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HyperRESEARCH

Software for Qualitative Data Analysis

User Guide

Version 2.81
Copyright 19882009
All rights reserved

ResearchWare, Inc.
www.researchware.com

HyperRESEARCH: HyperRESEARCH User Guide

Welcome to HyperRESEARCH
In this section, youll learn how to install or upgrade HyperRESEARCH. Youll also find
out whats new in version 2.8 and 2.8.1.
If youre new to HyperRESEARCH, read the topic Installing HyperRESEARCH to
find out how to complete the installation process by entering a license code.
If youre updating to a new version, read the topics Updating to a New Version
and What's New in This Version to find out how to move your older files to this new
version and what new features to look for.
If you have a question or problem, read the topic Using HyperRESEARCH Help to
find out how to find information in this Help window.
This help window provides assistance in using HyperRESEARCH. If you encounter a
problem and cant find help for it here, click Getting Technical Support in the list of
topics.

Installing HyperRESEARCH
HyperRESEARCH is available for download on the ResearchWare web site. To visit the
web site, go to http://www.researchware.com/hr/downloads.html or choose
Help
Go to ResearchWare Web Site. You can always download the latest version
of HyperRESEARCH from the web site.

System requirements
HyperRESEARCH is compatible with Windows and Mac OS X systems. (A version for
classic MAc OS is available on request.) The specific requirements are as follows:
for Windows:
Windows 95 through Vista
12 MB free disk space
QuickTime 3.0 or later for audio and video features
for Mac OS X:
Version 10.2 or later
12 MB free disk space
for Classic Mac OS (available by request):
Version 8.0 or later
12 MB free disk space

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The installation process


To install HyperRESEARCH, first download the software for your platform from the
ResearchWare web site at http://www.researchware.com/hr/downloads.html.
Installing on Windows:
To install, double-click the downloaded Setup program, then follow the instructions to
install HyperRESEARCH. After the installer is finished, youll find a shortcut named
HyperRESEARCH in your Start menu for easy access.
Installing on Mac OS X:
HyperRESEARCH is distributed as a disk image file. To install, double-click the
downloaded file, then simply drag the HyperRESEARCH folder from the disk image
window to your Applications folder.
Installing on Classic Mac OS:
To install, double-click the downloaded Installer program, then follow the instructions to
install HyperRESEARCH.
Once you have finished the installation process, you can start HyperRESEARCH.

Licensing HyperRESEARCH
When you start the program, you will be asked whether you want to use it as the free
Limited Edition, or enter a license code to use the full edition.
Free Limited Edition:
To use the Limited Edition, you dont need a license code: just click the Free Limited
Edition button in the startup dialog box every time you start up HyperRESEARCH.
The Limited Edition is limited to 7 cases and 75 codes, with no more than 50 code
references per case. There are no other limitations and no timeouts: you can use the
Limited Edition to create and save files, print, and use all HyperRESEARCH features.
If you create a study using the Limited Edition, and then decide to purchase
HyperRESEARCH, you can continue working with your saved study files. The only
difference is that once you have licensed HyperRESEARCH, the limits are removed and
you can create more cases, codes, and code references.
Licensed Edition:
When you purchase HyperRESEARCH, you receive a license code via email. To remove
the limitations, enter your license code in the License Code box in the startup dialog
box. (The Name and License Code are required; the Organization is optional.) Once you
have entered the license code, you will no longer be asked for it when starting up
HyperRESEARCH.
If you see an error message when entering your license code, see the Problems
Entering Your License Code below.
If you have lost your license code, contact technical support at
support@researchware.com for help. Please include as much information about your
original purchase as possible in order to help us locate your customer record.
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If you have lost your license code, contact technical support at
support@researchware.com for help. Please include as much information about your
original purchase as possible in order to help us locate your customer record.

For system administrators: all-user and per-user licensing


When you enter a license code for HyperRESEARCH, the program may be licensed for
either the current user or all user accounts on this computer, depending on the privileges
of the account youre using when you enter the license code.
Most users do not need to concern themselves about this feature: youll simply enter the
license code and it will work. If you are an administrator installing HyperRESEARCH on a
lab computer thats used by multiple people, you should be aware of the difference
between licensing HyperRESEARCH as a user and licensing it as an administrator:
If you are logged into an account with administrator privileges when you enter the
license code, HyperRESEARCH will place the license information in the same folder as
the application. This licenses the software for all accounts on the system, allowing any
user on the system to use the software in licensed mode.
If you are installing the software on a multi-user computer and want all users to
be able to use it, then log in as an administrator to enter the license code.
If you are logged into an account that does not have write permission in the
HyperRESEARCH folder, HyperRESEARCH will place the license information in the
accounts preferences area instead. This means that the application will be licensed only
for that account. If a user with another account starts up HyperRESEARCH, it will run in
free limited mode and request a license code on startup, as described in the previous
section Licensing HyperRESEARCH.
If you want only a particular user to have full access, log in as that user to enter
the license code.
Whenever HyperRESEARCH starts up, it searches for the license key first in the
application folder, and then in the users preferences. If it is found in neither place,
HyperRESEARCH asks for a license key (and reverts to demo mode if no key is entered).

Problems Entering Your License Code


If the license code you enter is not recognized as valid, HyperRESEARCH displays an
error message. Usually, this error message is caused by mistyping the license code or by
including extra characters when you copy and paste it.
When possible, we recommend copying and pasting the code directly from your
licensing email, instead of typing it. This reduces the chance of making an error.
Make sure all letters are lowercase. (Valid codes have no uppercase letters.)
Be careful to differentiate between letters and numbers that look similar, such as
number 0 and letter capital O, or number 1, letter l, and capital I. In some fonts, these
characters are hard to tell apart.
If youre not sure, follow the rule of alternating letters and digits. A valid code starts
with a letter, followed by alternating letters and digits, like this:
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If youre not sure, follow the rule of alternating letters and digits. A valid code starts
with a letter, followed by alternating letters and digits, like this:

a2a2-a2a2a2
For example, if your code has a p followed by 1, you know that the 1 is the
number one, not letter I.
If you have followed all these suggestions, and still get an error message, please
contact technical support at support@researchware.com for help.

Updating HyperRESEARCH to a New Version


If youve used any earlier version of HyperRESEARCH, you can continue to use your
sources and study files in this new version.
If you're updating from HyperRESEARCH 2.0 or later, the file format is the same, so
you can simply continue your work in this new version. If you were using any version of
HyperRESEARCH earlier than 2.0, you will need to convert your study files this version.

Updating from version 2.02.7


If you've previously used HyperRESEARCH versions between 2.0 and 2.7, your study
files and source files will work without modification. You can simply install the latest
version of HyperRESEARCH, open your existing study files, and resume working.
Converting study files from versions before 2.7:
When you open a study file that was last saved in version 2.02.6, HyperRESEARCH
automatically converts the file to the version 2.7/2.8 format.
First, it makes a backup copy of the original file. (The backup copy has the same name
as the original, with the phrase -v2.6backup added to the name.) This is a precaution
to ensure that if theres any problem converting the file, you still have the original file
available.
You can throw away the backup file once youre sure that your study file is working in
version 2.8.
New features:
Most of the features in HyperRESEARCH 2.8 work just as they did in earlier versions. To
find out about new features and other changes, see the topic What's New in This
Version. In addition to these improvements, many features, such as displaying codes in
context in the source window, have been optimized to work much faster.

Updating from versions before 2.0


If youre making the transition from a version of HyperRESEARCH earlier than 2.0, the
main difference youll see is the new ability to select cases and codes to work with.
The internal file format has also changed, so you will need to convert your study files
into the new file format.
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The internal file format has also changed, so you will need to convert your study files
into the new file format.
Converting a study file:
To use a study file that you created in a version before 2.0, choose File
Convert
Older Study, then select your study file. A new study file is created in the new file
format.
Once you save your study, you will be able to open the saved study file in the normal
way in future sessions, by choosing File
Open Study (or double-clicking the study
file). This process only needs to be done once for each pre-2.0 study file.
Selecting cases and codes:
In early versions of HyperRESEARCH, there were three distinct modes of operation:
generating codes, analyzing codes, and hypothesis testing. In HyperRESEARCH 2.8, you
generate codes in the same manner as before (though now other media types are
supported). You open a source file and select a portion of the material. Choosing
Codes
Encode displays a list of codes, where you either choose an existing code or
create a new one.
In HyperRESEARCH 2.8, you can select a subset of your cases and code references to
view, without going into the Analysis mode and creating a report. This allows you to
have a very good idea of what a report is going to contain before you creaate the report.
Near the top of the study window, youll find a Select Cases menu. You can select the
cases you want to view manually from a list, or build a Boolean expression and let
HyperRESEARCH select the cases based on your criteria.
Near the bottom of the study window, youll find a Select Codes menu. This lets you
do something very similar for codes. You can either select the codes you want to view
manually from a list, or use a proximity function and let HyperRESEARCH choose the
codes to view based on your criteria.
In this way, you can select only the codes and cases you want to work with at any given
time. For example, you can select 4 of 8 cases to work with, and additionally limit your
viewing to 5 of 25 codes, based on a particular set of selection criteria you choose. This
lets you select and work with a subset of your study. You can create a report based only
on such a subset, working with only the data you select.
To return to viewing your entire study, choose All Cases from the Select Cases menu
and All Codes from the Select Codes menu.
For more information, see the Selecting Cases and Selecting Codes topics.

Upgrading from the Free Limited Edition


ResearchWare offers the Free Limited Edition of HyperRESEARCH for unlimited use. The
Free Edition includes all the capabilities of HyperRESEARCH, but is limited to 7 cases
and 75 codes, with no more than 50 code references per case.
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ResearchWare offers the Free Limited Edition of HyperRESEARCH for unlimited use. The
Free Edition includes all the capabilities of HyperRESEARCH, but is limited to 7 cases
and 75 codes, with no more than 50 code references per case.
You may continue using the Free Limited Edition as long as you wish; there is no time
limit. However, if your work requires more cases and codes than are allowed by the
Free Edition, you will need to upgrade to the full, licensed edition.
When you start the program, you are asked whether you want to use it as the free
Limited Edition, or enter a license code to use the full edition. To upgrade to the
licensed edition and remove the limitations, you will need to purchase a license key.

Purchasing a license code


To upgrade to the licensed edition, you will need to purchase a license from
ResearchWare. You can do so by visiting http://www.researchware.com and
clicking the Buy Now link under HyperRESEARCH.
When you purchase HyperRESEARCH, you receive your license code via email. To
remove the limitations:

Choose Help

Enter License Key. The license dialog box appears.

(The same dialog box appears when you start the Free Limited Edition, and you can
enter your license key here instead.)

Enter your Name and License Code in the dialog box. (The Organization is optional.)

Once you have entered the license code, you will no longer be asked for it when starting
up HyperRESEARCH.

Using files created with the Free Edition


Once you have entered your license code, you can continue working with study files that
you saved with the Free Edition. Simply open your saved file and begin working. The
only difference you will see is that, with the licensed edition, the number of codes and
cases is no longer limited.

Whats New in Version 2.8 and 2.8.1


Check this section for quick information about whats changed in this version. (For
complete information about the changed features, see the topics on those features.)
HyperRESEARCH 2.8 and 2.8.1 include these new features and enhancements:
Code frequency report:
HyperRESEARCH now generates a frequency report showing how many times each code
has been used in the study. Optionally, the frequency report can also display the
maximum, minimum, mean, and standard deviation of each codes distribution among
the cases in your study, along with a bar graph showing the codes frequency.

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As of version 2.8.1, the frequency report respects code selections and case selections.
(In version 2.8, the frequency report always showed all codes, even if only a subset of
codes was selected.)
For more information about the Code Frequency Report feature, see the topics
Frequency Report Window and Analyzing Code Frequencies.
Report pagination:
In the Report window, you can now choose to display the report as a single page, using
the Pagination pop-up menu at the bottom of the window.
For more information about report pagination, see the topics Report Window and
Running Reports.
Universal Binary for Mac OS X:
On Mac OS X, HyperRESEARCH now ships in Universal Binary format. This significantly
improves performance on Intel-based Macs.
Improved appearance for Windows Vista:
HyperRESEARCHs user interface has been improved to conform more closely to
user-interface standards for Windows Vista. The appearance is modernized and more
familiar for Vista users.
Improved copy & paste access:
You can now copy text from the Source window by selecting it and choosing Edit
Copy.
There is now a Copy item in the contextual menu for the Source window, allowing you
to copy the selected text. (To display the contextual menu, right-click (on Windows) or
Control-click (on Mac) in the Source window.)
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There is now a Copy item in the contextual menu for the Source window, allowing you
to copy the selected text. (To display the contextual menu, right-click (on Windows) or
Control-click (on Mac) in the Source window.)
There is now a Paste item in the contextual menu for the Annotation window, allowing
you to paste text into an annotation.
License code change:
The way HyperRESEARCH stores the license key has changed in version 2.8.1. On
operating systems (such as OS X and Vista) that allow multiple accounts on one
computer, the extent of the license depends on what type of account you are using when
you enter your license code:
If you are using an administrator account that can modify the applications folder, your
copy of HyperRESEARCH will be licensed for any user who uses that computer.
If you are using an account that cannot modify the applications folder, your copy of
HyperRESEARCH will be licensed only for the account you were using when you entered
the license code.
Bug fixes:
All reproducible issues from earlier versions have been addressed in v2.8.1.

Using HyperRESEARCH Help


The Help system built in to HyperRESEARCH is a context-sensitive hypertext manual
that covers all aspects of using the program.
You can always access the Help system by choosing Help
HyperRESEARCH Help. In
addition, you can display specific help about most windows by clicking the ? button in
the upper right corner of the window.

Using the Help window


The Help system contains several features to make it easier to navigate and use the
information.
To scan the available topics: Scroll through the list of topics on the left. Click a topic
to view it. The Next and Previous arrows above the list of topics can be used to go to
the next or previous topic in the list.
To browse through your session history: To return to the previously-viewed topic,
click the Back arrow at the top of the Help window. The Back and Forward buttons
work like the similar controls in your browser, letting you move backward and forward
through the topics youve viewed.
To search for a word or phrase: Enter the word or phrase in the Search field at the
top of the Help window, then press Enter. To search for the next occurrence, simply
press Enter again.

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To print a topic: Go to the topic you want to print, then click the Print button at the
top right corner of the Help window. You can print a single topic, a section, or the entire
Help contents.
Boldfaced, colored text is linked. You can click linked text to go to a topic or web page,
open a file, or open a new email message.

Help organization
The Help includes five sections.
Welcome to HyperRESEARCH
This section describes the process of installing or updating HyperRESEARCH, how to get
technical support, and how to use the HyperRESEARCH help system.
Introduction
This section describes the basic concepts involved in starting to use HyperRESEARCH. If
you are new to HyperRESEARCH, read this section after you install the program.
How to...
This section describes how to perform the most common procedures youll use when
working with HyperRESEARCH. If you need to know how to perform a specific action,
this is the right place to look.
Reference Topics
This section explains background information that helps you understand
HyperRESEARCHs capabilities.
HyperRESEARCH Windows
This section describes the functions of the main windows in HyperRESEARCH, along with
the buttons and controls they contain. (These topics refer you to a more detailed topic
where necessary.)
HyperRESEARCH Menus
This section describes the menus and menu items in HyperRESEARCH. The descriptions
are designed to help you quickly identify a general function. (These topics refer you to a
more detailed topic where necessary.)

PDF user guide


The contents of the Help system is also available as a PDF file. This file can be found in
the HyperRESEARCH folder installed on your system, along with the tutorials and
tutorial examples.

PDF Help File: HR User Guide.pdf


You can print the PDF file, or use it if its not convenient to use the help inside
HyperTRANSCRIBE.

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Getting Technical Support


If you need help or if you have a question that s not answered in this documentation,
please visit our Technical Support pages by choosing Help
Web site.

Go to ResearchWare

ResearchWare web site


On the web site, youll find answers to frequently asked questions, subscription
information for the HyperRESEARCH mailing list, and contact information for
ResearchWare technical support.

Mailing list
The HyperRESEARCH mailing list is made up of HyperRESEARCH users like you. It s a
good place to ask questions about using the program, and talk about using it in
real-world situations.
You can subscribe and unsubscribe on the HyperRESEARCH technical support page at the
Researchware web site.

