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Acknowledgements

I am deeply grateful to Dr. Trn Xun ip, my supervisor,


for his invaluable support throughout the process of writing the
thesis.
My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. L Hng Tin, Head of the
Post-graduate Department, and Assoc. Prof., Dr. Trn Hu Mnh
for their open recommendations on the perspective on the
theme.
I would like to take this chance to thank my relative, my
husband and my children Minh Quang who are always besides
me, encourage me to finish the thesis.
I also wish at this time to thank all linguists and
grammarians whose researches have been quoted in this
thesis.

table of contents
Page

Part one Introduction...........................................3


1. Rationale of the study...............................................................3
2. Thesis objective........................................................................3
3. Research questions...................................................................4
4. Scope and Methods of the Study...............................................4
5. Design of the study...................................................................5

Part Two: Development................................................5


Chapter One: Theoretical Background..............................5
1.1 Concept of voice in languages................................................5
1.2 Active voice and passive voice syntactically, semantically and
pragmatically viewed....................................................................5
1.3 Voice and related concept.......................................................6
1.4 English verbs........................................................................... 6
1.4.1 Classification of English verbs...........................................6
1.4.2 Tense, aspect and mood of English verbs..........................7
1.4.3 Phrases and clauses..........................................................7

Chapter Two: Passive Voice in English.....................8


2.1 Passive Voice in English Traditional Grammar.........................8
2.2.1. English passive constructions in traditional grammar......8
2.2.2 The phrase of By and With..............................................10
2.2.3 Usage of English passive voice........................................10
2.3 Passive Voice in Functional grammar....................................11
2.3.1 Passive Types..................................................................11
2.3.2 The phrase of by and with..............................................12
2.3.3 Usage of Passive.............................................................12
2.4. Passive voice in Transformational-Generative grammar.......12
2.4.1 Organization of Transformational- Generative grammar.12
2.4.2 Passive constructions and Noun phrases.........................13
2.4 Sum up remarks..................................................................14
1

Chapter Three: Passive Constructions in Vietnamese


...........................................................................15
3.1 Verbs in Vietnamese..............................................................15
3.1.1 Dependent and Independent verbs.................................15
3.1.2 Transitive Intransitive verbs..........................................15
3.2 Vietnamese passive expressions in different views...............15
3.2.1 Rejection of Passive voice in Vietnamese.......................15
3.2.2 Support for Passive Expressions in Vietnamese..............15
3.2.3 Vietnamese Passive Usage..............................................17
3.3 Sum-up remarks of Vietnamese passive................................17

Chapter Four: Contrastive Analysis.......................20


4.1. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive constructions
syntactically................................................................................ 20
4.1.1 Structural similarities......................................................20
4.1.2 Differences...................................................................... 20
4.2. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive constructions
semantically................................................................................ 21
4.2.1 Similarities......................................................................21
4.3. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive structures
pragmatically..............................................................................23
4.3.1 Similarities and differences.............................................23
4.3.2. English passive constructions and the equivalents.........24

Part Three: Conclusion.........................................28


Bibliography........................................................30
APPENDICES........................................................33

Part one Introduction


1. Rationale of the study
According to Asher R.E. (1994:4938), linguists use the
term voice in a number of senses and the broadest definition
of voice encompassing a wide range of grammatical
constructions that are commonly thought to be quite distinct
from those related by the active- passive alternation. In this
view, the term voices in general and passive voice in particular
do exist in all languages. In Vietnamese, the debates around
the passive voice have lasted for several stages. In the early
days of Vietnamese research, the concept of passive
construction was accepted. The rules applied here, however,
were rigidly transformed from European languages. The
inappropriate features of these artificial sentences lead to the
refusal of passive constructions in the next stage of
Vietnamese research. While the concept of voice in general and
passive voice in particular is familiar to the English, it is an
abstract concept to Vietnamese learners and generations of
Vietnamese learners have to deal with the passive
constructions. There have been several studies of the passive
voice in English and the passive contrast between English and
Vietnamese. These researches, however, neither confirm the
existence of the passive in Vietnamese nor point out the
difference in factors decisive to passive usage in two
languages.
In
many
recent
researches,
Vietnamese
passive
constructions are accepted and seen from different views,
among which the Functional grammar helps to deal with many
argumentative points in the previous stages.

2. Thesis objective
The thesis is to contrast the passive constructions in
English and in Vietnamese based on the syntactic, semantic
and pragmatic features.
3

Firstly, in the syntactic features, the thesis will point out the
compulsory and optional parts between the typical passive
constructions in two languages.
Then in semantic features, the difference is drawn from the
distinguishing features of different components in a
Vietnamese passive expression namely passive markers,
passive subjects.
Finally, the pragmatic features will be presented in two subgroups: Information structure and the pragmatic effects of the
passive constructions. The final part helps to see the relation
between the passive constructions and other related
constructions in two languages based on the pragmatic effects
of agent demotion and non- agent promotion.

3. Research questions
The thesis is to contrast the English passive and the
Vietnamese passive constructions based on the syntactic,
semantic and pragmatic features. The research is to answer the
questions related to the three following features :
Syntactic features
+ What are the typical patterns of the passive sentences
and passive noun phrases in English and in Vietnamese?
+ Which parts are the obligatory parts and optional parts
in the passive expressions in two languages?
+What are the differences in the obligatory parts and
optional parts in the two languages?
Semantic features
+ What are the extra meanings of Vietnamese passive
markers? In addition, how do these markers decide the
subjectivity and objectivity of passive constructions in
Vietnamese?
+
What
is
the
decisive
role
of
Noun
type
(animate/inanimate subject) and Verb type towards the
formation of active/ neutral/ passive expressions?
Pragmatic features
4

+ What factors in the theory of information structure decide


the choice of passive/ active in two languages?
+ Which constructions are in close relations with the
passive constructions based on the two major pragmatic
effects: agent demotion and patient promotion in two
languages? This aim is based on the comparison of each
English passive pattern in two pragmatic effects with a number
of Vietnamese equivalents.

