Angel HUMINIC
FLUID MECHANICS
Theory and Applications
2007
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .....
1. FLUIDS .....
3
5
2. PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
2.1 Pressure .
10
11
12
13
13
14
20
24
24
25
27
33
34
36
39
40
44
52
52
55
55
62
62
63
64
65
67
72
72
73
7.3 ENERGY FROM WIND. The Axial Momentum Theory Betzs Theory .
74
78
78
79
8.3 Steady flow in pipelines. Head loss and Bernoullis augmented equation .. ...
81
83
91
92
92
96
98
100
102
106
106
106
110
112
116
116
116
117
118
118
121
122
12. REFERENCES ..
126
1. INTRODUCTION
As its name suggests, Fluid Mechanics is the branch of Applied Mechanics concerned with the
fluids. The analysis of the behaviour of fluids is based on the fundamental laws of Mechanics,
which relate continuity of mass and energy with force and momentum, together with their physical
properties.
Fluid Mechanics is involved in nearly all areas of Engineering either directly or indirectly, being one
of the oldest and broadest fields of Engineering. It encompasses aerodynamics, hydrodynamics,
gas dynamics, flows in turbomachineries, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), convection heat
transfer, acoustics, biofluids, physical oceanography, atmospheric dynamics, wind engineering a.o.
Fluid Mechanics has practical importance in almost all human activities, from meteorology (flow in
atmosphere) and, in fact, even astronomy (motion of interstellar gas) up to medicine (flow of fluids
inside human body). Modern design of aircraft, spacecraft, automobiles, ships, land and marine
structures, power and propulsion systems, or heat exchangers is impossible without a clear
understanding of the relevant Fluid Mechanics.
Also, fluids are involved in transport and/or conversion of the energy in almost its forms. The flow
problems are present if we study fuel combustion on one side and water evaporation on the other
side in a boiler, flow of heattransporting medium in a nuclear reactor, in the blade system of a
turbine, in recycling and coolant pumps and also in the processes taking place in the cylinders of
the internal combustion engines and others.
The aims of this course are to introduce Fluid Mechanics and to establish its relevance in
engineering. It consists of some llectures which are presenting the concepts, theory and practical
applications. Worked examples will also be given to demonstrate how the theory is applied.
1.1. FLUIDS
1.1.1 Description of fluids
We normally recognise three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas. Name fluids is a generalized
description meant to include both liquids and gases. There are two aspects of Fluid Mechanics,
which make it different to Solid Mechanics.
1. The nature of a fluid is much different to that of a solid
2. In fluids we usually deal with continuous streams of fluid without a beginning or end. In
solids we only consider individual elements.
3
A solid can resist a deformation force while at rest, this force may cause some displacement but
the solid does not continue to move indefinitely.
In contrast to solids the fluids do not have the ability to resist deformation. Because a fluid cannot
resist the deformation force, it moves, it flows under the action of the force. Its shape will change
continuously as long as the force is applied. The deformation is caused by shearing forces, which
act tangentially to a surface. Referring to the figure below, we see the force F acting tangentially on
a rectangular (solid lined) finite element ABCD. This is a shearing force and produces the (dashed
lined) rhombus element A'B'CD, defined by the angular displacement :
tg ( ) =
x
y
This is very well illustrated by the case of the rivers flow. At the bottom of the river, the velocity of
the water is zero and will increase toward the top of the river. This change in velocity across the
direction of flow is known as velocity profile and is shown graphically in the Figure 1.2:
p = p( x , y , z , t ) ,
 temperature
T = T ( x , y , z, t ) ,
 velocity
v = v ( x , y , z, t ) ,
Off course, no real fluid is homogeneous in an absolute sense. Homogeneity must be specified
relative to a characteristic length, e.g. the size of the probe used to measure the properties of the
fluid in experiments.
A fluid medium can be considered as isotropic if it has the same properties in all directions around
a point.
The concepts of homogenous and isotropic medium are useful in study of Fluid Mechanics
because they allow us to consider that the Equations established for an elementary volume of fluid
(fluid particle) are applicable for entire fluid.
named after Sir Isaac Newton, who studied fluid motion, are fluids having
directly proportionality between stress and rate of angular deformation
starting with zero stress and zero deformation. In these cases, the constant
of proportionality is defined as the absolute or dynamic viscosity (see
Properties of fluids). The more common fluids like air and water are
Newtonian ones.
NonNewtonian fluids:fluids having a variable proportionality between stress and deformation rate
(basically everything other than Newtonian fluid). A vast number of fluids
which are not commonly encountered but which are extremely important,
nevertheless, are nonNewtonian: plasmas, liquid crystals, foams a. o. Also,
some of the plastics behave like a solid and above a stress magnitude they
have fluidic behavior. Rheology is the subject that treats plastics and nonNewtonian fluids.
Ideal fluids:
fluids having no viscosity (Euler model). The effect of the shear stress
between the adjacent layers of fluid is neglected.
Light fluids:
Fluids having small mass density, as gasses and vapours. The effect of their
own weight can be neglected.
Incompressible fluids: fluids which have not significant variation of their volume with the pressure
changes, and as a consequence with constant mass density (Pascal model).
It is used in study of the liquids (heavy fluids).
When a subject is theoretically studied, is desirable to use the simplest possible model of fluid and
to apply a more complicated one only when is absolutely necessary.
2. PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
A property is a characteristic of a substance which is invariant when the substance is in a particular
state. In each state the condition of the substance is unique and is described by its properties.
The properties outlines below are general properties of fluids, which are of interest in Engineering.
The symbol usually used to represent the property is specified together with some typical values in
SI units for common fluids. Values under specific conditions (temperature, pressure etc.) can be
found in reference books. V
2.1 PRESSURE, p
If a volume of fluid is isolated as a free body, the force system acting on the volume includes
surface forces over every element of area bounding the volume. In general, a surface force will
have components perpendicular and parallel to the surface. At any point, the perpendicular
component per unit area is called the normal stress. If this is a compression stress, it is called
pressure intensity, or simply pressure.
Thus, the pressure is defined as (pressure) force F per unit area A applied on a surface in a
direction perpendicular to that surface. Mathematically, it is expressed as:
F dF
=
,
A 0 A
dA
(2.1)
F
A
(2.2)
p = lim
Also, in a fluid pressure may be considered to be a measure of energy per unit volume or energy
density by means of the definition of work. For a force exerted on a fluid, this can be seen from the
definition of pressure:
p=
F F d W Energy
=
=
=
A A d V Volume
(2.3)
Pressure is a scalar quantity, and its unit in the SI is [N/m 2 ] , or Pascal [Pa] science 1971, after
the name of French mathematician, physicist and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623 1662). The SI
multiplies are:
the kilopascal, 1 kPa = 10 3 Pa, and
the megapascal 1 MPa = 10 6 Pa .
8
A nonSI multiple, still in use in many parts of the world, is the bar:
1 bar = 10 5 Pa .
Other units in use include the following:
kgf
cm
N
N
= 9.80665 10 4 2 10 5 2 = 1 [bar ] .
m
m
(2.4)
(2.5)
1 mm alc 803
kg
m
kg
m
9.81
9.81
m
s
m
s
10 3 m = 9.81
10 3 m 7.875
N
m2
N
m2
(2.6)
1 mm Hg = 133.322
N
m2
relative to an absolute zero value (E. Torricelli) (called absolute pressure pabs ) or,
relative to the atmospheric pressure at the location of the measurement patm , called gauge
pressure pg or simply p ; an example of this is the air pressure in an automobile tire, which
might be said to be "2.2 bar, but is actually 2.2 bar above the atmospheric pressure; gauge
pressure is a critical measure of pressure wherever one is interested in the stress on
storage vessels and the plumbing components of fluidics systems:
p = pabs patm
(2.7)
While pressures are generally positive, from the previous Equation we can see that there are
situations in which a negative pressure may be encountered if pabs < patm (vacuummetric
pressure).
O the basis of reaction to pressure, a subdivision of fluids into two main classes, either
compressible or incompressible, can be made. All gases and vapours are highly compressible.
Liquids by comparison are only slightly compressible. As we shall see, compressibility introduces
thermodynamic considerations into fluid flow problems. If incompressibility can be assumed, it is
much easier to describe the state of the fluid and its behaviour in motion. With some important
exceptions, liquids usually are treated as incompressible for practical purposes. Gases, on the
other hand, can be treated as incompressible only if the change in pressure is small throughout the
flow system.
2.2 DENSITY,
The density of a substance is the quantity of matter contained in a unit volume of the substance.
Mathematically, it is defined as the rate of mass per volume and has the SI unit kg / m 3 :
dm kg
.
dV m 3
(2.8)
A given amount of matter is said to have a certain mass that is treated as an invariant. Thus it
follows that density is a constant so long as the volume of the given amount of matter is unaffected
i.e., for a gas, so long as pressure and temperature conditions are the same, or generally for
homogeneous fluids. In this case:
m kg
.
V m 3
10
(2.9)
The previous formula is applicable also, for the average density of an matter. Generally, the
density of a substance depends on point of measurement, pressure p and temperature T . This is
holding good especially for gasses. Their density can be computed from the Equation of State,
applied for two conditions, one of them being known (as reference):
= 0
where:
p T0
p0 T
(2.10)
The Equation (2.9) express the absolute density. In order to facilitate the measurement of the
substance density, sometimes is used the relative density r , defined as the ratio of mass density
of a fluid to some standard (reference) mass density ref :
( fluid )r =
fluid
ref .
(2.11)
For liquids, which are treated generally as fluids with constant density, this reference is the
maximum density for water, apa = 1000 kg/m 3 . For gases, the reference is the air density in
standard conditions: 0air = 1.225 kg/m 3 for p0air = 760 mm Hg and T0air = 288.15 K .
The reciprocal of density is the specific volume, v .
v=
(2.12)
Associated with density, there can be defined another parameter, respectively the:
2.3 Specific weight,
Specific weight (or less often specific gravity) is defined as the rate of weight per volume and has
the SI unit N / m 3 :
dG N
dV m 3
(2.13)
For homogeneous fluids can be defined as the force exerted by gravity upon a unit volume of the
substance:
mg N
V m 3
(2.14)
The Relationship between and g can be determined by Newton's 2nd Law, since:
= g
11
(2.15)
where:
dV 1
V0 dp
m2
.
N
(2.16)
The negative sign indicates a decrease in volume with an increase in pressure, as shown in Figure
below.
1
dp N
=
.
dV m 2
k
V0
(2.17)
d V d
=
,
V
(2.18)
k=
1 d m 2
.
dp N
(2.19)
dp N
.
d m 2
(2.20)
Compressibility data for liquids are usually given in terms of , as determined experimentally.
Theoretically, should depend on the manner or process in which the volume or density change
is effected, e.g., isothermally, adiabatically, etc. For the common gases (such as oxygen), these
two processes give (see also the thermodynamics properties of gases):
(2.21)
(2.22)
= c p / cv
absolute pressure.
The effect of the process is smaller for liquids than for gases.
Associated with these two parameters, there can be defined another one, respectively the:
2.5 VELOCITY OF SOUND, c
It is given by the Equation:
c=
dp
=
d
1
m
(Newton).
=
k s
(2.23)
The magnitude of c is the velocity with which smallamplitude pressure signals will be transmitted
through a fluid of infinite extent or through a fluid confined by completely rigid walls. The density
change caused by an infinitely small pressure wave occurs almost frictionlessly and adiabatically.
For the liquids the speed of sound is usually determined from experimental values of and .
Using the adiabatic bulk modulus, Equation (2.22), the following Equation can be applied quite
accurately for the common gases:
c=
p m
.
s
(2.24)
v
c
[] .
(2.25)
The Mach number is named after Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach (1838 1916).
The Mach number is commonly used both with objects travelling at high speed in a fluid, and with
highspeed fluid flows inside channels such as nozzles, diffusers or wind tunnels. At a temperature
of 15 degrees Celsius, Mach 1 is 340.3 m/s in the atmosphere. The Mach number is not a
constant, being temperature dependent.
According with Mach value, the following classification of fluid flows can be made:
Ma < 0.25
Supersonic flows;
Ma > 5
Hypersonic flows.
2.7 VISCOSITY
Viscosity is the property of a fluid, due to cohesion and interaction between molecules, which offers
resistance to sheer deformation. Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear
stress. Fluid with a high viscosity such as oil, deforms more slowly than fluid with a low viscosity
such as water. It is one of the most important properties of fluids due to it stand on the base of the
principle of fluids motion. The reciprocal of viscosity is fluidity.