Technical support
Registered users of HyperRESEARCH are eligible for free technical support. If you
encounter a problem thats not discussed in this documentation, or if you have a
question, send email to ResearchWare technical support at
support@researchware.com.
Problems and bug reports:
When seeking help for a problem with HyperRESEARCH, please include the following
information:

Description of the problem


List of steps needed to reproduce the problem
Your computer model
Your operating system and version
Amount of memory installed
Exact wording of any error message you see

Here's a example of a helpful bug report.


EXAMPLE BUG REPORT:
OS X 10.4.4, MacBook, 1GB memory
Problem: Code Stripes don't print
Recipe:
1. Turn on Codes in Context in the source window.
2. Select File->Print.
Result: Codes are shown on the printout, but the graphical code stripes aren't
included
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Result: Codes are shown on the printout, but the graphical code stripes aren't
included
The more detailed your report, the faster we can help you find a resolution to the
problem.

Getting Started
In this section, youll get a basic overview of working with HyperRESEARCH and learn
how to most effectively use the program.
For an overview of how HyperRESEARCH works, read the topic What is
HyperRESEARCH? first.
If youre starting out with HyperRESEARCH, next try out the HyperRESEARCH
tutorials. These tutorials will guide you through all phases of working with the program,
and youll create an actual study as you go.
If youve used an earlier version of HyperRESEARCH and you want to find out about
new features and capabilities, read the topic What's New in This Version for more
information. You may also want to read the Analyzing Code Frequencies topic to find
out about the new code frequency features.

Introducing HyperRESEARCH
HyperRESEARCH is ResearchWares software for qualitative analysis. With
HyperRESEARCH, you can code and retrieve, build theories, and conduct analyses of
your data. You can work with text files, audio (sound), video, and pictures.
HyperRESEARCHs features include:

Case-based approach that presents your data the way you collected it
Advanced multimedia capabilities for audio and video data
Sophisticated reporting and theory-building features
Full cross-platform capabilitytrade files between Mac and PC

The process of qualitative analysis


Qualitative analysis is a technique that can be used either with hand methods, or more
easily with computer assistance.
Traditional methods of qualitative analyis:
Traditional qualitative analysis is labor-intensive. After gathering data, researchers
transcribe the source material with a typewriter or word processor, make multiple
photocopies of the text, painstakingly read through and assign codes to the material, cut
the pages up into coded passages, and then manually sort the coded text in order to
analyze the patterns they find.
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Traditional
qualitative
analysis is labor-intensive.
After gathering data, researchers
HyperRESEARCH:
HyperRESEARCH
User Guide
transcribe the source material with a typewriter or word processor, make multiple
photocopies of the text, painstakingly read through and assign codes to the material, cut
the pages up into coded passages, and then manually sort the coded text in order to
analyze the patterns they find.
Using HyperRESEARCH:
With HyperRESEARCH, your workflow will be similar, but each step will be made easier
by the computers capability for data storage, automated searching, and display.
You can use audio or video source files directly, if you prefer, without needing to
transcribe them first. (You can also use text and pictures.)
You can assign codes manually to any section of text, audio, video, or part of a
picture. You can also use the Autocode feature to automatically search for and code
particular phrases in your text source files.
Analysis is easy with the Report feature, where you can select a subset of cases and
codes to work with, choose what data to use, and sort your reports automatically.

Some basic terms


HyperRESEARCH, and this help file, use some terminology that you should be familiar
with. Understanding these terms will help you understand how to use the program.
(Some of these terms are general ones that pertain to all qualitative analysis, while
some are specific to computer-aided qualitative work.)
What's a study file?
A study file is created by HyperRESEARCH to hold your study data. The study file
contains your list of codes, your cases, and all the references to source material that
youve coded. (The study file does not contain your source files, but does contain the
name and location of each source file youve used.)
What's a source file?
A source file is a file that contains data youre analyzing. Source files might consist of
interview transcripts, audio or video recordings of a subject, questionnaire answers,
snippets of television commercials, or anything else that youre studying.
HyperRESEARCH can use text, audio, video, and pictures as sources.
What's a case?
A case is the atomic unit of your study, the basic unit of analysis you are studying.
How you define what a case is will depend on the nature of your study, but some
examples are:
a study of student outcomes in different classes, where each class is a case
an exploration of how political views influence achievement, where each subject
is a case
a study of survey results, where each survey-taker is a case
You can use any number of source files in a single case, and share source files across
cases.
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You can use any number of source files in a single case, and share source files across
cases.
What's a code?
A code is a word or phrase that designates an idea. You create new codes in the Code
List Editor, which holds your master code listthe list of all codes used throughout your
study. When you find a portion of source material that relates to one of your codes, you
code that source material, marking it with the code you choose.
What's a code reference?
A code reference is a reference to a portion of source material thats been coded. The
code reference includes the code you used, the name of the source file, the type of
source (text, audio, video, or picture), and where the coded portion is in the source file.
For example, if you code a paragraph of text, the code reference includes the code, the
name and location of the text file, and the character number where the paragraph
begins and ends.
Code references for each case are displayed in the study window. For more information
about how code references are shown, see the Study Window topic.

Coding with HyperRESEARCH


Heres how you might conduct a typical study. You open a media file (text, graphic,
audio or video) that contains material for your study. When you select a portion of the
media and choose Codes
Encode, HyperRESEARCH presents you with a list of code
names you have created. You can choose an existing code name, or add a new one.
HyperRESEARCH records the exact location of the selected media, along with the
specified code name. It automatically stores this code reference on a virtual index card
as you work. This index card is referred to as a case. With a single mouse click on a
code reference, you can display any media in context that you have previously coded. In
this way, you can easily review and modify your coding.
You can also code your text source material automatically. The Autocoding feature
automatically codes all occurrences of any word or phrase across all your textual source
materials. You can then easily browse through and rename, modify or delete the code
references as necessary. (For more information about the Autocode feature, see the
Autocode Window topic.)

Analysis with HyperRESEARCH


At any time during the coding process, you can begin to analyze your data.
HyperRESEARCH allows you to select the cases that contain certain combinations of
codes. There is no typing or syntax involved; you simply chose your codes from a
pull-down menu and then the appropriate Boolean operator (and, or, not) to build as
complex an expression as is necessary to select a set of cases. An example of the kind
of query you can make is:
Select any cases that have one or more references to (Code A OR Code B) AND
CODE Y

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You can do something similar with codes. Either across the entire list of cases or only on
the cases which you have currently selected, you can choose to select only certain codes
which you pick from your master code list or which match a criteria you devise.
Once you have identified a set of cases and codes, you can display a report with a list of
the code references specified by your case and code selections. The references in the
reports are hyperlinked to the source material so that you can review each reference to
its source material in context. You may also elect to have HyperRESEARCH gather the
referenced textual source material and include it in the report.

Building and testing theories


HyperRESEARCH has a unique theory-building feature called the Hypothesis Tester.
Using expert systems techniques, this analysis engine provides powerful tools for testing
hypotheses you may have about the themes in your data. (For more information about
the Hypothesis Tester, see the Hypothesis Window and Testing Hypotheses topics.)

Getting Started: the HyperRESEARCH Tutorials


The tutorials take you through the steps of creating and analyzing a pair of example
studies: QDA Study and Cinderella Study. Each tutorial is a PDF file located inside
the Documentation folder in the HyperRESEARCH folder on your disk.

Tutorial files
Click a tutorial name to open that tutorial file.

Tutorial 1: Beginning a Study


Tutorial 2: Working with Codes
Tutorial 3: Working with Cases
Tutorial 4: Analysis
Tutorial 5: Graphic, Video and Audio Sources
Tutorial 6: Advanced Code and Retrieve Features
Tutorial 7: The Hypothesis Tester

Example study and source files


These two sample studies are used in the tutorials. Click a study file to open it. If you
want to look at all the files for a sample study, click a folder to open the folder
containing the study file and all the source material.
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These two sample studies are used in the tutorials. Click a study file to open it. If you
want to look at all the files for a sample study, click a folder to open the folder
containing the study file and all the source material.
QDA Study
QDA Study folder

Cinderella Study
Cinderella Study folder
Tutorial 5 also uses a set of supplemental media files. To make the download as small
as possible, these files are not included in the main HyperRESEARCH package. You can
download the Multimedia Samples file from the HyperRESEARCH download page at
http://www.researchware.com/hr/downloads.html.

Quick Start to Coding


To begin the coding process with HyperRESEARCH, follow these basic steps:

When the program starts up, choose the Create New Untitled Study option, then
click New to create a new study window.

The Study window appears (on the left) along with the Code List Editor (to the right
of the Study window).

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Choose Cases

Rename to name your first case.

The case is your basic unit of analysis. You can create more cases by choosing Cases
New, and move between them using either the Cases menu or the left and right arrows
near the top left of the study window.
Whenever you code a selection from a source document, the code reference is added to
the current case.

Choose Sources
Open Source
Text to choose a text file to code. The text file
you choose appears in the Source window (text) on the right side of the screen.

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Select a passage in the text by dragging over it. Then choose Codes
New Code
and enter the code name. (The code should be a word or two encapsulating the
significance of the passage youre coding.) The code appears in the Code List Editor and
becomes part of your studys code list.

Click Apply Code at the top of the Code List Editor, or press Enter, to attach the
code to the selected passage. The code appears next to the passage, and the code
reference appears in the Study window.

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Continue coding your source file in the same way.

To add codes directly to the Code List Editor, choose Codes


New for each code. You
can add a code to the Code List Editor without selecting a passage first.
To code a passage using a code thats already in the Code List Editor, first select the
code in the list, then select the passage in the source window and either press Enter or
click Apply Code.
To switch to another text file, chose Sources
Open Source
Text and choose the
new file, then resume coding. You can include as many source files as needed in a case,
and you can use the same source file in more than one case.
For more information about coding source files, and to learn about coding images,
audio, and video, see the topic Coding Source Material.

Working with HyperRESEARCH


This section describes the practical tasks of coding and analysis, and how you accomplish
each of them using HyperRESEARCH.
If youre starting out with HyperRESEARCH, first try out the HyperRESEARCH
tutorials. These tutorials will guide you through all phases of working with the program,
and youll create an actual study as you go.

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Setting Up Your Study


HyperRESEARCH keeps track of your coding scheme and all references to your source
materials in a document called a study.
Before you create a study in HyperRESEARCH, you should know the basic unit of your
study (each of these units will constitute a case), you should have your source files
prepared and completed, and, if youre working in a team, you should consider how you
and your team members will work together.

Setting up cases
A case is the basic unit of analysis in a study. One case may represent an individual or a
group such as a department, school district or corporation. In your study window, you
will see each case as a separate pane. You can navigate between cases, or temporarily
exclude some of your cases so that you can work with a subset of your data.
When creating your study, you should first consider what a case will consist of. When
deciding what a case will consist of, consider how your study naturally breaks down.
What are you comparing or contrasting?
Also consider the number of code references you will be adding to each case. If you will
be adding more than several hundred code references to any case, this may be a sign
that you should consider defining your cases differently.
You can add new cases to your study at any time, so you dont need to decide on your
complete list of cases at the beginning. But you should decide on the basic unit of your
study so that you can set up your initial cases accordingly.

Source files
Your source files contain the raw data that will be used for your study. Typical sources
might include interview transcripts, video tape segments, survey results, photos, and
other data.
Source formats:
To use a source in a HyperRESEARCH study, it must be located in a file on your
computer, in one of the many formats that HyperRESEARCH can use. If your source is
not in this format, you will need to convert it before beginning to code the source.
For example, HyperRESEARCH can use text files, but not Microsoft Word files. If your
interview transcripts are in Word format, you must first use the File
Save As
command in Word to save each file in Text format. HyperRESEARCH can use the
resulting text files as source material.
If you have audio or video material that is not in the form of computer filessuch as
actual videotapeyou must first convert this material so that it can be stored in the
form of a file. HyperRESEARCH will then be able to access the file so that you can code
the material.
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For a complete list of formats HyperRESEARCH supports, see the File Types topic.
Changing source files:
In general, you should avoid changing your source files after you begin coding.
HyperRESEARCH maintains its code references by counting the number of characters
from the start of a text source file to the beginning of the quoted portion. Because of
this, if you change the source file (and therefore change the count of characters),
HyperRESEARCH will no longer be able to locate the referenced quotations in that source
file.
If you do need to change a source file after coding itfor example, to add attribution
data to the fileits best to add the data at the end of the file. Any code references that
come after the change will need to be re-coded, so adding information at the end of the
file avoids the need to re-code.
Naming and placing source files:
Your source files can have any name and be placed in any convenient location on your
disk. The only exception to this is that you cannot have two source files with the same
name. If you use two sources with the same name, HyperRESEARCH will not be able to
tell which code references should be assigned to which file.
For convenience, it is suggested that you keep all source files for your study in the same
folder. This will make it easier for HyperRESEARCH to locate the files if you move them
to another computer or to another location on your computer.
Working with large source files:
HyperRESEARCH does not impose any limit on the size of your source files. Sources
may be of any size.
However, if text source files are very large, certain functionsin particular, viewing a
source with Codes in Contextmay become slow as coding progresses, particularly if
you have more than a thousand code references in a single source file. To avoid this, if
any of your text sources are very large (several hundred K or more), consider splitting
them into multiple files before you begin coding. Since you can use as many source files
as needed for each case, doing so generally will not change your study schema, and it
may prevent an annoying slowdown.
Image, audio, and video files may be of any size that your computers memory will
accommodate, and the above discussion does not apply to any but text sources. Large
image, audio, and video sources will not cause HyperRESEARCH to slow down when
viewing.

Planning for collaborative work


HyperRESEARCH is designed to be used by one person at a time, and only one person
can work on a single study file at one time. However, several researchers can do coding
for the same study, each working on a separate copy of the study file. When coding is
completed, the study files can be merged by hand into a single study file, ready for
reporting and analysis.
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The recommended process requires that only one person work on any given case.
Because of this, you and your colleagues should decide, before beginning work, how you
will divide up the cases so that each case will be changed by only one person.
For more information about merging study files, see the Working Collaboratively topic.

Backing Up Data
Despite all efforts to the contrary, sometimes things go wrong. Computers crash, disks
fail, software errors occur, people make mistakes. For this reason, ResearchWare, Inc.
strongly suggests you regularly back up all your data.
The two most important pieces of your work with HyperRESEARCH are your source files
and your study file.
Your source files should be backed up before you begin work in HyperRESEARCH. You
should not alter any source files after you begin coding them in HyperRESEARCH;
changes to source files may alter the data associated with any given code reference.
Having one copy of each source file on your hard disk for use in your study and another
copy backed up on permanent media such as floppy disks or removable storage disks
(CD-R, CD-RW, Zip, etc.) should be sufficient. For maximum protection, you may want
to keep two back-up copies, with one copy of everything off-site (in case of fire or other
unrecoverable disaster). Your study file should be backed up regularly (after each
session with HyperRESEARCH, daily, or weekly). Ideally, you should keep multiple
backups, and include the date in the name of every backup study file. Sometimes an
error will occur that will go undetected for a few sessions; having multiple backups with
an easily recognizable dating system will aid in recovering data from before the error
occurred.
Tip: HyperRESEARCH can store an automatic backup every time you save your study
file. For more information, see Backups in the Options/Preferences Window topic.
The easiest way to back up a study file is to save the file under another name at the
end of a session. First, make sure you save the file to its normal location on your hard
drive by choosing File
Save. Then choose File
Save As to save a copy of the file
to another location (a floppy disk or other removable storage media). Include the date
into the backup files name. Other files you may wish to back up include saved report
settings, hypothesis tests, exported reports and tests, and exported master code lists.
If you keep your study file, the folder containing your source files, and your settings
files in one folder, you can simply copy the folder to your removable media to back up
everything in one step.

Preparing Source Material


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HyperRESEARCH support a wide variety of source material formats, including text, audio
and video, and graphics. The first thing you need to do with your data is to get it into a
format that HyperRESEARCH can read.

