in existence or function; not subordinate
3. not imaginary; actual; real
4. of or relating to the essence or substance; essential
5. having a solid basis; firm

subsume <sbs:m> (, )

subterfuge , ; ,

to classify, include, or incorporate in a more comprehensive category or under a general principle


a deceptive stratagem or device
1

subterranean ,
1. situated or operating beneath the earth's surface; underground
2. hidden; secret

subtle
1. a. so slight as to be difficult to detect or analyze; elusive b. not immediately obvious; abstruse
2. able to make fine distinctions
3. a. characterized by skill or ingenuity; clever b. crafty or sly; devious c. operating in a hidden,
usually injurious way; insidious
insidious , ; ,
1. working or spreading harmfully in a subtle or stealthy manner
2. intended to entrap; treacherous
3. beguiling but harmful; alluring
treacherous , ;
1. marked by betrayal of fidelity, confidence, or trust; perfidious
2. not to be relied on; not dependable or trustworthy
3. marked by unforeseen hazards; dangerous or deceptive
perfidious ,
of, relating to, or marked by perfidy; treacherous

subtlety , ; , ; , ; ,

succinct
characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse
terse , ; ,
brief and to the point; effectively concise

succumb <sk m> ( ) , ; (, ) ,


1. to submit to an overpowering force or yield to an overwhelming desire; give up or give in
2. to die

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suede <sweid> [ , ]

suffice <sfis> , ...


1. to meet present needs or requirement; be sufficient
2. to be equal to a specified task; be capable

suffocate , ; ( ) , ( )
1. to kill or destroy by preventing access of air or oxygen
2. to impair the respiration of; asphyxiate
3. to cause discomfort by or as if by cutting off the supply of fresh air
4. to suppress the development, imagination, or creativity of; stifle
asphyxiate <sfksiit>

suffrage <s frid> ; , ;


1. a. the right or privilege of voting; the franchise b. the exercise of such a right
2. a vote cast in deciding a disputed question or in electing a person to office
3. a short intercessor prayer
intercessor , ,

suggestive ; , ; () ,
1. a. tending to suggest; evocative b. stimulating further thought c. conveying a hint or suggestion
2. tending to suggest something improper or indecent

suitcase

sullen , ; (gloomy), ; , ,

a usually rectangular piece of luggage for carrying clothing


1. showing a brooding ill humor or silent resentment; morose or sulky
2. gloomy or somber in tone, color, or portent
3. sluggish; slow
morose , , (sullen)
sullenly melancholy; gloomy
sulky , ; ( )
1. sullenly aloof or withdrawn
2. gloomy; dismal
dismal , ; , ; ,
1. causing gloom or depression; dreary
2. characterized by ineptitude, dullness, or a lack of merit
portent , ; /
1

sully (, ) ,
1. to mar the cleanness or luster of; soil or stain
2. to defile; taint

summarily <smrli> ,

superficial , ; , ; , ; ,
1. of, affecting, or being on or near the surface
2. concerned with comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; shallow
3. apparent rather than actual or substantial
4. trivial; insignificant

superfluous
being beyond what is required or sufficient

superintend (supervise), , /
to oversee and direct; supervise

superiority inferiority

supernova

supersede , ; () , , ; ,
1. to take the place of replace

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2. to cause to be set aside, especially to displace as inferior or antiquated


1

supine ; ,
1. lying on the back or having the face upward
2. having the palm upward. used of the hand
3. marked by or showing lethargy, passivity, or blameworthy indifference
4. inclined; sloping

supplant (, ) , ;
1. to usurp the place of, especially through intrigue or underhanded tactics
2. to displace and substitute for (another)
usurp , ;
1. to seize and hold (the power or rights of another, for example) by force and without legal
authority
2. to take over or occupy without right

suppliant , , ;

supplicant

supplicate ,

asking humbly and earnestly; beseeching


supplicating
1. to ask for humbly or earnestly, as by praying
2. to make a humble entreaty to; beseech
1

supposition , , ; , (assumption)
1. the act of supposing
2. something supposed; an assumption

supremacy , ; , ,

surcharge ; , (extra charge)


1. an additional sum added to the usual amount or cost
2. an overcharge, especially when unlawful
3. an additional or excessive burden; an overload
4. a. a new value or denomination overprinted on a postage or revenue stamp b. the stamp to
which a new value has been applied
5. (Law) the act of surcharging

surf
the wave of the sea as they break upon a shore or reef
reef , ;

surfeit , ; , , (satiety); ,
1. a. overindulgence in food or drink b. the result of such overindulgence; satiety or disgust
2. an excessive amount

surge , ; ( ) ,
1. to move in a billowing or swelling manner in or as if in waves
2. to roll or be tossed about on waves, as a boat
3. to move like advancing waves
4. to increase suddenly. used of electric current or voltage
billow , ; ( )

surgeon
physician

surly <s:rli>

, ; () ,
sullenly ill-humored; gruff
gruff / ;
1. brusque or stern in manner or appearance
2. hoarse; harsh

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brusque <brsk> ,
abrupt and curt in manner or speech; discourteously blunt
1

surmise ,
to infer (something) without sufficiently conclusive evidence

surmount ( ) , ; (, ) ,
1. to overcome (an obstacle, for example); conquer
2. to ascend to the top of; climb
3. a. to place something above; top b. to be above or on top of

surmountable ;

surpass ... , ...


1. to be beyond the limit, powers, or capacity of; transcend
2. to be or go beyond, as in degree or quality; exceed

surreptitious <s:rpts>

, ,
1. obtained, done, or made by clandestine or stealthy means
2. acting with or marked by stealth
clandestine , ,

surrogate , ;

surveyor , ; ,

susceptibility , ; ( )
1. the quality or condition of being susceptible
2. the capacity to be affected by deep emotions or strong feelings; sensitivity
3. [pl.] sensibilities; feelings

suspender /; [pl.] () , ()
1. one, such as a hook, that suspends something else
2. an often elastic strap worn over the shoulders to support trousers. often used in the plural

suspicious , ,
1. arousing or apt to arouse suspicion; questionable
2. tending to suspect; distrustful
3. expressing suspicion

sustenance , ; , ; ,
1. a. the act of sustaining b. the condition of being sustained
2. the supporting of life or health; maintenance
3. something, especially food, that sustains life or health
4. means of livelihood

swamp n. , v. ; () , ; ,
1. to drench in or cover with or as if with water
2. to inundate or burden; overwhelm
3. (Nautical) to fill (a ship or boat) with water to the point of sinking it

swear ; , ;
1. to make a solemn declaration, invoking a deity or a sacred person or thing, in confirmation of
and witness to the honesty or truth of such a declaration
2. to make a solemn promise; vow
3. to use profane oaths; curse
4. (Law) to give evidence or testimony under oath

swerve , ; ,
to turn aside or be turned aside from a straight course

swindle
1. to cheat or defraud of money or property
2. to obtain by fraudulent means

syllogism ;