4. Scope and Methods of the Study


In this thesis, the passive is viewed from different
grammatical approaches among which the approach based on
the structure will be taken as the basis for the comparison and
contrast.
The main research methods include three techniques
namely (1) description, (2) translation and (3) deduction. The
descriptive and deductive approach is applied in the theory
revision to come to the nature of passive voice in English and
Vietnamese. The translation is used in the contrast of the
English passive noun phrase/ the Vietnamese passive noun
phrase and the pragmatic effects of the English passive/
Vietnamese equivalents

5. Design of the study


The paper is divided into three main parts: the Introduction,
the Development, and the Conclusion. The Introduction briefly
introduces the thesis.
The Development has four chapters: Chapter one starts
with the concept of voice in general and passive voice in
particular. Chapter two deals with the English passive and
chapter three is with the Vietnamese passive. The contrastive
analysis in chapter four points out the difference in English and
Vietnamese passive constructions syntactically semantically
and pragmatically. The final part is to find out the factors
decisive to the choice between Vietnamese passive
constructions and other Vietnamese substitutional structures.
5

Part three is the conclusion


achievement in the thesis.

which

summarizes

the

Part Two: Development


Chapter One: Theoretical Background
1.1 Concept of voice in languages
According to the authors of the Encyclopedia of Language
and Linguistics, the term voice, in a narrow sense, refers to
morphological categories. However, in English and Vietnamese,
verbs do not have distinct morphological categories for
difference voices. Therefore, as Asher R.E believed, in these
languages, voice are defined in terms of syntactic
constructions
with reference to specific grammatical
characteristics and voice can be understood as a system of
correlation between semantic roles such as agent and patient
and between grammatical functions such as subjects and
objects

1.2 Active voice and passive voice syntactically,


semantically and pragmatically viewed
From the syntactic aspect, the opposition between active
voice and passive voice can be seen in the movement of
constituents in the linear order and correlation between
grammatical functions such as subject and object. From the
semantic aspect, it is the correlation between semantic roles
such as agent and patient. From the pragmatics aspect, the
passive voice is in greater interest, which includes the
pragmatic function and the pragmatic aspect. The pragmatic
function is related to the passive sentences frequency in
different type of texts. The pragmatic aspect is concerned with
agent demotion (agent defocusing)/patient promotion and
agent promotion which unifies passive construction with other
construction such as the plural (in English), the honorific (in
French), the indefinite person constructions (in English).
6

1.3 Voice and related concept


The concept in analysis in this thesis is the Information
structure. The information unit is a unit of information. The
information unit is a structure made up of two functions, the
New and the Given. From the point of view of Information
structure at the sentence level, the New Information is the
information considered New to the hearer and the Old
information is the already existing stock of knowledge in the
hearers mind.
In English, Passive constructions allow the New information
at the following part of the sentence as the late news, which
follows the universal rule of the Given being followed by the
New information.

1.4 English verbs


Under different approaches with different criteria, the
system of English verbs is differently classified under different
labels. The main part presented here is taken from Quirk R., et
al. (1972).

1.4.1 Classification of English verbs


a. Lexical, semi auxiliary and auxiliary verbs
The first division between auxiliary, semi auxiliary and
lexical verbs is based on the grammatical functions in verb
phrase. The auxiliary is subdivided into primary and modal
auxiliaries.
- Lexical: walk, write, play
- Semi auxiliary: Have to, be bound to
- Auxiliary:
+ Primary: do, have, be
+ Modal: can, may, shall, will. ought to, used to, need,
dare .
The passive forms are often associated with Auxiliary verbs.
However, some Auxiliary verbs like do, have, be can be used as
lexical verb and have a wide range of forms including present
participle and the past participle.
7

All of three subdivisions of lexical semi auxiliary and


auxiliary verbs do exist in passive constructions. Auxiliary is a
compulsory part of English typical passive constructions. With a
semi auxiliary and a lexical verb the passive constructions
sometimes differ among themselves and from the original
sentence.
b. Transitive and Intransitive verbs
An other way of verb classification is based on the object
government capability. According to Quirk, R. et al. (1980),
intransitive verbs do not permit any type of object or
complement. However, many verbs of this type do accept
adjuncts of direction, position or extension.
Transitive verbs do take direct objects. If the transitive
verbs permit indirect objects, they will be classified as
ditransitive verbs. Some transitive verbs have object
complements and these are to be distinguished as complextransitive. Some verbs like ergative can be classified as either
transitive (with object) or intransitive (with the subject).
The concept of voice is always related to the transitive
verbs. Some transitive verbs like reflexive verbs do not come
in passive forms .

1.4.2 Tense, aspect and mood of English verbs


a. Tense and Aspect
The English Tense, Aspect are often realized in finite verb
phrases. Tense refers to the relationship between the form of
verbs and the concept of time. In English, these are two tenses:
present tense and past tense.
Aspect refers to the manner in which the verb action is
regarded or experienced. English has two sets of aspectual
contrast perfective/non perfective and progressive/ nonprogressive.
The two tenses of present and past are combined with four
aspects of simple, perfect, progressive and perfect progressive.
b. Mood
8

Mood shows speakers attitude towards the action. In


English, there are 3 moods:
indicative, imperative and
subjunctive.
English Mood is realized with 3 moods: Indicative,
imperative and subjective which are in turns composed of
declarative question, imperative sentences and clause
containing recommendation, resolution, surprise

1.4.3 Phrases and clauses


a. Phrases
According to Richards J.C (1993:53), A phrase is a group of
words which form a grammatical unit. A phrase does not have
a subject predicate structure. Phrases are usually classified
according to their central word or headQuirk, R. et al.
classifies English verb phrases into two categories: Finite verb
phrase and non-finite verb phrase. The alternative of voice is
associated with Finite verb phrases only
b. Clauses
Based on the structure, Quirk, R. classifies clauses into
finite, nonfinite and verb less clauses.
The finite clause always contains a subject as well as a
predicate, except in the case of commands and subject ellipsis.
Nearly all dependent clauses are finite clauses.
The non -finite, in contrast, is always without the subject
although some non-finite clauses can have optional subjects.
There are four types of non finite clauses: Infinitive with to,
Infinitive without to, -ing participle, -ed participle.

Chapter Two: Passive Voice in English


2.1 Passive Voice in English Traditional Grammar
The concept of voice is defined in many grammar books
and dictionaries. Following is a typical definition:
9

Voice is a grammatical category which makes it possible


to view the action of sentence in two ways without change in
the fact reported
(Quirk, R.: 801)