Setting up your source files


First, make sure your source materials are in a format thats listed below under File
formats you can use with HyperRESEARCH. For more technical information, see the
topic File Types.
You may need to convert the format of some source files to make them compatible with
HyperRESEARCH. For example, if you have text in a Microsoft Word (.doc) file, make
sure to open it in Word and save it as Plain Text, Text Only, or ASCII Text (the exact
wording may vary depending on your version of Word). The plain text version of the file
is the one you will use in HyperRESEARCH.
Important: Changing the filename extension does not change the format of the file,
so simply renaming Interview.doc to Interview.txt will not change it to a plain text
file. To convert a files format, you must use the Save As command to save it as a
new file. In Microsoft Word, you must choose Text Only from the Format popup menu
in the Save As dialog box. This will ensure your file is in the correct format.
Organizing source files:
Its a good idea to keep all source files, regardless of type, in the same folder on your
hard drive. You can place this folder anywhere, but it is convenient to put it in the same
place as your study file. Each file should also have a name that readily identifies its
contents.
Source files do not need to be in the same folder for you to use them, but putting them
in the same folder makes it easier to find, move, and back up all your source files at
once, and makes it less likely that youll misplace or accidentally delete a file.
Editing before starting to code:
Make sure you complete your proofreading and editing of each source file before coding
it in HyperRESEARCH. Once you begin coding, you should not alter the coded
source files in any way. (However, you can move the source file, make back-ups of
it, print it out using your word processor, or do anything other than change its contents.)
The reason for this is that HyperRESEARCH keeps track of which passages have been
coded in a text source file by counting the number of characters to the start of the
coded passage. If you change the filefor example, by adding a header to the start of
the fileall these locations will change, so the location of your codes will no longer
correspond to the parts of the text you selected.
For the same reason, if more than one researcher is coding the same source files, make
sure each researcher has the same version of the files. Otherwise, if two researchers are
each using a slightly different version of a file, their codes will be incompatible.

Protecting your source files


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To protect your text source files from being edited, you can make them read-only or
lock them.
Windows:
In Windows, you do this by right-clicking the icon of the file and choosing the Properties
item. Click the read-only check box near the bottom of the General dialog that appears.

OS X:
In OS X, select the files icon, then choose File
the Info window to lock the file.

Get Info. Check the Locked box in

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Classic Mac OS:


In classic Mac OS, select the files icon, then choose File
Get Info
General
Information. Click the Locked check box in the Get Info window to lock the file.

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Text files
HyperRESEARCH can read any text file - interview transcriptions, e-mail messages, etc.
- provided the file is in Plain Text (or ASCII) format. Use your favorite word processor
to prepare the data. You can type the material in, or scan it with any of the OCR
(optical character recognition) programs available, or import the material from other
computer programs (especially in the case of text materials procured via e-mail), etc.
Once youve prepared your text data, you must save it in Plain Text format (sometimes
called Text Only or ASCII format). Refer to your word processors user guide if you
do not know how to save a file in Plain Text format.
Tip: For best results, do not choose Text Only with Line Breaks or its equivalent. This
will insert a paragraph mark at the end of every line, and your text file may not display
properly when opened in HyperRESEARCH. (The line lengths will differ between your
word processor and the HyperRESEARCH source file window.) It's better to have
paragraph marks occur only at the end of true paragraphs.

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If you wish to control where the HyperRESEARCH page breaks appear, you may insert
page breaks manually. Use the tilde character (~) to mark a HyperRESEARCH page
break. The tilde should be by itself on an otherwise blank line. Be careful not to allow a
tilde to split up text you may wish to code as a whole; you will not be able to select
text across a HyperRESEARCH page break.
If you do not manually insert the tilde page break characters, HyperRESEARCH will open
the entire file as a single page.

Image files
HyperRESEARCH can open as source material any graphic file saved in JPEG, GIF, BMP,
or PNG format. PICT files are also supported in Mac OS. JPEG files have the advantage
of supporting full color depth with compression that work very well on photographs,
while line art tends to compress better with PNG or GIF. Both JPEG and GIF files may
be published on the World Wide Web.
You can prepare images in these formats by scanning in photographs, slides or other flat
materials, or by using a digital camera. Depending on the software you used for
scanning or transfer from the digital camera, you may also need to convert the image
files to one of the supported formats. Adobe PhotoShop, Jasc Softwares Paintshop Pro,
GraphicConverter, DeBabelizer, as well as dozens of shareware products are capable of
doing this sort of conversion.
Flatbed scanners range in cost from under $100 to very expensive for high-end drum
scanners that are used by the publishing industry. Weve found the $130 to $400 range
from companies like Epson, Microtek, Hewlett-Packard to be very serviceable for most
needs.
Slide scanners are more in the $800 to $4000 (and up) range and digital cameras start
at around $200 and again can be very costly at the high end.
Generally, a $300 dollar flatbed scanner and a snapshot from just about any 35mm
camera will produce higher quality results than the lower end digital cameras. But a
good quality digital camera has the advantage of needing no film or processing.
HyperRESEARCH can use the images regardless of the storage media you use with your
computer. Hard disk, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, or Zip drives are all fine. If you have
access to a CD burner, this is an excellent place to store your data because CDs are
read-only, thus preventing accidental erasure or corruption of your data.

Movies and sound


HyperRESEARCH uses QuickTime as the architecture for audio, video, and animation
support. QuickTime is a popular standard for delivering cross-platform desktop video.
QuickTime is available for free from Apple for both Macintosh and Windows at
http://www.apple.com/quicktime. In addition to native QuickTime movies (MOV
files), QuickTime also supports playback of other media types, including MPEG, AVI,
SWF (Flash), and animated GIF files.
If your source materials are not already in the form of computer files, you will need to
prepare them for use in HyperRESEARCH. To import such material to the computer, you
will need a computer with video and/or audio digitizing hardware and a connection to a
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HyperRESEARCH: HyperRESEARCH User Guide


If your source materials are not already in the form of computer files, you will need to
prepare them for use in HyperRESEARCH. To import such material to the computer, you
will need a computer with video and/or audio digitizing hardware and a connection to a
video or audio source. This might be a camcorder, VCR, or audiocassette recorder.
Once the video or audio source material is digitized, you will need to make sure the file
is saved as a QuickTime movie. The QuickTime Pro software from Apple can open an
incredible variety of media file types and export them as QuickTime movies.
HyperRESEARCH and other applications that use the QuickTime video architecture can
treat audio as a sound-only movie. One of QuickTimes advantages with respect to audio
is the compression which can be applied. By using the Qualcomm Purevoice codec
(supplied with the licensed version of QuickTime 3.0 or later), you can put up to 60
hours of audio on a single 650MB CD.

File formats you can use with HyperRESEARCH


HyperRESEARCH lets you use any of the following file formats as source files:
Text: Plain text
Images: Windows Bitmap (BMP), GIF, JPEG, PNG, PICT (Mac only)
Audio: AIFF, MP3, WAV, QuickTime audio
Video: Video for Windows (AVI), MPEG, QuickTime video, Flash (support depends on
QuickTime version)
For additional technical information, see the Source File Types in the topic File Types.

Coding Source Material


The process of coding in HyperRESEARCH is straightforward. To code source material,
first make sure that your study window is showing the case you want to code to. (The
case name appears near the top of the study window. For more information about
navigating through cases, see the Study Window topic.)
Next, choose Sources
Open Source and select the source file you want to code,
which will appear in the source window. In this window, select the source material you
wish to code, and assign one or more code names to it. This code reference appears in
your study window, assigned to the current case.
Note: You can have only one source file window open at any time. If you open another
source, any currently open source window closes.

Coding text
To open a text file for coding, choose Sources
the text file you want to work with.

Open Source

Text, then choose

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(If your file does not appear or if it is disabled, double-check to make sure it is a text
file, not in any other format. You may need to open the file in your word processing
program, choose File

Save As in that program, and save the file in text format first.)

The first page of the source file appears in a source window.


To select text for coding, click and drag the cursor over the passage you wish to code.
When you have the exact passage selected, choose Codes
Return) to open the Code List Editor.

Encode (or press Enter or

Tip: If youve chosen the On Selection coding option in the Options/Preferences


window, the Code List Editor will appear automatically when youve selected a passage,
and you dont need to choose a menu item or press a key. For more information, see
the Code List Editor section in the Options/Preferences Window topic.)
In the Code List Editor, select one or more codes, then click the Apply button to create
a code reference. HyperRESEARCH will add the code name and source reference to the
current case in the study window. You may then select more text to code.
If the Code List Editor is already open when youve selected a passage, pressing Enter or
Return triggers the Apply button, so you can apply the code in one step. See the Code
List Editor topic for tips on coding.
Your text source file may be paginated by placing a tilde (~) at each page break. (See
the Preparing Source Material topic for more information.) Click the arrows near the
top of the source window to move from one page to another within the source file.
See the Source Window (Text) topic for more information about displaying and coding
text files.
Autocoding in text source files:
The Autocode feature will search text source files for specified words or phrases and
assign a specified code or codes to the found text.
When you choose Codes
Autocode, HyperRESEARCH displays the Autocode window.
There are three tabbed panels of this window that allow you to specify which text
sources to search, which phrases to look for and what code or codes to assign to the
found text.
For more information about using the Autocode feature, see the Autocode Window
topic. For an introduction to the autocoding feature as used in an example study, see
Tutorial 6: Advanced Code and Retrieve Features.

Coding images
To open a picture file for coding, choose Sources

Open Source

Image.

Click and drag the cursor to create a selection rectangle over the area of the image you
wish to code. When you have the exact rectangle selected, choose Codes
press Enter or Return) to open the Code List Editor.

Encode (or
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Click and drag the cursor to create a selection rectangle over the area of the image you
wish to code. When you have the exact rectangle selected, choose Codes
press Enter or Return) to open the Code List Editor.

Encode (or

Tip: If youve chosen the On Selection coding option in the Options/Preferences


window, the Code List Editor will appear automatically when youve selected a portion of
the image, and you dont need to choose a menu item or press a key. For more
information, see the Code List Editor section in the Options/Preferences Window
topic.)
In the Code List Editor, select one or more codes, then click the Apply button to create
a code reference. HyperRESEARCH will add the code name and source reference to the
current case in the study window. You may then select another part of the image to
code, or move to another source file.
If the Code List Editor is already open when youve selected a rectangle, pressing Enter
or Return triggers the Apply button, so you can apply the code in one step. See the
Code List Editor topic for tips on coding.
Tip: If the image is larger than the current window size, you may need to resize the
window or use the scroll bars to access other portions of the image.
See the Source Window (Image) topic for more information about displaying and
coding image files.

Coding audio or video


To open an audio or video file for coding, choose Sources
Audio.

Open Source

Movie or

The controller bar at the bottom of the window allow you to adjust the volume, play the
movie; and step forward or backward one frame at time through the movie. You can
also adjust your position within the movie file by dragging the play head (the vertical
bar that shows your current position in the movie). The current frame of the movie
appears above the controller bar, as shown below.
Audio files use the same controller bar and the same techniques, but no image appears
above the controller bar for an audio file.

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To select a section of the movie, position the play head at the start of the movie
segment you wish to code. Hold down the Shift key while pressing the Space bar to
start playing. When the movie reaches the end of the desired selection, release the Shift
key to stop. The selected portion is shown as a darkened area in the controller bar.
When you have the exact portion you want selected, choose Codes
Enter or Return) to open the Code List Editor.

Encode (or press

Tip: If youve chosen the On Selecting coding option in the Options/Preferences


window, the Code List Editor will appear automatically when youve selected a portion of
the movie, and you dont need to choose a menu item or press a key. For more
information, see the Code List Editor section in the Options/Preferences Window
topic.)
In the Code List Editor, select one or more codes, then click the Apply button to create
a code reference. HyperRESEARCH will add the code name and source reference to the
current case in the study window. You may then select another part of the movie to
code, or move to another source file.
If the Code List Editor is already open when youve selected a part of the movie,
pressing Enter or Return triggers the Apply button, so you can apply the code in one
step. See the Code List Editor topic for tips on coding.
Selection tips for audio and video:
To fine-tune your selection, here are several techniques, using the Step Left and Step
Right arrow buttons at the right end of the controller bar. To use these shortcuts, start
with the play head inside the selection (the darkened area in the controller bar):
Windows
Jump to the start of the selection
Ctrl-Alt-Step Left
Jump to the end of the selection
Ctrl-Alt-Step Right

Mac
Option-Step Left

Option-Step Right

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Add a frame to the start of the selection
1. Alt-Step Left
2. Shift-Step Left

1. Option-Step Left
2. Shift-Step Left

Add a frame to the end of the selection


1. Alt-Step Right
2. Shift-Step Right

1. Option-Step Right
2. Shift-Step Right

Remove a frame from the start of the selection


1. Alt-Step Left
1. Option-Step Left
2. Shift-Step Left
2. Shift-Step Left
Remove a frame from the end of the selection
1. Alt-Step Right
2. Shift-Step Left

1. Option-Step Right
2. Shift-Step Left

Select while playing

Shift-Play

Shift-Play

Change play speed


Alt-Step
Ctrl-Step
This is a strange but useful feature. If you hold down the Alt key (Windows) or Control
key (Mac) and click the Step buttons, if you hold down the mouse button, a speed
control appears in place of the Step buttons.

While continuing to hold down the mouse button, move it further to the right to play the
movie faster, or to the left to play in reverse. You can press the Space bar at any time
to begin selecting, and release the Space bar to stop selecting. When you release the
mouse button, the speed control disappears and the Step buttons reappear.
See the Source Window (Movie or Audio) topic for more information about displaying
and coding media files. For more keyboard shortcuts, see the Audio or Video Source
Window section in the Keyboard Shortcuts topic.

Coding shortcuts
Since coding is one of the most time-consuming tasks in qualitative research,
HyperRESEARCH provides many shortcuts for making coding easier and quicker.
After you select a portion of text, press the Enter or Return key to open the Code List
Editor window. You can also choose to have the Code List Editor open when you select
source material, without having to press the Enter or Return keys (see the
Options/Preferences Window topic).
If the Code List Editor window is already open when youve made your source selection,
pressing the Enter or Return key triggers the Apply button in the Code List Editor,
creating a code reference in the current case with the code or codes selected in the
Code List.
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If
the Code List Editor
window is already
open when youve made your source selection,
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HyperRESEARCH
User Guide
pressing the Enter or Return key triggers the Apply button in the Code List Editor,
creating a code reference in the current case with the code or codes selected in the
Code List.
As a shortcut for clicking a code in the code list and then clicking the Apply button,
double-clicking a code in the code list will trigger the Apply button.
To code most quickly, follow these steps:

Leave the Code List Editor window open next to your source window.

Tip: The Code List Editor window is resizable; making it as tall as you can will let you
see more of your codes at once.

Select the portion of the source material you wish to code.

Double-click the code you want in the Code List Editor window.

If youre assigning the same code to many portions of your source, you can just select
the source material and press the Enter or Return key. If youve left the Code List
Editor open and have your code selected, this will apply the code for you in one step.

Analyzing Code Frequencies


Checking the frequencies with which youve used your codes can help in analyzing both
your data and the progress of your coding tasks. HyperRESEARCH also performs
statistical analysis of the frequency with which codes are used across the cases in your
study, allowing you to see which codes are broadly used and which are concentrated in
certain cases.
For additional information about the controls in the Frequency Report Settings
window, see the Frequency Report Window topic.

Creating a frequency report


To create a report of the code frequencies in your study, choose Reports
Report. The Frequency Report Settings window appears:

Frequency

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In the Frequency Report Settings dialog box, you can select which cross-case statistical
analysis options to include in the frequency report. You can also choose to display a bar
graph that shows graphically how often each code has been used.

The frequency report shows all the codes in the Code List Editor, along with the total
number of times each code has been used in your study. (If you have selected certain
codes to work with, only the selected codes are shown. For more about code and case
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The frequency report shows all the codes in the Code List Editor, along with the total
number of times each code has been used in your study. (If you have selected certain
codes to work with, only the selected codes are shown. For more about code and case
selection, see the topics Selecting Codes and Selecting Cases.)

Statistical analysis of code usage across cases


The frequency report lists all the codes in the Code List Editor, along with the total
number of times each code has been used in your study.
You can also optionally include statistical information about how the code is distributed
across cases. These statistics are based on how often the code appears in each case in
your study: the minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation of the codes
frequency of use.
Each option is displayed in a column of the frequency report. You can use all, none, or
any combination of options. (If a box is not checked, that column is not included when
the frequency report is displayed.)
Minimum:
The smallest number of times this code has been used in any of your cases. If there are
any cases in your study where the code is not used at all, the minimum is zero.
Maximum:
The largest number of times this code has been used in any of your cases.
Mean:
The average number (arithmetic mean) of the codes use across all cases in your study.
Standard Deviation:
The standard deviation of the distribution of this code across the cases in your study.
The larger the standard deviation, the more variation there is in use of the code. For
example, if a code is used the same number of times in each case, the standard
deviation of its frequency is zero.

Code frequency bar graph


If you check the Bar Graph box in the Frequency Report Settings window, a
graphical representation of the Total column is included in the frequency report. Each
row includes a horizontal bar whose length is proportional to the total number of times
the code has been used in your study: the longer the bar, the more often the code is
used.
This is the same information as in the Total column, presented in visual format to
make it easier to scan.