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sympathetic , , ; ()
1. of, expressing, feeling, or resulting from sympathy
2. favorably inclined
3. agreeably suited to one's disposition or mood; congenial
4. of, relating to, or acting on the sympathetic nervous system
5. a. relating to or being vibrations, especially musical tones, produced in one body by energy from
nearby vibrating body and having the same frequency as the vibration of the nearby body b.
emitting such vibrations

sympathy , , ; , , , ; (), ; ,

symptomatic , , ; ... (indicative)


1. of, relating to, or based on symptoms
2. constituting a symptom, as of a disease

synapse () , ( )

synchronous
1. occurring or existing at the same time
2. moving or operating at the same rate
3. a. having identical periods b. having identical period and phase

syncopate () , ()
1. (Grammar) to shorten (a word) by syncope
2. (Music) to modify (rhythm) by syncopation

synonymous
1. having the same or a similar meaning
2. equivalent in connotation

synopsis , , (summary)

synoptic , ; [S]

a brief outline or general view, as of a subject or written work; an abstract or a summary


1. of or constituting a synopsis; presenting a summary of the principal parts or a general view of
the whole
2. a. taking the same point of view b. often Synoptic. relating to or being the first three gospels of
the New Testament, which correspond closely
1

synthetic , ; , ; (substitute)

syringe <sirind>

systematize , ,
to formulate into or reduce to a system

T
4

tacit , ; ,
1. not spoken
2. a. implied by or inferred from actions or statements b. (Law) arising by operation of the law
rather than through direct expression

taciturn ,

tact , ; ,

habitually untalkative
acute sensitivity to what is proper and appropriate in dealing with others, including the ability to
speak or act without offending
1

tactless , ,

tadpole

taint , , , , /

lacking or exhibiting a lack of tact; bluntly inconsiderate or indiscreet

1. to affect with or as if with a disease

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2. to affect with decay or putrefaction; spoil


3. to corrupt morally
4. to affect with a tinge of something reprehensible
putrefaction ();
tinge ; ,
1. a small amount of a color incorporated or added
2. a slight added element, property, or influence
1

talon <t ln> ( ) ,

tamp (, ) , ( )
1. to pack down tightly by a succession of blows or taps
2. to pack clay, sand, or dirt into (a drill hole) above an explosive

tamper , ; , ; ,
1. to interfere in a harmful manner
2. to tinker with rashly or foolishly
3. to engage in improper or secret dealings, as in an effort to influence

tan () ;
1. to convert (hide) into leather, as by treating with tannin
2. to make brown by exposure to the sun
3. (Informal) to thrash; beat

tangential , ; ,
1. of, relating to, or moving along or in the direction of a tangent
2. merely touching or slightly connected
3. only superficially relevant; divergent

tangible , , (corporeal); ,
1. a. discernible by the touch; palpable b. possible to touch c. possible to be treated as fact; real or
concrete
2. possible to understand or realize
3. (Law) that can be valued monetarily

tangle , ; , ;
1. to mix together or intertwine in a confused mass; snarl
2. to involve in hampering or awkward complications; entangle
3. to catch and hold in or as if in a net; entrap
snarl , , ; ,

tanner

tantalize /
to excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach

tapestry <t pistri>

tare () ; / , (, )

tarnish ( ) , ; ( )
1. to dull the luster of; discolor, especially by exposure to air or dirt
2. a. to detract from or spoil; taint b. to cast aspersions on; sully
sully <s li> ( ) , ,

tart , ,
1. having a sharp, pungent taste; sour
2. sharp or bitter in tone or meaning; cutting

tassel () , () ; ()

taunt ,
1. to reproach in a mocking, insulting, or contemptuous manner
2. to drive or incite (a person) by taunting

taut (, ) ; (tense); ;

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1. pulled or drawn tight; not slack


2. strained; tense
3. a. kept in trim shape; neat and tidy b. marked by the efficient, sparing, and concise use of
something, such as language or detail
1

tease , , , ; ,

technocracy

technocrat ,

tedium

teetotal

a government or social system controlled by technicians, especially scientists and technical experts

the quality or condition of being tedious; tediousness or boredom


1. of, relating to, or practicing complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages
2. total; absolute
1

temper , ; ; ( ) , ( ) ,

temperamental , , ; , ,
1. relating to or caused by temperament
2. excessively sensitive or irritable; moody
3. likely to perform unpredictably; undependable
temperament ; , ;
1. a. the manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristic of a specific person b. the
distinguishing mental and physical characteristics of a human being according to medieval
physiology, resulting from dominance of one of the four humors
2. excessive irritability or sensitiveness

temperate , ; , , ; ( ) ,
1. exercising moderation and self-restraint
2. moderate in degree or quality; restrained
3. characterized by moderate temperatures, weather, or climate; neither hot nor cold

temporize , ; , ; ,
1. to act evasively in order to gain time, avoid argument, or postpone a decision
2. to engage in discussions or negotiations, especially so as to achieve a compromise or gain time
3. to yield to current circumstances or necessities; act to suit the time

tenacious ( ) ; ; , ; ()
1. holding or tending to hold persistently to something, such as a point of view
2. holding together firmly; cohesive
3. clinging to another object or surface; adhesive
4. tending to retain; retentive
retentive , ;

tend ... , ... ; ( ) ... ; ,


, ;
1. to have a tendency
2. to be disposed or inclined
3. to move or extend in a certain direction
1. to have the care of; watch over; look after
2. to manage the activities and transactions of; run

tendentious ,
marked by a strong implicit point of view; partisan

tenderize ( )

tentative , ; ,
1. not fully worked cut, concluded, or agreed on; provisional
2. uncertain; hesitant

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tenuous , , ;
1. long and thin; slender
2. having a thin consistency; dilute
3. having little substance; flimsy
flimsy ; , ; , (shallow)

tepid ; ,
1. moderately warm; lukewarm
2. lacking in emotional warmth or enthusiasm; halfhearted
lukewarm , ; ,
1. mildly warm; tepid
2. lacking conviction or enthusiasm; indifferent

territoriality ;

terse ; ,
brief and to the point; effectively concise

testify ; () ; (, ) ...
1. to make a declaration of truth or fact under oath; submit testimony
2. to express or declare a strong belief, especially to make a declaration of faith
3. to make a statement based on personal knowledge in support of an asserted fact; bear witness
4. to serve as evidence

testimony , ; , ,

testy , ;
irritated, impatient, or exasperated; peevish
exasperate ,
1. to make very angry or impatient; annoy greatly
2. to increase the gravity or intensity of

thatch <t> , ;

theatrical ; ; , ,
1. of, relating to, or suitable for dramatic performance or the theater
2. marked by exaggerated self-display and unnatural behavior; affectedly dramatic

theatricality ,

theatricalize /
1. to adapt to performance on the stage; dramatize
2. to make a spectacle of; display showily

therapeutic <rpj:tik> ;
1. having or exhibiting healing powers
2. of or relating to therapeutics

therapeutics /,
medical treatment of disease; the art or science of healing

therapy , ;

thievish , ;
1. given to thieving
2. of, similar to, or characteristic of a thief furtive
furtive , , (stealthy); ,

thread ; , ; , ; ( ) ,

thrift , ; ,

thriving , ; () ,
thrive 1. to make steady progress; prosper
2. to grow vigorously; flourish

throb , ; , ; ,
1. to beat rapidly or violently, as the heart; pound

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2. to vibrate, pulsate, or sound with a steady pronounced rhythm


