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Asati

Email id: abhijit_asati@bits-pilani.ac.in

Operational Amplifiers

History:

Initial Application: Analog Computation and sophisticated

instrumentation

Why OPAMP? (Used to perform many mathematical operations)

Early OPAMP was discrete ( vacuum tubes, transistors &

resistors)

Cost: Prohibitively high ( tens of dollars)

1960: First IC OPAMP by Fairchild ( A 709), designed by

Robert J. Widler

Within span of few years high quality OPAMP available at

extremely low price due to versatility of application.

A = 140 dB = 10

V sat = 12 V

V in ( sat )

12 V

=

= 1 .2 V

7

10

Ad

CMRR =

AC

V id

V 1 = V cm +

2

V id

V 2 = V cm

2

V id = V 1 V 2

& V cm

V1 + V 2

=

2

Vo

AC =

V cm

when V id = 0

Vo

Ad =

V id

when V cm = 0

&

V o = AC V cm + Ad V id

V o = Ad V id

their differential and common-mode components.

Infinite input impedance (1-10M)

Zero output impedance (25-150)

Infinite open loop gain A (100-140dB)

Zero Common- mode gain or infinite common mode

rejection (100dB)

Zero input offset voltage (20-200 mv at output)

Zero input bias Current (nA to A)

Infinite bandwidth (unity gain) (10 MHz)

Infinite Slew rate dVo/dt | max (0.5 V/sec to 50 V/sec )

PSRR=Vo/V=0 (20v/v)

they are direct-coupled or dc amplifier. This

property allows it to use in many application.

Amplifier:

R2

R1

going in to the intricacies of the feedback.

Applying Miller Theorem :

R2

R2(input ) =

(very low)

1+ A

Rin = R1 + ( Rid || R2(input ) ) R1

Feedback reduces the input impedance

AR 2

Rout = Ro ||

1+ A

Rout = Ro || R2 Ro

Feedback reduces the output impedance

More accurately :

R1

Ve =

V o = Vo

R1 + R2

AV e = A Vo

Vo

Vo + A Vo

I0 =

+

R1 + R2

Ro

Vo

=

I0

1

1 + A

+

R1 + R2

Ro

Ro

=

|| R1 + R2

1 + A

i1 =

vo

v

)

vI + o

A

A

=

R1

R1

vI (

vo

vo =

i1 R 2

A

vo

vI +

vo

A

vo =

A

R1

1

R2

R2

) =

+

v o (1 +

A

AR 1

R1

v

R2

R2

R2 = o

vI

vo

A

R1

AR 1

vI

R2

(1 +

)

R2

R1

=

vo 1 +

vI

A

R1

R2

(1 +

R1

vo 1 +

)

= R2 v

I

R1

R2

vo

R1

=

G =

R2

vI

(1 +

)

R1

1+

A

R2

As

A , G

R1

Feedback reduces the gain

vo

= 0 ( As

v2 v1 =

A

v2 = v1

Q v2 = 0

v1 = 0

A )

vo

R2

=

vi

R1

For high input resistance R1 should be large.

For high gain R2/R1 should be large.

Therefore R2 becomes impracticable.

For R1=1M

Gain=100

R2=100 M (impracticable)

Remedy: Example 1

EXAMPLE 1

Assuming the OPAMP to be ideal, derive an expression for the

closed loop gain Vo/ VI of the circuit shown below. Use this Circuit

to design an inverting amplifier with a gain of 100 and an input

resistance of 1M. Assume that for practical reasons it is required

not to use resistors greater than 1M. Compare your design with

that based on the inverting configuration

Solution

The circled numbers indicate the sequence of the steps in the analysis.

vo

vo

=

= 0 (1 )

v1 =

A

vI 0

vI

=

(2)

i1 =

R1

R1

vI

(3)

i 2 = i1 =

R1

R2

vI

vI (4)

R2 =

v x = v1 i 2 R 2 = 0

R1

R1

0 vx

R2vI

=

(5 )

i3 =

R3

R1 R 3

vI

R2vI

+

(6 )

i 4 = i 2 + i3 =

R1

R1 R 3

vI

R2

(1 +

) act as current

i 4 = i 2 + i3 =

R1

R3

amplifier

v o = v x i4 R 4

vI

R2

R2vI

vo =

v I

+

R1

R1 R 3

R1

vo

R2

R4

R2 R4

=

vI

R1

R1

R1 R 3

R 4

vo

R2

R4

R4

1 +

( 7 )

=

+

vI

R1

R2

R3

Let , R 1 = 1 M , R 2 = 1 M , R 4 = 1 M ,

& R 3 = 10 . 2 K

vo

1M

= 1 + 1 +

= 100 . 03 V / V

vI

10 . 2 K

instruments ( 4mA-20mA transmitters)

Pressure Reading

3psi

15psi

4mA

20mA

Logic 0 Logic 1

0V

5V

A Summing Amplifier:

v o = iR

vo

v3

vn

v1

v2

= (

+

+

+ .....