Printing or exporting a frequency report


Once youve created the frequency report, you can print it or export it as a text file.
To print the report, click Print.

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To export the report, click Export Text and choose a name and location for the
exported file. The file is exported in text tab-delimited format, and can be opened in
any word processor or text editor, or in a spreadsheet program. (When you export a
frequency report, the bar graph is not included, but all other columns displayed are
included.)

Including Codes of Type Theme


The Hypothesis Tester can temporarily add a code to a case. Normally, these
additional codes exist only during the test itself; they are not added to the case.
However, by checking the Add Themes to Cases box in the Hypothesis Tester
window, you can add these codes to the case as codes of type THEME.
Theme codes are not derived directly from your data in the coding process. Rather,
theyre based on the presence or absence of certain codes in the case. They dont point
to any underlying source material (of type TEXT, IMAGE, or MOVIE). They represent
themes youve inferred from existing coding. A code of type THEME, unlike other codes,
does not have any source material associated with it. It is part of the case, but has no
source file or source reference.
For example, in the QDA Software study, the following inference may be made:
IF computer more efficient AND stays close to data AND NOT distant from data THEN
NOT FRANKENSTEINS MONSTER
That is: if during the coding process you found source material chunks that warranted
the codes computer more efficient and stays close to data, but you didnt find any
source material that supported the distant from data code, then its logical to infer
that the respondent doesnt consider qualitative data analysis software to be a
Frankensteins Monster. If you place this rule in the Hypothesis Tester, and check the
Add Themes to Cases box, then the code NOT FRANKENSTEIN'S MONSTER is added to
each case that meets the criteria.
Codes of type THEME may be the same codes that you have used already in coding. If
you want your THEME codes to be distinct from your normal master codes (to be applied
only as THEMES, rather than assigned directly to the data) you may wish to name them
in all upper case (e.g. NOT FRANKENSTEINS MONSTER). This will help them stand out in
the Code List Editor and in the study
window.
These THEME codes may be manipulated and analyzed in the same ways as regular
codes. They appear in the Code List Editor and can be duplicated, renamed, deleted,
and so on.
See the Testing Hypotheses topic for more information.

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Selecting Cases
HyperRESEARCH allows you to work with subsets of your cases by selecting certain
cases and excluding others. When browsing through your cases or running a report or
frequency report, HyperRESEARCH shows only those cases that are currently selected.
To access any unselected cases, you need to change the current selection by choosing
Cases

Select Cases.

All cases
The case selection default is All Cases; HyperRESEARCH will show all your cases unless
instructed otherwise. To show all cases again after having selected a subset of cases,
choose Cases

Select Cases

All Cases.

Selecting cases by name


By choosing Cases
Select Cases
By Name, you may choose specific cases
manually. HyperRESEARCH displays your case list. Click a case name to select it. To
select more than one case, click the first case, then Control-click (Windows) or
Command-click (Mac) to select additional cases.

Selecting cases by criteria


By choosing Cases
Select Cases
By Criteria, you may select cases based on the
presence and/or absence of various codes. You may also select cases using the code
proximity functions. See the Expressions and Selection Criteria topic for more
information on specifying criteria for case selection.

Selecting the current case


To hide all cases except for the one currently displayed in the study window, choose
Cases

Select Cases

Current Case Only.

Selecting Codes
HyperRESEARCH allows you to work with subsets of your codes by selecting certain
codes and excluding others. When browsing through your cases or running a report or
frequency report, HyperRESEARCH shows only the code references for the currently
selected codes. To access any unselected codes, you need to change the current
selection by choosing Cases

Select Cases.

Code selection can be a powerful tool in analyzing your data, especially when used in
combination with the case selection tools. Reports will analyze only those codes and
cases currently selected, making it easy to concentrate on certain portions of your data.

All codes
The code selection default is All Codes; HyperRESEARCH will show all your codes unless
instructed otherwise. To show all codes again after having selected a subset of codes,
choose Codes

Select Codes

All Codes.
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The code selection default is All Codes; HyperRESEARCH will show all your codes unless
instructed otherwise. To show all codes again after having selected a subset of codes,
choose Codes

Select Codes

All Codes.

Selecting codes by name


By choosing Codes
Select Codes
By Name, you may choose specific code names
manually. HyperRESEARCH displays your master code list. Click a code name to select
it. To select more than one code, click the first code, then Control-click (Windows) or
Command-click (Mac) to select additional codes. HyperRESEARCH will display all code
references that are assigned to one of the specified codes, and hide the rest of the code
references.

Selecting codes by criteria


By choosing Codes
Select Codes
By Criteria, you may select codes using the
code proximity functions, and also by name. Code references that match the criteria are
selected. See the Expressions and Selection Criteria topic for more information on
specifying criteria for code selection.

Using the Code Map to select codes


In the Code Map window, you can choose Apply Marked Set to Study Window from the
Mark menu to select codes that have been marked with yellow highlighting in the Code
Map. All code references that use any of the highlighted codes will be selected. For more
information about using the Code Map, see the Mapping Code Relations and Code
Map Window topics.

Selecting codes by type


You may select code references based on the type of source material theyve been
assigned to. Code reference types include Text, Image, Movie, and Theme.
The Theme code type is a special type, not referring to any specific source material. The
Hypothesis Tester may add theme codes to the study. See the Testing Hypotheses
and Including Codes of Type Theme topics for more information about Theme codes.

Hiding all codes


You can easily clear the decks by choosing Codes
Select Codes
Unselect All.
Although all your code references are of course saved (and easily retrieved by changing
the code selection method), theyll be hidden and out of the way while you apply new
codes to the case.

Hiding specified code references


You can hide one or more code references by highlighting the code reference in the
study window, then choosing Edit
Hide Highlighted. The selected code references
are hidden from view. To hide all code references in the current case that are not
selected, select the code references you want to keep in view, then choose Edit
Others.
To show all the hidden code references, choose Codes

Select Codes

Hide

All Codes.

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Mapping Code Relations


A code map is a visual representation of your master codes and possible relations
between them. You can use the Code Map window to display codes according to your
own hierarchy, or to simply group codes visually according to theme. Any code maps
you create in a study file are saved inside that study file, so you can continue to re-use
and enhance your code maps.
To open the Code Map window, choose Codes

Code Map.

When the Code Map window opens, it displays a blank canvas where you will create your
code map. The controls at top and bottom let you create items on the map, switch
between code maps, mark certain codes for special attention, and more. (For more
information about the controls in this window, see the Code Map Window topic.)
There are four tools available at the top of the window: Select, Add, Link, and Mark.
Click any of the tools to work with that tool.

Creating a code map


The first step in creating a code map is to add some codes.

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To add a code, choose the Add tool at the top of the window, then click in
the code map where you want the code to appear. Choose the code you want to use
from the list, then click Select. The code you chose appears in the Code Map window.

You can continue adding codes like this, one by one, or add several codes at once. To
add several codes at once, click each one in the dialog box while holding down the
Control key (Windows) or Command key (Mac). If you select multiple codes, a box is
added for each code.
Adjusting the code map:
Once you have added some codes to the code map, youll probably want to move them
around to show their relationships. For example, you might put more important codes at
the top or left edge of the code map. Or you might cluster groups of related codes
together.

To move a code, choose the Select tool, then click the code and drag it to its
new position. Codes can be moved anywhere in the Code Map window. You can overlap
codes, if you wish.

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When you click a code with the Select tool, small handles appear at the edges and
corners of the code. You can drag these boxes to change the size of the code. For
example, you might make more important or central codes larger and more prominent.
Linking related codes:
In addition to showing code relationships through proximity, you can visually link two
codes together to indicate that they are related.

To link two codes, click the Link tool, then click the first code to link. A line
extends from the code to the mouse pointer. When you click a second code, a link is
established between the two codes.

To link several codes at once to the same code, use the Select tool to select several
codes. (To select multiple codes, Shift-click each one.) Then click the Link tool. A set of
lines extends from each selected code to the mouse pointer. Click the code that you
want to link the selected codes to.

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When you move a linked code, the links move with the code. (You may find that you
need to reposition some codes, so that the links are easier to see.)
Deleting codes:
If you change your mind and decide to remove a code from the code map, click the
code with the Select tool, then choose Edit
Delete (or press the Delete key). The
code is removed from the code map. Any links to that code are also removed.

Selecting codes with the code map


One of the most powerful ways to use a code map is to use it to select a subset of
codes to work with. (For more information about selecting subsets of codes, see the
Selecting Codes topic.) Start by marking the codes you want to work with.

To mark a code, click the Mark tool. Then click each code you want to select.
Marked codes are highlighted in a bright yellow color so theyre easy to see.

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To unmark a code, just click it again with the Mark tool.


Once you have marked the codes you want, click and hold down the mouse on the Mark
tool to display the Mark menu. Then choose Apply Marked Set to Study Window
from the Mark menu. (This action is equivalent to choosing Codes
Select Codes
By Map.) The code references that correspond to the marked codes are displayed in the
study window, and all other code references are temporarily hidden.

Enhancing the code map


You can enhance the usefulness of your code map by adding text memos and pictures,
and by changing various settings. You can also create multiple code maps for a single
study, and switch between them.
To create a new code map, click the + button at the top of the Code Map window. You
can switch between code maps by choosing a code maps name from the menu at the
upper left of the Code Map window.
By default, code maps are named Code Map 1, Code Map 2, and so forth. To give the
current code map a more descriptive name, choose Rename Current Code Map from
the Action menu at the upper right of the Code Map window. (The Action menu is
marked with a gear symbol
.)
To add a memo, choose New Memo from the Action menu, then enter the text
contents of the memo. You can use memos to label certain areas of the map or to insert
a comment.
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To add a memo, choose New Memo from the Action menu, then enter the text
contents of the memo. You can use memos to label certain areas of the map or to insert
a comment.
To add a picture, choose Place Image from the Action menu, then choose the image
file you want to display. You can choose any file on your disk thats in PNG, JPEG, GIF,
or BMP format. The file is only displayed, not imported, so if you move, rename, or
delete the picture file, it will disappear from the code map.
Tip: To change the image to display another file, double-click it and select the picture
file you want to use.

Saving the code map


The code maps you create are saved in the study file. When you choose File
Save to
save your study file, the code maps you've created are saved as part of that file, and
will be available the next time you re-open that study file and choose Codes
Map.

Code

Testing Hypotheses
The HyperRESEARCH Hypothesis Tester, like the Report window, supplies a set of tools
that allow you to examine and work with your codes in ways not practical with the basic
code generation and manipulation tools available at the study window. Specifically, the
Hypothesis Tester can help determine whether or not the data supports any assumptions
and inferences you may have concerning your study.
For an introduction to the Hypothesis Tester as used in an example study, see
Tutorial 7: Using the Hypothesis Tester.
Before working with the Hypothesis Tester, you must develop a hypothesis about your
data. Once you have formulated a hypothesis, you must express it in terms
HyperRESEARCH can understand. You can then work out the best way to define each
point in terms of codes.

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Each point in a HyperRESEARCH hypothesis consists of two parts; one or more


antecedents and one or more consequents. Both antecedents and consequents can
be expressed in terms of codes and code functions.
Any point you test with the HyperRESEARCH Hypothesis Tester is called a Rule. A Rule
has two parts: codes that define your assumptions (the antecedents), and what you
infer from those assumptions (the actions, or consequents, that result).
HyperRESEARCH treats this combination of antecedents and consequents as a Rule, and
checks a Rules validity against the available data (coded source materials) whenever
you run a test.
If a Rules antecedents prove true, HyperRESEARCH can then use that Rules
consequents, or actions, to support further Rules. It does this by temporarily adding or
removing specified codes from the case being tested. A code added as a result of a
Rules consequents is a Theme, and may be added permanently to the cases index
card if you so choose. Such Themes are based on the presence or absence of given
codes rather than any statements inherent in the source material.
For more information about building expressions in the Hypothesis Tester window, see
the topic Expressions and Selection Criteria.

Running Reports
When you choose Reports
New Report, HyperRESEARCH displays the Report
window. Here you can specify the report parameters.

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Your report will include information only on the codes and cases currently selected
(visible) in the study. Before running a report, make sure you have selected the proper
cases and codes. See the Selecting Cases and Selecting Codes topics for more
information.

Source types to include


These checkboxes let you specify which type of source files you wish to include in the
report. The default is to use text source files only. If you wish the report to include
information on images, movies, or themes, click in the appropriate checkbox. Note that
reports involving non-text source types will include the appropriate code references for
those source file types, but cannot display images or movies within the report itself.

Report elements to include


Click in the checkboxes for each piece of information you wish included in the report.
If you select the Hyperlinks option, the following information will also be automatically
included: Case Name; Code Name; Code Type; Code Reference; Source Name. This
information is necessary to provide hyperlinks to non-text source material. Note that
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hyperlinks are really only useful when displaying a report to the screen. When using
hyperlinks, you may click on a code reference in the displayed report to open the
underlying source material. You may then view (or play) it in context. (Note that a code

HyperRESEARCH: HyperRESEARCH User Guide


If you select the Hyperlinks option, the following information will also be automatically
included: Case Name; Code Name; Code Type; Code Reference; Source Name. This
information is necessary to provide hyperlinks to non-text source material. Note that
hyperlinks are really only useful when displaying a report to the screen. When using
hyperlinks, you may click on a code reference in the displayed report to open the
underlying source material. You may then view (or play) it in context. (Note that a code
reference/source file hyperlink is not highlighted in any way; simply look for the lines
that include the case name, code name, code type, source file type, reference, and
source file name. Click anywhere on one of these lines to open the corresponding source
file. If you are printing or exporting the report, you do not need Hyperlinks checked.
Check Code Frequency if you wish HyperRESEARCH to provide a numeric count of
instances of each reported code name for each reported case.
Check Source Material to include the underlying source material with each reported
code reference (TEXT source file types only).
Check Annotations to include any annotations assigned to each reported code reference.
Check Master Case List to include a list of all the cases in your current study.
Check List of Selected Cases to include a list of those cases currently selected in your
study. (See the Selecting Cases topic for more information.) Note that the list of
selected cases will match your master case list if you currently have all cases selected.
Check Case Selection Criteria to include an explanation of the current case selection
criteria (All Cases, or By Name, or By Criteria, etc.). This information is especially
useful if you currently have anything but All Cases selected in your study.
Check Master Code List to include a list of all the codes in your current study.
Check List of Selected Codes to include a list of those codes currently selected in your
study. (See the Selecting Codes topic for more information.) Note that the list of
selected codes will match your master code list if you currently have all codes selected.
Check Code Selection Criteria to include an explanation of the current code selection
criteria (All Codes, or By Name, or By Criteria, etc.). This information is especially
useful if you currently have anything but All Codes selected in your study.
Check the Master Source File List box if you wish to see a list of all the source files
tracked by HyperRESEARCH in your current study.
You may also choose to sort the report by case name (each page of the report will
contain the information for one case, sorted alphabetically by case name) or by code
name (each page of the report will contain the information for one code, sorted
alphabetically by code name).
Once youve set the parameters, you may click Display to show the report, click
Export Text to save the report data in a text file (which you may then edit in a word
processor, or even use as an additional source file within HyperRESEARCH), or click
Cancel to abandon the report.
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Once
youve set the
parameters, you
mayGuide
click Display to show the report, click
HyperRESEARCH:
HyperRESEARCH
User
Export Text to save the report data in a text file (which you may then edit in a word
processor, or even use as an additional source file within HyperRESEARCH), or click
Cancel to abandon the report.
You may also save the report settings by choosing Reports
Save Report Settings
As. This will save all the information pertaining to the report parameters, including your
current selection criteria for codes an cases; and which of the many elements youve
chosen to include. You may recall this information by choosing Reports
Report Settings and selecting the saved report file.

Open

Saving the settings file with Reports


Save Report Settings As does not save the
report data, only the settings. If you make changes to the study file, then open the
settings file with Reports
Open Report Settings and create a report, the new
report will include the additional data you added to the study file.

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Boolean Logic
HyperRESEARCH uses Boolean logic and terms to define selection criteria in the Select
Cases -> By Criteria... command and to construct Rules for testing hypotheses with
the Hypothesis Tester. You probably remember Boolean logic from high school algebra,
but heres a quick refresher course.