2.7.1 Newton's Law of Viscosity
As mentioned before, fluids do not have the ability to resist deformation. Its shape will change
continuously as long a stress is applied. These deformations are caused by shearing forces, which
act tangentially to a surface. Referring to the figure below, we see the force F acting tangentially on
a rectangular (solid lined) finite element ABCD. This is a shearing force (stress) and produces the
dashed lined rhombus element A'B'CD.
x
y
(2.26)
In a solid, shear strain is constant for a fixed shear stress . In a fluid, increases as long as
is applied. It has been found experimentally that the rate of shear strain (shear strain per unit time)
is directly proportional to the shear stress. For small deformations we can write the shear strain as:
x
,
y
14
(2.27)
d dx 1
dv
=
=
.
dt
dt dy dy
(2.28)
where:
dv
dy
Using the experimental results the proportionality between shear stress and rate of shear strain
was expressed by the following Equation (Sir Isaac Newton):
dv
,
dy
(2.29)
where:
The relationship between the shear stress and the velocity gradient can be easelly understanding
from the following experiment, ilustrated below.
15
N s
or
dv m 2
dn
kg
m s
(2.30)
where:
n:
Equation (2.30) shows that the velocity distribution in a fluid is a continuous field. Otherwise, the
shear stress becomes infinite for a finite velocity change between two adjoining points.
In Technical System the units of is P (Poise): 1 P = 1
g
. Typical values are:
cm s
m2
.
s
(2.31)
In Technical System the units of is St , Stokes (named after Sir George Gabriel Stokes, (1819 1903), an Irish mathematician and physicist, who at Cambridge made important contributions to
fluid dynamics, including the NavierStokes equations, optics, and mathematical physics):
1 St = 1
cm 2
.
s
water = 1.14 10 6 m 2 / s ;
air = 1.46 10 5 m 2 / s (for the standard atmosphere);
paraffinoil = 2.375 10 3 m 2 / s ;
mercury = 1.145 10 4 m 2 / s .
16
T + C T0
2 kg
m s ,
(2.32)
where:
For water, the Poiseuilles Equation can be used to compute, with good accuracy, the kinematic
viscosity:
1.78 10 6
1 + 0.0337 t + 0.00022 t 2
m2
,
(2.33)
where
t:
2 Solids:
3 Newtonian fluids: linear dependency between rate of shear strain and shear stress;
17
4  Dilatant fluids:
5  Pseudoplastic:
no minimum shear stress necessary and the viscosity decreases with rate of
shear, e.g. colloidal substances like clay, milk and cement,
6  Bingham plastic:
shear stress must reach a certain minimum before flow commences; above
this value of shear stress they have a Newtonian behaviour, not applicable
for real plastics.
dy
= A + B
(2.34)
where:
A , B and n are constants. For Newtonian fluids: A = 0 , B = , n = 1 .
Thus:
cp =
= .
R ; cv =
(2.36)
R
.
1
where:
R [J/kg K]:
[]
18
(2.35)
(2.37)
(2.38)
[J/kg].
(2.39)
For a perfect gas the enthalpy depends of temperature only and can be computed according to the
equation:
p
dh = d u + = c p dT .
(2.40)
= RT
R
M
(2.41)
where:
R [J/kg K]:
R = 8314.3 [J/kmolK]:
M [kg/kmol]:
There are the following dependences between density and pressure for a gas:
Constant volume process  V = ct .
= ct = 0
(2.42)
Isothermal process  T = ct :
p
= ct =
p0
(2.43)
Adiabatic process  Q = 0
p
where:
n
= ct =
= ct =
p0
0
p0
0n
(2.44)
(2.45)
Fig. 2.7
It consists on the piston 1 moving in the cylinder 2, through the whirling of the screw piston rod 3.
The pump is feed with oil from the tank 4, through the pipe 5, where are attached the manometers,
first one used as reference 6, and the tested one 7. Compute the number of revolutions of the
piston rod necessary that the reference manometer to show a pressure p = 75 kg / cm 2 . The
following are known:
d = 36 mm
h = 0.8 mm
V = 2000 cm 3
k = 4.85 10 10 m 2 / N
oil compressibility.
Solution:
It is recommended to convert all the quantities in the International System of Units (if is necessary):
d = 36 mm = 36 10  3 m = 0.036 m ;
h = 0.8 mm = 0.8 10  3 m = 0.0008 m ;
kg f
cm
m2
;
N
= 100
9.81 N
10
20
= 9.80 10 6
N
m2
Through the whirling of the screw piston rod, the piston is moving by a distance l = n h (number of
revolutions x pitch). The oil will be compressed in the cylinder and pipe, due to an increasing of
pressure p , from 0 (initial gauge pressure shown by manometer) to p = 100 kg / cm 2 .
Using Equation of the isothermal compressibility,
V
= k p ,
V
(2.46)
d2
4
=nh
d2
4
(2.47)
it found that:
n h d2
4Vkp
=kpn=
4V
h d2
n=
4 2 10 3 4 ,85 10 10 9.81 10 6
0.8 10 3 0.036 2
(2.48)
= 11.7 rovolutions
Exercise 2
A plate having the surface S = 0.8 m 2 and mass m = 2 kg is sliding on an inclined plane with the angle
= 30 which is covered with an oil film by thickness = 2 mm . Oil mass density is = 0.9 kg/dm 3
and the kinematic viscosity = 0.4 stokes . Compute the velocity of the plate in uniform motion.
Fig. 2.8
Solution:
S = 0 ,8 m 2 ;
m = 2 ,0 kg ;
= 30 ;
= 2 mm = 2 10 3 m = 0.002 m ;
= 0 ,9 kg/dm 3 = 0 ,9 10 3 kg / m 3 = 900 kg / m 3 ;
= 0 ,40 stokes = 0,40 cm 2 / s = 0 ,40 10 4 m 2 / s .
21
equal with GT ).
From the Newtons Equation of tangential stress in a fluid:
=
where: =
Fig. 2.9
GT
v
=
(2.49)
S
v =
2 9 ,81 2 10 3 sin 30
0 ,9 10 3 0 ,4 10 4 0,8
(2.50)
= 0.681 m/s
Exercise 3
Determine the effect of the water temperature on magnitude of sound speed knowing the density and the
modulus of elasticity:
Solution:
Using the Newtons Equation for the sound speed in fluid:
c=
dp
=
d
(2.51)
it found that:
cwater =
1.914 10 9
= 1388 m/s if t water = 4 C ;
1000
cwater =
2.020 10 9
= 1422 m/s if t water = 20 C .
999.26
In consequence, the sound speed in water is increasing with the temperature rise.
SELFASSESSMENT EXERCISES
Exercise 4
A piston is moving with the constant velocity v = 0.1 cm / s in a pressure cylinder having the inner
diameter D = 50 mm and length l = 10 cm , which is filled with a liquid with the modulus of
22
elasticity = 2 10 4 daN / cm 2 . Compute the time and the displacement x [mm] of the piston if the
pressure in cylinder increase from zero to p = 200 bar . Make a sketch.
Exercise 5
The velocity distribution of a viscous liquid flowing over a fixed plate is given by the Equation:
u = 0.68 y y 2
where;
u
is velocity in [m/s]
What are the shear stresses at the plate surface and at y = 0.34 m , if the dynamic viscosity of the
fluid is = 0.9 N s m 2 ? Draw the variation = ( y ) for y = ( 0 0.34) m .
Exercise 6
In a fluid the velocity measured at a distance of 50 mm from the boundary is 1 m/s . The fluid has
dynamic viscosity 2 Pas and relative density 0.8 , to the water density. What is the velocity
gradient, and shear stress at the boundary assuming a linear velocity distribution? What is the
kinematic viscosity of the fluid in St (Stokes)? Make a sketch.
Exercise 7
Compute the sound speed in air for a temperature t air = 20 C , for an adiabatic dependence
between density and pressure. The molar mass of the air is M air = 28.96 kg/kmol and the
adiabatic exponent is = 1.4 . The universal constant of the gasses is R = 8314.3 [J/kmolK] .
Exercise 8
Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decrease while that of a gas increases with a temperature rise.
23
surface forces.
In the following, only the external forces will be considered, due to the
internal ones are balancing each other.
Fig. 3.1
(3.1)
specific mass force (unitary mass force); it has dimension of acceleration; generally,
r
r
for fluids on the gravity field of Earth fm = g (gravity acceleration).
(3.2)
The surface forces represent the result of the interaction of fluids with surrounding environment
(other substances, either solids or fluids), through the surface S :
r
r
(3.3)
dFS = fS dS
r
specific surface force (unitary surface force); it depends of surface position vector
where: fS
24
r
r
r , normal unitary vector on surface n (pointed outwardly from the surface) and
r
r r r
time t : fS = fS ( r , n , t )
Generally, a surface force will be at an angle to the surface, thus having both normal and
r
r
tangential components: dFn , respectively dF :
r
r
r
r
(3.4)
dFn = dFS cos = fS dS cos = fn dS ,
r
r
r
r
(3.5)
dF = dFS sin = fS dS sin = f dS ,
r
normal unitary surface force; it defines the pressure p on the surface dS :
where fn
r
r
fn = p n
r
f
tangential unitary surface force; it defines the shear stress on the surface dS ;
3.2 THE EULERs EQUATION FOR FLUID STATICS
The equation for fluid statics can be obtained from the equilibrium of the forces on an arbitrary
elementary volume of fluid:
r
r
Fm + Fp = 0 .
(3.6)
r
If the fluid is at rest the tangential component of the surface force is zero dF = 0 , thus the
r
p n dS .
(3.7)
dV +
p n dS = 0 .
S
(3.8)
p n dS = p dV .
(3.9)
(3.10)
r r r
where: i , j , k are the unitary vectors on Ox , Oy and Oz directions.
f m dV p dV = 0
(3.11)
25
(3.12)
Equation (3.12) represents the Eulers equation for fluid statics in vectorial form. In Cartesian
coordinates it can be writing as:
1 p
=0
x
1 p
=0
y
1 p
=0
z
fmx
fmy
fmz
(3.13)
r
where fmx , fmy , fmz are the scalar components of fm .
r
r
Multiplying the equation (3.12) by dr and taking into account that p dr is the total differential of
pressure:
r p
p
p
p dr =
dx +
dy +
dz = dp ,
x
y
z
(3.14)
we obtain the Euler s Equation of fluid statics (sum of two differential continuous functions):
r
r 1
1
fm dr = dp dp + d = 0 ,
(3.15)
where ( x , y , z ) is the potential of the mass forces (the potential energy due to the mass forces).
If the components of unitary mass forces are known, then:
f mx =
U
U
U
, f my =
, fmz =
,
z
y
x
r
(3.16)
+ = ct. .
(3.17)
The Equation (3.17) is known also as the fundamental Equation of fluid statics. It describes the
pressure field in fluids, either compressible or incompressible.
The first term,
dp
, represents the potential of the pressure forces. In order to solve this integral,
the relationship between pressure and density must be know for gasses.
For fluids having the density as function of pressure, the equipotential surfaces = ct represent
also surfaces of constant pressure, such of those which are correspond to the interfaces to the
fluids. As consequence, the free surfaces of fluids are surfaces of constant pressure. The shape
r
and orientation of these surfaces depend on the unitary mass force fm . They are normal
r
(perpendicular) on fm .
26
dp = 0 p = ct . ,
(3.18)
In the case of liquids, fluids with constant density = ct . , the potential of the
pressure forces is:
dp
dp =
+ ct .
(3.19)
Fig. 3.2
Thus, the Equation for incompressible fluids at rest can be written as:
p
where:
+ g z = ct p + g z = ct p + z = ct.
(3.20)
(3.21)
(3.22)
27
Fig. 3.3
where: p p0
hz
For the shown case, pressure has the maximum magnitude on the bottom of the tank:
pmax = h .
(3.23)
For the previous case, if the pressure at the surface is pm , as shown in Figure 3.4 (liquid in a
closed tank, under pressure) in a reference with the Oz in the sense of the depth rising (natural in
study of the liquids), then:
pmax = pm + h .
(3.24)
Fig. 3.4
hm =
pm
(3.25)
(3.26)
Both cases are concerning the relative equilibrium of liquids, in accelerating systems, attached on
carrying tanks.
3.3.3.1 Liquids in tanks on accelerating translation
For this case, lets consider a liquid, having the specific gravity , in an open tank by length l , up
to the level h (see Figure 3.5), which start to move with the acceleration a = ct .
Fig. 3.5
When the tank accelerates, the specific mass force fm will have two components on considered
reference system:
The free surface of liquids will change its orientation under the action of the mass forces. It comes
to the equilibrium at an angle with the horizontal:
= arc tg
a
g
(3.27)
= ( fmx dx + fmz dz ) = ( a dx + g dz ) = a x + g z + ct
(3.28)
dp =
+ ct
(3.29)
Thus, the Equation for the relative equilibrium of liquids in accelerating translations is:
dp
+ U = ct
+ a x + g z = ct
2 p = p0 , (atmospheric pressure).
z = h
x=
29
(3.30)
In this way:
ct = a
l
+gh
2
(3.31)
Replacing (3.31) into (3.30), the Equation for the relative equilibrium of liquids in accelerating
translations becomes (using the gauge pressure):
l
= a x + g ( h z )
(3.32)
pmax = a + g h .
2
(3.33)
Figure 3.6 shows the pressure diagram on the walls of the tank.