)R

R1

R2

R3

Rn

vo

RF

RF

RF

RF

= (

v1 +

v2 +

v 3 + .....

vn )

R1

R2

R3

Rn

= R1 = R 2 = R 3 K = R n

v o = ( v 1 + v 2 + v 3 + ..... v n )

A Weighted Summer:

Applications:

9Digital to Analog Converter

9Implementing summing coefficients of both signs.

Rf

vo = ( v1 + v2 + v3 +..... vn)

R1

R2

R3

Rn

Rf

Rf

Rf

v o = v ref D

B1

B2

(MSB)

B3

B4

(LSB)

Vo

-0.5Vref

-.0625Vref

-.0.9375Vref

Resolution=1/16=0.0625

where :

Bn

B1 B 2

D = 1 + 2 .... + n ( B1 = MSB & B n = LSB )

2

2

2

Let

v1 = v 2 = v 3 ... = v n = v ref

&

Rf

R1

= 0 .5,

Rf

R2

= 0 . 25 ,

Rf

R3

= 0 . 125 .......

vo

Ra R

= v1 (

R1 R

c

b

R

) + v2(

R

a

2

R

R

c

b

) v3

R

R

c

3

R

R

c

4

2k

2k

5k

2k

4k

8k

2.5k

Rin Rid

vo

R2

= 1+

vI

R1

Rout

Vo

=

Io

Vs = 0

Rout = Ro || R2 Ro

vo

= 0 ( for

v Id =

A

vI

R 2

v o = v I +

R1

vo

R2

= 1+

vI

R1

A = )

R1

v I = vo

R1 + R2

vo

R2

= 1+

vI

R1

vo

v Id =

A

( for

1

R2

R2

(1 + +

) v o = (1 +

)v I

R1

A R1 A

A )

vo

vI

vo

A

vo = ( v I ) +

A R1

v o v o R2

vI

= vI +

vo + +

R1

A R1 A

R2

R2

vo

=

vI

(1 +

As

R2

R1

1 + R2

1+

R1

vo

R2

A , 1 +

vI

R1

(a) The unity-gain buffer or follower amplifier. (b) Its equivalent circuit model.

Performance:

f t = Ao f b ( open loop )

( unity gain bandwidth )

amp.

RF

Vo ( s )

Vi ( s ) 1 +

3 dB =

RI

s

3 dB

t

1 + RF

RI

A0 = 10 5 & f b = 10 H Z

R

f t = 1MH z & F

RI

= 999 ,99 ,1

gain = 999 , 99 , 1

& f 3 dB = 1kHz ,10 kHz , 0 . 5 MHz

1+

Vo

=

Vi

1+

RF

RI

s

1+

1+

3 dB

where , 3 dB =

amplifier

RI

s

3 dB

t

1+

RF

gain

RF

RI

RI

= 999 , 99 , 1 , 0

= + 1000 , + 100 , + 2 , + 1

bandwidth product than inverting amplifier.

9As close loop gain decreases by factor of 100 as

compared to Ao then closed loop 3db frequency

increases by factor of 100 as compared to ft.