Operators
Boolean logic shows the relationships of two or more terms to one another.
HyperRESEARCH uses three Boolean operators - AND, OR, and NOT - to show the
relationships between two or more codes or proximity functions. Lets see what effect
each of these three operators has on two codes it joins.
AND:
The operator AND links two codes in exactly the same way as the conjunction and does
in an English sentence. For example, if someone said to you, buy butter AND milk at
the store, you would buy both items. In a similar fashion, the Boolean operator AND
indicates that both codes must be present in order for the expression to be true.
OR:
The operator OR links two codes in exactly the same way as the conjunction or does in
an English sentence. For example, if someone said to you, buy butter OR milk at the
store, you would buy one of the two items, but not necessarily both. In a similar
fashion, the Boolean operator OR indicates that one or both codes must be present in
order for the expression to be found true.
NOT:
The operator NOT indicates that HyperRESEARCH should look for the absence of the
following code. It works in much the same way as the conjunction not does in an
English sentence. For example, if someone said to you, buy butter NOT milk at the
store, you wouldnt buy milk. In a similar fashion, the Boolean operator NOT indicates
that a code must be absent in order for the expression to be true. HyperRESEARCH still
requires the operators AND or OR with NOT.

Order of precedence
When HyperRESEARCH encounters a rule with more than one Boolean operator, (e.g.
"thisThing AND thatThing OR theOtherThing"), operators with the highest precedence are
evaluated before those with lower precedence. When there are two operators of the
same precedence (such as two "AND"s), rules are evaluated from left to right.
HyperRESEARCH operators have this order of precedence:
1. NOT
2. AND
3. OR
For example, lets look at how HyperRESEARCH evaluates this rule:

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true AND true OR false
First it evaluates the AND to arrive at:
true OR false
which evaluates to true.
For complex rules, you can override HyperRESEARCHs order of precedence by placing
parentheses around expressions as described below.

Parenthetical expressions
Things are pretty simple when youre just dealing with two codes at a time. But when an
expression attempts to define a relationship between several codes and/or code
proximity functions, it may be ambiguous. Just as punctuation helps us keep
complicated English sentences from being ambiguous, so parenthetical expressions help
us keep HyperRESEARCH expressions from being ambiguous.
For example, if someone said to you:
buy butter and milk or eggs at the store
you might not understand immediately what that person meant. The or between the
milk and eggs makes the meaning somewhat ambiguous. Do they mean that the eggs
and milk are interchangeable, that they dont mind which you buy as long as you buy
butter and one of the other two? Or do they want eggs if you cant get both butter and
milk?
This same type of problem can crop up quite easily in a HyperRESEARCH expression.
You may remember using parentheses to group expressions in high school algebra HyperRESEARCH also uses parentheses to eliminate these types of ambiguities in
expressions or selection criteria. To continue with the shopping example, if the shopping
list were expressed as:
buy butter and (milk or eggs) at the store
you would understand immediately that you should pick up butter and at least one of
the other two items. And if the shopping list were expressed as:
buy (butter and milk) or eggs at the store
you would know that you should pick up both the first two items if possible, but the
third item is optional.
HyperRESEARCH expressions work just the same way. As an example, an expression:
(code1 OR code2 OR code3) and code4
would be found true if code4 and any of the three codes in parentheses occurred in the
same case (index card).
If you dont include parentheses in a Boolean expression, HyperRESEARCH interprets
your statement according to the order of precedence described in the previous section and the result may not be what you expect or want. When HyperRESEARCH encounters
a Boolean expression without parentheses, it performs all the AND statements first, then
performs all the OR statements.

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For instance, if you create the Boolean expression
code1 OR code2 OR code3 AND code4
leaving off all the parenthesesHyperRESEARCH deals with the last two statements,
code3 AND code4, first, then goes back and tries to figure out what to do with all the
OR statements. It interprets it as though you had parenthesized the expression like this:
code1 OR code2 OR (code3 AND code4)
See the Expressions and Selection Criteria and Testing Hypotheses topics for
more information.

Expressions and Selection Criteria


If you choose to select cases or codes by criteria, or if you build a hypothesis test,
HyperRESEARCH will ask you to build an expression or define criteria to use in screening
your cases or codes.
When selecting cases by criteria, or creating a Hypothesis Rule, the expression you build
may be a combination of codes and proximity functions, all linked by Boolean operators
(AND and OR). You may also test for the absence of codes by inserting the NOT
operator before the next code name or code proximity function in the expression or
selection criteria.

Building expressions to select cases by criteria


To specify the criteria for selecting cases, first choose Cases
Select Cases
By
Criteria. In the Case Selection Criteria window that appears, youll use the Build
Expressions menu.

When you first begin building your expression, the Build Expression menu includes NOT,
Function, and Code:
Choose NOT if you want to test cases for the absence of a code or code proximity
function. (Youll specify the code or function next.)
Choose Function to have HyperRESEARCH test cases for the presence of certain code
relations based on their proximity to one another. In the Select a Function dialog box,
choose the proximity function you want to test for (Equals, Excludes, Includes, or
Overlap). Then choose the first code for the function, followed by the second code
for 50
Page
the function. See the Code Proximity Functions topic for more information. If you
first choose NOT before choosing Function, HyperRESEARCH will look for cases that do
not have code references that match the specified code proximity function.

HyperRESEARCH: HyperRESEARCH User Guide


Choose Function to have HyperRESEARCH test cases for the presence of certain code
relations based on their proximity to one another. In the Select a Function dialog box,
choose the proximity function you want to test for (Equals, Excludes, Includes, or
Overlap). Then choose the first code for the function, followed by the second code for
the function. See the Code Proximity Functions topic for more information. If you
first choose NOT before choosing Function, HyperRESEARCH will look for cases that do
not have code references that match the specified code proximity function.
Choose Code to specify a code name HyperRESEARCH should look for. If you first
choose NOT followed by Code, HyperRESEARCH will look for cases that have not been
coded with the specified code.
Once youve chosen a code or function, the Build Expressions menu changes to contain
the Boolean operators AND and OR. Use these to define more complex relationships
between multiple codes and code proximity functions for HyperRESEARCH to test your
cases against.
Continue selecting code proximity functions and code names, and relating them with the
AND or OR operators, until your expression is complete.

When you click OK, HyperRESEARCH selects all the cases for which the expression is
true. Cases for which the expression is false will be excluded from the current case
selection, and hidden from view. (You may recall them by any time by choosing
Cases
Select Cases
information.

All Cases.) See the Selecting Cases topic for more

Adding parentheses
Make sure to clarify any ambiguous portions of your expression by putting parentheses
around terms you wish evaluated together (sub-expressions). See the Boolean Logic
topic for more information about how expressions are evaluated.
To place parentheses in your expression, you first enter the entire expression without
parentheses, and then click the start and end codes for the parenthesized part of the
expression. HyperResearch automatically detects that the expression may be
ambiguous, and asks whether you want to place parentheses the codes you've selected.

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For example, suppose you want to create the following expression:
IF chocolate AND (ice cream OR pudding)
To enter such an expression, follow these steps:

Enter the expression


IF chocolate AND ice cream OR pudding
without the parentheses, following the process described earlier in this topic.

Click ice cream, the first code that you want to put inside parentheses.

Click pudding, the last code that you want to put inside parentheses. The
sub-expression ice cream OR pudding is selected.

Answer Yes in the dialog box that appears. A pair of parentheses is inserted
surrounding the part of the expression you selected.
You can also nest parentheses, using the same technique: click the first code that you
want to enclose, then click the last code. First place the innermost parentheses, then
place the outer parentheses.

Building expressions to select codes by criteria


When selecting codes by criteria, the expression you build will simply be a series of code
names and/or code proximity functions. HyperRESEARCH will select every code
reference that matches any of the code names or any of the proximity functions youve
specified. (See the Code Proximity Functions topic for more information about these
functions.)
Tip: If you want to select codes by name, and you dont need to use the code
proximity functions, choose Codes

Select Codes

By Name instead of Codes

Select Codes
By Criteria. The By Criteria option will let you select codes by name,
but using By Name is simpler.

Building expressions in the Hypothesis Rule List Editor


The Build Expressions menu in the Hypothesis Rule List Editor works the same way
as that used in the Case Selection Criteria dialog box (see Building Expressions to
Select Cases by Criteria above). The only difference is how the expression is applied to
your data.
When selecting cases by criteria, HyperRESEARCH evaluates the expression built in the
Case Selection Criteria dialog box and selects all cases for which the expression
evaluates to true.
When evaluating expressions in a Hypothesis Test, any case for which the expression
evaluates to be true will then be subject to the Actions specified in the THEN section.
Cases for which the expression evaluates to false will not have the associated actions
performed.

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See the Boolean Logic, Code Proximity Functions, Selecting Cases, Selecting
Codes, and Testing Hypotheses topics for more information.

Code Proximity Functions


When selecting codes or cases by criteria, or testing hypotheses, one of your options is
to have HyperRESEARCH look for code references based on their proximity to other code
references. You do this by including a Function term in your selection criteria or
expression. The code proximity functions currently available are Equals, Excludes,
Includes, and Overlaps.
Each function will compare the positional references of all code references of one code
against the positional references of all code references of a second code.
A code proximity function is defined in the following manner:
Function(code1, code2)

The Equals function looks for code references for code1 that exactly match code
references for code2. (Code references include the source type, source file name, and
numerical position of the coded source material within the source file coded. All these
must match for the code references to be considered equal.)
The Excludes function looks for code references for code1 that do not overlap code
references for code2 in any way.
The Includes function looks for code references for code1 that completely encompass
code references for code2. The source material for the code2 reference must be entirely
contained within the source material for the code1 reference. The Includes function will
also look for exact matches (as with the Equals function).
The Overlaps function looks for code references for code1 that overlap or intersect the
code references for code2 in any way. The shared source material may be as little as a
single character, or a single pixel on a graphic, etc. If any portion of the underlying
source material has been coded with both code1 andcode2, the Overlaps function will
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The Overlaps function looks for code references for code1 that overlap or intersect the
code references for code2 in any way. The shared source material may be as little as a
single character, or a single pixel on a graphic, etc. If any portion of the underlying
source material has been coded with both code1 andcode2, the Overlaps function will
select those code references.
Regardless of the function, when selecting code references by criteria, HyperRESEARCH
will select all references for both codes (whichever codes are specified as code1 and
code2) that match the specified function.
When selecting cases by criteria, any cases for which one or more instances of code1
and one or more instances of code2 match the specified function will be selected. For
example, if you select cases based on the Exclude function, the case will be selected
even if theres only one instance of code1 that does not overlap any instance of code2 in
any way. To select cases where all instances ofcode1 exclude any instance of code2, you
would have HyperRESEARCH test for NOT Overlaps (code1, code2). To select cases
where every instance of code1 overlaps at least one instance ofcode2, you should have
HyperRESEARCH test for NOT Excludes (code1,code2).
See the Selecting Cases, Selecting Codes, and Testing Hypotheses topics for more
information. For an introduction to the code proximity functions as used in an example
study, see

Tutorial 6: Advanced Code and Retrieve Features.

Adding code proximity functions


The Add button on the Program panel in the Options/Preferences dialog box allows you
to add code proximity functions to the standard set provided with HyperRESEARCH
(Equals, Excludes, Includes, and Overlaps). ResearchWare, Inc. will release additional
code proximity functions in the future. For more information, see the Programs section
in the Options/Preferences Window topic.

Printing
HyperRESEARCH can print most of the information you see on the screen. When you
choose File
Print, the frontmost window is printed. You can print the study window,
source window, a report, a frequency report, or the code list.

Setting up the page


Choose File
Page Setup to specify paper size and orientation (and, if you like, any
reductions or enlargements to be done on the data before printing).
Choose File
Page Layout to set margins and specify any headers or footers you wish
added to the printed page.

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Use the Page Margins boxes to set the top, bottom, left, and right margins for your
output.
Use the From Edge fields to specify how far down from the top edge the header will
appear, and how far up from the bottom edge the footer will appear.
Use the Page Setup button to display the Page Setup dialog box, where you can
specify paper size, orientation, and other options supported by your printer. This is
equivalent to choosing File

Page Setup.

Headers and footers


If you wish to include a header and/or footer, mark the appropriate checkboxes. You
may then specify a Font and Size for the header and again for the footer. Each header
or footer contains three text boxes; any information you put in these boxes will be
printed at the left, center, and right respectively.
You may also use the Insert Special menu to include special information, including
dates and page numbers, in your header or footer. Place the blinking text cursor where
you wish the special information to be inserted. You may then insert any of the
following:

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(The
and so

Short Date (1/1/99)


Abbreviated Date (Fri, Jan 1, 1999)
Long Date (Friday, January 1, 1999)
Short Time (9:23 AM)
Long Time (9:23:05 AM)
Study Name (QDA Study)
Page Number ()
symbol will be replaced by a 1 when printing page 1, 2 when printing page 2,
on.)

HyperRESEARCH will print a complete header or footer - including any information in


the left, centered, and right fields - on one line. This may result in overprinting if any
field contains more characters than will fit on the page. Check your headers and footers
in Print Preview before choosing File

Print.

Once youve set up the page margins and header and footer information to your
satisfaction, click OK to exit the dialog box. Click Cancel if you decide not to keep any
changes youve made to the page layout fields.
The information you enter into the Page Layout window will be retained for future print
jobs. You should check the Page Layout settings before each print job, to make sure the
proper margins, headers, and footers are set up.
If you do not want headers or footers included, deactivate the appropriate checkboxes.
You may leave the header or footer information in the appropriate fields if you wish, to
be reactivated by clicking in the appropriate checkbox.

Selecting what to print


The Print command prints the contents of the topmost (active) window.
Some things in HyperRESEARCH - including dialog boxes - cant be printed. If you have
a window open, but the Print command in the File menu is grayed out, youre using a
window that cant be printed.
What actually gets sent to the printer depends on which window youre trying to print
from.
If you choose Print with a source window active, HyperRESEARCH will print all the text
in that source file. (Make sure the Codes in Context option is activated if you wish
HyperRESEARCH to list in the margin the names of codes assigned to the text.)
If you print the study window, HyperRESEARCH will print the information for all selected
cases.
Choosing Print while the Annotation window is active prints the currently displayed
annotation.
Choosing Print while the Report window is open will send a snapshot of your current
report parameters to the printer. To print the contents of a report, choose Reports
Display first to display it, then choose File

Print.
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Choosing Print while the Report window is open will send a snapshot of your current
report parameters to the printer. To print the contents of a report, choose Reports
Display first to display it, then choose File

Print.

Previewing the printout


The Print Preview command lets you see a preview of the first page of the print job
HyperRESEARCH will send to the printer if you choose to print. The white space in the
scrollable Print Preview window represents the paper size and orientation, as specified in
the Page Setup dialog box. The red line represents the printable area based on page
size and printer specifications. The blue lines represent the margins, including any
header and footer margins specified.

Importing and Exporting Data


There are many ways to get data into and out of HyperRESEARCH, both for sharing
work with others on your research team and for using data created in HyperRESEARCH
in other programs.

Converting HyperRESEARCH 1.x study files


You can convert HyperRESEARCH 1.x studies for use in this new version. Choose File
Convert Older Study, then select your study file in the dialog box.
Before converting your study file, make sure that all source files that go with the study
are available, preferably all in the same folder. After you choose a study file to convert,
HyperRESEARCH asks where the first source file is, and whether all your source files are
in the same folder. Click Yes if they are; No if they are not.
Tip: If HyperRESEARCH prompts you to select a file that is no longer available, click
Cancel, then click the Skip button in the following dialog box. This will remove the
missing source file (and all associated code references) from your study.
Once the conversion process is complete, you can work with the data just as you would
with any new study.

Exporting a code frequency matrix


The Export Matrix command exports a code frequency matrix, which can be used with
spreadsheet software.
This matrix includes a row for each case in your study, and a column for each code.
(The first row contains the names of all the codes, and the first column contains the
case names.) Your matrix might look like this when you open it in a spreadsheet
program:

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Each cell of the grid contains information about the use of that columns code in that
rows case. In the example above, the highlighted cell shows that the code combine
was used 6 times in the case named Joe L.
To export a matrix of your code data, first choose File
HyperRESEARCH displays the Export Matrix window.

Export Matrix.

First, youll define the format of the exported file.

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In the Export Options panel, make sure the Delimited File option is chosen.

If you want to export a frequency count, as in the example above, choose the
Frequency Count option. If you only want to export whether each code was used at all
in a given case, choose the Boolean Only option. (In this case, each cell of the grid
contains 1 or 0 (zero), depending on whether the code was used in that case or not.)