Fig. 3.6
3.3.3.2 Liquids in cylindrical tanks on rotational motion
For this case, lets consider a liquid, having the specific gravity , in an open cylindrical tank by
radius R , up to the level h (see Figure 3.7), which start to rotate
with the angular speed = ct .
In this case the specific mass force fm will have components on
each direction of the reference system:
= ( fmx dx + fmz dz ) =
(3.34)
= x 2 dx + y 2 dy + g dz =
=
x2 + y 2
r2
+ g z + ct =
+ g z + ct
2
2
Fig. 3.7
30
+ ct
(3.35)
Thus, the Equation for the relative equilibrium of liquids in on rotational motion is:
p
r2 2
+ g z = ct
2
(3.36)
The integral constant ct . can be computed knowing that the (gauge) pressure is zero on the free
surface, which is a parabolic type. Thus, from the condition Vinitial = Vfinal
1
2
(3.37)
Also p = 0 for:
r =R
R2 2
+ g hmax = ct
z = hmax
2
(3.38)
r =0
g hmin = ct
z = hmax
(3.39)
From the system of Equations (3.37), (3.38) and (3.39) we found that:
ct =
R2 2
+gh
4
(3.40)
Replacing (3.40) into (3.36), the Equation for the relative equilibrium of liquids on rotational motion
becomes:
p = g (h z)
2
4
(R2 2 r 2 )
(3.41)
2R2
4
Figure 3.8 shows the pressure diagram on the walls of the tank.
Fig. 3.8
31
(3.42)
= ct =
p0
p0
(3.43)
Thus:
dp
0 dp
p0
0
p0
ln p + ct
(3.44)
= g z + ct
(3.45)
ln p + g z = ct
(3.46)
Finally:
0
p0
32
(4.1)
The negative sign appears because the force exerted by the fluid is directed into the surface, and
r
opposite in sense to n .
The force is obtained by integrating the differential forces over the surface area A .
r
r
F = p n dA ,
A
(4.2)
r
r
r
Each differential force has a moment about the reference point, O , given by dM o = r dF . The
r
moment of the couple is obtained by the integration of dM :
33
r
r
r
r
v
M o = r dF = r p n dA ,
A
(4.3)
r
where r is the position vector locating dA with respect to the moment center.
In evaluating the above integrals, it must be kept in mind that we are summing vector quantities.
The operation of integration must therefore be carried out on a set of scalar components of the
vectors (the pressure distribution in fluid must be known).
(4.4)
r
r
r
v
v
M o = r p n dA = n r p dA ,
(4.5)
The point where resultant force will act is calling the centre of pressure and has as symbol C (or
r
CP ). The position vector of the centre of pressure, rCP , can be obtained from Varignons
Theorem: the sum of the moments of each elementary force is equals with the moment of the
resultant force:
r
r
r
r
r
r
v
v
v r
n r p dA = rCP F n r p dA = n rCP p dA rCP =
A
p dA
p dA
(4.6)
4.1.1 Resultant force and center of pressure on a submerged plane surface in a gas
For gasses, having a finite volume, the value of pressure within can be considered constant:
p = ct . Equations (4.4) and (4.6) become:
r
r
r
r
F = n p dS = n p dA = n p A F = p A ;
A
r
rCP =
r
p r dA
r
rG A r
=
=
= rCG ;
A
p dA
p dA
where:
p dA
(4.7)
(4.8)
r
rCG is the position vector of the fluid centroid.
These results are also applicable for small volumes of liquids, if the pressure variation is negligible
insight them.
34
4.1.2 Resultant force and center of pressure on a submerged plane surface in a liquid
For this case, it is considered that the plane surface is totally submerged in a liquid of density
and inclined at an angle of to the horizontal (see Figure 4.2). Taking pressure as zero at the
level of free surface and measuring down from the surface, the (gauge) pressure on an element
dA , submerged at distance h , is given by the fundamental Equation of hydrostatics:
p= h
(4.9)
where:
z dA
(4.10)
z dA = zCG
A,
(4.11)
where:
where:
(4.12)
hCG is depth to the centroid of the submerged surface, from Figure 4.2.
r
r
r
r
r p dA r h dA r z dA r z dA
r
,
rCP = A
= A
= A
= A
zCG A
p
dA
h
dA
z
dA
(4.13)
where:
y z dA
zCG A
I yz
zCG A
; zCP =
dA
zCG A
Iy
zCG A
I yz
Iy
Note that:
35
(4.14)
In a reference system having the origin in the centroid CG of the surface, the Equations
(4.14) can be write in the following form (using the Steiners theorem):
y CP =
where:
I yz
zCG A
I' yz + y CG zCG A
zCG A
; zCP =
Iy
zCG A
2
I' y + zCG
A
zCG A
I' yz
I' y
(4.15)
Note that in the Equation (4.15) the 2nd moment is always positive so that the center of pressure
CP always falls below the centroid CG .
p dS yOz
(4.16)
p dS xOz
(4.17)
p dS xOy
(4.18)
SyOz
Fp y =
S xOz
Fp z =
S xOy
where:
S xOy , S yOz , S xOz are the algebraic projections of the curved surface on the planes
(4.19)
SyOz
36
(4.20)
dS yOz
SyOz
r
r
r
r
r
r
rC Fp x =
= rG SyOz ; rC Fp y = rG SxOz ; rC Fp z = rG SxOy
S yOz
(4.21)
z dS yOz
SyOz
r
rC Fp x =
where:
zGyoz
z dS yOz
S yOz
zG SyOz S yOz
r
; rC Fp y =
z dS xOz
S xOz
zG SxOz S xOz
z dS xOy
= V
SxOy
r
r
; rC Fz = rG V
(4.22)
(4.23)
is the depth of centroid for S yoz about the manometric plane xoy (where
the gauge pressure is null, p = 0 ) ;
zGxoz
is the volume of the liquid between wetted curved surface and its projection
on the manometric plane xoy .
These results can easily understand considering a liquid at rest on top of a curved surface AC
(twodimensional case), as shown in the diagram below.
The resultant horizontal force of a fluid above a curved surface is equal with the resultant
force on the projection of the curved surface onto a vertical plane.
We know that the force on a vertical plane must act horizontally (as it acts normal to the plane) and
that Fy must act through the same point. Generalising:
37
The resultant horizontal force of a fluid above a curved surface acts horizontally through the
centre of pressure of the projection of the curved surface onto a vertical plane
Concerning the vertical force, there is no shear force on the vertical edges, as consequence the
vertical component Fz can only be due to the weight of the fluid. Generalising:
The resultant vertical force of a fluid above a curved surface is equal with the weight of fluid
directly above the curved surface. It will act vertically downward through the centre of gravity
of the mass of fluid.
The overall resultant pressure force is found by combining vectorialy its components:
F = Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2
(4.24)
= arctg
(4.25)
4.2.3 Resultant force on a closed curved surface for a constant pressure fluid
For this case, the resultant force on each direction will be zero: Fx = Fy = Fz = 0 (the algebraic
projections of the curved surface on the planes of the reference system are nulls). But the action of
the fluid has as result stresses on the wall of tanks. Knowing the magnitude of these tensions is
useful on computation of the thickness of wall.
For a circular duct, see Figure 4.4, the following Equation is found for computation of the thickness
of wall, , from the balance of the forces of pressure and strength on Oz direction:
pDL = 2 L
=
where:
pD
2 a
Fig. 4.4 Pressure force on a closed curved surface for constant pressure fluid
38
(4.26)
(4.27)
where:
FW
FA
Vb
Vb
(4.28)
b < f
(4.29)
Stable equilibrium:
Ix
e >0
Vdf
(4.30)
Ix
e =0
Vdf
(4.31)
Neutral equilibrium:
39
Unstable equilibrium:
Ix
e <0
Vdf
where:
(4.32)
Ix
(4.33)
Fig. 4.6
The piezometer tube
p A = f g h A [m column of fluid] .
(4.44)
The pressure can be measured in multiple points simultaneously if several piezometer tubes are
connected as in Figure bellow,
40
Using a Utube, the pressure of both liquids and gases can be measured with the same instrument.
The Utube is connected as in the figure 4.8 and filled with a fluid called the manometric fluid (or
manometric liquid). The fluid whose pressure is measured should have a mass density less than
that of the manometric fluid and the two fluids should not be miscible. For the manometer shown in
Figure 4.8 the following Equation can be written:
(4.45)
Note that if the fluid being measured is a gas, the density will probably be very low in comparison
to the density of the manometric fluid, i.e. lp >> f . In this case the term f g h1 can be
neglected (because h1 << 1 ), and the gauge pressure can be computed accurately enough as:
p A = lp g h2 .
(4.46)
pC = pD ;
pC = p A + f g h1 ;
pD = pB + f g ( h2 h ) + lp g h ;
p A + f g h1 = pB + f g ( h2 h ) + lp g h ;
Fig. 4.9
41
p A pB = f g ( h2 h1 ) + ( lp f )g h .
(4.47)
Also, if the fluid whose pressure difference is being measured is a gas and lp >> f , then the
terms involving f can be neglected:
p A pB = lp g h .
(4.48)
D2
4
= h2
d2
4
d
h1 = h2 .
D
The height different in the two columns gives the pressure difference:
2
d 2
d
p1 p2 = lp g h2 + h2 = lp g h2 1 + .
D
(4.49)
(4.50)
If the pressure to be measured is very small then tilting the arm provides a convenient way of
obtaining a larger (more easily read) movement of the manometer liquid. A manometer with a tilted
arm (inclined manometer) is shown in the figure below.
42
(4.51)
The sensitivity to pressure change can be increased by a greater inclination of the manometer arm.
Alternatively, the density of the manometric fluid may be changed.
4.4.5 Choice Of Manometer
Some disadvantages of manometers:
Slow response they are useful for very slowly variations of pressure.
For the Utube manometer two measurements must be performed simultaneously to get the
difference in high value. This may be avoided by using a tube with a much larger crosssectional area on one side of the manometer than the other one.
It is often difficult to measure small variations in pressure; alternatively an inclined
43
Fig. 4.12
SOLUTION:
Step 1:
Convert all the quantities in the International System of Units (if is necessary)
pB = 0.1 at = 0.1 9.81 10 4 Pa = 9.81 10 3 Pa ( = 10 3 mmH 2O )
1 mmH2O = 1000 9.81 10 3 = 9.81 Pa
Step 2:
p A 0 g (h1 + h2 + h3 ) = pB 0 g h2 1 g h3
p A = pB + 0 g ( h1 + h3 ) 1 g h3
p A = 9.81 10 3 + 1000 9.81( 0.1 + 0.2 ) 800 9.81 0.4 = 12556.8 Pa
p A = 1280 mmH 2O
44
Exercise 2
A closed tank, having the shape as in Figure below, is holding water under the pressure pm
(manometric pressure).
Fig. 4.13
H = 1 .5 m
R = 0 .5 m
L = 1 .0 m
= 1000 kg/m 3
pm = 0.1 at
(technical atmospheres)
SOLUTION:
Step 1:
Convert all the quantities in the International System of Units (if is necessary)
pm = 0.1 at = 0.1 9.81 10 4 Pa
Step 2:
Find the level hm of the (horizontal) manometric plane above the free surface of the liquid.
At the level of the manometric datum the absolute pressure is the atmospheric one, respectively
the gauge pressure is zero, p = 0 , thus:
pm = g hm
45
hm =
pm 0.1 9.81 10 4
=
=1 m
g
1000 9.81
oz
Fig. 4.14
Step 3:
Compute the (gauge) pressure at the level of each characteristic point:
p A = g hA = g hm = pm = 9.81 10 3 Pa (pressure in gasses is constant)
pB = g hB = g [hm + ( H R )] = pm + g ( H R )
pB = 9.81 10 3 + 1000 9.81 (1.5  0.5) = 19.62 10 3 Pa
pC = g hC = g (hm + H ) = pm + g H
pC = 9.81 10 3 + 1000 9.81 1.5 = 24.53 10 3 Pa
Draw the pressure diagram on the walls of thank, as shown in Figure 4.15.
46
F( AB ) = pm A(AB)
Lh
z
+ g z dz dx = g hm h L + g
0 2
00
F( AB ) = g hm h L + g
dx = g hm h L + g 2 dx
0
0
h2
h
L = hm + h L
2
2
Note that the (pressure) force is simply the volume of the pressure distribution. It acts through the
centroid of the pressure diagram.
47
Step 5:
Compute the magnitude of the force on the (curved) wall ( BC ) : F( BC ) . Spit the resultant force into
its components, horizontal Fy ( BC ) and vertical Fz( BC ) (see Figure 4.16). According with Equations
(4.16):
R
R2
0.5 2
+ hm + h L = 9810
+ 1 + 1 1 = 21546.19 N
Fz = V =
4
where:
S xoz
is the volume of the liquid between wetted curved surface and its projection
on the manometric plane xoy (where the gauge pressure is null).
R2
+ ( hm + h ) R L .