1

thrust , , ; , ; ...; ,
1. to push or drive quickly and forcibly
2. to issue or extend
3. to force into a specified condition or situation
4. to include or interpolate improperly
5. to force on an unwilling or improper recipient

thunderbolt , ,

thwart ,
1. to prevent the occurrence, realization, or attainment of
2. to oppose and defeat the efforts, plans, or ambitions of

tickle ; , ; ,
1. to touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter or twitching movements
2. a. to tease or excite pleasurably; titillate b. to fill with mirth or pleasure; delight
titillate ; (, ) ,
1. to stimulate by touching lightly; tickle
2. to excite (another) pleasurably, superficially or erotically
mirth ,
gladness and gaiety, especially when expressed by laughter

tidy , , , ; ,
orderly and neat in appearance or procedure

tiff ,

time-keeping ()
timekeeper 1. one who records time, as a. (Sports) one who keeps track of elapsed time in a sporting
event b. one who keeps records of the hours worked by employees
2. a device for keeping time; a timepiece

timorous ,
full of apprehensiveness; timid

tine (, ) , ()

tinker ; ,

tirade
a long angry or violent speech, usually of a censorious or denunciatory nature; a diatribe
censorious ,
1. tending to censure; highly critical
2. expressing censure

titillate ; (, ) ,
1. to stimulate by touching lightly; tickle
2. to excite (another) pleasurably, superficially or erotically

toady <tudi> ,

toil , , ;

a person who flatters or defers to others for self-serving reasons; a sycophant


, , , ; , ,
1. to labor continuously; work strenuously
2. to proceed with difficulty
something that binds, snares, or entangles one; an entrapment. often used in the plural
4

tolerance , ; , ; ( ) ; , ; ,
1. the capacity for or the practice of recognizing and respecting the beliefs or practices of others
2. a. leeway for variation from a standard b. the permissible deviation from a specified value of a
structural dimension, often expressed as a percent
3. the capacity to endure hardship or pain

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4. (Medicine) a. physiological resistance to a poison b. the capacity to absorb a drug continuously


or in large doses without adverse effect; diminution in the response to a drug after prolonged use
5. a. acceptance of a tissue graft or transplant without immunological rejection b. unresponsiveness
to an antigen that normally produces an immunological reaction
6. the ability of an organism to resist or survive infection by a parasitic or pathogenic organism
leeway () ; () ; () (, ) ,
1. (Nautical) the drift of a ship or an aircraft to leeward of the course being steered
2. a margin of freedom or variation, as of activity, time, or expenditure; latitude
parasitic , ; ;
pathogenic , ()
1. capable of causing disease
2. originating or producing disease
3. of or relating to pathogenesis
1

tolerate , ; , ; () ( )
1. to allow without prohibiting or opposing; permit
2. to recognize and respect (the rights, beliefs, or practices of others)
3. to put up with; endure
4. (Medicine) to have tolerance for (a substance or pathogen)
pathogen ,

toleration , ; () ()
1. tolerance with respect to the actions and beliefs of others
2. official recognition of the rights of individuals and groups to hold dissenting opinions, especially
on religion

tonality ;

tongs <taz> ,

tonic ; () (keynote);

topple , ,

an agent, such as a medication, that restores or increases body tone


to push or throw over; overturn or overthrow
2

topsoil

torment , ; , ; ,
1. great physical pain or mental anguish
2. a source of harassment, annoyance, or pain
3. the torture inflicted on prisoners under interrogation
interrogation , , ;
interrogate , ; ()
1. to examine by questioning formally or officially
2. (Computer) to transmit a signal for setting off an appropriate response

tornado , ; (, )

torpid , , ;
1. deprived of the power of motion or feeling; benumbed
2. dormant; hibernating
3. lethargic; apathetic
lethargic (), , ,
lethargy , ;
1. a state of sluggishness, inactivity, and apathy
2. a state of unconsciousness resembling deep sleep
apathetic ,
1. feeling or showing a lack of interest or concern; indifferent
2. feeling or showing little or no emotion; unresponsive

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torpor, torpidity , , ;
1. a state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility
2. lethargy; apathy
3. the dormant, inactive state of a hibernating or estivating animal
estivate
1. to spend the summer, as at a special place
2. (Zoology) to pass the summer in a dormant or torpid state

torrent , , ,
1. a turbulent, swift-flowing stream
2. a heavy downpour; a deluge
3. a heavy, uncontrolled outpouring

torrid () , ;
1. parched with the heat of the sun; intensely hot
2. scorching; burning
3. passionate; ardent
4. hurried; rapid

tortuous <t rtus> , , ;


1. having or marked by repeated turns or bends; winding or twisting
2. not straightforward; circuitous; devious
3. highly involved; complex

torture <t rtr> ,


1. a. infliction of severe physical pain as a means of punishment or coercion b. an instrument or a
method for inflicting such pain
2. excruciating physical or mental pain; agony
3. something causing severe pain or anguish
excruciate (, ) ,
1. to inflict severe pain on; torture
2. to inflict great mental distress on

toryism <t :rizm> ,

totalitarianism

touched ; ()
1. emotionally affected
2. somewhat demented or mentally unbalanced

touchy ,
1. tending to take offense with slight cause; oversensitive
2. requiring special tact or skill in handling; delicate
3. highly sensitive to touch. used of a body part
4. easily ignited; flammable

toupee <tu:pi> ()

tourniquet <trni-kit> ()

tout , , ;
1. to solicit customers, votes, or patronage, especially in a brazen way
2. to obtain and deal in information or racehorses

tow ; ,

toxin

toy , ; , ;

to draw or pull behind by a chain or line

1. to amuse oneself idly; trifle


2. to treat something casually or without seriousness
2

tractability ,

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tractable , ; ( ) /
1. easily managed or controlled; governable
2. easily handled or worked; malleable

traitor ,

trample , ;

one who betrays one's country, a cause, or a trust, especially one who commits treason
1. to beat down with the feet so as to crush, bruise, or destroy; tramp on
2. to treat harshly or ruthlessly
bruise <bru:z> , ; ( ) ; ,
1. a. to injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of (part of the body) without breaking the
skin, as by a blow b. to damage (plant tissue), as by abrasion or pressure
2. to dent or mar
3. to pound (berries, for example) into fragments; crush
4. to hurt, especially psychologically
dent n. ; , ; , v. ; ,
1. a depression in a surface made by pressure or a blow
2. (Informal) a significant, usually diminishing effect or impression
3. (Informal) meaningful progress; headway
pound n. ( , ) v. , ; ,
2

tranquil , , ; () ,
1. free from commotion or disturbance
2. free from anxiety, tension, or restlessness; composed
3. steady; even