Choose which character to use as the delimiter between columns: Comma or Tab.
If youre not sure which to use, try Tab. If your spreadsheet or database software
cannot import tab-delimited files, export using the Comma option instead.
Next, youll rearrange the order of codes. This step is optional, but it can be useful if
you want to export only certain codes, or if you want the columns to be in some order
other than alphabetical order. You rearrange codes in the Code Order panel.

Click the Code Order tab.

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The list of codes is shown in the order that the codes will be exported. For each code
that you want to move, click the code to select it, then click Move Up or Move Down
until the code is in the desired position. Repeat this step for each code until the entire
list is in the desired order.
Finally, youll export your file:

Click Export and specify a name and location for the exported file.

Your file is now ready to open in a spreadsheet or database program.


Tip: To see the total code frequencies for your study, choose Reports
Report.

Frequency

Exporting data for StudentCHIP


The Export Matrix command can also be used to export a data set to use with
StudentCHIP data analysis software. (For information about StudentCHIP, go to the
SSDAN website at http://www.ssdan.net/chip/.)
To export your data, first choose File

Export Matrix.

Choose the CHIP Data File option, then enter a title for the data set. Click Export, and
specify the name and location of the file. HyperRESEARCH exports the data in a format
suitable for importing into StudentCHIP.
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Choose the CHIP Data File option, then enter a title for the data set. Click Export, and
specify the name and location of the file. HyperRESEARCH exports the data in a format
suitable for importing into StudentCHIP.
To close the Export Matrix window without exporting a file, click Cancel.

Exchanging master code lists


To share a common set of codes among members of your research team or among
different studies, first create the master code list in your study file, then choose Export
List from the Edit Code menu at the top of the Code List Editor. This command
exports the entire master code list, along with the code descriptions, to a text file.
To re-use the exported list in another study file, open the study file, then choose
Import List from the Edit Code menu, and choose the file you previously exported.
The codes from that file will be added to the current study file.
In this way, you can keep a core set of codes and use them in all studies. You can also
exchange code lists among researchers who are working on the same study, ensuring
that everyone is working with the same master code list.

Exporting reports and hypothesis results


The contents of Reports and Hypothesis Tests can be exported to text files, which can
then be opened in your favorite word processor. These exported files contain the same
information you see on the screen when you display the report or test.
To export the contents of a report, choose Reports
Text button in the Report window.

Export Text, or click the Export

To export the result of a Hypothesis Test, choose Hypothesis


Export button in the Hypothesis Tester window.

Export, or click the

To export a frequency report, create the frequency report, then click the Export Text
button in the Frequency Report Display window.

Saving report settings


You may also save the report parameters, to be able to run the same report on your
study (or on a different study) at a future date. Choose Reports
Save Report
Settings As to create a file containing the report parameters. This report information
can then be opened using Reports

Open Report Settings.

The information saved includes the original code and case selections, as well as the
information you wished included in the report. When you open a saved report,
HyperRESEARCH will give you the option to choose either the case and code selection
parameters saved with the report settings, or the case and code selections currently
active in your study.

Saving hypothesis rule lists


To save a Hypothesis test, first set up your hypothesis. Then, with the Hypothesis Tester
window open, choose Hypothesis
Save As. The current Hypothesis Rule List and
case selections for your study will be saved to a file. You can retrieve the rule list by
choosing Hypothesis

Open.

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To save a Hypothesis test, first set up your hypothesis. Then, with the Hypothesis Tester
window open, choose Hypothesis
Save As. The current Hypothesis Rule List and
case selections for your study will be saved to a file. You can retrieve the rule list by
choosing Hypothesis

Open.

Working Collaboratively
Although HyperRESEARCH is designed to be used by one person at a time, it includes
many options for sharing data that allow multiple-researcher teams to work on a study
in both the coding and analysis phases.
(For information about exporting data from HyperRESEARCH to be used in other
programs, see the Importing and Exporting Data topic.)

Sharing study files and source files


To distribute a study file to other researcherseither for additional coding or for
analysisyou will need to send the study file along with your source files. For this
reason, its usually best to set up your study so that all your source files are in a single
folder. This makes it easier to send the source files, and less likely that a file will be
missed.
Sources in HyperRESEARCH:
When you work with a source file in HyperRESEARCH, the source is not imported or
copied into your study file. Instead, HyperRESEARCH saves the name and location of
the source file, along with the location of code references for that file. This approach
improves memory use and performance, since source files are only opened when theyre
needed.
Because of this, its important that all researchers who are working on a study have the
same version of the source files. If a source file is coded by one researcher, and then
the study is opened by another researcher with a different version of the source file, the
code references in that source file may be shifted so that the wrong text is associated
with the code.
To prevent this, when you send a study file, make sure to also send the source files
youve used. If you are sure your colleague has the same version of the source files,
you dont need to send them again, but if in doubt, send any files that you believe
might not be identical on your colleagues computer.
Workflow for sending a study:
You can distribute a study to any number of other researchers. To open the study file,
the other researchers computer must have HyperRESEARCH installedeither the full
licensed edition, or the Free Limited Edition.
The process looks like this:

You send the study file and source files to the other researcher.

You can email the files, burn a CD with the files and give it to the other researcher, use
your local network, or use any other method thats convenient. (If you are working on
Mac OS X and are sending files to a Windows user, make sure your files have the
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You can email the files, burn a CD with the files and give it to the other researcher, use
your local network, or use any other method thats convenient. (If you are working on
Mac OS X and are sending files to a Windows user, make sure your files have the
correct 3-letter extension to identify the files type.)
Tip: When using certain email clients, file type information is sometimes removed in
transit. If this happens to you, try compressing the files using StuffIt or Zip before
sending them.

The recipient opens the study file in HyperRESEARCH.

Tip: To simply view the data or create reports, the recipient can use the Free Limited
Edition of HyperRESEARCH, without purchasing a license. The Free Limited Edition is
available on the ResearchWare website at
http://www.researchware.com/hr/downloads.html. However, to add codes or
cases beyond the Free Limited Editions limits, the recipient must have a
HyperRESEARCH license. For more about the Free Unlimited Edition, see the Installing
HyperRESEARCH topic.

The recipient identifies the new location of the source files.

HyperRESEARCH stores the location of sources files within the study file, and when the
files are moved to another computer (possibly with a different hard disk name, different
folder structure, and so on), the location has changed.
The first time the recipient does something that requires accessing a source filesuch as
clicking a code reference when the View Source box is checked, or creating a report
that includes source informationHyperRESEARCH asks where that source file is. Once
the recipient has identified the files location, HyperRESEARCH asks whether all other
sources are in this folder. If they are, the study file updates the location of all source
files.
To make sure that HyperRESEARCH wont need to ask again for the location of source
files, the recipient should choose File
Save to save the study file. This ensures that
the new location of the source files is also saved.

Sharing code lists


To share a common set of codes among members of your research team or among
different studies, first create the code list in your study file, then choose Export List
from the Edit Code menu at the top of the Code List Editor. This command exports
the entire code list, along with the code descriptions, to a text file. (Codes are
separated by returns, and each code is separated from its description by a tab.)
To re-use the exported list in another study file, open the study file, then choose
Import List from the Edit Code menu at the top of the Code List Editor. Choose the
file you previously exported. The codes from that file will be added to the current study
file.
In this way, you can keep a core set of codes and use them in all studies. You can also
exchange code lists among researchers who are working on the same study, ensuring
that everyone is working with the same master code list.
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In this way, you can keep a core set of codes and use them in all studies. You can also
exchange code lists among researchers who are working on the same study, ensuring
that everyone is working with the same master code list.

Merging study files


Merging study files in HyperRESEARCH is a manual process. You can merge two (or
more) studies by copying and paste cases into one study file, thus creating a master file.
The basic process requires that only one person work on any given case at a time.
Because of this, you and your colleagues should decide, before beginning work, how you
will divide up the cases so that each case will be changed by only one person.
Your workflow will look like this:

You provide your colleagues with a copy of the study file and source files, and agree
on which cases each of you will work on.

You and your colleagues each make changes to your assigned cases, in your own
copies of the file.

When everyone is finished (or at a logical stopping point), you collect the copies
from each of your colleagues. You can give each copy a convenient name, such as
Janes copy.hs2.
At this point, you are ready to merge the codes into a single study file, which can be
used for analysis.

Open a colleagues file, go to the first case he or she has been working on, and

choose Edit

Copy Case. This copies the entire case, including all references.

Tip: If the menu item reads Copy Codes instead of Copy Case, make sure no code
references are selected. If a code reference is selected, you can deselect it by
Control-clicking it (Windows) or Command-clicking it (Mac).

Open your own study file (the master copy) and choose Edit
Paste Case to paste
the case into your file. (If you are replacing the old case in your file with the new one
that your colleague worked on, HyperRESEARCH will ask you to rename the case youre
pasting. This happens because its not possible to have two cases with the same name in
the same study file. To avoid this, delete the old case before you paste the new one.)
After you repeat this process for each case your colleagues have worked on, your own
copy will contain all the completed cases.
You can then re-distribute this updated file to your colleagues for further work, or
continue with the analysis and reporting stage of the study.
Tip: Its also possible, although less convenient, to merge study files when more than
one person has worked on a case.
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If this has happened, go to the case and select the code references that the second
person has added. (To select several code references at a time, hold down the Control
key [Windows] or Command key [Mac].) Then choose Edit

Copy Codes. Open the

other study file, go to the case, and choose Edit


Paste. The code references will be
moved into the corresponding case in the second study file, along with the existing code
references in that case.

HyperRESEARCH Reference
In this section, youll find information about HyperRESEARCHs menus, a list of
keyboard shortcuts, and descriptions of each type of window you use in
HyperRESEARCH. If you want information about an item you see on the screen, look for
it in this section.
All your datacodes, sources, reports, and memosappears in one or more
HyperRESEARCH windows. The most important window is the Study Window, which
opens automatically with the name of your study file. Your cases and code references
appear in this window.
You can use text, pictures, video, or audio files as source material for your study. These
files appear in three types of source window: Source Window (Text), Source
Window (Image), or Source Window (Movie or Audio). When a source file is open,
this window appears at the right of your screen.
The Code List Editor window holds the list of master codes for your study. This window
appears in the middle of your screen. Other HyperRESEARCH windows let you add
notes, change preferences, and analyze your data.

Keyboard Shortcuts
Use these keyboard shortcuts to make your work easier and faster. Some of the
shortcuts listed here are menu key equivalents, and some have no equivalent action in
the menu bar. The menu key equivalents listed here are the ones you are most likely to
use repeatedly while coding and working with your study.

General shortcuts
Windows
Mac OS
Help F1
F1
Opens HyperRESEARCH Help. If contextual help is available for the currently active
window, Help will open to that page.

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Cancel
Esc
Esc
Triggers the Cancel button in any dialog box, closing the dialog without making changes.

Working with windows


Open Study
Opens a study file.

Windows
Ctrl-O

Close
Ctrl-W
Closes the active window.

Mac OS
Cmd-O

Cmd -W

Save Ctrl-S
Cmd-S
Saves the current Study file.
Code List Editor
Ctrl-E
Cmd-E
Opens the Code List Editor window. If it is already open, this command brings it to the
front.
Code map
Crtl-\
Opens the Code Map window.

Cmd-\

Editing
Windows
Undo
Ctrl-Z
Undoes the last text editing action.

Mac OS
Cmd-Z

Cut
Ctrl-X
Cuts the current selection.

Cmd-X

Copy
Ctrl-C
Copies the current selection.

Cmd-C

Paste
Ctrl-V
Pastes clipboard contents.

Cmd-V

Select All
Ctrl-A
Cmd-A
Selects everything selectable in the current window.
Find
Ctrl-F
Cmd-F
Performs a search (available in Source Window (text) and Code Map Window).
Find Again
Ctrl-G
Cmd-G
Finds the next occurrence of a term previously searched for with the Find command.

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Working with cases


Windows
First Ctrl-1
Cmd-1
Goes to the first case in the Study window.

Mac OS

Previous
Ctrl-2
Goes to the previous case.

Cmd 2

Next Ctrl-3
Goes to the next case.

Cmd-3

Last
Goes to the last case.

Ctrl-4

Cmd-4

Select All Cases


Ctrl-I
Cmd-I
Sets the current selection of cases to include all the cases in the study.

Coding
Windows
Mac OS
Encode
Ctrl-`
Cmd-`
Codes the current source selection to whatever code is selected in the Code List Editor.
Annotate
Ctrl-T
Cmd-T
Opens the Annotation window for the highlighted code reference in the study window.
Select audio or video
Shift-arrow
Shift-arrow
Selects a portion of the source, starting from the play heads current location. The left
arrow selects the portion after the play head, and the right arrow selects the portion
before the play head. If part of the source is already selected, pressing Shift-left arrow
or Shift-right arrow extends the selection.

Audio or video source window


Windows
Mac OS
Play/Pause
Space
Space
Begins playing the open audio or video source. If the source is already playing, pressing
Space again pauses it.
Select while playing
Shift-Space
Shift-Space
Begins playing from the current location of the play head, selecting the played portion at
the same time. When you release the Shift key, playing and selection stop.
Move play head

Left arrow
Left arrow
Right arrow
Right arrow
Moves the play head forward (left arrow) or back (right arrow) one frame. Playing
begins from the current position of the play head.
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Moves the play head forward (left arrow) or back (right arrow) one frame. Playing
begins from the current position of the play head.
Select by frame
Shift-arrow
Shift-arrow
Selects the next or previous frame, starting from the play heads current location. The
left arrow selects the next frame, and the right arrow selects the previous frame. If part
of the source is already selected, pressing Shift-left arrow or Shift-right arrow extends
the selection.
Play and select
Ctrl-Shift-arrow
Cmd-Shift-arrow
Begins playing (in forward or reverse) while selecting whats being played. The right
arrow plays forward, and the left arrow plays reverse. When you release the keys,
playing and selection stop.
Set selection start
Ctrl-[
Cmd-[
Moves the start of the selection to the current position of the play head.
Set selection end
Ctrl-]
Cmd-]
Moves the end of the selection to the current position of the play head.
For more shortcuts using the buttons in the controller bar, see the Coding Audio or
Video section of the Coding Source Material topic.

File Types and Filename Extensions


These are the file extensions that HyperRESEARCH uses for the files it creates:

This extension:

belongs to this file type:

.hs2
study files
A study file includes your cases, codes, code references, and code maps for a particular
study. Create a new study file by choosing File
study file by choosing File

New Study, and open an existing

Open Study.

.hrp
report settings
When you set up a report, you can save just the settings, without the report data.
Opening this report settings file will let you run the same report later, without having to
re-enter the settings. Create a report settings file by choosing Reports
Save Report
Settings As, or clicking Export Text in the Report window. Open a saved report
settings file by choosing Reports

Open Report Settings.

.hhp Hypothesis Tester settings


When you set up a hypothesis, you can save the hypothesis rules so you can check the
same hypothesis later without having to re-enter the settings. Create a Hypothesis
Tester settings file by choosing Hypothesis

Save As. Open a saved Hypothesis

Tester settings file by choosing Hypothesis

Open.

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.txt

Code Matrix and


Code List and
Exported Report

HyperRESEARCH creates files as plain text when exporting a code matrix (using File
Export Matrix), a code list (using the Export List menu item in the Code List
Editor), or a report (using the Export Text button in the Report window). You can
open these files in any text editor, as well as any other program that supports plain text
files (such as Microsoft Excel).

Source File Types


HyperRESEARCH lets you use any of the following file formats as source files:
Text:
Plain text (extension .txt, Mac file type TEXT)
7-bit or 8-bit ASCII files
Mac: encoded as MacRoman
Windows: encoded as ISO-8859/ISO-Latin 1
Images:
Windows Bitmap (extension .bmp, Mac file type BMPf)
GIF (extension .gif, Mac file type GIFf)
JPEG (extension .jpg or .jpeg, Mac file type JPEG)
PNG (extension .png, Mac file type PNGf)
Macintosh PICT Format (extension .pict, Mac file type PICT)
PICT can be used on Mac/OS X systems only
Audio:
AIFF (extension .aif or .aiff, Mac file type AIFF)
MP3 audio (extension .mp3, Mac file type MPG3)
QuickTime audio (extension .mov, Mac file type MooV)
WAVE or WAV (extension .wav, Mac file type WAVE)
Video:
Video for Windows (extension .avi, Mac file type VfW )
MPEG (extension .mpg or .mpeg, Mac file type MPEG)
requires QuickTime 5.0 or later
400MHz or faster recommended
QuickTime video (extension .mov, Mac file type MooV)
Shockwave Flash (extension .swf, Mac file type SWFL)
Flash version 3 requires QuickTime 4.0 or later.
Flash version 4 requires QuickTime 5.0 or later.
Flash version 5 requires QuickTime 7.0 or later.
(As of QuickTime version 7.1, only Flash version 5 and earlier is supported. If you have
a later version of QuickTime, please check Apples QuickTime page to find out what
Flash versions it supports.)