2.2.1. English passive constructions in traditional


grammar
Among seven sentence patterns, three following ones allow
passive transformations: S- V-0 (-A),S-V-O-O (-A), S- V-0-C (-A).
In addition passive constructions include Special passive
constructions, The causative and Pseudo-passive
Passive constructions from the S - V - O (- A):
In this sentence pattern, the passive comes when the
object is a noun phrase, a finite clause.
When the object is a non -finite clause (infinitive and ingparticiple), reflexive pronoun there is no passive constructions.
However, for a limited group of verbs like advise, insist,
propose, recommend, suggest, agree, arrange, determine,
demand, decide, etc, the passive construction is that ... should
+past participle
From the S - V- Oi- Od (-A) structure
a) When both Oi- Od are noun phrases, both can be used as
the subject of the passive sentence
b) When Oi is a noun phrase and the Od is a finite clause,
there are two ways of passivization by the subject of the
passive being either the Oi (more common) or Od in the
corresponding active sentences.
c) When Oi is a noun phrase and Od is a non -finite clause
(to infinitive), subject of the passive construction is with the Oi
only.
d) When Oi is a noun phrase and Od is a prepositional
phrase, the passive construction starts with Oi.
e) Idiomatic expression:
When the idiomatic expression has the structure of Verb (V)
+ Noun phrase (Nphr) + Preposition (Pr) +Noun phrase (Nphn),
10

the passive construction can have the subject of either noun


phrase.
From the S - V - O - C (- A) structure
In this sentence pattern, the object of active sentence is
always a noun phrase, which usually becomes the subject of
the passive constructions. The difference in structures lies with
the various complement types (Noun phrase, adjective phrase,
to-infinitive clause, bare -infinitive clause, ing participle clause,
ed- participle clause)
Exception: With bare infinitive clauses, causative verbs
(have, let, make) take a bare-infinitive in their infinitive clauses
but "make" takes to- infinitive.
Special passive constructions
The typical passive constructions in English are BE+ Past
Participle. Other constructions with passive meaning includes
Get + Past participle, Become + past participle, -Ing form with
passive meaning (Need-Want-Deserve-Require + Ving)
The causative
The causative structure s usage is similar to that of Be
passive. The causative structure consists of two structures
Have + Obj + PII and Get +Obj+ PII. Get +Obj+ PII is
found more in informal languages. It can be found in all tenses.
In the imperative get is more natural than have.
Pseudo-passive
Pseudo-passive is a sentence active in form but passive in
meaning. The subject is the inanimate subject. Pseudo-passive
is the typical non agent passive constructions.

2.2.2 The phrase of By and With


According to Quirk, R and Greenbaum, S. (1976:160) the
agentive or instrument can be expressed by a by phrase.
However, only the instrument can be expressed by a with
phrase. In the case of get passive, the by -phrase helps to
identify whether the sentence is in the middle voice or passive

11

voice The agentive by- phrase also occurs as a post-modifier to


signify authorship: a novel by Tolstoy, a picture by Degas,etc.

2.2.3 Usage of English passive voice


Different linguists use different expressions to describe the
English passive usage. All these expressions have common
points in nature, which are the non- agent emphasis (nonagent promotion) and the agent ignorance (agent demotion).
Among these expressions, the one used by Asher, R. (1994)
seems to be the most persuasive ones. His suggestions not
only cover all other linguists suggestions but also pave the
new way in understanding the passive construction, which
suggest the relation between the passive constructions and
other construction based on the two pragmatic effects.
Agent demotion
Asher, R. (1994:4941) shortly suggests the passive
assign it (the agent) a periphery role in syntax even if it is
encoded. This statement is identical with other linguists
expressions like unknown, unimportant, obvious agent or more
interest on the action than on the agent.
Asher, R (1994:4941) also suggests that pragmatic effect of
Agent demotion unifies the passive with honorific forms (the
usage of plural forms for even single agent), indefinite person
constructions involving indefinite pronouns corresponding to
they,oneand we.
Non-agent promotion
This pragmatic effect is not separated from the pragmatic
effect of Agent demotion. The two pragmatic effects of Agent
demotion and Non-agent promotion are like two sides of the
same coin. This pragmatic effect of Non-agent promotion is
similar to other linguists expressions like the passive is used
when we are more interested in the action than the person who
does it
However, Asher, R. fails to give the reasons related to
linguistics, the speakers psychology.
12

2.3 Passive Voice in Functional grammar


2.3.1 Passive Types
Type of passive clause in transitive analysis is classified in
following main types: true passive, beneficiary-passive, rangepassive and circumstantial passive, which is further, divided
into manner passive and true passive.
a, True passive: effective, medium/subject, agent: by
Mary
Medium
Subject

was
upset
by the new
Process: mental
Agent
Finite
Predicat Adjunct
or
b, Beneficiary-passive: effective, beneficiary/subject, and
agent: by..
My ant

was

given

this teapot

Beneficiary
Subject

by the
Duke
Agent
Adjunct

Process
Medium
Finite Predicator Compleme
nt
c, Range-passive: Middle(i.e.: medio -passive),Range/subject,
medium: by....
Songs
the music

were
was

sung

by the choir

enjoyed

by
the
audience
Range
Process
Medium
Subject
Finite
Predicator
Adjunct
According to Halliday, M. there are other types of passive
constructions when the indirect participants act as the
potential subjects. Circumstantial passives are those include
Location passive, Manner passive and others. E.g.
The bed has not been slept in (Location passive)
This pen has never been written with(Manner passive)
These are medio- passives. But passives with idiomatic
phrasal verbs, such as it has been done away with, she is very
much looked up to, the prize has never been put in for are
13

often true passive in the sense that the prepositional phrase


really represents a participant.
d, circumstantial passive
d1.Location passive: middle (medio
subject; Medium: by ....
The bed
Location
Subject

by anyone
Medium
Predicator Adjunc Adjunct
t
True passive :effective; Medium subject; Agent: by
It
Location

has not
Process
Finite

-passive) Location

has

been slept in

been done away

with

by
the
man
Process
Medium
Finite Predicator Adjunc Adjunc Adjunct
t
t

2.3.2 The phrase of by and with


Halliday, M. states that the clauses with features of agency
can be put in passive by using an analytic causative or bringing
in an Agent of the second order. The examples can be seen in
all processes: Material, Mental, and Relational

2.3.3 Usage of Passive


According to M. Halliday (1985:169) the reason for choosing
passive in effective clause are:
- To get the Medium as subject, and therefore as marked
Theme
- To make the Agent either late news (by putting it last) or
implicit (by leaving it out).
The agent by-phrase is mentioned in 20% of passive
clause (M. Swan) and about 18% (T. Givn). Its occurrence
depends on the information structure of sentence; the byphrase will occur when it is new information and the agent
comes as new at the end of the sentence E.g.
Nice-picture
Yes, it was painted by my grandmother
14

(passive verb so that the news-the painter-goes at the


end).
(Swan,
M.:410)

2.4. Passive voice in Transformational-Generative


grammar
2.4.1
Organization
Generative grammar

of

Transformational-

Initiated by Chomsky and quoted by Borsley R.D, any


structure can be described into two ways: D Structure and SStructure. D Structure (Deep structure) is the identical
structural description of lexical strings in accordance with the
principle of general linguistics. S Structure (surface structure)
is related to D -structure via the application of movement
transformation (substitution or adjunction). S Structure is the
interface between the levels of phonetic form (PF) and logical
form (LF). It is the S structure that shows the contrast between
languages.
Passive analysis in the study is based on the interrelation
among D Structure, S Structure and LP and on sub theory
of Theme role (O criterion) and Case filter.

