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BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

Dynamic Force Analysis


Lecture-18 and 19

J S Rathore

Static Force analysis:

F ma cg

M J cg

F 0
M 0

Two or three force members


FBD of links
Pin reactions
Stress analysis and dimensions of links

Dynamic analysis has to be carried out


1) Situations, where inertial forces are comparable
with magnitudes of external forces
2) Operating speeds are high

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Coupled Wheel Locomotion:


Double crank mechanism

Locomotive is running at 120 Km/hr:


1. What would be maximum stress in
coupler AB?
2. Safe x-sectional dimension (X-X) ?
3. OR for given dimension and material
properties of AB, what would be
maximum
possible
speed
of
crank/locomotive?

X
X

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Dynamic Force analysis:


To complete analysis
1)
2)

Variation in velocity and acceleration


DAlembert principle
FBD
Two or three force members
Pin reactions
Stress analysis and dimensions of links

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Motion of a rigid body subjected to


a system of forces:
Newtons equation

acg
e

F1

F R macg Resultant force

M J

Resultant torque

CG
F2
Fn
R

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Motion of a rigid body subjected to


a system of forces:
Newtons equation

acg
F1

CG

F R macg Resultant force

F2

macg

Fn

M J

Resultant torque

D Alemberts Principle

F (ma cg ) 0

M ( J cg ) 0

F 0

M 0
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Analytical method:
aG3
PB

G3

PA

W3

F ma G3

M J 3
Newtons eq

F (ma G3 ) 0

M ( J 3 ) 0
D Alemberts eq

F 0

M 0
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D Alembert Principle:
Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having
Fictitious force (-macg)

Inertia Force

Fictitious torque (-J)

Inertia Torque

aG3
PB
PA

G3

- J3
- maG3
W3
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Ex 1:
Four bar mechanism used in coupled wheel locomotion is as shown in Fig. The
crank and follower, O2A and O4B, are of equal length of 600 mm but of negligible
mass. The coupler AB is a rigid uniform circular rod of length 1000 mm, its total
mass being 12 kg. A torque M acts on the crank O2A, causing coupler AB to move
with a linear acceleration aG3 = 25 45o m/s2 and an angular acceleration AB = 60
rad/sec2 (CCW). Find:

1. The FBD of link AB, O4B & O2A.


2. Pin reactions PA and PB.
3. The minimum diameter of the
coupler required, if the allowable
bending stress of the material of the
coupler is 35 MPa.
4. Shifted inertia force in coupler AB.

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Soln: FBD
Torque M acts on the crank O2A, causing coupler AB to move with a linear
acceleration aG3 = 25 45o m/s2 and an angular acceleration AB = 60 rad/sec2
(CCW).

aG3
3

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Soln: Pin reactions at A and B


A
MB 0
PAY

300 N

So PAY = 104.925 N

PBY

PAX

PBX

PAY
A tan
PAX

83.05

From FBD of coupler AB

MA 0

Gives PBY = 224.93 N in positive y-direction

So PBX = 224.93 N in positive X-direction

Fx 0

So PAX = 12.8 N in negative x-direction


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Soln: FBD
A

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Soln: Diameter of coupler AB


For minimum diameter of coupler AB, draw BMD of AB

bending

32M

d 3

d 32 mm

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Soln: Shifted inertia force in AB


A
e

Shifted inertia force 300 N force at a distance

J AB
maG 3 cos 45
60
e
0.2828 m
300 cos 45

300 N

Right from the centre of mass


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Objectives:
DAlembert principle: Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having
Pseudo force (-macg)
Pseudo torque (-J)
Dynamic force analysis of 4-bar mechanism
Crank and follower with negligible mass
External force/moment is acting only on crank

aG3
F2

M2

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Dynamic Force Analysis:


DAlembert principle: Dynamic problem is converted into static problem by having
Pseudo force (-macg)
Pseudo torque (-J)

M3
2

F3

aG2
M2

F2

M4

F4

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FBD
Fj,x = External force in the x-direction applied at CGj

Fj,y = External force in the y-direction applied at CGj


Mj = External Moment on the jth link applied at CGj
Lj = dj + fj
3

aG3

aG2

aG4

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Link 2
Fj,x = External force in the x-direction applied at CGj
aG2

Fj,y = External force in the y-direction applied at CGj


Mj = External Moment on the jth link applied at CGj

Lj = dj + fj

Po2 x
a g 2 x
F2 x 1
0
1
0


Po2 y

1
0
1
F2 y 0
P m2 a g 2 y
d sin - d cos - f sin f cos Ax
2
M
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 k2
2 2
P
Ay BITS Pilani, Pilani18Campus

Link 3

aG3

PAx
a g 3 x
F3 x 1
0
1
0


PAy

1
0
1 m3 a g 3 y
F3 y 0
d sin - d cos f sin - f cos PBx
2
M
3
3
3 3
3
3
3
3k3
3 3
PBy

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Link 4
aG4
4

PBx
a g 4 x
F4 x 1
0
1
0
P


By

1
0
1
F4 y 0
m4 a g 4 y
d sin - d cos f sin - f cos Po4 x
2
4
4
4 4
4
4
4
4 K 4
M 4 4
P
o4 y
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Ex 1: Problem 14.4 (Uicker-Shigley) p 536

RAO2 = 60 mm
RO4O2= 100 mm
RBA = 220 mm
RBO4 = 150 mm
RCO4 = RCB =120 mm
RG3A = 90 mm
RG4O4 = 90 mm

Assuming gravitational and frictional effects are negligible, Determine all constraint forces
and driving torque (on link 2) required to produce the velocity and acceleration conditions
specified.
m3 = 1.5 kg, m4 = 5 kg
JG2 = 0.025 kg m2, JG3 = 0.012 kg m2, JG4 = 0.054 kg m2
2 = 0, 3 = 119k rad/s2, 4 = 625k rad/s2
AG3 = 162@73.2 m/s2, AG4 = 104@233 m/s2
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FC = 0.8 j kN.
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Ex 2: Home assignment
Four bar mechanism used in coupled wheel locomotion is shown in
Fig. The crank and follower, O2A and O4B, are of equal length of
600 mm but of negligible mass. The coupler AB is a rigid uniform
circular rod of length 1000 mm and its total mass being 15 kg. If
the locomotive is running at constant speed of 120 km/hr then
find:
1. The linear acceleration (aG3) and angular acceleration (AB) of
coupler AB.
2. The inertial loading on coupler AB.

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