tranquillity , ,

transcend (, ) ,

the quality or state of being tranquil; serenity


1. to pass beyond the limits of
2. to be greater than, as in intensity or power; surpass
3. to exist above and independent of (material experience or the universe)
1

transcendental , ; ; , ; ,
1. (Philosophy) a. concerned with the priori or intuitive basis of knowledge as independent of
experience b. asserting a fundamental irrationality or supernatural element in experience
2. surpassing all others; superior
3. beyond common thought or experience; mystical or supernatural

transcribe , ; ,
1. to make a full written or typewritten copy of (dictated material, for example)
2. to record, usually on tape, for broadcast at a later date
3. to translate or transliterate
transliterate ( ) ,
to represent (letters or words) in the corresponding characters of another alphabet

transcription , , ; ; () ,

transgress () , ; ( ) ,
1. to go beyond or over (a limit or boundary); exceed or overstep
2. to act in violation of (the law, for example)

transgression , ; (, )

transitory , ,

translucent ; ,

existing or lasting only a short time; short-lived or temporary


1. transmitting light but causing sufficient diffusion to prevent perception of distinct images
2. clear; lucid

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transmute

transpose (, ) /

to change from one form, nature, substance, or state into another; transform
1. to reverse or transfer the order or place of; interchange
2. to put into a different place or order
3. (Math) to move (a term) from one side of an algebraic equation to the other side, reversing its
sign to maintain equality
4. (Music) to write or perform (a composition) in a key other than the original or given key
5. to render into another language
6. to alter inform or nature; transform
1

transverse ,

trapeze <trp:z> (, )

travesty <tr visti> ,

situated or lying across; crosswise

1. an exaggerated or grotesque imitation, such as a parody of a literary work


2. a debased or grotesque likeness
6

treacherous , , ;
1. marked by betrayal of fidelity, confidence, or trust; perfidious
2. not to be relied on; not dependable or trustworthy
3. marked by unforseen hazards; dangerous or deceptive
perfidious ,
of, relating to, or marked by perfidy; treacherous
perfidy , ;
1. deliberate breach of faith; calculated violation of trust; treachery
2. the act or an instance of treachery

treachery , ; (treason)
1. willful betrayal of fidelity, confidence, or trust; perfidy
2. the act or an instance of such betrayal

treason (); ,

treatable , ;

treatise ,

tremor ; , ; ,

trenchant , ; ( )

a systematic, usually extensive written discourse on a subject

1. keen; incisive
2. forceful, effective, and vigorous
3. caustic; cutting
4. distinct; clear-cut
2

trepidation , ; ,
1. a state of alarm or dread; apprehension
2. an involuntary trembling or quivering

trespass , ; ;
1. to commit an offense or a sin; transgress or err
2. (Law) to commit an unlawful injury to the person, property, or rights of another, with actual or
implied force or violence, especially to enter onto another's land wrongfully
3. to infringe on the privacy, time, or attention of another

trestle ();
1. a horizontal beam or bar held up by two pairs of divergent legs and used as a support
2. a framework consisting of vertical, slanted supports and horizontal crosspieces supporting a
bridge

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tribe , ; () ; () ,

tribunal ;
1. (Law) a. a seat or court of justice b. the bench on which a judge or other presiding officer sits
in court
2. a committee or board appointed to adjudicate in a particular matter
3. something that has the power to determine or judge
adjudicate <d:dikit> ; /
1. (Law) to hear and settle (a case) by judicial procedure
2. to study and settle (a dispute or controversy)

tribute , ; ;

trickle , ; ()
1. to flow or fall in drops or in a thin stream
2. to move or proceed slowly or bit by bit

trilogy <trldi> 3

trim , ; ;

trinket <trkit> ,
1. a small ornament, such as a piece of jewelry
2. a trivial thing; a trifle

troupe (, )

trowel <trul> ;

truce (); ,
1. a temporary cessation or suspension of hostilities by agreement of the opposing sides; an
armistice
2. a respite from a disagreeable state of affairs
respite , , ; ( ) ,
1. a usually short interval of rest or relief
2. (Law) temporary suspension of a death sentence; a reprieve
reprieve ; ,
1. to postpone or cancel the punishment of
2. to bring relief to

truculent <tr kjulnt> , ; ( ) ,


1. disposed to fight; pugnacious
2. expressing bitter opposition; scathing
3. disposed to or exhibiting violence or destructiveness; fierce
scathing ; ,
1. bitterly denunciatory; harshly critical
2. harmful or painful; injurious

trudge
to walk in a laborious, heavy-footed way; plod

trustworthy ,
warranting trust; reliable

tugboat
a small powerful boat designed for towing or pushing larger vessels

turbid () , ; (, ) , ; (, ) ,
1. having sediment or foreign particles stirred up or suspended; muddy
2. heavy, dark, or dense, as smoke or fog
3. in a state of turmoil; muddled

turbulence ; ,
1. the state or quality of being turbulent
2. (Physics) turbulent flow

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3. an eddying motion of the atmosphere that interrupts the flow of wind


eddy , ; ,
1. a current, as of water or air, moving contrary to the direction of the main current,
especially in a circular motion
2. a drift or tendency that is counter to or separate from a main current, as of opinion,
tradition, or history
2

turbulent , , ; , ; , (disorderly)
1. violently agitated or disturbed; tumultuous
2. having a chaotic or restless character or tendency
3. causing unrest or disturbance; unruly
tumultuous <tjum ltus> , ; () , ,
1. characterized by tumult; noisy and disorderly
2. tending to cause tumult
3. confusedly or violently agitated

turmoil , ,
a state of extreme confusion or agitation; commotion or tumult

turpitude (baseness),
1. depravity; baseness
2. a base act
depravity , ;
1. moral corruption or degradation
2. a depraved act or condition

turquoise <t:r-kwiz>

(); ,

turret ; , ()

tusk ( )
1. an elongated, pointed tooth, usually one of a pair, extending outside of the mouth in certain
animal such as the walrus, elephant, or wild boar
2. a long, projecting tooth or toothlike part
walrus <w :lrs>
boar <br>

tussle , ;
to struggle roughly; scuffle
scuffle , ; (scuff)
1. to fight or struggle confusedly at close quarters
2. to shuffle
scuff (shuffle); (, ) ,
shuffle () ; , ;
1. to slide (the feet) along the floor or ground while walking
2. to move (something) from one place to another; transfer or shift
3. to put aside or under cover quickly; shunt
4. to mix together; jumble

tuxedo () ( dinner jacket)

twig ; ,
1. to observe or notice
2. to understand or figure out

twinge ; (0 ; () ,
1. a sharp, sudden physical pain
2. a mental or emotional pain

typify <tpfi> , ;
1. to serve as a typical example of; embody the essential characteristics of

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2. to represent by an image, a form, or a model symbolize or prefigure


prefigure ;
1. to suggest, indicate, or represent by an antecedent form or model; presage or foreshadow
2. to imagine or picture to oneself in advance
1

tyro <tirou> (novice)

U
2

ubiquitous , (omnipresent)
being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time; omnipresent

umbrage < mbrid> , , ; ;