2.4.2 Passive constructions and Noun phrases


a. Noun phrase passivization
The idea and examples here are taken from Borsley. R.
(1999). There are certain relations among passive
constructions and noun phrases. The noun phrases are formed
with the possessive markers of and s
1 The active sentence: The 1.The active sentence: The king
Vikings
destroyed
the betrayed the country.
monastery
2. The passive sentence: The
2. The passive sentence : country was betrayed by the
The
monastery
was king
destroyed by the Vikings
3.a
The
monastery
s 3.b The country s betrayal by
destruction by the Vikings
the king
15

4.a The destruction of the


monastery by the Vikings
4.b The betrayal of the country
5.a The Vikings destruction by the king
of the monastery
5.b The king s betrayal of the
country

The example (5a) might have the following D-structure


NP
N

NP
N

NP

destruction

the monastery

the Vikings

The (3.a) have the following D-structure


NP
N

NP
N

destruction

NP

PP

the monastery

the Vikings

Finally, the (4.a) has the following D- structure:


NP
N

Det
the

N
destruction

NP

PP

the monastery

the Vikings

2.4 Sum up remarks


In this chapter, the English passive voice has been seen
from three grammar approaches namely Traditional grammar,
TransformationalGenerative
grammar
and
Functional
grammar.
In this part, the concept of voice is a system of correlation
between semantic roles such as agent and patient and
between grammatical functions such as subjects and objects
16

Syntactically, all the passive constructions consist of the


compulsory past participles.
The optional parts of passive construction include such
parts as the by- phrase, subject modifier, the adverbs and
adjuncts. More over, based on the theory of case filter, passive
noun phrases have been proved to originate from passive
sentences with the insertion of possessive markers and of.
Semantically, the passive subjects have different semantic
roles namely Goal, Recipient, Arrival, Beneficiary and Place.
Based on the meaning of separate parts, some of possessive
verbs do not occur in the passive forms.
Finally, in the field of pragmatics, the choice of the passive
is associated with the information structure and two pragmatic
effects: agent demotion/ patient promotion and agent
promotion. Following the information structure, the Given
information precedes the New information. In relation to the
pragmatic effects, the emphasis of non- agent passive
sentences is on the action, which is associated with the
pragmatic effects of agent demotion/ non- agent promotion;
the emphasis of agent including passive sentences is also on
the action but in this group the agent is considered as the late
news, which is associated with the pragmatic effect of nonagent promotion only.

17

Chapter Three: Passive Constructions in Vietnamese


3.1 Verbs in Vietnamese
In relation to Passive constructions, the following concepts
are to be analyzed: Independent dependent verbs and
Transitive intransitive verbs.

3.1.1 Dependent and Independent verbs


The independent verbs are the verbs having the meaning
themselves and can stand independently without the support
of other verbs.
The dependent verbs, on the other hand, do not have full
lexical meaning and these verbs often accompanied with
independent verbs.

3.1.2 Transitive Intransitive verbs


Intransitive verbs do not govern object.
transitive verbs do govern at least one object.

Meanwhile

3.2 Vietnamese passive expressions in different


views
3.2.1 Rejection of Passive voice in Vietnamese
The reasons often include
+Vietnamese being an isolated analytic and topic
prominent language in which the verb does not change in
accordance with person tense, mood and voice.
+ b and c consided as true notional transitive verbs
in Vietnamese, not formal words in forming Passive sentences.
Among the non advocates of Passive construction such
names as Thomson (1965), nh, (2000), Ho (2002) are the
most prominent

3.2.2
Support
Vietnamese

for

Passive

Expressions

in

a Non b c passive constructions


In this part, the structures in interest are non- b c
constructions which consist of two subgroups: Non - b c
18

constructions with no function words b, c and Non- b,


c constructions with other function words
* Non b c constructions with no functional words
This type of sentence has the structure O V. The decisive
factors in this type of sentence are lexical meaning of subject:
+ Animate/inanimate
+ Physical condition, age
1.Human beings
a. adult

a. persons who serve others

b.person who are served

b.

children
2. Animals

a. big or strong animal


b. small or weak animal

3. Inanimate

a. instrument
b. natural phenomenon.

* Predicate with chu, mc, phi


The passive ones include: c (ng), chu (b, mc, phi)
with the meaning as follows:
- c or ng refer to good things or lucky things to the
receiver.
- Chu, b, mc, phi refer to bad things, unexpected
things.
b Passive Constructions with b, c
Ban (2004) classifies grammatical the function of b c
into three sub groups: Lexical verb. Modal verb and Passive
function words.
As lexical verbs, b c have two constructions : B
c +Noun(noun phrase) and B c + Embedded
sentence.
As modal verbs, b c can combine with: Verb
(effective or ineffective), Adjective and Preposition.
As passive formal words, b c have distinctive usage
in the structure of passive constructions in Vietnamese
19

A general syntactic structure of a passive sentence in


Vietnamese is as follows:
Subject1
(passive
voice)

Passive
functional
words

Subject2

Predicator2

(active)

(transitive
verb)

Passive

Predicator

Functional
words

(embedded sentence)

Compleme
nt
(and
Object)

b, c
Following Halliday, M. the passive subjects in Ban, Dip
Quang pattern have the following semantic roles: Objective /
Goal , Recipient, Goal (Arrival), Beneficiary, Maleficiary,
Locative / Place
c The agent
+ Agent less passive sentence.
+ Agent including passive sentence with no connectors
and connectors bi, do, (l) ca

3.2.3 Vietnamese Passive Usage


In Vietnamese, the choice between active and passive
construction depends on both extra -linguistic factors and
linguistic factors.
a. Extra- linguistic factors
According to different linguists, the passive structures in
Vietnamese to :
+ Follow Information structure: the new information in the
rheme and the given information in the theme
+ Impress the reader
+ Avoid changing the sentence subject
+ Allow the choice between marked and unmarked theme
b. Linguistics factors
Linguistics factors
Vietnamese consist of:

decide

20

the

type

of

sentence

in

+ The lexical meaning of Subject: animate/ inanimate noun,


served/serving person, instrumental/non- instrumental object
+ Subject complement or sentence adjunct showing aspect,
mood or circumstances.
+ The two different ways of understanding the relation
between direct object + indirect object (E.g. :Chi
+ tc +
b) as possessive( Chi + tc + ca +
b) and
beneficiary( Chi + tc + cho + b). While the first have one
passive structure, the other can have two passive structures.