V =
4
Hence:
Fig. 4.16
48
Exercise 3
The density of liquids can be determined experimentally using a hydrometer as shown below. It
consists on a weighted bulb and an attached tube whit a
calibrated cross section. Compute the density of a fluid f
if the stem is submerged to a depth of h = 50 mm
relative to the equilibrium position in water.
The followings are known:
G = 20 gf :
weight of hydrometer;
d = 8 mm :
w = 1000 kg/m 3 :
Solution:
Step 1
Fig. 4.17
m
s2
0.02 kg = 0.1962 N ;
d = 8 mm = 8 10 3 m .
Step 2
The buoyancy principle is the basis of the hydrometer. The Equations of the equilibrium for the
floating situations are:
G = FAw G = w g Vdw
in water:
in other liquid:
d2
G = FAl G = l g Vdl = l g Vdw +
h
Thus:
l =
d
g Vdw +
h
d
g
h
+
g
4
w
l = w
l = 1000
= w
4G
4 G + w g d 2 h
4G
4 G + w g d 2 h
4 0.1962
4 0.1962 + 1000 9.81 3.1415 0.008 2 0.05
l = 888.334
49
kg
m3
SELFASSESSMENT EXERCISES
Exercise 4
An inclined tube manometer consists of a vertical cylinder of 35 mm diameter. At the bottom of this
is connected a tube 5 mm in diameter inclined upward at an angle of 15 to the horizontal. The top
of the vertical tube is connected to an air duct. The inclined tube is open to the air and the
manometric fluid has relative (to the water) mass density 0.785. Determine the pressure in the air
duct if the manometric fluid moved 50 mm along the inclined tube. What is the error if the
movement of the fluid in the vertical cylinder is ignored? Make a sketch.
Exercise 5
A U tubemanometer (see Figure 4.18) is used to measure the acceleration of a motorcar.
Compute the magnitude of the acceleration if the deflection of the fluid is h = 30 mm . Draw the
calibration curve of the accelerometer.
Fig. 4.18
Exercise 6
A hydraulic tachometer consists on a U tubemanometer (see Figure 4.19) which is used to
measure the speed (revolutions per minute). Compute the speed if the deflection of the fluid is
Fig. 4.19
50
Exercise 7
A closed tank (see Figure 4.20), filled with gasoline, is carried by a truck. Compute the pressure
force Fp on the back wall of the tank if the truck has acceleration a = 2 m/s 2 . Draw the pressure
diagram on the walls of the tank. The followings are known: h = 1.8 m , b = 1.6 m , l = 6 m ,
Fig. 4.20
Exercise 8
Find the magnitude of the resultant force on the vertical wall of a tank that has oil, of relative
density 0.8, floating on water as shown in Figure 4.21. Draw the pressure diagram. The width of
the tank is L = 1.0 m .
Fig. 4.21
Exercise 9
A cylinder, 100 mm in diameter, 250 mm long and mass density = 800 kg/m 3 , floats in water
with vertical axis. Determine the stability of the cylinder.
51
the trust of a rocket engine depends on the flow of gasses through a nozzle;
the cooling of the electronic devices depends on the air flow over their components, a.o.
waves on beaches,
All are example of highly complex fluid flows. Fortunately, we are not generally concerned with the
motion of the individual particles (the Lagrangian approach). It usually suffices to describe the
velocity associated with a point in a specified area of flow field. When the velocity is specified for
each point in a region, a velocity field is defined. Mathematically it can be represent by the
Equation:
r
r
r
r
v =ui +vj +wk
where:
(5.1)
r r r
i , j, k
u, v, w
v = v (x, y, z, t) v = v ( x, y, z, t)
w = w (x, y, z, t)
(5.2)
The use of velocity fields to describe fluid motion was introduced by Euler (XVIII century), who is
generally credited with the founding of the fluid dynamics. The Eulerian method may seem rather
complex, yet the alternative Lagrangian method of describing the motion of each fluid element as a
52
function of time is much more complex. The simplification achieved by the eulerian method is most
apparent in problems of steady flow.
A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity, pressure and crosssection) may differ from
point to point but do not change with time. (in practice, there is always a slight variations in velocity
and pressure, but if the average values of these are constant, the flow is considered steady).
In contrast with this type of flow is the unsteady flow, when the conditions are changing with time at
any point in the fluid.
5.1.1 Streamlines
Graphical representations of physical phenomena are generally helpful in gaming insight into
problems and in communicating with others. This is particularly true when the mathematical
description of a phenomenon is complex. A very useful graphical representation of fluid flow is
based on the concept of a velocity field. Lines are drawn in such a way that the tangent at any
point on a line indicates the direction of the velocity associated with that point. These lines are
called streamlines, and a family of them constitutes a streamline pattern (Fig. 5.1).
dx
dy
dz
; v=
; w=
.
dt
dt
dt
(5.3)
Hence:
dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
u( x , y , z , t ) v( x , y , z , t ) w( x , y , z , t )
(5.4)
r
r
Alternatively, since the velocity vector is tangent to a streamline, then v ( u,v, w )  dr ( dx ,dy ,dz ) , or:
r
r
(5.5)
v dr = 0
53
Practically, the injection of dye or smoke into a steady flow can make the streamline pattern visible,
as shown in Figure 5.2.
Because the fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines, fluid can not cross a
streamline.
Streamlines can not cross each other. If they were to cross this would indicate two different
velocities at the same point. This is not physically possible.
The above point implies that any particles of fluid starting on one streamline will stay on that
same streamline throughout the fluid.
u
u
u
u
dt +
dx +
dy +
dz
t
x
y
z
(5.6)
u
u
du u dt u dx u dy u dz u u
=
+
+
+
=
+
u+
v+
w
t dt x dt y dt z dt t x
y
z
dt
(5.7)
v
w
v
w
v v
w w
u+
v+
w , az =
u+
v+
w.
+
+
z
z
y
y
x
t x
t
(5.7)
r
r
r
r
r vr vr
r
v
v
u+
v+
w.
a = a x i + a y j + az k =
+
z
y
t x
(5.8)
Similarly:
ay =
Hence:
r
The first terms, ( v t ) , represent the local acceleration in a transient motion; it is zero for steady
flows. The sum of the three remaining terms express the acceleration associated with the motion of
a fluid element in a non uniform velocity field, called also carrying acceleration or convective
acceleration. The Equation (5.8) can be write also (using the differential operators):
r
r
r
r dv v
r
r
r v
=
+ u +
a=
+ (v ) v
v+
w v =
t x
y
z
dt
t
r
r
r v
r r v
r r
v2
v2
a=
+ grad
+ rot v v
+
+ v v =
t
2
2
t
(5.9)
(5.9)
In the Equation (3.6) are emphasized the potential component, grad v 2 2 and the rotational one,
r r
rot v v , of the convective acceleration. Also, in this form the acceleration is much easy to
integrate.
55
The continuity principle establishes a condition that any description of the flow field must satisfy,
and it thereby provides a relationship between certain properties within the flow field.
Imagine a stream tube having a crosssectional area dA at an arbitrary position along the tube. As
dA becomes infinitesimal, the stream tube approaches a streamline. With v representing the
velocity of the fluid at this section, the fluid face coincident with dA moves a distance v dt normal
to dA in time dt . The volume of fluid passing the section is thus given by the expression:
dV = v dA dt .
(5.10)
dm = v dA dt ,
(5.11)
(5.12)
(5.13)
The volumetric flow rate Q (more commonly known as discharge) is often used in preference to
the mass flow rate, especially when the density of the fluid is constant:
Q = v dA .
A
(5.14)
If the density is uniform over the section (as is usually the case), the volumetric flow rate can be
obtained by dividing the mass flow rate by the density:
Q=
Qm
(5.15)
The average velocity v , at any section of a stream tube, is defined by the equation:
v =
Q
.
A
(5.16)
If the properties of a fluid are uniform over a cross section, the flow is said to be onedimensional.
Many flows may be assumed to be onedimensional without introducing serious error. When this is
done, the velocity that is used is the average velocity, but the bar notation is generally dropped.
The mass flow rate for onedimensional flow can thus be expressed as:
Qm = v A .
(5.17)
(5.18)
The subscripts are referring to two different sections along a stream tube. Whenever the density
can be assumed uniform throughout the stream tube, the volumetric flow rate will be the same at
every section and:
Q = v1 A1 = v 2 A2 = ... = v n An = cons tan t .
56
(5.19)
(5.21)
r
r
r
r
r
dFm = fm dm = fm dV Fm = fm dV
(5.22)
r
r
r
r
dFp = p n dA Fp = p n dA = p dV
(5.23)
r
fm is the unit mass force (it has dimension of acceleration) and it is expressed as:
r
r
r
r
fm = fm x i + fm y j +fm z k .
where:
Generally:
fm x =
r
U
U
U
; fm y =
; fm z =
fm = grad U
y
x
z
(5.24)
U is the potential of the mass forces. It represents the mass potential energy of the fluid. When
fm x , fm y and fm z are known:
U ( x, y, z ) = fm x dx + fm y dy + fm z dz
Substituting the expressions (3.18, 3.19, 3.20) into Equation (3.17) it is obtained that:
r
r
dv
dt dV = fm dV p dV
V
V
V
(5.25)
(5.26)
Note:
In the above Equation, there is no any differential operator before integrals, which can
affect the integration. For an arbitrary volume V 0 , the Equation becomes:
r
r
1
dv r
dv r
= fm p
= fm p
dt
dt
(5.27)
Equation (5.27) is the Eulers Equation of ideal fluid motion, in vectorial form: a fluid in motion is in
r
r
equilibrium under the actions of inertia forces ( dv dt ) , mass forces fm and pressure forces
( p) / .
Taking into consideration the expression (5.9) of the acceleration, the above equation becomes (in
H. Helmholtzs formulation):
r
r r r
v2
1
v
+ grad
+ rot v v = fm grad p
2
t
57
(5.28)
grad p = grad
t
r
v2
r r
dp
v
+ grad
+
+ U + rot v v = 0
dp
(5.29)
This is the Equation of the ideal fluid motion formulated by I. S. Gromeka and H. Lamb.
r
v
=0,
t
r r
rot v v ,
then:
v2
dp
grad
+
+U = 0
2
(5.30)
The terms between brackets have dimensions of energy for unit mass. Their sum is denoted with
e . It shows that the total energy of the unit fluid mass represents the sum between kinetic energy
and potential energy of the pressure and mass forces. The expression:
v2
dp
+
+U = e
2
dp
dp
grad
+
+ U dr = 0 d
+
+U = 0
2
v2
dp
+
+ U = ct .
2
(5.31)
r
r
r
For fluids with constant mass density = ct . , in gravitational field, fm x = fm y = 0 , fm z = g , then:
U = fm z dz =  g dz = g z + ct ,
58
v2 p
+ + g z = ct .
2
(5.32)
This is known as Bernoulli's Equation. For two points along a streamline it can be write:
v12 p1
v 22 p2
+
+ g z1 =
+
+ g z2 .
2
2
(5.32)
In this form all the terms are representing energies per unit mass:
y
Kinetic energy
Pressure energy
Potential energy
v12
.
2
p
gz
Bernoulli's Equation can be expressed in another two forms. One of the most used is obtained
when Equation (5.32) is divided by g :
v12
p
v2
p
+ 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 = H [m ]
2g g
2g g
The Bernoulli constant H is known as the total head, for it is the sum of:
y
z,
p
p
= ,
g
v2
.
2g
All the terms in the above Equation have the dimensions of length (height).
The sum of the potential head and pressure head is known as the piezometric head.
(5.33)
If an ideal fluid is in motion and the velocity varies along a streamline, the piezometric head does
not remain constant but varies in such a way that the total head remains constant (see Figure 5.4).
A third form of Bernoullis Equation can be write when Equation (5.32) is multiply by :
v12
2
+ p1 + g z1 =
v 22
2
N
+ p2 + g z 2
m2
(5.34)
velocity is defined as the product m . For a system of material points, the total momentum has
the following expression:
r
r
M = mi i
(5.35)
mi
r
r
i = Fext
(5.36)
state that the time rate of change of the
momentum for a system of material points equals the sum of all the external forces which are
acting upon the system.
In order to transpose this theorem in the field
of Fluid Mechanics, an incompressible fluid of
density
control volume bounded by a surface S ABCD (control surface). The lateral surfaces S1 , S2 are
perpendicular on the direction of the flow. At two successive moments of time t1 and t 2 , the mass
of fluid will occupy the positions ABCD , respectively A' B' C' D' . The time rate of change of the
60
momentum can be expressed by the difference of the momentum of the fluid at the two times t1
r
and t 2 : dM = M 2 M1 .