1. offense; resentment
2. a. something that affords shade b. shadow or shade
3. a vague or indistinct indication; a hint

unalloyed ;
1. not mixture with other metals; pure
2. complete; unqualified
unqualified , ; , (complete)
1. lacking the proper or required qualifications
2. not modified by conditions or reservations; absolute

unaltered ,

unassailable , ; , ,
1. impossible to dispute or disprove; undeniable
2. not subject to attack or seizure; impregnable
seizure , ; , ; , ; ,
impregnable ; ,
1. impossible to capture or enter by force
2. difficult or impossible to attack, challenge, or refute with success

uncanny , , ; ,
1. peculiarly unsettling, as if of supernatural origin or nature; eerie
2. so keen and perceptive as to seem preternatural
eerie <ri> ,
a. inspiring inexplicable fear, dread, or uneasiness; strange and frightening b. suggestive of
the supernatural; mysterious

uncharitable , ,
1. exhibiting no charity or generosity
2. unfair or unkind

uncommunicative , ,
not disposed to be communicative
communicative , ; ,
1. inclined to communicate readily; talkative
2. of or relating to communication

unconcerned , ; , ; ,
1. not interested; indifferent
2. not anxious or apprehensive; unworried

unconfirmed ,

unconventional ; ,

underbid ... /

not adhering to convention; out of the ordinary


to bid lower than (a competitor)
bid , ; ; ( )

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underbrush (undergrowth)

undercut ... ; () ()

small trees, shrubs, or similar plants growing beneath the taller trees in a forest
1. to diminish or destroy the province or effectiveness of; undermine
2. to sell at a lower price than or to work for lower wages or fees than (a competitor)
3. to make a cut under or below
4. to create an overhang by cutting material away from, as in carving
1

undergird ... ;
to support or strengthen from beneath

underhanded , ; ,
marked by or done in a deceptive, secret, or sly manner; dishonest and sneaky

underling < ndrli> ,

undermine ... ; ( ) ,
1. to weaken by wearing away a base or foundation
2. to weaken, injure, or impair, often by degrees or imperceptible; sap
3. to dig a mine or tunnel beneath

underrate , (underestimate)

underscore
1. to underline
2. to emphasize; stress

understate ,
1. to state with less completeness or truth than seems warranted by the facts
2. to express with restraint or lack of emphasis, especially ironically or for rhetorical effect
3. to state (a quantity, for example) that is too low

understatement
1. a disclosure or statement that is less than complete
2. restraint or lack of emphasis in expression, as for rhetorical effect
3. restraint in artistic expression

understudy
1. to study or know (a role) so as to be able to replace the regular performer when required
2. to act as an understudy to

underwrite ; ;

undeserved , ,
not merited; unjustifiable or unfair

undisciplined ,

undulate < ndulit> (, ) ,


1. to cause to move in a smooth wavelike motion
2. to give a wavelike appearance or form to

unearth , ; ,
1. to bring up out of the earth; dig up
2. to bring to public notice; uncover

unencumbered ,

unexceptionable ,
beyond any reasonable objection; irreproachable

unexpected
coming without warning; unforeseen

unfeigned , ,

unfounded ,
1. not based on fact or sound evidence; groundless
2. not yet established

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ungenerous , ,
1. slow or reluctant in giving, forgiving, or sharing; stingy
2. harsh in judgment; unkind
3. mean-spirited; illiberal; ignoble
illiberal ; , ; ,
narrow-minded; bigoted

unglazed , ;

ungrudging ,
grudge , ;
1. to be reluctant to give or admit
2. to resent for having; begrudge
begrudge , ; ,
1. a. to envy the possession or enjoyment of b. to envy for the possession of
2. to give or expend with reluctance

unhealthy , ; ,
1. a. being in a state of ill health; sick b. characterized by or symptomatic of ill health c. causing
or conducive to poor health; unwholesome
2. harmful to character or moral health; corruptive
3. characterized by or symptomatic of disturbed mental health
4. of a risky nature; dangerous

unidimensional 1;

unimpeachable
1. difficult or impossible to impeach
2. beyond reproach; blameless
3. beyond doubt; unquestionable

uninhabitable < ninh bitbl> /

uninitiated / ,
not knowledgeable or skilled; inexperienced

unintelligible ,

uninterested ; ,

being such that understanding or comprehension is difficult or impossible; incomprehensible


1. a. without an interest b. not having a financial interest
2. marked by or exhibiting a lack of interest
3

universality , ; ,
1. the quality, fact, or condition of being universal
2. universal inclusiveness in scope or range, especially great or unbounded versatility of the mind

univocal <ju:nvkl> ;
having only one meaning; unambiguous

unjustifiable ,

unlettered (uneducated);

impossible to excuse, pardon, or justify


1. a. not adept at reading and writing; deficient in the knowledge that can be acquired from books
b. illiterate
2. having no lettering
deficient , ; , ;
1. lacking an essential quality or element
2. inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient
1

unorthodox ,

unpalatable , (distasteful); ,
1. not pleasing to the taste

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2. not pleasant or agreeable


1

unprepossessing , ,
failing to impress favorably; nondescript
nondescript ; , (indefinite)
lacking distinctive qualities; having no individual character or form

unpretentious, unpretending ... , ; , (humble)

unrepentant ;

lacking pretension or affectation; modest


having or exhibiting no remorse
1

unruly , (unlawful),
difficult or impossible to discipline, control, or rule

unscathed ,
not injured or harmed

unscrupulous , ;
devoid of scruples; oblivious to or contemptuous of what is right or honorable
scruple , ; ; ,
1. an uneasy feeling arising from conscience or principle that tends to hinder action
2. a minute part or amount
oblivious , ;
1. lacking all memory; forgetful
2. lacking conscious awareness; unmindful

unseemly , ,
1. not in accord with accepted standards of good taste; grossly improper
2. not suited to the circumstances; inappropriate

unsettled , , ; ; ( )
1. not in a state of order or calmness; disturbed
2. likely to change or vary; variable
3. a. not determined or resolved b. uncertain or doubtful
4. not paid or adjusted; outstanding
5. not populated; uninhabited
6. not fixed or established

unspoken ,
not orally articulated

unstinting ,

unsubstantiated ,

bestowed liberally
1

untainted , ,

untenable <ntnbl> , ; ;
1. being such that defense or maintenance is impossible
2. being such that occupation or habitation is impossible

untoward ; ; ,
1. not favorable; unpropitious
2. troublesome; adverse
3. hard to guide or control; unruly
4. improper; unseemly
unpropitious ,
unfavorable; inauspicious
inauspicious ,
not favorable; not auspicious
auspicious , ,

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1. attended by favorable circumstances; propitious