3.3 Sum-up remarks of Vietnamese passive


In this part, the author attempts to clarify the complex and
controversy of Vietnamese passive mentioned in the previous
part. This part is to answer the following questions:
+ Is there passive voice in Vietnamese?
+ If there is, what is typical pattern of Vietnamese passive?
+Does it include passive functional words? Moreover, if it
does what are the compulsory passive functional words?
+What are the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features
of the Vietnamese passive pattern?
Voice in Vietnamese
This term, as Asher suggests, can be defined in term of
syntactic constructions with reference to specific grammatical
characteristics. This implies that voice exists in all languages
but with different surface structure. The concept of voice in
English and Vietnamese shares the common feature of the
semantic roles of the sentence subjects. The difference is in the
fact that English voice is related to verb forms while the
Vietnamese voice is related lexical and grammatical means.
Pattern of Vietnamese passive
The second questions have different answer among
linguists. Different structures suggested by linguists include:
-

N + b/c + V + bi + N

N + V + bi + N

N + do/ca + N + V
21

N + l (ca) + N + V
and some others
Among these different views, the view of Ban, Dip Quang
(2004) sounds the most persuasive. In his latest version 2004,
Ban, Dip Quang considers sentences containing bng,do, bi
and ca to be sentences with dependent predicator l. One
common thing among these types of sentences is that the
formal word l can be inserted in the middle of the sentence, in
front of bng, do, bi and ca.
According to Ban, Dip Quang (2004), a general syntactic
structure of a passive sentence in Vietnamese is as follows:
Subject1 Passive
(passive) Functional
words b,
c
Passive
functional
words

Predicator
(embedded sentence)

Subject2 Predicator2
(active)

Complem
ent object

(transitive
verb)
The way of classification based on the function of the words
b ,c deals with the many different structures relating to
b ,c suggested by other linguists. Ban, Dip Quang (2004)
points out the different function of b ,c as lexical verbs,
modal verbs and passive functional verbs
He also follows Halliday, M. in analyzing the passive
subjects in different semantic roles. This helps to explain the
passive constructions with the subjects semantic roles of
arrival, place that are difficult to explain in other linguists
theory.
The neutral sentence is the central concept in solving the
questions above. The neutral sentence in his idea is the passive
construction (O-V) in other linguists. The neutral sentence is
related to the thematic sentence with the presence of the
added subject. This helps to answer the question whether the
Vietnamese includes the thematic sentences or passive
sentences .
22

However if Ban, Dip Quang (2004) ideas are followed, one


point should be accepted here is that there do not always exist
any group of thematic neutral passive constructions.
Semantic features of Vietnamese passive
Under the modern view based on Functional grammar, Ban
suggests the following semantic roles of subjects in passive
constructions: Goal, Recipient, Arrival, Beneficiary, Maleficiary
and Place. This is the updated way in analyzing passive
constructions in Vietnamese, which helps to tackle with
structures difficult to analyze in the traditional criteria of
Subject and Predicate.
Semantic features of Vietnamese passive are derived from
the lexical meaning of the passive functional words b ,c
and the passive subjects and the transitive verbs.
Semantically b is associated with negative attitude of
the speakers while c is associated with the positive
attitude of the speakers.
The type of nouns and their accompanied features in the
passive subjects partly decide the naturalness of passive
sentences. The criteria here are based on the scale of animate/
inanimate nouns, instrumental/ non-instrumental noun, adult/
children, serving person/ served person.
There is a group of verbs in Vietnamese rarely found in
passive forms. These verbs often are spiritual effective verbs
like d, d dnh (comfort/soothe), an i (console/comfort),and
some others.
The next distinguishing feature of Vietnamese passive is
derived from the way of ellipsis in Vietnamese. From one
structure
C gio/ chi/ tc/ b
The teacher/ comb/hair/ the girls
There are two ways of understanding: possessive relation
chi tc ca b and beneficiary relation chi tc cho b. While

23

the first accept one corresponding passive , the latter does


accept two corresponding passive constructions
Usage of Vietnamese passive
The choice between active and passive construction
depends on both extra -linguistic factors and linguistic factors.
Extra-linguistic/ pragmatic factors are related to Information
structure
Linguistic factors include lexical meaning of subject, the
companion of adjunct, and lexical meaning of verbs.
In short, based on their meaning, not on structure, Passive
constructions can be said to exist in Vietnamese. In the view of
passive voice commonly found in inflectional languages,
Vietnamese has no passive voice but constructions with
passive meaning. In the broader view of passive voice
suggested by Asher R.E. in The Encyclopedia of Language and
Linguistics, the passive voice does exist in Vietnamese. The
passive voice in Vietnamese, is semantically not characterized
by the inflection in verbs but by lexical terms, word order and
syntactic structures.
Hence, the passive definition
will be the basis for Vietnamese
part of contrastive analysis
constructions and the Vietnamese

of Ban, Dip Quang (2004)


passive constructions in the
between English passive
ones.

Chapter Four: Contrastive Analysis


4.1. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive
constructions syntactically
4.1.1 Structural similarities
a) The Passive construction in both languages shares one
common characteristic namely grammatical function between
the subject and the object in which the object in active
24

sentence turns into the grammatical subject in the passive


sentence.
b) The agent is the optional part in both languages.

4.1.2 Differences
The differences focus on the obligatory and compulsory
parts in the passive constructions in two languages, the
grammatical properties of passive constructions subjects and
the noun phrase passivization.
*
The obligatory and compulsory parts in Passive
constructions.
The typical passive constructions in two languages are:
In English
Be + PII

In Vietnamese
B,c
+embedded
(transitive verb)

sentence

Become/get
+ PII
In English, all passive constructions are related to P II and
one verb among fixed verbs like be, get, have while the
Vietnamese passive construction include the agent, the adjunct
showing causes, reasons or circumstances even the subject
modifiers. E.g.
a. Thuyn b ( h) y
b. Thuyn b (h) y
c. Thuyn b (h) y ri
Among the Vietnamese passive sentences, the sentence a.(
Thuyn b ( h) y) sounds unnatural. When this sentence is
added with adverbs like , ri it turns out to be natural in use.
It can be said that the optional parts in English make the
passive sentences natural in Vietnamese .
* Noun phrase passivization
The formation of passive noun phrase in English is based
on the movement of the by phrase plus the insertion of
possessive markers of and s.
25

Meanwhile, as the comparison partly points out, the related


passive noun phrases in Vietnamese do need such
subordinators as vic, s E.g.
The
monastery
s
destruction by the Vikings
The country s betrayal by
the king

Vic tu vin b ph hu do ngi Viking gy ra


Vic t quc b quc vng
phn bi

4.2. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive


constructions semantically
4.2.1 Similarities
The common feature between passive sentences in English
and Vietnamese lies in the fact that the grammatical subjects
of passive constructions have the same semantic roles namely:
goal, beneficiary, recipient...
4.2.2

Differences.