Because we considered a flow developed in steady state conditions, the mass momentum of the
fluid between sections A' B' and CD remains constant in time. Therefore, the time rate of change
of the momentum is given by the difference between the momentum of the fluid contained into the
surface S ABB' A' and the momentum of the fluid contained in the surface SCDD' C' :
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
dM = M 2 M1 = m2 2 m1 1 = V2 2 V1 1 = S2 2 dt 2 S1 1 dt 1
r
r
r
dM
= Q ( 2 1 )
dt
(5.37)
where: Q
1,2
Fext
(5.38)
Generally, the sum of all external forces which are acting upon fluid contained in the control
volume is:
r
Fext
r
where: G
r r
Fp1 , Fp2
r r
r
r
r
= G + Fp1 + Fp2 + Fpsl + Ffsl
(5.39)
the gravitational force exerted on the mass of fluid from the control volume;
the pressure forces exerted by the fluid from the stream tube, besides the
considered volume, which is acting on the fluid from control volume, through
the inflow surface S1 , respectively the outflow surface S2 (normal on this
surfaces and pointing inward over the surfaces;
r
Fpls
the force with which the lateral wall of the stream tube belonging to the
control surface acts upon the inside fluid;
r
Ffls
the viscous friction force which is created between the fluid and lateral
surface of the stream tube.
(5.40)
Obsevations 1 In order to apply the Momentum theorem it is sufficient to know flow parameters
on the control surface and not to know what happens inside it. More specifically, it is
to be known the pressures and the velocities on this surface.
2 For practical applications of (5.40), the system has to be studied in a fixed
reference frame, conveniently chosen.
61
Fig. 6.1  Tank and streamlines of flow out of the sharp edged orifice
The shape of the hole edges are as they are (sharp) to minimise frictional losses by minimising the
contact between the hole and the liquid.
Looking at the streamlines it can be seen how they contract after the orifice to a minimum value
when they all become parallel. At this point, the velocity and pressure are uniform across the jet.
This convergence is called the vena contracta (from the Latin contracted vein). In order to
calculate the flow, it is necessary to know the amount of contraction.
The velocity through the orifice can be predicted using the Bernoulli equation, by applying it along
the streamline joining point 1 on the surface to point 2 at the centre of the orifice.
v12
p
v2
p
+ 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2
2g g
2g g
(6.1)
At the free surface velocity is negligible v1 0 due to the large area of flow section comparatively
with the area of the orifice, and the pressure is the atmospheric one, p1 = 0 (gauge pressure). At
the orifice, the jet is open to the air so again the pressure is atmospheric, p2 = 0 . If we take the
datum line through the orifice, then z2 = 0 and z1 = h . Hence:
h=
v 22
2g
v2 = 2 g h
(6.2)
This is the theoretical value of velocity. Unfortunately it will be an over estimate of the real velocity
because friction losses have not been taken into account. To incorporate friction we use the
62
coefficient of velocity cv to correct the theoretical velocity. Each orifice has its own coefficient of
velocity, which usually falls in the range (0.97  0.99).
To calculate the discharge through the orifice we multiply the area of the jet by the velocity. The
actual area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not the area of the orifice. We obtain this
area by using a coefficient of contraction for the orifice c c .
Aactual = c c Aoriffice .
(6.3)
(6.4)
v 2 = 2 g 1 + h
(6.5)
dh
dt
(6.6)
The minus sign is due to dh , which is falling (is negative). Rearranging and substituting the
expression (6.4) for Q through the orifice gives:
dt =
dh
Aoriffice c D 2 g
(6.7)
This can be integrated between the initial level h1 , and final level h2 , to give an expression for the
time t it takes to fall this distance:
t2
t = dt =
t1
t=
A
Aoriffice c D
A
Aoriffice c D
h2
1
2g
2g
h1
dh
h
h1 h2
63
(6.8)
(6.9)
dQ = b dh v = b dh 2 g h
(6.10)
Integration from the free surface, h = 0 , to the weir crest, h = H , gives the expression for the
theoretical discharge through the notch:
H
Q = 2 g b
1
h2
dh
(6.11)
This will be different for each differently shaped weir or notch. To solve this equation there is need
an expression relating the width of flow across the weir to the depth below the free surface.
64
Q =B 2g
1
h2
2
dh = B 2 g H 2
3
(6.12)
Taking into accounts the losses at the edges of the notch and contractions in the area of flow, the
discharge can be expressed as:
H
Q =B 2g
1
h2
2
dh = c D B 2 g H 2
3
(6.13)
b = 2 (H  h) tg
(6.14)
Thus:
Q = 2 2 g tg
(H  h) h 2 dh =
8
15
2 g tg
H2
(6.15)
Taking into accounts the losses at the edges of the notch and contractions in the area of flow, the
discharge is:
8
Q=
cD
15
2 g tg
5
H2
(6.16)
Fig. 6.5
The basic principle underling the operating of an ejector is an increasing in the velocity of the
primary fluid, accompanied by a decrease in pressure at the level of mixing chamber, where the
secondary fluid is entrains by absorption, the result being a mixture of fluids. Three regions are
distinctive:
convergent region, between points 1 and 2; the velocities of both fluids, primary fluid " pf "
and secondary fluid " sf " are increasing; their pressures are decreasing to the same
magnitude;
region of homogenization for the mixture of fluids " mf " , between points 2 and 3;
divergent region, between points 3 and 4; the kinetic energy of the mixture is converted into
potential energy of pressure.
The equations of the mixing of fluids are the following:
mass balance equation:
( Qm )pf + ( Qm )sf = ( Qm )mf
(6.17)
2
Q v + p + g
m
2
v2 p
z + Qm
+ +g
2
pf
v2 p
z = Qm
+ +g
2
sf
mf
(6.18)
+ +g
2
v2 p
z + u
+ +g
pf
v2 p
z = (1 + u )
+ +g
sf
mf
(6.19)
( Qm )sf
.
( Qm )pf
66
(6.20)
v 2
+ p = p* = ptot
2
(6.21)
Terms having the subscript " " represent the parameters of the stream unperturbed by the blunt
body, theoretically in upstream and downstream at infinite. Terms having the superscript *
represent the parameters of the stream in the stagnation point. The total pressure is known, also,
as the stagnation pressure.
The blunt body stopping the stream does not have to be a solid. I could be a static column of liquid.
In this way the total pressure can be measured using a L tube with the open end facing a stream
as shown in Figure 6.7. This is the Pitt tube, named after the French physicist Henry Pitt, who
measured in 1732 the velocity of the Seine.
Two piezometers, one as normal and one as a Pitt tube within the pipe can be used in an
arrangement shown previously to measure velocity of flow. From equation (6.21):
v = 2 g ( htot hst )
(6.22)
The Pitt tube may be combined with the static tube as shown in Figure 6.8. In this design, first
used by Ludwig Prandtl, the static pressure tube jackets the Pitt tube, resulting in a compact
mater. The static holes in the PittPrandtl tube are so located that the slight pressure decrease
caused in the stream by the tube is compensated by the pressure increase due to stagnation on
the stem. Figure 6.8 show also the relative dimensions of the PittPrandtl tube suitable for
incompressible flows.
lp
v = 2 g
1 h
(6.23)
parameters of the fluid in this section are v 2 and p2 . Further downstream the stream gradually
expands to the normal flow.
where: S1 =
D2
4
S2 = c c
d2
4
(6.24)
diameter of conduit;
diameter of orifice;
cc
coefficient of contraction.
Neglecting the pressure losses, the velocity 2 can be determined from Bernoullis equation:
12
p
2
p
2
+ 1 = 2 + 2 + 2
2g g 2 g g 2 g
(6.25)
(6.26)
Replacing velocity v1 in equation (6.25) and rearranging the terms it is obtained the following
expression for the velocity in the vena contracta:
v2 =
1
1 (c c m)
69
p1 p2
(6.27)
d
where: m = .
D
d 2
4
1 ( c c m)
(p1 p2 )
(6.28)
From practical considerations, because there is measured the pressure drop pI pII , it is
convenient to express the discharge in the following form:
Q = cd
where: c d
E
d 2
4
(pI
pII ) ,
(6.29)
1
d
1
D
1
1 m2
(6.30)
The discharge coefficient is experimentally obtained. Thus the errors due to the omission of the
contraction coefficient under the square root and losses between sections 1 and 2 are
automatically adjusted. For a specified design, the discharge coefficient is not constant; it is a
function both of ratio m and an important parameter of flow known as Reynolds number (see the
real fluids flow). For higher Reynolds numbers than 10 5 the influence of Reynolds on c d
becomes negligible.
In order to minimise the loss upstream and downstream the orifice, either an orifice nozzle (see
Figure 6.10) or a Venturi meter (see figure 6.11) can be used.
70
The Venturi meter consist on converging, parallel and diverging sections as shown in Figure below.
The converging section is short and has a taper angle of 15 20 , while the diverging section is
longer, having a taper angle of 5 7 .
(7.1)
If the friction forces and the weight of the fluid inside the control volume are neglected (they are
smaller in comparison with the pressure forces) the velocities in the characteristic section are
equals: 1 = 2 = . Projecting relation (7.1) on ox axis, the equation for the hydrodynamic force
is:
Fh = Q sin ,
(7.2)
d2
4
Thus:
72
(7.3)
Fh =
d 2 2 sin , or Fh =
Q2
d2
sin
(7.4)
If the dimension of the plate is comparable with that of the jet, as shown in figure 7.2, the
theoretical hydrodynamic force is:
Fh =
d 2 2 (1 cos ) ,
(7.5)
S2 , v2
S1 , v1
Fig. 7.3  Hydrodynamic force on a pipe nozzle
The control volume coordinates axis system is chosen as in figure above. Neglecting the friction
forces and the weight of the fluid inside the control volume, the equation of the momentum theorem
for the control volume is, on ox :
Q ( 2 1 ) = Fp1 Fh
(7.6)
1
1
Fh = Fp1 Q ( 2 1 ) = p1 S1 Q 2
S2 S1
(7.7)
The (ideal) Bernoulli equation is used to calculate the (gauge) pressure in the section 1 :
73
v12
p
v2
+ 1 = 2 .
2g
2g
(7.8)
Then:
p2 =
(v
2
2
Q 2 1
1
Q2
S12
v12 =
S2
2
1
.
S12
(7.9)
1
1
S2 S1
(7.10)
Finally:
Fh =
Q 2 S1 1
2
S2
2
7.3 ENERGY FROM WIND. The Axial Momentum Theory Betzs Theory
Wind is simply air in motion. It is the movement of the air mass, caused by uneven heating of the
atmosphere by the sun. That is the source of wind energy. The wind contains energy by the virtue
of its motion, and this is called kinetic energy.
A windmill extracts power from the wind by slowing down the wind. At stand still, the rotor
obviously produces no power, and at very high rotational speeds the air is more or less blocked by
the rotor, and again no power is produced.
From the air stream tube of Figure 7.4, conservation of mass dictates that:
v1
vax
v1
S1
S
S1
where:
air
S1
v1
is the wind velocity of the air stream far before the rotor;
v ax
(7.11)
S2
v2
is the wind velocity of the air stream far behind the rotor.
(7.12)
(7.13)
The difference in power before and after the rotor is the power extracted by the windmill, which
equals the product of the thrust force, F and the velocity, v ax , given by equation (7.14):
Pkin =
1
1
air v12 S1 v1 air v 22 S2 v 2 = air S v ax (v1 v 2 ) v ax ,
2
2
(7.14)
where:
Pkin
Solving for v ax :
v ax =
( v1 + v 2 )
.
2
(7.15)
Velocity of the wind in the rotor plane is, therefore, the average of the upstream and low stream
wind speed. Substituting the value of v ax from equation (7.15) into equation (7.14), the power
becomes:
Pkin =
1
1
air Sv ax (v12 v 22 ) = air S (v13 v 23 v1 v 22 + v12 v 2 ) .
2
4
(7.16)
To find the maximum power extracted by the rotor, differentiate equation (7.16) with respect to v 2
and equate it to zero.
dPkin 1
= air S ( 3 v 22 2 v1 v 2 + v12 ) = 0 .
dv 2
4
(7.17)
Since the area of the rotor S and the density of the air air cannot be zero, the expression in the
bracket of equation (7.17) has to be zero. Hence, using the formula for the solution of a quadratic
equation, equation (7.17) yields:
v2 =
1
v1 .
3
(7.18)
16 1
air S v13 .
27 2
(7.19)
The theoretical maximum fraction of the power in the wind that could be extracted by an ideal
windmill is therefore 16/27 = 59.3% . This fraction is called the Betz Coefficient. Because of
75
aerodynamic imperfections in any practical machine and of mechanical loses, the power extracted
is less than that calculated above (above 60 70% from Phin computed with equation (7.19).
The shaft power of a wind rotor is given by equation (2.10):
Pmech = CP
1
3
air S v air
,
2
(7.20)
where:
Pmech
CP
is the rotor coefficient (ratio of shaft power of the windmill to the power in the
wind in the crosssectional area of the rotor);
v air
The power is proportional to the density of the air, air which varies slightly with
altitude and temperature.
The power is proportional to the area S swept by the blades and thus to the square of
the radius of the rotor.