Amplifier

Difference amplifier should not give output for common mode

signal

Gain of non-inverting path + gain of inverting path=0

R4

R4 + R3

R2

1 +

R1

R4

R4 + R3

R4

R4 + R3

R2

=

*

R1

R 2 + R1

R2

=

R1

R1

R2

=

R 2 + R1

R 4 R 2 + R 4 R1 = R 2 R 4 + R 2 R 3

R 4 R1 = R 2 R 3

R4

R2

=

**

R3

R1

R4

R2

=

R3

R1

R 4 = R 2 = R F & R 3 = R1 = R I

Vo

RF

=

(V 1 V 2 )

RI

i1

V id

i1

Vid

Rid =

ii

Applying KVL :

Vid = RI ii + 0 + RI ii

Rid = 2 RI

common-mode gain:

1

R4

[ v Icm

i1 =

v Icm ]

R1

R4 + R3

R3

1

i1 =

v Icm ( 1 )

R1 R 4 + R 3

vo

R4

=

v Icm i 2 R

R4 + R3

vo

R3

R4

R2

=

v Icm

v Icm

R4 + R3

R1 R 4 + R 3

vo

R4

R2 R3

(1

) v Icm

=

R4 + R3

R1 R 4

A cm =

selecting

vo

v Icm

R 3 = R1 & R

A cm = 0

CMRR

R4

R2 R3

(1

)

=

R4 + R3

R1 R 4

= R

v o1

RF

= 1 +

R1

V 1

vo2

RF

= 1 +

R1

V 2

v o1 v o 2

vo

RF

= 1 +

R1

RF

= 1 +

R1

V in

( V 1 V 2 )

that has differential input and single ended output.

i1

V id

i1

Vo

RF

=

(V 1 V 2 )

R1

R2

Vo = VId

R1

v Id = R1i I + 0 + R1i I

R id

v Id

=

= 2 R1 ( low )

iI

achieve High input resistance.

otherwise we would have connected two OPAMPS in

Voltage follower configuration.

In addition we want to achieve high gain, therefore

OPAMPS are connected in the non-inverting configuration

as shown in figure.

Achieving high gain in the first stage lowers the burden

on second stage.

Second stage does the job of differencing function and

rejecting the common mode signal.

R2

R2

vo1 = (1 + )(v I 2 v I 1 ) = (1 + )v Id

R1

R1

vo1

R2

= (1 + )

v Id

R1

R4

gain of sec ond stage =

R3

vo R4

R2

=

Overall gain ( Ad ) =

(1 + )

v Id R3

R1

Ac = 0

( due to differenci ng action of second stage )

a:

Since VICM is amplified by the first stage, the difference

amplifier of second stage has to deal with large common mode

signal. Therefore CMRR may reduce.

A1 & A2 must be perfectly matched otherwise spurious

signal may appear at their outputs, which may be amplified by

difference amplifier.

To vary differential gain Ad, two resistor say R1 should be

varied simultaneously and these two resistors should be

perfectly matched. (A difficult task!)

wiring change.

9Lumped R1 and R2 together into a single resistor 2R1

A superior Circuit: The Instrumentation Amplifier:

wiring change dramatically improves performance;

Since first stage simply propagates VICM , the difference

amplifier of second stage has to deal smaller common mode

signal. Therefore CMRR improves.

vId R2

vo1 = vI 1

2 R1

vId R2

vo 2 = vI 2 +

2 R1

vId R2 vId R2

vo 2 vo1 = (

+

) + (v I 2 v I 1 )

R4

2 R1

2 R1

gain of sec ond stage =

R3

2 R2

vId + vId )

=(

2 R1

R2

vo = (1 + )vId

R1

vo

R2

= (1 + )

vId

R1

vo

R2 R4

Overall gain ( Ad ) =

= (1 + )

v Id

R1 R3

R4

R2 + R

(1 +

)

Overall gain ( Ad ) =

R3

R1

'

2

Ac = 0

( due to differenci ng action of second stage )

gain will be:

vo

2 R2 R4

Overall gain ( Ad ) =

= (1 +

)

v Id

R1 R3

Let ,

R4 = R3 = R2 = R,

and

R1 = aR

then

2

vo = (1 + ) (V2 V1 )

a

vo

2

Overall gain ( Ad ) =

= (1 + )

v Id

a

Bridge Amplifier:

into proportional voltage change.

v o1

vo2

R R

=

v REF

R

R R v REF

= (1 +

)

R

2

vo = vo1 + vo 2

R R

R R vREF

)

vo =

vREF + (1 +

2

R

R

2 R R vREF

R R

vo =

vREF +

2

R

R

R

R vREF m R

=

vo =

vREF +

vREF

2

2R

R

R

10mA to 40 mA.

9The built in short circuit protection guaranteed to withstand

25 mA of current in protecting the op amp.

9In a Solar cell sunlight

varies from darkness to

maximum brightness.

9A current 0 to 0.25 A is to

be converted to 0-5V.

this current on 100 A,

800 full scale deflection

current meter.