The differences between English passive structures and


Vietnamese ones are analyzed in three areas: the Vietnamese
passive functional words (b, c), the passive subject and the
verb.
The first difference is related to b c as passive
functional words. The difference is the subjectivity in
Vietnamese passive sentences. B, c expressions partly
shows speakers attitude towards the event meanwhile the
passive expressions in English focus on the event.
How ever, in scientific document, the way of utilizing c
does not always show speakers attitude.
The second difference in terms of meaning is the decisive
role of lexical meaning of the subject in Vietnamese. With the
same surface structure, the lexical meaning of subject will
decide whether the sentence is active, neutral, or passive.
Whether the subject is serving or served person, adult or
children, instrumental object or non- instrumental object decide
the type of the sentence.
Vietnamese
26

English

Active
a.Thy Phong cha
Vietnamese /Active chm bi
English
Neutral
b.Bi
ca
em
Vietnamese
Phong cha chm
/Passive English
Thematic c.Bi
Vietnamese
Phong
chm
/Active English

ca
thy

Passive
Vietnamese

ca
cha

d.Bi
Phong
chm

The
prof.
Phong
hasnt marked the
exam paper yet.
Phongs
exam
paper has not been
marked yet.

em About
Phongs
cha exam paper , the
prof. has not marked
it yet
em Phongs
exam
c paper has not been
marked yet.

/Passive English
ActiveVietnamese / e.Thy Phong cha The
prof.
Phong
Active English
c chm bi
hasnt been allowed
to mark the exam
paper yet.
One English passive sentence is the equivalent to both of
the Vietnamese passive sentence and the Vietnamese neutral
sentence. The Vietnamese neutral sentence stands in middle
between the active sentence and the thematic ones in terms
of structure. However, the Vietnamese neutral is similar to the
passive sentence in the same way that the grammatical
subject is affected by the agent. Therefore, the Vietnamese
active and thematic ones are translated into the active ones
while both the Vietnamese neutral and passive equal with the
English passive constructions. All these sentences are
somehow related to the others. Whether the sentences have
the passive meaning or not depends on the lexical meaning of
the subjects.
The third difference among Vietnamese and English
passive constructions is the decisive role of verbs lexical
meaning to the type of sentence: passive constructions or
active ones. There are two ways of understanding from the
same structure:
27

Verb + direct object + indirect object


bt

+tay

+ n

ra

+ tay

+ n.

One understanding is the possession :


Verb + (direct object + indirect object)
bt +

tay ( + ca) + n

The other way of understanding is based on the semantic


role of the beneficiary:
Verb + direct object
ra + tay

+ indirect object
(+cho)

+ n.

In most English cases of two objects, there are two passive


constructions with the grammatical subjects being the direct
and indirect object in the active sentence. In Vietnamese, the
two corresponding passive constructions are accepted in the
case the indirect object is considered as the beneficiary. If the
indirect object is understood as it possesses the direct object,
there is only one passive construction with the indirect object
as the grammatical subject.
The forth difference is in the verb constraints. In the group
of transitive verb suggested by Quirk, R. (1972), some English
transitive verbs like have, lack, hold, become, fit, suit,
resemble do not occur in passive. In Vietnamese, suggested by
Qu, Nguyn Th (2003), some transitive verbs rarely occur in
passive. These verbs often are spiritual verbs like d, d dnh
(comfort/soothe), an i (console/comfort), khuyn khch,
khch l (encourage) and others. These verbs usually occur in
neutral sentences only.

4.3. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive


structures pragmatically
This part is aimed at finding out the factors decisive to the
choice of: Active/passive, agent /non-agent including passive
expressions, Vietnamese passive expressions and substitutional
structures.
28

4.3.1 Similarities and differences


The similarity between English passive constructions and
the Vietnamese equivalents can be in some areas as follows:
1. Information structure: Given Information precedes New
Information.
2. The sentence focus:
+The Focus is on the action/ the agent is in peripheral role
(in the non - agent passive expression)
+The Focus is on the action/ the agent is the late news (in
the agent including passive expression).
The next similarity is the sentence focus which is on the
action-not on the doer (in case of non-agent sentence) or on
the doer/agent (in case of agent- including sentence).

4.3.2. English
equivalents

passive

constructions

and

the

As it is mentioned in the theory, the pragmatic effects of


the passive voice in English are related to two aspects namely
agent demotion (agent defocusing) and patient promotion
(patient focusing). These aspects themselves unify passive
structure with other structures in a different way in different
languages.
In English, the two passive structures (agent including and
non- agent structures ) have distinctive focus. While the nonagent structures focus on the action rather on the doer, agent
including structures emphasize the doer. That means in
English the passive voice has two different emphasis:
S + BE+ PAST PARTICIPLE : agent demotion and patient
promotion
S + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE+BY PHRASE: patient promotion
and agent being the late news
The author intends to firstly point out the difference in
terms of structure in the two groups of Vietnamese equivalents.
Then the frequencies of these structures are listed. Finally,
some factors decisive to the usage of these structures are to be
29

pointed out. The investigation is the passive sentence based


only.
Among 600 collected English passive sentences, the
Vietnamese translated versions are found with the frequency
as follows:
The types of constructions equivalent to the English passive
consist of Active sentence, Neutral sentences, Passive
sentences, Impersonal structures with Ngi ta,Ta, Impersonal
structures with verbs, modal verbs, Special structures with
existential, original and possessive markers c ca and
Idiomatic, cultural expressions, proper name.
The frequency is in the following table:
Active sentences

15
6
85
20
7

26%

13
5

22.5
%

82
Impersonal structures with Ngi ta,Ta
24
Impersonal structures with verbs, modal verbs
83
Special structures with existential, original and 13
possessive markers c ca:

12.%
4%
13%
2%

Neutral sentences
Passive sentences
(non agent sentences
agent including sentences)

14%
34.5
%

Idiomatic, cultural expressions, proper name


24
4%
Other structures
8 1.5%
Table: Vietnamese equivalents of English passive
constructions
Following are some examples:
Neutral sentences
This finding is based on a year of study of successes and
failures involving services in different countries
30

Pht hin ny da trn cuc nghin cu v nhng thnh


cng v tht bi lin quan n cc dch v trong vng
mt nm nhiu nc khc nhau
( Special English no 53- Development report:17 )
Passive sentences
Tom whistled twice more , these signals were answered in
the same way.
(Mark Twain :139)
Tom li hut so hai ting na, nhng tn hiu li c
p li nh hai ln trc.
(Ngu Mng Huyn, Hong Phng:157 )
Impersonal structures with verbs, modal verbs
First the base is removed from the bottle, Then the bottle
is turned upside down and the neck is attached to the base
Trc ht ct y chai ra. Sau p ngc ci chai
xung cho c chai gn vi y chai..
(Sunflower ,Feb. 2005:37)
Idiomatic, cultural expressions, proper name
Ti t nh trnh git ng bng dao ..nhng m quen tay
mt ri
(Bo Ninh:25)
to avoid stabbing with bayonets but I have got used to
it
(Frank Palmos:17)
Impersonal structures with Ngi ta,Ta
They felt like heroes in an instant. Here was a gorgeous
triumph ; they were missed, they were mourned; hearts were
breaking on their account; tears were being shed; ...
(Mark Twain:152)
Th l lp tc chng c, thy mnh tr thnh nhn vt
anh hng. Tht l mt chin thng rc r; chng c ngi ta
nh tic; chng c ngi ta khc thng; c nhng tri tim
ang thn thc v chng; ngi ta ang nh bao nhiu l nc
mt
31

(Ngu Mng Huyn & Hong Phng:137).