3
The power varies with the cube of the wind speed v air
. This means that the power
4
air S v12 .
9
(7.21)
SELFASSESSMENT EXERCISES
Exercise 1
The force exerted by a 25 mm diameter jet against a flat plate normal to the axis of the jet is
650 N . What is the flow in m 3 /s and l/s ?
Exercise 2
A 75 mm diameter jet of water having a velocity of 25 m/s strikes a flat plate, the normal of which
is inclined at 30 to the jet. Find the force normal to the surface of the plate.
Exercise 3
A 90 reducing bend, 0.6 m diameter upstream, 0.3 m diameter downstream, has water flowing
through it at the rate of 0.45 m 3 /s under a pressure of 1.45 bar . Neglecting any loss is head for
76
friction, calculate the force exerted by the water on the bend, and its direction of application.
Exercise 4
Using the general Momentum Theorem calculate the force Fx in the x direction which is acting on
a Pelton turbine blade, as shown in the Figure bellow (known parameters: flow rate Q , diameter of
jet d , angle ). What is the value of for a maximum force Fx ?
Exercise 5
A jet aircraft, flying at a speed corresponding to a Mach number Ma = 0.85 , takes in air a rate of
Qm = 70 kg/s . If the gasses leave the nozzle with a velocity of v out = 400 m/s and the fueltoair
ratio is 1 : 40 , compute the thrust on the aircraft due to chance of momentum. The magnitude of
velocity of sound is c = 298.5 m/s .
air
gases
77
showed irregularities, began to waver and finally, at high velocities, rapidly diffused over the entire
crosssection (see Figure 8.3).
Having repeated these experiments Reynolds discovered that the value of the critical velocity was
governed by the relationship between the inertia (kinetic) and viscous forces. At low velocities, he
reasoned, the viscous forces were predominant and the flow was largely viscous in character,
adjacent fluid layers flowing in 'lamina' form. At greater velocities however, the inertia forces
predominated over the viscous forces and the layers no longer remained in 'lamina' form, but
diffused through fluctuations.
Reynolds related the inertia to viscous forces and arrived at a nondimensional parameter,
Reynolds number, Re :
Re =
vd
vd =
(8.1)
In his experiments Reynolds invariably found that critical flow occurred whenever his number
approached Re = 2320 and concluded that depending on the value of this parameter two types of
flow were in existence:
Laminar:
Re < 2300 ,
Turbulent:
Re > 2300 .
For Reynolds numbers lying between 2320 and 5000 the flow is of transition character and is
called transition flow.
velocity distribution
shear stress
resistance to flow.
The velocity distribution of a laminar flow in pipes follows a parabolic (see Figure 8.4) law given by
the expression:
79
r 2
v = v max 1 ,
R
(8.2)
where the maximum velocity v max attained at the centre, is exactly twice the value of the average
flow velocity v mean .
= 5.75 log
y
,
R
(8.3)
where v is the 'temporal mean' velocity and 0 the boundary shear stress.
Furthermore, in turbulent flow, random speed fluctuations are superimposed on the temporal mean
velocity so that the actual velocity and the velocity profile changes from instant to instant. The
characteristic velocity profile shown in Fig. 8.5 is based on the temporal mean velocity.
80
Experimental recording of the actual movement presents an extremely difficult problem, because
these random fluctuations are three dimensional.
2
2
2
100 v' x + v' y + v' z
v' 2
= 100
[%].
v
3
v
(8.4)
(8.5)
Following numerous studies and research works it was convened that the energy losses can be
related to the kinetic term, computed with the average velocity in the crosssection in the following
general form:
81
HL =
where:
[]
2
[m of fluid column]
2g
(8.6)
the coefficient of energy loss (called also hydraulic loss coefficient, head loss
coefficient or hydraulic resistance coefficient).
These losses consist of linear hlin (major losses) and the local ones hloc (minor losses), in order
to facilitate their computation.
H L12 = hlin + 1nhloc [m of fluid column], (for a duct with constant crosssection)
(8.7)
where:
l 2
[m of fluid column]
d 2g
f []
l [m]
d [m]
(8.8)
For laminar flow, the skin friction factor can be deduced analytically. The answer is:
f =
64
[]
Re
(8.9)
For turbulent flow f can be determined from experimental curve fits. One such fit is provided by
Colebrook:
e D
2.51
= 2 log
+
3
.
7
f
Re f
[],
(8.10)
The ratio e D is the relative roughness. For commercial pipes this is usually a very small number.
Note that perfectly smooth pipes would have a roughness of zero.
Note: For pipes of noncircular crosssection, formula (8) is applied as:
hd = f
where:
Rh
l
2
[m of fluid column]
4 Rh 2 g
(8.11)
hydraulic radius, defined as the ratio of the wetted pipe crosssection area to
the wetted perimeter of the crosssection.
82
The solutions of the equation (8.10) plotted versus Re make up the popular Moody Chart for pipe
flow.
8.3.2 Local head loss
They occur along a short portion of the flowing (called singularities) and are due to the variation of
the average velocity vector (in modulus and/or direction): in bends, ramifications, fittings, changes
of crosssection a.o. Their computational formula is:
hloc =
where:
[]
2
[m of fluid column]
2g
(8.12)
83
64
[]
Re
(8.13)
0.3164
Re 0.25
[]
(8.14)
5. For complete turbulence Re > 4000 , rough pipe ( e D ) = 0.00008  0.0125 , the friction factor
can be computed using the Equation (Idelcik):
e 68
f = 0.11 +
D Re
0.25
[]
(8.15)
6. Between the smoothpipe curve and the roughpipe zone is the transition zone. In this zone the
friction factor is a function of both relative roughness and Reynolds number and can be
computed with the Moodys Equation:
f =
260 D
[].
Re e
(8.16)
WORKED EXAMPLES
Example 1
The below figure shows a pump delivering water to a tank through a pipe with the following
characteristics: D = 30 mm (inner diameter), e = 0.2 mm (roughens), L = 30 m (length) and
= 0.6 (the sum of the minor losses coefficients: in elbow and bore of tank). The kinematic
viscosity of the water is = 10 6 m 2 / s . Find the pressure at point (1) if the flow rate is
1.4 dm 3 /s .
85
SOLUTION
Convert all the quantity in International System of Units
D = 30 mm = 30 10 3 m
e = 0.2 mm = 0.2 10 3 m
Q = 1.4 dm 3 /s = 1.4 10 3 m 3 /s
L = 30 m
Also
= 1000 kg / m 3
Apply Bernoulli between points (1) and (2): at the free surface of the water in tank.
v12
v 22
p1
p
+
+ z1 =
+ 2 + z2 + H L12 [m ] .
2g g
2g g
Notice:
Choose the level of the point (1) the datum level =>
z1 = 0 and z2 = 25 m ;
p2 = 0 N / m 2 ;
The velocity at the level of point (2) is very small and can be neglected => v 2 = 0 m / s .
In this conditions the Bernoulli s Equation can be rewrite:
v12
p
+ 1 = z2 + H L12 [m ] .
2g g
v2
v2 L
L v12
+ 1 = 1 f + [m ] .
D2g
2 g 2 g D
86
Thus:
v2 L
v12
p
+ 1 = z2 + 1 f +
2g g
2 g D
p1 = g z2 +
v12 L
f + 1 [m ]
2 D
The velocity in point (1) (mean velocity in pipe) can be computed from the Equation of flow rate
(discharge):
Q = ct. = v1
D2
4
v1 =
4Q
D2
4 1.4 10 3
30 10 3
= 1.98 m / s .
In order to obtain the friction factor, is necessary to establish the flow regime (to compute the
Reynolds number):
Re =
v D 1.98 30 10 3
=
= 5.94 10 4 .
10
Because Re > 4000 , the flow is complete turbulent. In these conditions is necessary to establish if
the flow is affected or not by the roughness (to compute the relative roughness):
e =
e 0.15 10 3
=
= 0.005
D
30 10 3
D Re
0.25
68
= 0.11 0.005 +
5.94 10 4
0.25
= 0.031 .
Finally:
p1 = g z2 +
= 1000 9.81 25 + 1000
v12
2
f + 1 =
D
1.98 2
30
N
+ 0.6 1 = 3.052 10 5 2
0.031
3
2
30 10
m
Example 2
The Figure below shows a tank that is drained by a horizontal pipe with the following
characteristics: D = 50 mm (inner diameter), e = 0.2 mm (roughens), 10 m length.
87
Calculate the pressure head at point (2) when the valve is partly closed so that the flow rate is
reduced to half. The energy loss due to section change is equal to S = 0.5 . The kinematic
viscosity of the water is = 10 6 m 2 / s .
SOLUTION
The flow rate (or velocity through pipe) is unknown and the friction factor cannot be directly determined. An
iterative procedure must followed as below.
Notice:
In the first stage the velocity what is corresponding to maximum flow rate can be computed from the
Bernoulli s Equation between points (1) and (3). The valve is complete open so that its (minor)
As previously:
 Choose the level of the point (3) the datum level =>
z3 = 0 and z1 = 15 m ;
p1 = p3 = 0 N / m 2
v2
v2 L
L v 32
+ S 3 = 3 f + S [m ] .
D2g
2 g 2 g D
v 32 L
2 g z1
.
z1 =
+
f + S v 3 = v max =
L
2 g 2 g D
1 + f + S
D
A value f = 0.01 0.1 must be assigned for friction factor. So, f1 = 0.03 .
v max1 =
2 g z1
2 9.81 15
=
= 6.264 m/s .
L
10
1 + f1 + S
1 + 0.03
+ 0.5
D
0.05
Having this value for velocity, the friction factor must be checked.
Re1 =
v max1 D
6.264 0.05
10
= 3.131 10 5 .
Because Re > 4000 , the flow is complete turbulent. In these conditions is necessary to establish if
the flow is affected or not by the roughness (to compute the relative roughness):
88
e =
e 0 .2
=
= 0.004 .
D 50
e 68
= 0.11 +
D Re
0.25
68
= 0.11 0.004 +
5
3.131 10
0.25
= 0.028 .
1 =
f1 f1 checked
100 = 6.67 % .
f1
In order to decrease the error, the cycle of friction factor computation must be reloaded. So,
f2 = 0.028 , thus:
v max 2 =
2 g z1
2 9.81 15
=
= 6.438 m/s .
L
10
1 + f2 + S
1 + 0.028
+ 0.5
D
0.05
Re2 =
v max 2 D
e
68
f2 checked = 0.11 +
D Re2
2 =
0.25
6.438 0.05
10
= 3.219 10 5 .
68
= 0.11 0.004 +
3.219 10 5
0.25
= 0.028 .
f2 f2 checked
100 = 0.0 % .
f2
Finally, the maximum velocity through pipe and the corresponding flow rate are:
v max = 6.438 m/s ;
Qmax = v max
D2
4
= 6.438
0.05 2
4
= 12.641 10 3 m 3 /s .
Qmax
= 6.321 10 3 m 3 /s and corresponding velocity, also in point (2),
2
v 2 = 3.219 m/s .
p2
for this case can be computed from the Bernoullis
g
2
v 22
p2
L v2
z1 =
+
+f
+ S
2g g
D2g
2g
v 22
p2
L
= z1
1 + f + S
g
2 g
D
10
89
e 68
f = 0.11 +
D Re
0.25
68
= 0.11 0.004 +
1.610 10 5
0.25
= 0.028( 37 )
And finally:
v2
p2
10
L
3.219 2
+ 0.5 = 11.25 m .
= z1 2 1 + f + S = 15
1 + 0.028
2 9.81
0.05
g
2 g
D
SELFASSESSMENT EXERCISES
Exercise 3
The figure below shows a horizontal nozzle discharging into the atmosphere. The inlet has a bore
area of 600 mm 2 and the exit has a bore area of 200 mm 2 . Calculate the flow rate when the
inlet pressure is 400 Pa . The energy loss coefficient in nozzle is N = 0.8 .
Exercise 4
Determine the friction coefficient for a pipe 100 mm bore with a mean surface roughness of 0.06
mm when a fluid flows through it with a Reynolds number of 20 000 .
Exercise 5
Oil flows in a pipe 80 mm bore with a mean velocity of 4 m/s . The mean surface roughness is
0.02 mm and the length is 60 m . The dynamic viscosity is 0.005 N s/m 2
Exercise 6
A tank of water empties by gravity through a siphon (see figure below). The difference in levels is
3 m and the highest point of the siphon is 2 m above the top surface level and the length of pipe
90
The pipe has a bore of 25 mm and length 6 m . The friction coefficient for the pipe is 0.03 . The
inlet (in pipe) loss coefficient is 0.7 . Calculate the volume flow rate and the pressure at the highest
point in the pipe.
c
1+
where:
d
E
c=
(8.17)
For practical purposes, the pressure change (for a partial closure of the valve) can be computed
with the equation:
p = p2 p1 = c ( v1 v 2 )
91
(8.18)
dv
boundary layer
thickness
dy
distance from
no slip plane
0.99 v
velocity v
92
laminar sublayer with thickness lt (a few hundredths of a mm) is formed next to the boundary.