2. marked by success; prosperous

unwieldy <nwldi> () , ; , ;
1. difficult to carry or manage because of bulk or shape
2. clumsy; ungainly
ungainly , ;
1. lacking grace or ease of movement or form; clumsy
2. difficult to move or use; unwieldy

unwitting , ; ,
1. not knowing; unaware
2. not intended; unintentional

unworldly , , ; ;
1. not of this world; spiritual
2. concerned with matters of the spirit or soul
3. not wise to the ways of the world; naive

unyielding , ; (obstinate),
1. not bending; inflexible
2. not giving way to pressure or persuasion; obdurate

upbraid /

uphold , , ; , ; ,

to reprove sharply; reproach


1. to hold aloft; raise
2. to prevent from falling or sinking; support
3. to maintain or affirm against opposition
1

upholstery , ; [] ,

upstage /; ()
1. of or relating to the rear part of a stage
2. (Informal) haughty; aloof

urbane , ; ,

usurp (, ) , /;

polite, refined, and often elegant in manner


1. to seize and hold (the power or rights of another, for example) by force and without legal
authority
2. to take over or occupy without right
1

usury <j:ri> ;
1. the practice of lending money and charging the borrower interest, especially at an exorbitant or
illegally high rate
2. an excessive or illegally high rate of interest charged on borrowed money

V
1

vacant , ; ; ,

vacillate , ,
1. to sway from one side to the other; oscillate
2. to swing indecisively from one course of action or opinion to another

vacuous , ; , ; ,
1. devoid of matter; empty
2. a. lacking intelligence; stupid b. devoid of substance or meaning; inane c. devoid of expression;
vacant
3. lacking serious purpose or occupation; idle

vagary /;

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an extravagant or erratic notion or action


1

vagrant , ; ,
1. wandering from place to place and lacking any means of support
2. wayward; unrestrained
3. moving in a random fashion; not fixed in place
wayward , ; ,
1. given to or marked by willful, often perverse deviation from what is desired, expected, or
required in order to gratify one's own impulses or inclinations
2. swayed or prompted by caprice; unpredictable
gratify ,
1. to please or satisfy
2. to give what is desired to; indulge

vain , ; , ; ,
1. not yielding the desired outcome; fruitless
2. lacking substance or worth
3. excessively proud of one's appearance or accomplishments; conceited

valedictory
a closing or farewell statement or address, especially one delivered at graduation exercises

valiant , ; ,
1. possessing valor; brave
2. marked by or done with valor

validate , (opp. invalidate)


1. to declare or make legally valid
2. to mark with an indication of official sanction
3. to establish the soundness of; corroborate

valor , , ()

valorous ,

courage and boldness, as in battle; bravery


marked by or possessing great personal bravery; valiant

vain , ; , ; ,
1. not yielding the desired outcome
2. lacking substance or worth
3. excessively proud of one's appearance or accomplishments; conceited

vanity , ; ,

vanquish , ; ( )
1. a. to defeat or conquer in battle; subjugate b. to defeat in a contest, conflict, or competition
2. to overcome or subdue (an emotion, for example); suppress

vapid , ; , ,
1. lacking liveliness, animation, or interest; dull
2. lacking taste, zest, or flavor; flat

variability

variegated ; , ;

varnish , ; ; ,

vegetate ; / ,

the quality, state, or degree of being variable or changeable

1. to grow or sprout as a plant does


2. (Pathology) to grow in size or spread abnormally
3. to exist in a state of physical or mental inactivity or insensibility
1

vegetation ,

vehement <v:mnt> , ; , (passionate)

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1. characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity of emotion or conviction; fervid


2. marked by or full of vigor or energy; strong
conviction ; , ; ,
fervid , (ardent)
1. marked by great passion or zeal
2. extremely hot; burning
1

vein ; () ; , , ()

venal <v:nl> , , ;
1. a. open to bribery; mercenary b. capable of betraying honor, duty, or scruples for a price;
corruptible
2. marked by corrupt dealings, especially bribery
3. obtainable for a price
mercenary , ;
1. motivated solely by a desire for monetary or material gain
2. hired for service in a foreign army
scruple , ;
1. an uneasy feeling arising from conscience or principle that tends to hinder action
2. a minute part or amount

veneer , ; ,
1. a thin surface layer, as of finely grained wood, glued to a base of inferior material
2. any of the thin layers glued together to make plywood
3. a decorative facing, as of brick
4. a deceptive, superficial show; a facade
plywood ,

venerable , ; , ,

venerate ,

veneration ,

venom , ; , ,

to regard with respect, reverence, or heartfelt deference

1. a poisonous secretion of an animal, such as a snake, spider, or scorpion, usually transmitted by a


bite or sting
2. a poison
3. malice; spite
spite , , , (grudge)
1. malicious ill will prompting an urge to hurt or humiliate
2. an instance of malicious feeling
1

vent , ; , ; ( ) ,

veracious , ;
1. honest; truthful
2. accurate; precise

veracity , , ;
1. adherence to the truth; truthfulness
2. conformity to fact or truth; accuracy or precision
3. something that is true

verbiage <v:rbiid>

,
1. an excess of words for the purpose; wordiness
2. the manner in which something is expressed in words

verbose <vrbus>
using or containing a great and usually an excessive number of words; wordy

verdant , ; (inexperienced)

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1. green with vegetation; covered with green growth


2. (Color) green in hue
3. lacking experience or sophistication; naive
2

verdict () ( ) , ; () , ,
1. (Law) the finding of a jury in a trial
2. an expressed conclusion; a judgment or an opinion

verisimilar ,
appearing to be true or real; probable

veritable , ,

vernacular , ; , , ; ()

being truly so called; real or genuine


1. the standard native language of a country or locality
2. the everyday language spoken by a people as distinguished from the literary language
3. the idiom of a particular trade or profession
4. an idiomatic word, phrase, or expression
5. the common, nonscientific name of a plant or an animal
2

versatile
1. capable of doing many things competently
2. having varied uses or serving many functions
3. variable or inconstant; changeable

verse (); (opp. prose); () (), (, stanza)

vertebrate <v:rtbrt>

, ; ,
1. having a backbone or spinal column
2. of or characteristic of vertebrates or a vertebrate
spinal <spinl> ; ,

vertigo , ;
1. a. the sensation of dizziness b. an instance of such a sensation
2. a confused, disoriented state of mind

verve , ; , , ,
1. energy and enthusiasm in the expression of ideas, especially in artistic performance or
composition
2. vitality; liveliness

vestige , , ; ; () ()
a visible trace, evidence, or sign of something that once existed but exists or appears no more

vex
1. to annoy, as with petty importunities; bother
2. to cause perplexity in; puzzle
3. to bring distress or suffering to; plague or afflict
4. to debate or discuss (a question, for example) at length
5. to toss about or shake up
importunate ,
troublesomely urgent or persistent in requesting; pressingly entreating

vexation , ,
1. the act of annoying, irritating, or vexing
2. the quality or condition of being vexed annoyance
3. a source of irritation or annoyance

viable ; ( )
1. capable of living, developing, or germinating under favorable conditions
2. capable of living outside the uterus. used of a fetus or newborn
3. capable of success or continuing effectiveness; practicable