HyperRESEARCH Menus
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This section describes the basic functions of each menu item in the HyperRESEARCH
menu bar. Where more detail is required, you will be referred to the correct section of
the manual.

Menu bar menus and contextual menus


A contextual menu is the menu that pops up when you Control-click [Mac] or right-click
[Windows] on an object on the screen. The contexual menu offers commands that are
related to the object you clicked. For example, if you Control-click or right-click a code
reference in the study window, youll see a menu that lets you cut, copy, or paste a
code reference, annotate the code you clicked, or create a new code.

The commands in a contextual menu are always duplicates of a command thats in the
main menu bar. A contextual menu is a handy shortcut, but the contextual menus dont
include any extra commands. For this reason, the contexual menus are not separately
documented in this section. To find out what a contextual menu command does, look for
the same command in the menu bar.

Menu differences between platforms


The Macintosh and Windows versions of HyperRESEARCH are functionally equivalent.
Because the Mac and Windows use fundamentally different approaches to menus,
HyperRESEARCH does not look exactly the same on both platforms. On Windows, the
main menu bar for HyperRESEARCH is displayed in a floating window. On the Mac, it is
displayed at the top of the screen.
Windows:

Mac OSX:

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Mac Classic:

A few menu items are located in different menus depending on the platform, to conform
with the standard conventions for that platform:
The menu item About HyperRESEARCH is located in the Help menu on Windows, in
the HyperRESEARCH menu on OS X, and in the Apple menu on classic Mac OS.
The menu item named Preferences on the Mac is titled Options on Windows, and is
located in the Edit menu on Windows and classic Mac OS, and in the HyperRESEARCH
menu on OS X.
The menu item named Exit on Windows (and located in the File menu) is named Quit
HyperRESEARCH on OS X (and located in the HyperRESEARCH menu), and named
Quit on classic Mac OS.

File Menu
The File menu includes commands to work with your study files, export a code matrix,
print, and quit the program.
New Study
Closes the current study and creates a new, untitled study.
If you have a study open and you have made changes since the last time you saved it,
HyperRESEARCH asks whether to save your changes before opening a new study file.
Click Save to save your work and open a new study.
Click Don't Save to create a new study without saving your changes in the
original study.
Click Cancel to return to your original study without creating a new one.
Open Study
Opens an existing HyperRESEARCH study. If you are already working with one study
when you choose File
Open Study, HyperRESEARCH first asks whether to save the
current study before opening another.
Open Special
Displays a dialog box with three options:
Create a new study file (equivalent to choosing File
New Study)
Open a recently-used study file that you choose from a menu (equivalent to
File

Open Recent)
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Open a recently-used study file that you choose from a menu (equivalent to
File

Open Recent)
Open a study file using the Open dialog box (equivalent to File

Open Study)

The same dialog box appears when you start HyperRESEARCH by double-clicking the
application rather than double-clicking a saved file.
Open Recent
Displays a menu with the names of study files you have used recently. Choose the
name of a file to open it.
Convert Older Study
Converts a HyperRESEARCH 1.x study file to the HyperRESEARCH 2.x format.
Before converting your study file, make sure that all source files that go with the study
are available, preferably all in the same folder. After you choose a study file to convert,
HyperRESEARCH asks where the first source file is, and whether all your source files are
in the same folder. Click Yes if they are; No if they are not.
Tip: If HyperRESEARCH prompts you to select a file that is no longer available, click
Cancel, then click the Skip button in the following dialog box. This will remove the
missing source file (and all associated code references) from your study.
Close Window
Closes the topmost window currently displayed on the screen.
If the study window is the active window, Close is not available, since a Study window
must be open while HyperRESEARCH is running. To close the study window and exit
HyperRESEARCH, choose File

Exit (Windows), HyperRESEARCH

HyperRESEARCH (OS X), or File

Quit

Quit (classic Mac) instead.

Save
Saves the current study file.
When saving a new study for the first time, HyperRESEARCH asks you to specify a
name and location for the file, as though you had chosen File

Save As.

Save As
Asks you for a name and location and saves the current study file in that location. You
can use this command to save a copy of the current study in another file. This could be
in another folder on the same drive, network drive, a floppy disk or other removable
storage media.
Revert to Saved
Reverts to the most recently saved version of the current study file, discarding all
unsaved changes.
Export Matrix
Exports data from the current study. You can export either a grid showing code
frequency for each code and case, suitable for use in the spreadsheet program, or a data
set to use with StudentCHIP data analysis software.
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Exports data from the current study. You can export either a grid showing code
frequency for each code and case, suitable for use in the spreadsheet program, or a data
set to use with StudentCHIP data analysis software.
See the Importing and Exporting Data topic for more information. For information
about StudentCHIP, visit the SSDAN website at http://www.ssdan.net/chip/.
Page Setup
Opens the Page Setup dialog box, which lets you specify paper size, orientation,
scaling, and other options supported by your printer.
Page Layout
Opens the Page Layout window, where you can set up margins, headers, and footers.
See the Printing topic for more information.
Print Preview
The Print Preview window displays a preview of the first page that will be sent to the
printer if you choose to print the current window with the current Page Layout settings.
Headers, footers, and contents are all shown. This lets you check the margins, headers,
and footers before printing.
Print
Prints the contents of the currently active window, including any headers or footers
currently specified in the Page Layout window. See the Printing topic for more
information.
Exit (Windows) or Quit (Mac)
Closes all windows and quits HyperRESEARCH. (If you have made changes to your study
since last saving it, HyperRESEARCH asks you whether you want to save the study
before quitting.)
(On OS X, this menu item is named Quit HyperRESEARCH and is located in the
HyperRESEARCH menu.)

Edit Menu
The Edit menu performs certain functions on the current selections (codes, cases, text,
etc.).
Undo
Reverses text editing operations such as typing, cutting, or pasting test in the
Annotation window or the Descriptions field of the Code List Editor.
Aside from basic text editing, most other features in HyperRESEARCH do not currently
support Undo Because of this limitation, it is advisable to save your study file before
doing some action that will add or remove code references, or that will have global
effects (such as Autocoding, copying and pasting codes between cases, deleting codes,
and so on). You can then choose File
Revert to Saved to return to the state of your
study before you made the change, if youre not satisfied with the change or if you
make a mistake.
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Aside from basic text editing, most other features in HyperRESEARCH do not currently
support Undo Because of this limitation, it is advisable to save your study file before
doing some action that will add or remove code references, or that will have global
effects (such as Autocoding, copying and pasting codes between cases, deleting codes,
HyperRESEARCH: HyperRESEARCH User Guide
and so on). You can then choose File
Revert to Saved to return to the state of your
study before you made the change, if youre not satisfied with the change or if you
make a mistake.
Cut
Removes the currently selected material and places a copy on the clipboard. (You can
move data from the clipboard by choosing Edit

Paste.)

The wording of this command changes depending on what is selected. If one or more
code references are highlighted in the study window, the command is Cut Code or Cut
Codes, and cutting removes the selected code references. If the study window is active
but no code references are selected, the command is Cut Case, and cutting removes
the current case card. If editable text (such as text in the annotation window or the code
description) is highlighted, the command is Cut. If whatever is currently selected cannot
be cut, the Cut command is disabled.
Tip: You can change whether code annotations and descriptions are included when
cutting code references or codes in the Options window (Windows) or Preferences
window (Mac). For more information, see the Options/Preferences Window topic.
Copy
Copies the currently selected material to the clipboard, without removing it from its
current location.
The wording of this command changes depending on what is selected. If one or more
code references are highlighted in the study window, the command is Copy Code or
Copy Codes. If the study window is active but no code references are selected, the
command is Copy Case, and copying copies the current case card. If editable text (such
as text in the annotation window or the code description) is highlighted, the command is
Copy. If whatever is currently selected cannot be copied, the Copy command is
disabled.
Paste
Pastes whatever is in the computers clipboard. Used in conjunction with the Copy
command, Paste can paste copied cases into your study, or paste copied code
references into the current case.
If the active window cannot accept the kind of data in the clipboard, the Paste
command is disabled.
Tip: The clipboard holds only one set of information at a time, so make sure you
Paste any cut or copied information before cutting or copying other information.
Delete
Removes the current selection.
Unlike the Cut command, any data removed with Delete cannot be restored. If you
need to paste the data elsewhere, use the Cut command instead.
The Delete command only works with code references in the study window. You cannot
delete a master code with this command. To delete a code from all cases in your study,
choose Delete Code from the Edit Code menu at the top of the Code List Editor
window.
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The Delete command only works with code references in the study window. You cannot
delete a master code with this command. To delete a code from all cases in your study,
choose Delete Code from the Edit Code menu at the top of the Code List Editor
window.
Select All
Selects (highlights) the contents of the currently active window. If the study window is
active, HyperRESEARCH highlights all the code references in the current case. If a
source window is topmost, HyperRESEARCH selects all of the material in that window.
Hide Highlighted
Hides (unselects and removes from view) all selected code references in the current
case. See the Selecting Codes topic for more information.
Hide Other
Hides (unselects and removes from view) all code references in the current case other
than those that are selected in the study window. See the Selecting Codes topic for
more information.
Find
Searches the current page of a text source file for the specified character string, word,
or phrase. The Find command is available only when a text source files window is in
front.
Find Again
Finds the next occurrence of the word or phrase last searched for using the Find
command.
Options/Preferences
Displays the Options dialog box (labeled Preferences on Mac OS). In the
Options/Preferences window, you can specify how you want HyperRESEARCH to operate.
For more information, see the Options/Preferences Window topic.

Cases Menu
The Cases menu navigates through the cases in your study, and selects cases to work
with.
New
HyperRESEARCH asks you to name the new case, and then creates a new case in your
study. The blank case is displayed in the study window.
Rename
Changes the name of the current case to the new name you specify. (A renamed case
retains all its information and code references; only the name has been changed.)
Delete
Deletes (removes) the current case.
You cannot undo the Delete command. Once you delete a case, the only way to get it
back is to revert to the last saved version - at the expense of any other work you may
have done since you last saved the study file. Once you save the study with the case
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You cannot undo the Delete command. Once you delete a case, the only way to get it
back is to revert to the last saved version - at the expense of any other work you may
have done since you last saved the study file. Once you save the study with the case
deleted, however, the only way to restore the case is to copy it from a backup version
of your study, or create it from scratch.
If your study has only one case, and you delete it, HyperRESEARCH will create a new
untitled case to replace it. You must have at least one case in your study.
First
Displays the first of the selected cases in your study. Case order is determined
alphabetically by case name. If the case you want isnt available, change the set of
selected cases by choosing Cases
with, then choose Cases

Select Cases. Select the cases you wish to work

First again.

Previous
Displays the case that comes before the current case. Case order is determined
alphabetically by case name. If the case you want isnt available, change the set of
selected cases by choosing Cases
with, then choose Cases

Select Cases. Select the cases you wish to work

Previous again.

Go to Case
Asks which case you want to go to, and displays that case.
If the case you wish to go to isnt listed, click Cancel and change the set of selected
cases by choosing Cases
choose Cases

Select Cases. Select the cases you wish to work with, then

Go to Case again.

Next
Displays the case that comes after the current case. Case order is determined
alphabetically by case name. If the case you want isnt available, change the set of
selected cases by choosing Cases
with, then choose Cases

Select Cases. Select the cases you wish to work

Next again.

Last
Displays the last of the selected cases in your study. Case order is determined
alphabetically by case name. If the case you want isnt available, change the set of
selected cases by choosing Cases
with, then choose Cases

Select Cases. Select the cases you wish to work

Last again.

Select Cases
Lets you choose which cases to work with. Cases you specify are shown, and all other
cases are hidden from view and wont be used in reports. This menu includes four
options:
All Cases: Show all cases in the current study.
By Name: Show cases you specify by name.
By Criteria: Show cases by presence or absence of codes.
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Current Case Only: Hide all other cases.
See the Selecting Cases topic for more information.

Sources Menu
The Sources menu allows you to work with your source material files.
Open Source
Selects and opens a source file for you to code.
This menu contains three options:
Text: Opens a plain text file.
Image: Opens an image file (JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP, or PICT file).
Movie or Audio: Opens a media file in any format supported by QuickTime.
For more information about supported source formats, see the File Types topic. For
more information about the window that appears when you make a selection from the
Open Source menu, see the Source Window (Text), Source Window (Image), and
Source Window (Movie or Audio) topics.
Close Source
Closes the current source window.
Remove Source
Removes all references to the source file you specify, including its entry in the Master
Source List and all code references assigned to the source material in the file.
Media Playback
When coding a movie or audio file, sets the start and end of the selected portion to code.
This menu includes two options:
Set Selection Start: Sets the start of the selected portion to the current location of the
play head.
Set Selection End: Sets the start of the selected portion to the current location of the
play head.

Codes Menu
The Codes Menu allows you to work with the code references in your study window, and
provides access to other code-related features.
Encode
If you have a portion of material selected in one of the source windows, choosing
Codes
Encode opens the Code List Editor so you can apply a code to create a new
code reference to that material. If the Code List Editor is already open, choosing
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Codes
Encode will trigger the Code List Editors Apply button, creating the new
code reference in one step.

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If you have a portion of material selected in one of the source windows, choosing
Codes
Encode opens the Code List Editor so you can apply a code to create a new
code reference to that material. If the Code List Editor is already open, choosing
Codes
Encode will trigger the Code List Editors Apply button, creating the new
code reference in one step.
See the Coding Source Material topic for tips on efficient coding.
Autocode
Displays the Autocode window. The Autocode feature will search text source files for
specified words or phrases and assign a specified code or codes to the found text. For
more information about the Autocode feature, see the Autocode Window topic.
Annotate
Opens the Annotation window for the selected code reference. If no code reference is
selected, this command is not available. For more information, see the Annotation
Window topic.
New
Creates a new code in the Code List Editor.
Duplicate
Duplicates the selected code references, adding the duplicate references to the current
case with the code you specify. Selecting this command displays a dialog box where you
choose the code you want to use for the duplicates.
If you have selected multiple code references in the study window, the Rename
command will duplicate all of them with the code you chose.
To duplicate code references with the same code, either select the original code in the
Code Selection dialog box, or choose Edit

Copy Code.

Rename
Opens a dialog window in which you can change the name of a code reference
highlighted in the study window. If you have selected multiple code references in the
study window, the Rename command will rename all of them.
The Rename command affects only the selected code references in the current case. To
rename a code in your master code list, choose Rename from the Edit Codes menu at
the top of the Code List Editor window.
Re-code
Lets you reassign code references highlighted in the study window to another code.
Selecting this item will open a dialog box containing a list of all codes. You can
optionally create a new code in this dialog by clicking the New Code button. After
selecting a code name from this list, click Select to confirm your choice and close the
dialog.
If you have selected multiple code references in the study window, the Re-code
command will re-code all of them.
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If you have selected multiple code references in the study window, the Re-code
command will re-code all of them.
The Re-code command affects only the selected code references in the current case.To
re-code a code in your Master Code List, choose Re-code from the Edit Codes menu at
the top of the Code List Editor window.
Delete
Deletes the all highlighted code references in the current case. This completely removes
the code from your case and cannot be undone. If you need to paste the code later,
choose Edit

Copy Code instead.

If you have selected multiple code references in the study window, the Delete
command will delete all of them.
The Delete command affects only the selected code references in the current case.To
delete a code in your Master Code List, choose Delete from the Edit Codes menu at
the top of the Code List Editor window.
Sort
Opens the Sort Codes dialog box, where you can specify criteria by which to sort the
codes.