Outside the boundary layer, the main fluid flow may be either laminar or turbulent.
vx
Transition point
Leading
edge (LE)
laminar
boundary layer
tranzition
zone
turbulent
boundary layer
lt
Fig. 9.2 Laminar and turbulent boundary layers (on a flat plate)
Despite its thinness, the laminar sublayer can play a vital role in the friction characteristics of the
surface. This is particularly relevant when defining pipe friction. In turbulent flow if the height of the
roughness of a pipe is greater than the thickness of the laminar sublayer then this increases the
amount of turbulence and energy losses in the flow. If the height of roughness is less than the
thickness of the laminar sublayer the pipe is said to be smooth and it has little effect on the
boundary layer. In laminar flow the height of roughness has very little effect
Boundary layer
(a)
Laminar
boundary layer
Re < Re critic
Turbulent
boundary layer
(b)
Fully developed turbulent
velocity profile
Re > Re critic
93
The establishment of fully developed flow conditions inside a tube (pipe) takes place similarly.
Downstream from the entrance to the tube, the thickness of the annular boundary layer increases
until at a certain point it is equal to the radius of the tube, as shown in Figure 9.3.
Between the entrance to the tube and this point the flow in the boundary layer may be either
laminar or turbulent. As the layer thickens, the main fluid body accelerates. Beyond a distance L
(entrance length) the flow becomes fully developed, and is laminar if the Reynolds' number (based
on the tube diameter and the mean velocity is less than Re < Recritic (figure 9.3 (a)). Fully
developed turbulent flow may be observed beyond the distance Lt , provided the Reynolds' number
is greater than Re > 4000 . In the case of turbulent flow with turbulent boundary layer there exists,
nevertheless, a laminar boundary layer near the entry to the tube, as shown in Figure 9.3(b).
Boundary layer investigations are concerned with the determination of:

the shear stresses set up in the layer and the associated frictional drag forces experienced
over the surface.
The thickness of the turbulent boundary layer, which is dependent on the distance x from its
origin, can be computed with the following Equation:
t ( x ) = 0.377
x
Re 0x.2
(9.1)
Notice: Equation (1) is an approximation for a 2D turbulent boundary layer at constant pressure.
For the same conditions, the velocity in the boundary layer may be assumed to be proportional to
the seventh root of the distance y from the wall, accordingly with:
y
v x = v
t
7
.
(9.2)
Because the thickness cannot be established with precision since the point separating the
boundary layer from the zone of negligible viscous influence is not a sharp one, in some
computations concerning the boundary layer, another two parameters are used, namely the
displacement thickness * and momentum thickness . The displacement thickness can be
determined with much better precision than the overall thickness (see Figure 9.4). It is defined
by:
v * =
(v
h
v
v x ) dy or * = 1 x
v
0
94
dy .
(9.3)
Equation (9.3) shows that * is the thickness of an imaginary layer of fluid of velocity v and
mass flux rate equal to the amount of the mass flow rate deficit due to the boundary layer
(compared to the mass flow rate that would pass through same zone in the absence of the
boundary layer).
The flow retardation within the also causes a reduction in the momentum flux. Momentum
thickness is defined as the thickness of an imaginary layer of fluid of velocity v for which the
momentum flux rate equals the reduction caused by the velocity profile. It is defined by:
v 2 =
(v v x
v x2 dy or =
vx
v
1 x
v
0
dy .
(9.4)
0.99 v
Area = (v v x ) dy
0
7
1
; =
.
72
8
(9.5)
Notice: For Reynolds number greater than Re > 3 10 6 the velocity distribution deviates from the
1 / 7 power low.
It has be found that the exponent decreasing with increasing Reynolds number. The investigations
performed in order to find valid laws in the whole range of Reynolds number (especially valid for
large Re ) were led to the replacement of the seventh power law by the logarithmic velocity
distribution law. The main results, concerning turbulent flow over a flat plate, are summarising
below:
1
= 0.38 x (c D ) 2 .
1
v x = v 1 4.15 (c D ) 2 lg .
y
(9.6)
(9.7)
0.242
cD
= lg (Re x c D ) .
(9.8)
Thus, with the aid of the drag coefficient, both the layer thickness and the velocity distribution may
be calculated.
Edge of
boundary layer
D
E
A
v x
>0
y
p
<0
x
B
vx
=0
Stagnation y
p
point
=0
x
v x
<0
y
p
>0
x
Separation
zone
Boundary layer
Wake
Arranging the engine intakes so that they draw slow air from the boundary layer at the rear of
the wing though small holes helps to keep the boundary layer close to the wing. Greater
pressure gradients can be maintained before separations take place.
Slower moving air on the upper surface can be increased in speed by bringing air from the
high pressure area on the bottom of the wing through slots. Pressure will decrease on the top
so the adverse pressure gradient that would cause the boundary layer separation reduces.
Slot
Putting a flap on the end of the wing and tilting it before separation occurs increases the
velocity over the top of the wing, again reducing the pressure and chance of separation
occurring.
97
where:
r
fv
dynamic viscosity;
fluid density;
r
v
Tacking into account the friction forces, the equation of motions for real (viscous) fluids can be
expressed as, in vectorial form (see also the Eulers equation of fluid motion):
r
r
dv r
1
= fm p + f
dt
r
where:
dv r
= a acceleration of fluid particles;
dt
p
pressure insight fluid;
r
unitary mass forces.
fm
(9.9)
Replacing the equation (9.8) in (9.9), the following system of equation is obtained in the Cartesian
form:
2u 2u 2u u w
1 p
u
u
u
u
+u
+
+w
= f mx
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
+
+
x
t
x
x
y
z
y
z 3 x x y y
2 2 2
1 p
+u
+
+w
= f my
+ 2 + 2 + 2
x
t
y
x
y
z
y
z
(9.91)
u w
+
+
+
3 y x y y
(9.92)
2 w 2 w 2 w u w
w
w
w
w
1 p
+u
+
+w
= f mz
+ 2 + 2 + 2 +
+
+
x
t
x
y
z
z
y
z 3 z x y y
(9.93)
where:
u , , w
components of velocity, u = v x , v = v y , w = v z .
98
kinematic viscosity;
These are the NavierStokes equations for the motion of viscous fluids. For incompressible
r
fluids, ( = ct . and v = 0 ,) the equation (9.9) become:
du
1 p
= fmx
+ u
dt
x
(9.101)
d
1 p
= fmy
+
dt
y
(9.102)
dw
1 p
= fmz
+ w
dt
z
(9.103)
(9.11)
Fig. 9.10 Pressure distribution on body of car, together with wake behind of this
r
dv
=0,
dt
(9.12)
r
 density is constant and flow is steady, consequently v from continuity equation.
Such of example is the fully developed flow between two (infinite) parallel plates.
99
respectively v 2 .
f mx = 0, f my = 0, f mz = g .
(9.13)
(9.14)
d2 v x
p
=
x
dz 2
p
=0
y
p
= g.
z
(9.15 1)
(9.15 2)
(9.15 3)
The equation (9.15 3) represents the hydrostatic low along Oz : p + gz = ct. In order to
solve the flow equation.
Integrating the xmomentum twice, we obtain
1 p
v x =
dz dz =
x
1 p
1 p
x z + C1 dz = 2 x z
+ C1 z + C2 .
100
(9.16)
C = v 2
z = 0 v x = v 2 2
1 p
v + v2
h.
z = h v x = v1 C1 = 1
h
2 x
(9.17)
v + v2
1 p
z ( z h) + 1
z v2 ,
2 x
h
(9.18)
Figure 9.12 shows it with continuous line for a negative pressure gradient, (p / x ) < 0 ,
and with dashed line for (p / x ) > 0 .
Using the equation (9.18), flow rate, average velocity, and shear stress can be
computed for the unit length along Oy :
h
y =1 m
= v x dz ,
(9.19)
v med
y =1 m
zx =
y =1 m
dv x
.
dz
(9.20)
(9.21)
v1 + v 2
z v2 .
h
(9.22)
Fig. 9.13 (a) Velocity profile of steady flow between parallel plates for (p / x ) = 0 ;
(b) Couette flow, if v 2 = 0 .
101
dv
v
= = ct . ,
dz
h
y =1 m
= v x dz =
0
v med
(9.23)
1
h z dz = 2 vh ,
(9.24)
y =1 m
y =1 m
1
v.
2
(9.25)
h,
z = h v x = 0 C1 =
2 x
(9.26)
1 p
z ( z h) ,
2 x
(9.27)
Similarly
h
y =1 m
= v x dz =
0
1 p
1 p
2 x z( z h) dz = 12 x h
(9.28)
v med
y =1 m
y =1 m
1 p 2
h ,
12 x
dv
1 p
=
(2 z h ) .
dz 2 x
102
(9.29)
(9.30)
The sign  from the above equation is due to the negative pressure gradient along
Ox axis, (p / x ) < 0 , which is also the condition for a flow with physically relevance. The
h 2 dp
.
8 dx
(9.31)
First, shear stresses due to viscosity and velocity gradients at the boundary surface cause
forces tangential to the surface.
Second, pressure intensities, which vary along the surface due to dynamic effects, result in
forces normal to the boundary.
For an immersed body, the vector sum of the normal and tangential surface forces integrated over
the complete surface gives a resultant force vector and a resultant moment vector, as illustrated in
Fig. 9.15, for a road vehicle.
Fz
Fx
My
Fy
Mx
x
y
Mz
z
The component of this resultant force in the direction of the relative velocity v past the body is
the drag D ( Fx ) . The component normal to the relative velocity is a lift L ( ( F z) , or lateral (side)
force S ( Fy ) . The components of the resultant moment are rolling moment RM ( M x ) , pitching
moment PM ( M y ) and yawing moment YM ( M z ) .
Each component of the resultant force includes frictional and pressures parts, e.g. for the total drag
we can write:
D = Df + D p
103
(9.32)
Df
frictional drag;
Dp
pressure drag.
The frictional drag is also known as surface resistance or skinfriction drag. The pressure drag
depends largely on the shape or form of the body and is known as form (shape) drag. Bodies like
hydrofoils, and slim ships have large and sometimes completely dominant surface resistance. Bluff
objects like spheres, bridge piers, and automobiles have large form drag relative to surface
resistance.
Dimensionless force coefficients are useful parameters for expressing the steady state dynamic
force components. The following relations define them:
D
Drag coefficient:
cD =
Lift coefficient:
cL =
c PM =
Where
(9.34)
q A
PM
q Ac l c
Ac
lc
where:
(9.33)
q A
1
v2 [N/m 2 ]
2
(9.35)
(9.36)
For road vehicle Ac is the projected frontal area and l c is the wheelbase (or length of the vehicle).
For a wing with rectangular planform Ac is the product between chord and span, and l c is the
chord.
Another useful parameter is the pressure coefficient c p in a point of a wetted area, defined by:
p p
cp =
,
(9.37)
q
where
The diagrams of c p variation over a surface of a body (see figure 9.16) can be built in order to
characterise the interaction between the later and a fluid stream. The pressure force components
can be computed with the aid of these diagrams.
104
v = 0 at y = 0 .
v = v at y = .
3. The gradient of the boundary layer is zero at the top of the BL:
dv
= 0 at y = .
dy
dv
= ct . at y = 0 .
dy
d 2v
dy 2
= 0 at y = 0 .
One of the laws that seem to work for laminar flow is:
y
v = v sin
.
2
(9.38)
Exercise 1
Find the displacement thickness * for a laminar boundary layer modeled by the previous
equation.
Solution:
y
v
y
dy = 1 sin
* = 1
dy = dy sin
dy
v
2
2
0
0
0
0
=y
2
2
y
+
cos
= 0.364
=
2 0
Exercise 2 (selfassessment)
Find the momentum thickness for the laminar boundary layer modeled by the equation (9.38).
105
Exercise 3 (selfassessment)
The velocity profile in a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is to be modeled by the cubic
expression:
v
= a0 + a1 y + a2 y 2 + a3 y 3 .
v
(9.39)
Df = dAw = Aw .
(9.40)
D
the wall shear stress can be defined as:
q Aw
= c D q .
(9.41)
The dynamic pressure is the pressure resulting from the conversion of the kinetic energy of the
stream into pressure and is defined by the expression:
pdyn q =
v 2
.
2
(9.42)
If the body is not a thin plate and has an area inclined at an angle to the flow direction (see
figure below), the drag force in the direction of flow become:
106
(9.43)
Notice:
The friction drag force acting on the entire surface area is found by integrating over
the entire area. Solving this equation requires more advanced studies concerning
the boundary layer theory.
Df = cos( ) dAw .
(9.44)
Exercise 4
Calculate the frictional drag force on each side of a thin smooth plate by 2 m long and 1 m wide
with the length parallel to a flow of fluid moving at v = 30 m/s . The density of the fluid is
= 800 kg/m3 and the dynamic viscosity is = 8 cP .