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uterus <jtrs> (womb)


fetus
2

vicious , ; , ; ; ,

victor , (conqueror), (winner)

vigilance , ;
alert watchfulness

vigilant , , (watchful)
on the alert; watchful

vile , , , ;
1. loathsome; disgusting
2. unpleasant or objectionable
3. a. contemptibly low in worth or account; second-rate b. of mean or low condition
4. miserably poor and degrading; wretched
5. morally depraved; ignoble or wicked

vilify , (slander)
to make vicious and defamatory statements about

vindicate <vndkit> , ; /
1. to clear of accusation, blame, suspicion, or doubt with supporting arguments or proof
2. to provide justification or support for
3. to justify or prove the worth of, especially in light of later developments
4. to defend, maintain, or insist on the recognition of (one's right, for example)

vindictive , ; ,
1. disposed to seek revenge; revengeful
2. marked by or resulting from a desire to hurt; spiteful
spiteful ,
filled with, prompted by, or showing spite; malicious

vinegar <vnigr> ; , ; () ,
1. an impure dilute solution of acetic acid obtained by fermentation beyond the alcohol stage and
used as a condiment and preservative
2. sourness of speech or mood; ill temper
3. liveliness and enthusiasm; vim
condiment , (seasoning)
vim () , ,
ebullient vitality and energy

vintner /

vinyl <vinl>

violet ;

virtual ( ) , ; ,
1. existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact, form, or name
2. existing in the mind, especially as a product of the imagination. used in literary criticism of text

virtuous ,
1. having or showing, virtue, especially moral excellence
2. possessing or characterized by chastity; pure
chaste , ; ; , ;
1. morally pure in thought or conduct; decent and modest
2. a. not having experienced sexual intercourse; virginal b. abstaining from unlawful sexual
intercourse c. abstaining from sexual intercourse; celibate
3. pure or simple in design or style; austere
celibate ()
1. abstaining from sexual intercourse, especially by reason of religious vows

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2. unmarried; unwed
1

virulent <vrjulnt> , ; ,
1. a. extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous. used of a disease or toxin b. capable of causing
disease by breaking down protective mechanisms of the host. used of a pathogen
2. bitterly hostile or antagonistic; hateful
3. intensely irritating, obnoxious, or harsh
obnoxious , ,

viscid , ,
1. thick and adhesive. used of a fluid
2. covered with a sticky or clammy coating
clammy ,
1. disagreeably moist, sticky, and cold to the touch
2. damp and unpleasant
3. uneasy; apprehensive

viscosity ;

viscous , ;
1. having relatively high resistance to flow
2. viscid

vista , ; ;
1. a. a distant view or prospect, especially one seen through an opening, as between rows of
buildings or trees b. an avenue or other passage affording such a view
2. an awareness of a range of time, events, or subjects; a broad mental view

vitiate , , ; ,
1. to reduce the value or impair the quality of
2. to corrupt morally; debase
3. to make ineffective; invalidate

vitreous <vtris> , ,
1. of, relating to, resembling, or having the nature of glass; glassy
2. obtained or made from glass
3. of or relating to the vitreous humor

vituperate ,

vituperative , ,

to rebuke or criticize harshly or abusively; berate


using, containing, or marked by harshly abusive censure
1

vocational ;
1. of or relating to a vocation or vocations
2. relating to, providing, or undergoing training in a special skill to be pursued in a trade

vociferous , ,
making, given to, or marked by noisy and vehement outcry
vehement <v:mNT> , ; , (passionate)
1. characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity of emotion or conviction; fervid
2. marked by or full of vigor or energy; strong
fervid , , (ardent)
1. marked by great passion or zeal
2. extremely hot; burning

volatile ; , , ; ,

volatility <vltlti> ; ,

volubility , , ; ()
voluble , ; ()
1. marked by a ready flow of speech; fluent

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2. a. turning easily on an axis; rotating b. (Botany) twining or twisting


1

voluminous , ; ,
1. having great volume, fullness, size, or number
2. filling or capable of filling a large volume or many volumes
3. ample or lengthy in speech or writing
4. having many coils; winding

voracious , ; , (insatiable); ,
1. consuming or eager to consume great amounts of food; ravenous
2. having or marked by an insatiable appetite for an activity or a pursuit; greedy
ravenous ;
1. extremely hungry; voracious
2. rapacious; predatory
3. greedy for gratification
rapacious , ; (greedy),
1. taking by force; plundering
2. greedy; ravenous
3. subsisting on live prey
plunder , , ,
1. to rob of goods by force, especially in time of war; pillage
2. to seize wrongfully or by force; steal
subsist , , ; ,
1. a. to exist; be b. to remain or continue in existence
2. to maintain life; live
3. to be logically conceivable
gratify ,
1. to please or satisfy
2. to give what is desired to; indulge

vulnerable , , ; () ( )
1. a. susceptible to physical injury b. susceptible to attack c. open to censure or criticism; assailable
2. a. liable to succumb, as to persuasion or temptation b. (Games) in a position to receive greater
penalties or bonuses as a result of having won one game of a rubber. used of bridge partners
succumb , ; (, ) ,

vulture <v ltr> ; ( ) /

W
1

waddle
1. to walk with short steps that tilt the body from side to side
2. to walk heavily and clumsily with a pronounced sway

waffle n. v. ,

waft ,

to speak or write evasively


1. to cause to go gently and smoothly through the air or over water
2. to convey or send floating through the air or over water
1

wag (, )
1. to move briskly and repeatedly from side to side, to and fro, or up and down
2. to move rapidly in talking. used of the tongue
3. to walk with a clumsy sway; waddle

waggish , ;
characteristic of or resembling a wag; jocular or witty

walrus <w :lrs> ()

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wanderlust ,

wanton , ; ; ,

a very strong or irresistible impulse to travel


1. immoral or unchaste; lewd
2. a. gratuitously cruel; merciless b. marked by unprovoked, gratuitous maliciousness; capricious and
unjust
3. unrestrainedly excessive
4. luxuriant; overabundant
5. frolicsome; playful
6. undisciplined; spoiled
1

ward , ; ; , ,

wardrobe <w rdrub> ; ;

ware , ;

warmonger ,

warp , , ; ( ) , ; (, )

one who advocates or attempts to stir up war

1. to turn or twist (wood, for example) out of shape


2. to turn from a correct or proper course; deflect
3. to affect unfavorably, unfairly, or wrongly; bias
4. to arrange (strands of yarn or thread) so that they run lengthwise in weaving
3

warrant , , ; , ; ,
1. authorization or certification; sanction, as given by a superior
2. justification for an action or a belief; grounds
3. something that provides assurance or confirmation; a guarantee or proof
4. an order that serves as authorization, especially a. a voucher authorizing payment or receipt of
money b. (Law) a judicial writ authorizing an officer to make a search, a seizure, or an arrest or to
execute a judgment
5. a. a warrant officer b. a certificate of appointment given to a warrant officer
voucher ; ,
1. a piece of substantiating evidence; a proof
2. a written record of an expenditure, a disbursement, or a completed transaction
3. a written authorization or certificate, especially one exchangeable for cash or representing a
credit against future expenditures
disbursement , ; ,
1. the act or process of disbursing
2. money paid out; expenditure
disburse (pay out)
to pay out, as from a fund; expend
writ , ;
(Law) a written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to
perform or cease performing a specified act

wary <wri> ,
1. on guard; watchful
2. characterized by caution

waterproof
1. impervious to or unaffected by water
2. made of or coated or treated with rubber, plastic, or a sealing agent to prevent penetration by
water

waver , ; , ; ; ,

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1. to move unsteadily back and forth