5V

R=

5

I SC

5

=

= 20

0.25 A

0.25 A

5V = 100 A( RS + RM )

5V = 100 A( RS + 0.8 K )

RS = 49 .2 k

impedance of 1 M and capable of measuring dc voltages

of 1 V, 10 V and 100 V with a basic 10 V full-scale

deflection dc voltmeter.

1M-(R1-R2)

R2

R1

100V

1V =

R1

1M

10V

( R1 + R2 ) ( R1 + R2 ) = 100 K

1M

R2 = 90 K

R1 = 10 K 1V =

Current-meter

Vi

Io =

R

Vi = 100mv & R = 100

(Design based on VCCS)

Vi

I o = = 1mA

R

voltage ranges from 1 mV to 1 V being indicated in a 100 A

full-scale deflection dc current meter in figure.

Design a dc milli-voltmeter which must be able to read 0-100

mV with a current meter of 0-1 mA.

The milli-voltmeter should have an input impedance of 100K.

R s = R in = 100 k

Vi

Ii =

Rs

0 ( R1 I i )

Io = Ii +

R2

Io

R1

= 1+

Ii

R2

for V in = 100 mV

I i (max)

I o (max)

I i (max)

R1

(1 +

) = 1000

R2

R 1 = 100 k , R 2 = 100 . 1

100 mV

=

= 1 A

100 K

1 mA

=

= 1000

1 A

Vin

V to I Conversion

Rin

CCVS based

VCVS based

1M

VCCS based

CCCS based

Vo V 2

V

= IL + 2

R4

R3

&

Vo

V

V

V

V

= I L + 2 + 2 Vo = R4 ( I L + 2 + 2 ) (1)

R4

R3 R 4

R3 R 4

Vref V2

R1

V 2 V0

=

R2

V0 = V 2

R2 (Vref V2 )

R1

( 2)

eliminating Vo :

R2 (Vref V2 )

V2 V2

+

) = V2

R4 ( I L +

R3 R 4

R1

R2 (Vref V2 )

V2

+ V2 = V2

R4 I L + R4

R3

R1

R4 I L =

R2 (Vref V2 )

R1

V2

R4

R3

IL =

R2 (Vref V2 )

R1 R4

R2Vref R2V2 V2

V2

=

+

R3

R1 R4

R1 R4 R3

choos ing : R1 R4 = R2 R3

Vref

V2 V2

+

IL =

R3 R 3 R 3

IL =

Vref

R3

V 2 V L V L Vo

=

R

R

Vo = 2V L V2 (1)

V L V0

V1 V L

= IL +

R

R

V1 V L

V L ( 2V L V2 )

= IL +

R

R

V L + V2

V1 V L

= IL +

R

R

V1 V2

IL =

R

I L V1 V2

5V

10V

10V

9.3V

10V

IE IL =

VZ

= IE IL

Rs

op amp current =

IL

VZ

5V

=

= 0 .1 A

R s 50

op amp current =

IL

0 .1 A

= 1mA

100

2V

13V

13V

13V

12.3V

2

15 = 2V

15

Vin = 1 Q1 & Q2 : ON

V(100 ) = 2V

IL =

V( 2 K ) =

2

IL =

= 20mA

100

V(500 ) = 2V

2

= 4mA

500

RF

V o = (1 +

)V Z

RI

RF

Vo =

VZ

RI

DC Imperfections:

amplifiers:

I B1 + I B 2

IB =

2

I OS = I B 1 I B 2

In BJT,

IB~100nA & IOS=10nA

In FET, IB ~ few pA

nA, while input offset current of 3nA to 30 nA.

non-inverting amplifiers:

inverting and non-inverting amplifiers:

I B 2 R3

R3 = R1 || R2

I B1

R1

then

I B 2 R3

R1

Vo = ( I B1 I B 2 ) R2

Vo = I B 2 R3 + ( I B1 I B 2

R3

) R2

R1

Vo = I B 2 R3 + I B1 R2 I B 2

R3

R2

R1

Let ,

R3 = R1 || R2 =

R1 R2

R1 + R2

Vo = I B 2

R1 R2

R1 R2

R2

+ I B1 R2 I B 2

R1 + R2

R1 + R2 R1

Vo = I B 2

R1 R2

R2

+ I B1 R2 I B 2

R2

R1 + R2

R1 + R2

R1

R2

Vo = R2 I B 2

+ I B1 I B 2

R1 + R2

R1 + R2

R1 + R2

Vo = R2 I B1 I B 2

R1 + R2

Vo = R2 [I B1 I B 2 ]

input bias current :