Solution:
1 cP( oise ) = 10 2 P = 10 2
Re =
g
kg
= 10 3
cm s
ms
v L
800
= v L =
30 2 = 6 10 6 .
0.008
= lg (Re x c D ) .
1
5
= 0.074 6
1
6 5
10
= 0.00326 .
2
v
800 30 2
=
= 360 kPa .
2
2
Df = Aw = 1173.6 2 1 = 2347.2 N .
Exercise 5 (selfassessment)
A smooth thin plate by 5 m long and 1 m wide is placed in an air stream moving at v = 3 m/s
with its length parallel with the flow. Calculate the drag force on each side of the plate. The density
of the air is = 1.2 kg/m3 and the kinematic viscosity is = 1.6 105 m 2 /s .
107
A cylinder 80 mm diameter and 200 mm long is placed in a stream of fluid flowing at 0.5 m/s . The
axis of the cylinder is normal to the direction of flow. The density of the fluid is 800 kg/m 3 . The
drag force is measured and found to be 30 N . Calculate the drag coefficient. At a point on the
surface the pressure is measured as 96 Pa above the ambient level. Calculate the velocity at this
point.
Solution:
The total drag coefficient is:
cD =
D
D
30
=
=
= 18.75
2
2
pdyn Ac
v
800 (0.5 )
3
3
d L
80 10
200 10
2
2
)(
v 2
2 ( p p )
v2
+ p =
+ p => v = v 2 +
=
2
2
(0.5 )2
2 ( 96 )
= 0.1
800
Exercise 7 (selfassessment)
Calculate the drag force for a cylindrical chimney 0.9 m diameter and 50 m tall in a wind blowing at
30 m/s given that the drag coefficient is 0.8 . The atmospheric conditions are p = 720 mmHg and
t = 20 C .
Exercise 8 (selfassessment)
Using the graph (see figure below) to find the drag coefficient, determine the drag force per metre length
acting on an overhead power line 30 mm diameter when the wind blows at 8 m/s . The atmospheric
conditions are: p = 710 mmHg and t = 5 C .
108
(10.1)
The positive sign denotes work done on the fluid and the negative sign work done by the fluid.
109
1
9
10
4
efficiency are plotted against discharge Q for a constant speed. A typical set of curves is shown
in Figure 10.3.
H [m]
Hd
Pc [kW]
max
Pu [kW]
Qd
Q [m3 /s]
o2 i2 p o pi
+
+ (zo zi ) [m]
g
2g
(10.2)
(10.3)
It represents the part of the consumed power Pc (the power at pump shaft) converted in hydraulic
(useful) power:
Pc = M [W]
where:
(10.4)
Pu
[]
Pc
111
(10.5)
pitting of the surfaces which is due to the continuous hammering action of the collapsing
cavities;
marked drop in efficiency, owing to vapour formation which increases the volume of the
fluid;
knocking and vibration of the machine resulting in noise, emanating from cavitation
zones.
In order to avoid cavitation it is necessary to ensure that the lowest pressure regions are
maintained above vapour pressure. The critical value of the net suction head H s which mark the
appearance of cavitation is determined experimentally.
Q
nD
H
2
n D
P
3
n D
where: Q
= ct .
= ct .
= ct.
Q1
n1 D1
H1
2
n1 D1
P1
3
1 n1 D1
(10.6)
Q2
n2 D2
=
=
(10.7)
H2
2
n2 D2
(10.8)
P2
3
2 n2 D2
discharge;
These are called the similitude laws of the centrifugal pump. Are valid also for other turbomachines.
Internal characteristic of a fan represent the dependency between total pressure ptot of fan and
mass flow rate Qm (or volumetric flow rate) of this, ptot = f ( Qm ) (or ptot = f ( Q ) ) and describe
the working behaviour of the fan.
The mass flow rate (or volumetric flow rate) is defined as flux of velocity through the inlet section
Ai (or outlet section Ao ) per unit time.
(10.9)
where n is velocity of fluid through the control section, that is normal to the flow direction.
Total pressure ptot of the fan is the pressure change of the gas through fan (the difference of
average total pressure between inlet and outlet):
( pst )i , o
( pdin )i ,o
(10.10)
ptot = ( p st +
where:
( )r,a
2
2
)o ( p st +
2
2
)i
(10.11)
Taking into consideration that useful power is defined as real power transferred to the gas, we can
make the following statement: energetically, ptot represent the hydraulic power per flow rate unit.
Pu = Q ptot
114
(10.12)
The most known impulse turbine is Pelton wheel which are mainly used with high pressure heads
such as in mountain hydroelectric schemes. Pelton turbines are usually arranged with horizontal
shafting supporting single or twin runners. Power may be derived from a single jet or from twin jets
(see Fig. 10.7), although some designs embody as many as four jets. The nozzle (1) incorporating
the needle (2) must be carefully streamlined to produce parallel flow at exit and the surfaces must
be smooth to reduce losses resulting from friction. In order to keep the boundary layer as thin as
possible the velocity should be increased quickly at the nozzle tip and for this reason the nozzle
must be short. The buckets (3) may be cast in one piece with the disc (4) or may be separately
cast, machined and bolted to the disc.
available is first transformed into a whirl and is subsequently converted into power inside the
runner. The other portion of the head is employed for the acceleration of the relative velocity of the
water passing through the channels formed by the runner vanes. The vanes themselves are curved
surfaces. The impulse part is due to the guide vanes which are used to produce an initial velocity
which is directed at the rotor. The diagram form figure 10.9 shows the layout of a vertical axis
Francis wheel
Water first enters a spiral casing (2) from which it flows radially through a set of fixed guide vanes
(3) arranged in the form of a ring around a second inner ring of adjustable guide vanes, frequently
called wicket gates (4). The flow turns inside the runner (1) and leaves in the axial direction; it then
enters the diffuser or draft tube 5 and finally discharges into the tailrace.
At the throat of the draft tube the pressure may be well below atmospheric which compensates for the
height at which the turbine runner is set. The draft tube serves a dual purpose: it reduces the velocity
from throat to exit and permits the turbine to be set above the level of the free surface of the water.
The guide vanes (3) for the Kaplan turbine (see figure 10.11) are arranged in the same way as for
the Francis and produce a whirl in the whirl chamber (4). The runner (1) itself is found at the throat
of the ducting and a considerable space exists between the ends of the guide vanes and the
leading edge of the propeller. Within this space the flow direction changes from radial to axial and
simultaneously the flow pattern approaches, but does not fully attain the free vortex state. Tests
117
show that at the inlet to the propeller the whirl velocity is not exactly inversely proportional to the
radius because the flow had not had time to reach the ideal state of radial equilibrium before
entering the wheel blading. The runner blades remove this whirl and transform it into useful power.
A suitably shaped hub (2) is provided in the downstream of the turbine to avoid shock losses in the
draft tube (5).
118
length = L ;
mass = M ;
time = T ;
force = F ;
temperature = .
In this chapter we are only concerned with L , M , T and F . We can represent all the physical
properties we are interested in with L , T and one of M or F , because F can be represented by
a combination of LTM . In the following are presented the dimensions of most common physical
quantities:
QUANTITY
SI Unit
DIMENSION
velocity
m s 1
L T 1
acceleration
m s 2
L T 2
force
N (Newton)
119
kg m s 2
pressure
M L T 2
Pa (Pascal) or N/m 2
kg m
1
M L1 T 2
2
kg m 3
density
M L3
N/m 3
specific weight
kg m
2
M L2 T 2
2
N s/m 2
(dynamic) viscosity
M L1 T 1
kg m 1 s 1
J (Joule) or N m
kg m s
M L2 T 2
2
W ( Watt) or N m/s
power
M L2 T 3
kg m 2 s 3
The SI unit of power is the Watt. The Watt is a Joule per second and a Joule is a Newton metre of
energy. Hence a Watt is 1 N m/s .
Also the SI units of force and velocity are Newton and respectively the metre/second. Hence, the
unit of F v is N m/s , and the equation is homogeneous in SI units.
Writing the MLT dimensions of each term we have:
[P] = M L2 T 3
[F] = M L T 2
[v] = L T 1
M L2 T 3 = M L T 2 L T 1 = M L 2 T 3 ,
diameter;
fluid density;
fluid viscosity.
or
0 = f1 (F, d, u, , n, ) ,
where: K
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5
is a constant;
are unknown constant powers.
From dimensional analysis can be obtain these powers and can be arranged the variables into
several dimensionless groups. The value of K or the functions f and f1 must be determined from
experiment. The knowledge of the dimensionless groups often helps in deciding what experimental
measurements should be taken.
121
122
, 3 ,...,
mn
)=0.
2 = f ( 1 , 3 ,..., m  n ) = 0 .
11.5.5 Example
Taking the example discussed above of force F induced on a propeller blade, we have the
equation:
0 = f (F, d, u, , n, ) ,
The choice of , u , d as the repeating variables satisfies the criteria presented in 11.5.3. They
are measurable, good design parameters and, in combination, contain all the dimension M , L , T .
Hence, three groups can be formed according to the 2nd theorem:
1 = a1 u b1 d c1 F ;
2 = a2 u b2 d c2 n ; 3 = a3 u b3 d c3 .
As the groups are all dimensionless i.e. they have dimensions M 0 L0 T 0 , the principle of
dimensional homogeneity can be used to solve the dimensions for each group. For the first
group, in terms of SI units, it can be write:
1 = ( kg m 3 )a1 (m s 1 )b1 (m)c1 (kg m s 2 ) .
For each dimension M , L and T the powers must be equal on both sides of the equation, thus:

for M :
0 = a1 + 1 a1 = 1.
for L :
0 =  3 a1 + b1 + c1 + 1 0 = 4 + b1 + c1 .
for T :
0 = b1  2 b1 = 2
1 = 1 u  2 d  2 F 1 =
u2 d 2
A similar procedure can be followed for the other groups (selfassessment exercise), giving:
2 = 0 u 1 d 1 n 2 =
3 = 1 u 1 d 1 3 =
nd
;
u
ud
Thus the problem may be described by the following function of the three nondimensional
groups:
f ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = 0
F
2
u d
nd
.
= f
,
u ud
Re =
vd
Ma =
v
c
Eu =
Fr =
We =
v2
v2
:
gd
vd
:
124
For lengths:
For areas:
Velocity:
v m Lm Tm
=
= L = v ;
vr
Lr Tr
T
Acceleration:
am Lm Tm2
=
= 2L = a ;
2
ar
Lr Tr
T
Discharge:
Qm L3m Tm
3
= 3
= L = Q .
Qr
T
Lr Tr
Notice: This has the consequence that streamline patterns are the same.
Force ratio:
Fm M m am
L3
=
= m 3m 2L = 2L L = 2L v2 .
Fr
M r ar
r Lr T
T
125
This occurs when the controlling dimensionless group on the right side of the defining equation is
the same for model and real thing.
v (L T 1 )
l (L)
(M L3 )
(M L1 T 1 )
In terms of dimensional analysis the defining equation for this case is:
f (D, v, l, , ) = 0 .
1 = a1 v b1 d c1 D ;
2 = a2 v b2 l c2 .
leading to:
1 =
v2 l2
leading to:
2 =
=
= 2a .
v l Re
= 0 D = v 2 l 2 f (Re) .
f ( 1 , 2 a ) = 0 f
,
Re
2 2
v l
126
This equation applies whatever the size of the body i.e. it is applicable to a to the prototype and a
geometrically similar model. In this way, in order to fulfil the dynamic similarity the two Reynolds
numbers must be equals:
Rem = Rer v m = v r
r dr r
m dm m
if temperature is the same, then the density of the air in the model can be obtained as:
pm 20 pr
=
= m m = 20 r
pr
pr
r
1
1
1
= v r = 250 km/h = 69.44 m/s.
20 1 / 10 2
Example 2
A submarine having diameter 2 m and length 10 m is tested in a water tunnel to determine the
forces acting on the real prototype. A 1:10 scale model is to be used. If the maximum allowable
speed of the prototype submarine is 2 m/s, what should be the speed of the water in the tunnel to
achieve dynamic similarity?
Solution:
For dynamic similarity the Reynolds number of the model and prototype must be equal:
vd
vd
=
Rem = Rer
m r
r dr r
.
m dm m
As both the model and prototype are in water then, r = m and r = m , thus:
vm = vr
dr
2
=2
= 40 m / s .
dm
1/10
Observations:

This is a high velocity for water. This is one reason why model tests are not always done at
exactly equal Reynolds numbers. Some relaxation of the equivalence requirement is often
acceptable when the Reynolds number is very high.
127
Using a wind tunnel may have been possible in this example. If this were the case then the
appropriate values of the and ratios need to be used in the above equation.
SELFASSESSMENT EXERCISES
Exercise 1
The discharge Q through an orifice is a function of the diameter d , the pressure difference p , the
density , and the viscosity . Show that:
Q=
1
12
p
1
2
1
1
d 2 p2
,
128