Special structures with existential, original and possessive
markers c do,bi ca:
These markers are found in the following extracts: ..
that it was conjectured at first lc u nh on; then
the small raft had been missed sau c ngi mt chic b;
(Ngu Mng Huyn & Hong Phng: 152).
The bottle goes through seven machines, all designed
and built by the company
Cc chai ny c a qua by ci my, tt c cc my ny
u chnh do cng ty ny thit k v xy dng
(Sunflower ,Feb. 2005:37)
Pierr de Coubertin got the idea for this phrase from a
speech given by Bishop EtheletTablot at a service for Olympic
champions during the 1908 Olympic Games. Pierr de Coubertin
ngh ra cu ni ny t mt bi din thuyt ca Gim mc
EtheletTablot ti bui thnh l dnh cho cc gii v ch
(Special English, August.2004)
Among the 207 passive constructions, the non -agent
sentences are 135. The neutral sentences, which are the
passive constructions if added with b and c , stands at the
second rank.
The English non agent passive sentences S + BE+ PAST
PARTICIPLE have the following equivalents:
- Active sentence
-Neutral sentences
- Passive sentences (non -agent sentences)
- Impersonal structures with Ngi ta,Ta
- Impersonal
prepositions

structures

with

verbs,

modal

verbs,

Special structures with existential, original and possessive


markers c ngi

32

In the case of the English agent including passive


construction S + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE+BY PHRASE, the
features of patient promotion and agent being the late news
are expressed in Vietnamese with the following structures:
- Active sentence
-Passive sentences (agent including sentence): do bi
ca.
The emphasis is expressed with some causative structures
with do, bng ,bi with the emphasis markers chnh do, chnh
bi.
The explanation for this can be:
+ Several transitive verbs in English have the Vietnamese
intransitive equivalents like drown -cht ui, demob - gii
ng.
+ Several verbs in English can be used as both transitive
verbs and intransitive one. These verbs in the translated
version can be used in non- passive structures. The transitive
verbs in English flood are translated as intransitive verb lt in
Vietnamese.
+ In Vietnamese, the sentence with clauses of different
hidden subjects (in the parenthese) can be accepted, which is
not accepted in English . This allows the non agent passive in
Vietnamese turns into the agent including in English
E.g....i s tn ht c ri-People have been evacuated..
+Due to cultural or historical factors, there is a big group of
synonyms, which has a limited equivalents in the target
language. B mnh, hi sinh, nm li ,nn li ,khng tr v are
the Vietnamese words with the same equivalence of be killed
in English.
+An other reason can be the specific translation of
idiomatic expression or proper name such as quen tay mt ri
versus I have got used to it.

33

Part Three: Conclusion


The thesis has confirmed the existence of voice in both two
languages in which voice can be understood as a system of
correlation between semantic roles such as agent and patient
and between grammatical functions such as subjects and
objects. The difference is in the linguistic means to express
the passive voice: In English, the linguistic means are the verb
forms meanwhile in Vietnamese they are related to the
presence of passive markers b and c with distinguishing
features.
The contrast between the English passive constructions and
the Vietnamese ones are in three areas: Syntax, semantics and
pragmatics.
Syntactic similarity
Syntactically, the passive constructions in English and
Vietnamese share two common features.
+ The identical function of grammar between the object in
active and the subject of the corresponding passive.
+The optional part expressing the agent in English and in
Vietnamese.
Syntactic difference
+The Vietnamese passive sentences need some adjuncts,
adverbs showing circumstances, manner...to be natural in use.
+The English noun phrase passivization is based on the
movement of the by phrase, the insertion of possessive
markers of ands. The Vietnamese ones, on the other hand, do
need the presence of subordinators such as s, vic and other
subordinators.
Semantic similarity
+The same features of semantic roles of the passive
subjects.
Semantic difference
34

+ Firstly, subjectivity in Vietnamese passive sentences with


B, c expressions agaist the objectivity in English
passive construction
+ The choice between animate/ inanimate noun,
instrumental/ non-instrumental nouns, serving/ served person
acting as the subject in the Vietnamese sentences partly
decide the type of sentence being active, neutral or passive.
+ Two different groups of transitive verbs rarely used in the
passive in two languages. The Vietnamese transitive verbs
often are the spiritual transitive verbs while the English ones
often are the possessive ones.
Pragmatic similarity,
+The information structure: The choice of passive
constructions in the two languages allows the given information
preceding the new information.
Pragmatic difference
+ The English non agent sentences: S + BE+ PAST
PARTICIPLE have the following Vietnamese equivalents:
- Passive constructions (non- agent passive constructions)
- The special equivalents: existential structure
- Possessive structures, impersonal structures beginning
with Ngi ta, Ta, H, Chng ta, --- Imperative structures
beginning with Hy or with Transitive verbs.
+ The English agent including passive construction S + BE
+ PAST PARTICIPLE+BY PHRASE, the feature of non-agent
promotion/ agent
being the late news is expressed in
Vietnamese with the following structures:
- Causative structures with do, bng ,bi with the emphasis
markers chnh do,chnh bi.Existential structure with c,
special sentences with prepositional phrases
From one English passive structure, there are several
corresponding
Vietnamese
passive
constructions.
The
explanation comes from both linguistic and extra- linguistic
factors like the difference in types of verb (transitive
35

/intransitive), the difference in idiomatic expressions and others


in two languages.
The implication of the study is to help the learners obtain
the most logical concept of Vietnamese passive. For
Vietnamese learners, the awareness of the difference is helpful
especially in the translation from Vietnamese into English.
The thesis have not covered all areas connected with the
passive voice usage like thematic structures, cultural factors. I
hope that these issues will be investigated in further research.

