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Pilani Campus

Lecture-18 and 19

J S Rathore

F ma cg

M J cg

F 0

M 0

FBD of links

Pin reactions

Stress analysis and dimensions of links

1) Situations, where inertial forces are comparable

with magnitudes of external forces

2) Operating speeds are high

2

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Double crank mechanism

1. What would be maximum stress in

coupler AB?

2. Safe x-sectional dimension (X-X) ?

3. OR for given dimension and material

properties of AB, what would be

maximum

possible

speed

of

crank/locomotive?

X

X

3

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

To complete analysis

1)

2)

DAlembert principle

FBD

Two or three force members

Pin reactions

Stress analysis and dimensions of links

4

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

a system of forces:

Newtons equation

acg

e

F1

M J

Resultant torque

CG

F2

Fn

R

5

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

a system of forces:

Newtons equation

acg

F1

CG

F2

macg

Fn

M J

Resultant torque

D Alemberts Principle

F (ma cg ) 0

M ( J cg ) 0

F 0

M 0

6

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Analytical method:

aG3

PB

G3

PA

W3

F ma G3

M J 3

Newtons eq

F (ma G3 ) 0

M ( J 3 ) 0

D Alemberts eq

F 0

M 0

7

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

D Alembert Principle:

Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having

Fictitious force (-macg)

Inertia Force

Inertia Torque

aG3

PB

PA

G3

- J3

- maG3

W3

8

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex 1:

Four bar mechanism used in coupled wheel locomotion is as shown in Fig. The

crank and follower, O2A and O4B, are of equal length of 600 mm but of negligible

mass. The coupler AB is a rigid uniform circular rod of length 1000 mm, its total

mass being 12 kg. A torque M acts on the crank O2A, causing coupler AB to move

with a linear acceleration aG3 = 25 45o m/s2 and an angular acceleration AB = 60

rad/sec2 (CCW). Find:

2. Pin reactions PA and PB.

3. The minimum diameter of the

coupler required, if the allowable

bending stress of the material of the

coupler is 35 MPa.

4. Shifted inertia force in coupler AB.

9

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Soln: FBD

Torque M acts on the crank O2A, causing coupler AB to move with a linear

acceleration aG3 = 25 45o m/s2 and an angular acceleration AB = 60 rad/sec2

(CCW).

aG3

3

10

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

A

MB 0

PAY

300 N

So PAY = 104.925 N

PBY

PAX

PBX

PAY

A tan

PAX

83.05

MA 0

Fx 0

11

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Soln: FBD

A

12

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

For minimum diameter of coupler AB, draw BMD of AB

bending

32M

d 3

d 32 mm

13

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

A

e

J AB

maG 3 cos 45

60

e

0.2828 m

300 cos 45

300 N

14

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Objectives:

DAlembert principle: Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having

Pseudo force (-macg)

Pseudo torque (-J)

Dynamic force analysis of 4-bar mechanism

Crank and follower with negligible mass

External force/moment is acting only on crank

aG3

F2

M2

15

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

DAlembert principle: Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having

Pseudo force (-macg)

Pseudo torque (-J)

M3

2

F3

aG2

M2

F2

M4

F4

16

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

FBD

Fj,x = External force in the x-direction applied at CGj

Mj = External Moment on the jth link applied at CGj

Lj = dj + fj

3

aG3

aG2

aG4

17

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Link 2

Fj,x = External force in the x-direction applied at CGj

aG2

Mj = External Moment on the jth link applied at CGj

Lj = dj + fj

Po2 x

a g 2 x

F2 x 1

0

1

0

Po2 y

1

0

1

F2 y 0

P m2 a g 2 y

d sin - d cos - f sin f cos Ax

2

M

2

2

2

2

2 2

2

2 k2

2 2

P

Ay BITS Pilani, Pilani18Campus

Link 3

aG3

PAx

a g 3 x

F3 x 1

0

1

0

PAy

1

0

1 m3 a g 3 y

F3 y 0

d sin - d cos f sin - f cos PBx

2

M

3

3

3 3

3

3

3

3k3

3 3

PBy

19

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Link 4

aG4

4

PBx

a g 4 x

F4 x 1

0

1

0

P

By

1

0

1

F4 y 0

m4 a g 4 y

d sin - d cos f sin - f cos Po4 x

2

4

4

4 4

4

4

4

4 K 4

M 4 4

P

o4 y

20

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

21

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

RAO2 = 60 mm

RO4O2= 100 mm

RBA = 220 mm

RBO4 = 150 mm

RCO4 = RCB =120 mm

RG3A = 90 mm

RG4O4 = 90 mm

Assuming gravitational and frictional effects are negligible, Determine all constraint forces

and driving torque (on link 2) required to produce the velocity and acceleration conditions

specified.

m3 = 1.5 kg, m4 = 5 kg

JG2 = 0.025 kg m2, JG3 = 0.012 kg m2, JG4 = 0.054 kg m2

2 = 0, 3 = 119k rad/s2, 4 = 625k rad/s2

AG3 = 162@73.2 m/s2, AG4 = 104@233 m/s2

22

FC = 0.8 j kN.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Ex 2: Home assignment

Four bar mechanism used in coupled wheel locomotion is shown in

Fig. The crank and follower, O2A and O4B, are of equal length of

600 mm but of negligible mass. The coupler AB is a rigid uniform

circular rod of length 1000 mm and its total mass being 15 kg. If

the locomotive is running at constant speed of 120 km/hr then

find:

1. The linear acceleration (aG3) and angular acceleration (AB) of

coupler AB.

2. The inertial loading on coupler AB.

23

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

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