R2

Vo = (1 + ) VOS + ( I B1 I B 2 ) R2

R1

R2

Vo = (1 + ) VOS + I OS R2

R1

IC 741

2

source:

Rb << R2

amplifier:

therefore it acts as voltage

follower for dc input offset

voltage.

coupled inverting amplifiers:

I OS = I B 1 I B 2

IB1

IB2

Vo1= IB1 R2

Due to IB2

Vo= Vo1+ Vo2= IB1 R2 - IB2 R2

Vo= (IB1 -IB2) R2

(voltage follower)

non-inverting amplifiers:

input, therefore IB1 flows

through R2

Vo1= IB1 R2

Due to IB2

Vo2= -IB2 R2

(voltage follower).

Vo= Vo1+ Vo2

= IB1 R2-IB2 R2

I OS = I B 1 I B 2

Illustrating the need for a continuous dc path for each of the op-amp input

terminals. Specifically, note that the amplifier will not work without resistor R3.

Drawback: R3 lowers the input impedance of amplifier.

Slew-rate:

Maximum rate of change possible at the output of real

OPAMP is known as Slew- Rate.

Slew rate is distinct from finite op-amp bandwidth that

limits the frequency response of the closed loop amplifier.

The limited bandwidth is a linear phenomenon and does

not result in a change in the shape of an input sinusoid. i.e. it

does not lead to non-linear distortion.

But, slew rate limitation can cause non-linear distortion.

slew-rate: (contd)

dv o

SR =

dt

max

Vo

1

=

s

Vi

1+

v o ( t ) = V (1 e

tt

tV.

slew-rate: (contd)

slew-rate: (contd)

When V is large:

t V > SR

amplifier is slew-rate limited.

slew-rate: (contd)

When V is Small:

t V < SR

sufficiently small.

max

Slew rate

=

Vop

f max

Slew rate

=

2 Vop

where :

Vop = maximum undistorted o / p voltage

max

Slew rate

=

Vop (max)

f max

Slew rate

=

2 Vop (max)

Isolation Amplifier:

There are many situations where low-level signals must be

detected and amplified in the presence of potentially

dangerous voltages.

Examples: In remote sensing, motor control, data

acquisition and medical monitoring

Manufacturers of bioelectric amplifiers, especially EEG

and ECG equipment, use isolation amplifiers that provide as

much as 1012 of isolation between the patient and the ac

power line mains cord.

VCM

VISO

Vo = VSIG

Gain

CMRR IMRR

how well the isolation device rejects isolation-mode voltage.

Common-mode rejection ratio: The CMMR measures

how well the device rejects common-mode signals.

Isolation device technology:

A number of barrier arrangements and signal modulation

schemes are available.

The three techniques in common use are:

9 optical isolation,

9inductive or transformer isolation,

9 and capacitive isolation.

Optical isolation.

Analog Coupling:

The input signal modulates the LED

The photo-detector converts the light back into current

Disadvantage: Non-linearity (harmonics present)

9 digitized

9 passed across the barrier

9converted back to an analog signal with a D/A converter

Transformer isolation.

Inductive isolation

Non-linearity is reduced compared to optical isolators

(dc)

(dc)

Capacitor isolation:

Transformers are generally impossible to produce in an IC,

so a capacitor circuit was developed to couple the modulated

signal across the barrier.

Capacitive devices have lower transient immunity

performance since some fast (high slew rate) transient

common-mode pulses pass across the coupling capacitor and

can be accepted as the signal for a single-capacitive barrier

device.

So dual-capacitor differential circuits have been developed

to minimize errors.

Differential

Amplifier

Charge Amplifier:

R p = equivalent resist ance of piezoelect ric crystal

C c = effective Capacit ance of connecting cable

Rc = eqvivalent Resista nce of connecting cable

R1 = High value resist ance to provide dc path

V

(Vs V ) j C p = (V Vo ) j C f +

+ j C CV

Rx

where : R x = R p || Rc

As V = 0

j C pVS = Vo j C f

Cp

Vo

=

Cf

VS

i.e. Vo C f = VS C p

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