2. a. to exhibit irresolution or indecision; vacillate b. to become unsteady or unsure; falter
3. to tremble or quaver in sound, as of the voice or a musical note
4. to flicker or glimmer, as light
quaver () , (vibrate)
1. to quiver, as from weakness; tremble
2. to speak in a quivering voice; utter a quivering sound
quiver v. , n.
to shake with a slight, rapid, tremulous movement
glimmer , , (flicker)
1. a dim or intermittent flicker or flash of light
2. a faint manifestation or indication; a trace
3

wax n. , ; () ; , v. , () (opp. wane)


1. to increase gradually in size, number, strength, or intensity
2. to show a progressively larger illuminated area, as the moon does in passing from new to full
3. to grow or become as specified

wean ; ...
1. to accustom (the young of a mammal) to take nourishment other than by suckling
2. to detach from that to which one is strongly habituated or devoted

weariness , ,

weary ; ; ,
1. physically or mentally fatigued
2.expressive of or prompted by fatigue
3. having one's interest, forbearance, or indulgence worn out
4. causing fatigue; tiresome

welter , ; () , ; , , ; ,
1. a confused mass; a jumble
2. confusion; turmoil

wheedle , ...
1. to persuade or attempt to persuade by flattery or guile; cajole
2. to obtain through the use of flattery or guile
guile ,

whet ( ) ; (, ) ,
1. to sharpen (a knife, for example); hone
2. to make more keen; stimulate
hone ( )

whim , ;
1. a sudden or capricious idea; a fancy
2. arbitrary thought or impulse
3. a vertical horse-powered drum used as a hoist in a mine
hoist (, ) , ( )
to raise or haul up with or as if with the help of a mechanical apparatus
haul <h:l> , ; ,
1. to pull or drag forcibly; tug
2. to transport, as with a truck or cart
tug , ; ( )
1. to pull at vigorously; strain at
2. to move by pulling with great effort or exertion; drag
3. (Nautical) to tow by tugboat
tow , ,

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to draw or pull behind by a chain or line


3

whimsical (fanciful); ,
1. determined by, arising from, or marked by whim or caprice
2. erratic in behavior or degree of unpredictability

whimsy , ; /
1. an odd or fanciful idea; a whim
2. a quaint or fanciful quality
quaint ; , (odd)
1. odd, especially in an old-fashioned way
2. unfamiliar or unusual in character; strange

whine <hwain> n. ( ) , ; , ,
v. , , () ;
1. to utter a plaintive, high-pitched, protracted sound, as in pain, fear, supplication, or complaint
2. to complain or protest in a childish fashion
3. to produce a sustained noise of relatively high pitch
plaintive , , (complaining)
expressing sorrow; mournful or melancholy
protract () ,
to draw out or lengthen in time; prolong

whirlpool ; ,

whittle , , ; ( ) ,
1. a. to cut small bits or pare shavings from (a piece of wood) b. to fashion or shape in this way
2. to reduce or eliminate gradually, as if by whittling with a knife
pare <pr> ( ) ; ( ) , ; ,

1. to remove the outer covering or skin of with a knife or similar instrument


2. to remove by or as if by cutting, clipping, or shaving
3. to reduce as if by cutting off outer parts; trim

wholehearted , ,
marked by unconditional commitment, unstinting devotion, or unreserved enthusiasm
unstinting ,
bestowed liberally

wholesome ; ; () ,
1. conducive to sound health or well-being; salutary
2. promoting mental, moral, or social health
3. enjoying or marked by physical, mental, or moral soundness; healthy
conducive <kndj:siv> ,
tending to cause or bring about; contributive
contributive , ...
salutary <s ljutri> ;
1. effecting or designed to effect an improvement; remedial
2. favorable to health; wholesome

wick ,

wield ; () , ; , ; ( )
1. to handle (a weapon or tool, for example) with skill and ease
2. to exercise (authority or influence, for example) effectively

wile ,
1. a stratagem or trick intended to deceive or ensnare
2. a disarming or seductive manner, device, or procedure
3. trickery; cunning

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ensnare , ; (allure)
to take or catch in or as if in a snare
2

willful , ; ,
1. said or done on purpose; deliberate
2. obstinately bent on having one's own way

wily , ,

withhold ; , ;

full of wiles; cunning


1. to keep in check; restrain
2. to refrain from giving, granting, or permitting
3. to deduct (withholding tax) from an employee's salary
1

woe <wou> , , ; ,
1. deep distress or misery, as from grief; wretchedness
2. misfortune; calamity
wretched , ; ; , ; , ,
1. in a deplorable state of distress or misfortune; miserable
2. characterized by or attended with misery or woe
3. of a poor or mean character; dismal
4. contemptible; despicable
5. of very inferior quality

woo <wu:> , ; (, ) , ( )
1. to seek the affection of with intend to romance
2. a. to seek to achieve; try to gain b. to tempt or invite
3. to entreat, solicit, or importune
importune , ; (worry)
1. to beset with insistent or repeated requests; entreat pressingly
2. (Archaic) to ask for urgently or repeatedly
3. to annoy; vex

woodpile /

wrath <r> , ; ,
1. forceful, often vindictive anger
2. a. punishment or vengeance as a manifestation of anger b. divine retribution for sin

wrinkle , ; () , ;

wrist ;

writ , ; ()
1. (Law) a written order issued by a court, commanding the party to whom it is addressed to
perform or cease performing a specified act
2. writings

wry <rai> ( ) ; , ; , ; ,
1. dryly humorous, often with a touch of irony
2. temporarily twisted in an expression of distaste or displeasure
3. abnormally twisted or bent to one side; crooked
4. being at variance with what is right, proper, or suitable; perverse
dryly ,
perverse , ; , ; ,

X
1

xenophobe <znfub>

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yarn ; () ,
1. a continuous strand of twisted threads of natural or synthetic material, such as wool or nylon,
used in weaving or knitting
2. (Informal) a long, often elaborate narrative of real or fictitious adventures; an entertaining tale

yearn <j:rn> , ; ; ,
1. to have a strong, often melancholy desire
2. to feel deep pity, sympathy, or tenderness

yeast ,

Z
2

zeal , , (ardor)
enthusiastic devoting to a cause, an ideal, or a goal and tireless diligence in its furtherance
furtherance , ,
the act of furthering, advancing, or helping forward

zealot ; [ ]

zealous , ; ,

zenith (opp. nadir); ,

zest ( ) ; , ; ,

filled with or motivated by zeal; fervent

1. a. flavor or interest; piquancy b. the outermost part of the rind of an orange or a lemon, used as
flavoring
2. spirited enjoyment; gusto
gusto <g stou> , ; ,
1. vigorous enjoyment; zest
2. individual taste

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