36

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37

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39

APPENDICES
Examples of passive constructions in the novel The sorrow
of war translated from the original novel Thn phn tnh yu
by Bo Ninh.
English
Vietnamese
1.They war forgotten by peace , 1. Cc ng ng trong rng
damaged or impassable
vn cn ang ly li , h nt ,

b ha bnh b hoang, hu
nh khng th qua li c
2. Where they park beside a wide 2. Xe u bn b sui ph
creek
clogged
with
rooting y ci mc
branches
3. Tiu on 27 . b bao
3.
His
Battalion
27
was vy ri b tiu dit mt hon
surrounded and almost totally ton phin hiu
wiped out
4. Trn ci trng hnh thoi
4. The diamond shaped grass gia trungthn th gip v,
was piled with high bodies killed tanh bnh
by helicopters
5.V khi hn ma ra i trong
5. Numerous souls of ghosts and trn bi vonh y hin vn lang
devils were born in that deadly thang khp cc x xnh ..
defeat
6. Ci trung ni vn v danh
t by c tn l gi hn
6. From then on it was called the 7. Ting ni ca nhng hn
Jungle of Screaming
hoang binh lnh m ngi ci d7. The sobbing whispers were ng ta c th nghe thy..
heard
deep in the jungle at 8. Kin nghe k l
night..
9. Sng y c th in ln
hoc cht r v khip s
8. Kien was told that..
10. song lnh trng ta vn
9. Living here one could go mad rt hi
or be frightened to death
10. but after the fight the 11. V ln lt , k tip nhau
soldiers were still terrified..
hu ht trung i b
11. Gradually the entire regiment mnh..
was wiped out..
12. Trung on ca Kin c
12. Kien regiment had been gn hai thng tri th neo
based on this very sport for y
nearly two months
13. Th gii chia lm ba phe..
13. The world is divided into
40

three camps
14. Still, the scouts were treated
lightly , not being pressured as
much as others to attend the
indoctrination sessions
15. Two different ages, two
worlds, yet written on the same
page of life
16. Endless landscape was coved
with deadly silence or isolated
,sporadic gunfire
17. At the end of the wet season
the echoes of cannon fires could
be heard a hundred kilometers
away..
18. That autumn
was sad ,
prolonged by the rain
19. Orders came for food rations
to be sharply reduced
20. Since being recruited, he had
been
nicknamed
sorrowful
spirit
21. It is raining heavily in the
north, ... The
radio says it has never rained as
hard. My restrict must be flooded
now
22. Only Tu had fought together
with Kien to the Gate no 5of
Saigon Tan Son Nhat airport.
Then Tu was killed
23. When we are demobed, I will
stop driving
24. People have evacuated

25..

to

avoid

stabbing

14. Cnh trinh st con cng bao


gi cng c n v, t b p
hc..
15. Cng l mt trang cuc i
m l hai th gii hai thi i..
16. Cuc chin c v nh b vi
lp trong bin mnh mng m
mt ma
17. Trong ma i bc vang dn
thc di ra ngoi trm dm

18. Ma thu no n l th, ma


ma m t
19. Khu phn thc n gim
gh gm
20. Bit hiu thn su phi
mang t hi mi nhp ng
21. Ngoi Bc ang ma to
lm, i h loan th, bo
l ma to cha tng thy. Qu
ti li lt mt.
22. Ch c T l cng Kin
nh n ca s 5 sn bay
Tn Sn Nht ri mi hi sinh
23. Gii ng,ti s thi li

24. Tht ng l chng bt


lc no t ni tm trng cu
Kien trn ng phi v ph
nh, song cng chng bt no
t xit tm trng tht vng
,t st di chn khi anh vo
ti sn. i s tn ht c ri
25. Ti t nh trnh git ng
with bng dao ..nhng m quen tay
41

bayonets but I have got used to it


26. He had originally been
sentenced to death, then had
that reduced to a life sentence,
then to twenty years. Bao did not
look like a criminal;
28. We must keep our best
seeds, otherwise all will be
destroyed..
29. I know you are scared of
being killed
30. Their chaotic minds,their
trouble speed revealed how
cruelly they are twisted and
tortured by war
31. Who was left to help her? I
could have been exemted as the
only son left
32. It is you not me who has
been chosen for the offices
course and being sent back
33. Leaving a helpless old mother
, exposed to hardships
34. The commanding offiers
issued specific orders for Can to
be traced..
35. After some final touches with
the shovel their graves would be
done
36. Kien had been unfortunatedly
not been included in this
ambience of love
37. The next morning the matter
was not mentioned
38. The farm house had been
abandoned
39. It looks empty and innocent
but in fact it is crowed
42

mt ri
26. Phm ti git ngi lnh n
t hnh h xung chung thn
(Bo) t hai mi nm m Bo
khng c v g l mt phn t
nh vy
28. Phi gi ging khng th
tit
29. Ai m mun cht thc th
30. Tm hn bn lan, ngn
ng c thoi ri m, h b
thc cnh chin tranh y i
tn nhn lm suy sp su sc
c th xc v tinh thn
31. ng l ti c min coi nh
con c..
32. Khng th nn n v sut
hc s quan l ca anh
33. B li sau lng cnh m gi
mn tri chiu t
34. Ring trng hp Can trn
vn truy lng ro rit
35. Sau nhng nht xng y
huyt ti tm l ra, v lan hi
th cui cung ca ngi
khut
36. Chng may anh vo
s mt vi ngi b cuc tnh
y xa lnh
37. Sng hm sau c Thnh c
Thanh ch ng g n
chuyn hi m
38. Khu tri tng gia b b
quyn bn b thc nc
39. Trng hoang vu th thi
ch di kia ngi nm ng
cht c ri
40. Bao nhiu xng mu
ra

40. So many blood so many lives


were sacrified for what?
41. Our era is finished
42. The hope is contained in the
beautiful pre-war past
43. That wonderful period has
been heartlessly extinguished
44. Near a flight of steps, almost
obscured by wild flowers and
shrubs
45. So many recruits used to be
based in my house
46. If the name are changed we
can really tell the truth
47. Any where people were
jamped up close together and
force to share thaier lives
48. The tap trickled, drop by
drop, every story was told
49. It is true love ,something that
canot be easily hidden
50. Not once had she been seen
to smile at her neighbours
51. The words she longed to say
would never be voiced

43

41. Thi i ca cnh ta


ht ri
42. Tt c mt hn mt
ht mt cch khng thng tic
43. Cnh vt y nguyn nh th
b thi gian b st
44. Bn thm gia bi cy
hoang tn..
45. Bao nhiu lt tn binh
v ng nh em
46. Ch cn ng ch h
cumt ci tn cho ti v b
nh ti
47. Hng ngy sng chen chc
qun t trong ngi nh nhiu
h ny
48. Cn thiu g chuyn ..m
Kin cha c nghe
49. Gia h r rng l tnh
yu cha c phi l tnh g
u m che giu ni
50. Cha h ban cho ai mt li
cho hi gi l
51.Mun ni thm mt iu
g m khng bao gi ni
..