HyperRESEARCH will sort first by the first criterion specified in this dialog box, then
within any duplicates of the initial criterion will sort by the second specified, etc. Criteria
include Code Name, Code Type (TEXT, IMAGE, MOVIE, THEME), Code Reference (the
source materials position within its source file), or Code Source (the source file
referenced).
If you make a mistake or wish to alter the sorting criteria, click Reset to remove the
criteria and start over. Click Sort to proceed, or Cancel to abort the sorting process.
Code List Editor
Opens the Code List Editor window, where you can work directly with your master code
list. Add, delete, or rename codes, enter code definitions, save your code list to a
separate file, or add a previously saved code list.
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Opens the Code List Editor window, where you can work directly with your master code
list. Add, delete, or rename codes, enter code definitions, save your code list to a
separate file, or add a previously saved code list.
For more information about the Code List Editor, see the Code List Editor topic.
Code Map
Opens the Code Map window, where you can create a visual diagram of your codes. You
can use this to visually organize your master codes, graphically illustrating links between
codes, groupings of codes, and the like. You may also apply the maps current code
selections to your study by choosing Codes

Select Codes

By Map.

See the Mapping Code Relations and Code Map Window topics for more information.
Select Codes
Selects a subset of codes you wish to work with. References assigned unselected codes
will be hidden, and you must re-select them if you wish to work with them.
This menu includes six options:
All Codes: Show all code references.
By Name: Show code references for codes you specify by name.
By Criteria: Show codes based on proximity functions.
By Map: Show codes that are highlighted in the Code Map.
By Type: Select only code references for Text, Image, Movie, or Theme. (The Theme
code type is a special type, not referring to any specific source material. Theme codes
may be added to the study by the Hypothesis Tester. See the Testing Hypotheses and
Including Codes of Type Theme topics for more information.)
Unselect All: Hides all code references currently present in your study.
See the Selecting Codes topic for more information.

Reports Menu
The Reports menu allows you to perform analyses on your data, creating reports with
various information based on the parameters you specify in the Report window.
See the Running Reports and Report Window topics for more information about
reports.
Frequency Report
Displays the Frequency Report window with the default frequency report settings. Use
this dialog box to specify the items to include in the frequency report, in addition to the
number of times each code has been used in the study.
See the Analyzing Code Frequencies and Frequency Report Window topics for
more information about frequency reports.
New Report
Displays the Report window with the default report settings. Use this dialog box to
specify the elements to include in the report.
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Displays the Report window with the default report settings. Use this dialog box to
specify the elements to include in the report.
Open Report Settings
Opens a report settings file that was previously saved using the Reports
Save
Report Settings As command. This will restore all of the saved reports settings,
including the parameters for code and case selection, source material type, report
elements to include, sorting criteria, and the like.
Save Report Settings As
Saves the current report settings to a file you can later open using the Reports
Open Report Settings command. HyperRESEARCH saves all of the reports settings,
including all the parameters for code and case selection, source material type, report
elements to include, sorting criteria, and the like.
Display
Creates a report based on the current settings in the Report window, and displays it in
a new window.
Export Text
Creates a report based on the current settings in the Report window, and saves it in a
text file. This file can be opened with any word processor or spreadsheet application for
viewing.

Hypothesis Menu
The Hypothesis Menu allows you to work with the HyperRESEARCH Hypothesis Tester, a
unique tool for testing hypotheses against your data using expert systems technology.
For more information about using the Hypothesis Tester, see the Hypothesis Window
and Testing Hypotheses topics. For an introduction to the Hypothesis Tester as used
in an example study, see

Tutorial 7: Using the Hypothesis Tester.

New
Displays the Hypothesis window.
Open
Opens a hypothesis settings file that was previously saved using the Hypothesis
Save As command. This will restore a saved hypothesis tests settings, including the
parameters for code and case selection, the hypothesis rules set, and the like.
Save As
Saves the current report settings to a file you can later open using the Hypothesis
Open command. HyperRESEARCH saves all of the tests settings, including all the
parameters for code and case selection, the hypothesis rules set, and whether or not any
Themes generated by the Hypothesis Tester should be applied to the cases involved.

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Add New Rule
Adds a new rule to the current hypothesis test Rules List. When you choose Add New
Rule, HyperRESEARCH will clear the IF and THEN sections in the Rule Editor and
advance the rule counter to the new rule number.
Clear Current Rule
Clears the contents of the IF and THEN sectons in the Rule Editor, without advancing
the Rule counter. You may then enter new expressions and actions in the IF and THEN
sections.
Remove Current Rule
Removes the current rule displayed in the Rule Editor, and renumbers subsequent rules.
Display
Creates a report based on the current settings in the Hypothesis window, and displays it
in a new window.
Export
Creates a report based on the current settings in the Hypothesis window, and saves it in
a text file. This file can be opened with any word processor or spreadsheet application
for viewing.

Windows Menu
Note: This menu may contain additional menu items depending on the platform, to
comply with standard guidelines for Mac and Windows.
Bring All To Front
Brings all windows belonging to HyperRESEARCH to the front.
Default Layout 1
Adjusts the size and placement of the study window, Code List Editor, and source
window. The study window is placed on the left side of the screen, the source window is
placed on the right, and the Code List Editor is expanded to the full height of the screen
and placed in the middle. This layout is especially useful if you want to see the entire
code list at a glance.

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Default Layout 2
Adjusts the size and placement of the study window, Code List Editor, and source
window. The study window is placed on the left side of the screen, the Code List Editor
is placed below it, and the source window is placed on the right.

Default Layout 3
Adjusts the size and placement of the study window, Code List Editor, and source
window. This layout is similar to Default Layout 2, but the source window is made larger
and the additional columns in the study window are hidden. (For more information, see
the Study Window topic.) This layout is especially useful if you want to devote as
much space as possible to your source window.
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Adjusts the size and placement of the study window, Code List Editor, and source
window. This layout is similar to Default Layout 2, but the source window is made larger
and the additional columns in the study window are hidden. (For more information, see
the Study Window topic.) This layout is especially useful if you want to devote as
much space as possible to your source window.

Use the Default Layout commands to adjust the window placement and relative size
for your convenience when performing different tasks. You can change the layout of
windows at any time, or manually move and resize your windows.
Tip: If you change your screen resolution while HyperRESEARCH is running, the
Default Layout commands use the resolution that was set when HyperRESEARCH
started, not the new resolution. To use a different resolution, quit HyperRESEARCH,
change your screen resolution, then start HyperRESEARCH again.
Window names
The Windows menu includes a list of open HyperRESEARCH windows. Choosing a
window name from this list will bring that window to the front.

Help menu
The Help menu includes commands to get help and information, register your copy of
HyperRESEARCH, or get your registration information.
HyperRESEARCH Help
Opens this Help window. (For more information about the built-in Help, see the Using
HyperRESEARCH Help topic.)
Enter License Key

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Registers your copy of HyperRESEARCH. In the dialog box, enter your name, your
organization (optional), and the license key you received when you purchased
HyperRESEARCH. For more information, see the Licensing HyperRESEARCH section of
the Installing HyperRESEARCH topic.
If you have already registered this copy of HyperRESEARCH, this menu item turns into
Help

Show Registration Info.

Show Registration Info


Displays the name, organization, and license code for this copy of HyperRESEARCH.
This menu item is not available if you are using the free Limited Edition, since the
Limited Edition is not registered.
Support Page at ResearchWare.com
Displays the Support page at the ResearchWare web site in your default browser. Use
this command to get technical support, news, and updates, and to subscribe to the
HyperRESEARCH mailing list.

HyperRESEARCH Windows
This section describes each of the windows used in HyperRESEARCH.

Coding windows
The Study window, Code List Editor, and Source window appear from right to left (by
default). These are the basic windows you use when coding.
The Study window displays the code references for the current case.
The Source window displays the source file you are coding. Sources may be text files,
images, movies, or audio files.
The Code List Editor displays a list of the codes you have added to your study. In the
Code List Editor, you can add, delete, duplicate, and rename codes.
The Annotation window is used when added a note to a code reference.
The Autocode window searches for certain phrases in a source file and automatically
adds your selected codes to them.

Analysis windows
The Code Map window lets you create visual maps of your codes and the relationships
between them.
The Hypothesis window lets you enter a set of rules and test how many of your cases
fulfill those rules. The Report window lets you set up selections for creating a report.
The results of a report or a hypothesis test are shown in the Report or Hypothesis
display window.
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The
Hypothesis window
lets you enter
a set of rules and test how many of your cases
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User Guide
fulfill those rules. The Report window lets you set up selections for creating a report.
The results of a report or a hypothesis test are shown in the Report or Hypothesis
display window.
The Options/Preferences window sets up preferences for automatic backups and
program operation.

The Study Window


The study window displays the list of cases and the code references for each case in
your study. One case and its code references are displayed at a time, and you can use
the controls in the study window to navigate through your cases and code references.
A study window corresponds to a HyperRESEARCH file that youve saved: when you
double-click a saved HyperRESEARCH study file, the study window opens. To create a
new study window, choose File

New Study.

Study window layout


When you first start HyperRESEARCH and create a new untitled study, youll see a blank
study window containing one untitled case. You can create any number of cases, each
with a different name. As you code your source material, the code references for each
case are listed in the study window:

At the top of the Study Window, you see the current studys title. (This title will be
whatever you name your Study when you first save it.) This study is named QDA
Study. It has six cases, and we are currently looking at the case named BERGER.

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Cases Selected section

Below the study title, youll find information about the cases in the study. The Cases
Selected section tells you how many cases have been created in this study, and how
many of these are currently selected.
Only one case is displayed at one time, but several or all can be selected. You switch
between the currently selected cases by using the small left and right arrows next to the
case name, or by choosing from the items in the Cases menu.
The Select Cases menu filters the current set of active cases. You use this menu to
select specific cases, so that you can work with a subset of your study. You can select
All Cases, select cases By Name or By Criteria, or select the Current Case Only and hide
all the others.
Tip: Choosing an item from the Select Cases menu does the same thing as choosing
Cases

Select Cases in the menu bar.

See the Selecting Cases topic for more information.

Help
The ? button opens the HyperRESEARCH Help system and displays this information.

Current case

Below the Cases Selected section is information about the current case, including its
name and its order among the currently selected cases. The left and right arrows allow
you to view the previous or next case among the current set of cases. (Cases are in
alphabetical order by name.)

Code references list


The main part of the study window contains the code references applied during the
coding process.

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Clicking a code reference highlights it. (If the View Source box at the bottom of the
study window is checked, clicking a code reference opens the source file to the location
of the reference. If the View Annotation box is checked, the associated annotation will
appear in the annotation window.)
Tip: To select more than one code reference in the list, first click the first reference,
then Command-click (Mac) or Control-click (Windows) each of the additional references.
Each line in the scrolling field corresponds to one code reference for the current case.
For each code reference, we see the code, the source file that the reference is in, the
type of source file, and the location of the reference. Source files can be TEXT, IMAGE,
MOVIE, or THEME. (Theme codes are added by the Hypothesis Tester and arent
associated with any particular source material. See the Testing Hypotheses topic for
more information.)
Tip: Because you can select a subset of codes to work with, the code references you
see in this window may not include all the code references for this case. To make sure
you are seeing all the codes, choose All Codes from the Select Codes menu at the
bottom of the study window. See the Selecting Codes topic for more information.
You can change the width of the columns by placing the pointer over the dividing line
until you see it change to the column resize pointer. Then drag the divider to the left or
right.
You can also change what columns are displayed in this list. To the right of the column
titles is an arrow button. The arrow button switches between displaying all five columns
and displaying just the Annotation and Code Name columns.

The annotation column


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Annotations are notes, to yourself or to other researchers, that are attached to a
particular code reference. The first column of the code references list indicates whether
this reference includes an annotation. If so, the first column will contain a symbol.

Codes Selected section

At the bottom of the study window is information about the codes used in this case. The
Codes Selected entry tells you how many codes have been created for this case, and
how many of these are currently selected.
The Select Codes menu filters the current set of active codes. You use this menu to
select specific codes, so that you can work with a subset of your study. You can select
All Codes, select codes By Name or By Criteria, by using the selected codes in the Code
Map, by type of code, or None. See the Selecting Codes topic for more information.
Tip: Choosing an item from the Select Codes menu does the same thing as choosing
Codes

Select Codes in the menu bar.

The up and down arrows highlight the previous or next code reference among the code
references displayed on the current case.

View checkboxes

Below the Codes Selected section, youll find two checkboxes: View Annotation and
View Source.
If the View Source box at the bottom of the study window is checked, clicking a code
reference opens the source file to the location of the reference. If the View Annotation
box is checked, the associated annotation will appear in the annotation window.
Tip: Automatically opening the source or annotation window takes some little time, so
it is sometimes convenient to leave these boxes unchecked when manipulating the code
references (cutting, copying, pasting, deleting, sorting or selecting).

The Source Window (Text Files)


The Source window displays the source material for your study. In a source window for a
text file, you can select words or phrases to code, and see what's already been coded.

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To open a text source file, choose Sources


Open Source
Text, then select the
file you want to use. The file is displayed in the Source window.

Once youve opened a source file, click and drag to select text for coding.
To change the font or text size, click the Font Settings button at the top of the source
window.
Tip: To divide your source file into multiple pages, insert a tilde (~) at each page
break. If you have inserted tildes (~) as page breaks in your source file, you can
navigate through the pages using the Page Number arrows. If you have not, the page
number will read 1 of 1.
See the Preparing Source Material and Coding Source Material topics for more
information.

Re-opening the source window


Once you have coded a source file, you can open it by clicking a code reference to that
source in the Study window.
If the View Source box at the bottom of the study window is checked, the source file
opens automatically when you click a code reference, displaying the passage you coded.

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Codes in Context
The Codes in Context box at the bottom of the source window highlights a code
reference when you open a source file by clicking the reference. If the Codes in
Context box checked, the codes you have appear to the left of the main body of text.
Clicking a code highlights the text associated with the code:

If you uncheck the Codes in Context box, the margin disappears, and you see only the
text in the source window, without the codes:

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Tip: When Codes in Context is checked, you can change the width of the margin by
dragging the vertical divider between the codes and the text to the left or right.

The Source Window (Image Files)


The Source window displays the source material for your study. In a source window for
an image file, you can select a portion of the image to apply a code to, and see what's
already been coded. If the picture is too large to fit, the window scrolls horizontally and
vertically.
To open an image source file, choose Sources
Open Source
Image, then select
the file you want to use. The file is displayed in the Source window. You can open files
in GIF, PNG, JPEG, BMP, or PICT format.

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Use the mouse to drag a rectangular selection in the source window. When you add a
code, the location of the selected portion of the image is recorded in your study file as
part of the code reference. You can code the entire picture by selecting the whole thing,
or assign different codes to different parts of the picture.
See the Preparing Source Material and Coding Source Material topics for more
information.

The Source Window (Movie or Audio Files)


The Source window displays the source material for your study. In a source window for a
movie or audio file, you can play the file and select a portion to apply a code to.
To open a movie or audio source file, choose Sources
Open Source
Movie or
Audio, then select the file you want to use. The file is displayed in the Source window.
You can use any audio or video format supported by the version of QuickTime you have
installed. Supported video formats include MPEG, AVI, and QuickTime. Supported audio
formats include AIFF, MP3, WAV, and AU.

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The Source window displays your file in a window with a standard playback controller,
containing icons to play, pause, go forward and back. If the file is a movie file, the
movie appears above the controller. For audio files, only the controller appears.
To select a portion of the file for coding, do one of the following:
Click at the starting point and choose Sources

Media Playback

Start. Then click at the ending point and choose Sources


Selection End.

Set Selection

Media Playback

Set

Click at the starting point, then shift-click at the ending point.


See the Preparing Source Material and Coding Source Material topics for more
information.
The current time, and the start and end times of the selected portion, appear at the top
of the source window. When you code the portion youve selected, the start and end
times of the selected portion are stored in your study file.
Tip: If the movie appears too small, resize the window to make it larger. The movie is
expanded or contracted to fit in the source window.

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The Code List Editor


The Code List Editor shows a list of all the codes currently in your study. This window
includes controls to create new codes, edit code names, delete codes, and apply a code
to a selection of source material to create a new code reference.
The Code List Editor opens automatically when you start HyperRESEARCH. To re-open it
if youve closed the window, choose Codes

Code List Editor.

Clicking a code highlights it. The Edit Code menu, located at the top of the Code List
Editor window, is used to change the selected code or codes. The Apply Code button
applies the selected codes to the selected part of a source, creating a code reference.
Tip: To select more than one code in the list, first click the first code, then
Command-click (Mac) or Control-click (Windows) each of the additional codes.

The Edit Code menu


The commands in the Edit Code menu are:
New Code:
Creates a new code in the master code list, after asking you for the new codes name.
Delete Code:
Removes the selected code or codes from your study. This command also removes any
code references that use the deleted code.
Duplicate:
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Duplicates all code references for the selected code or codes in all cases of your study.
You can assign the same code to the duplicates, or choose a different code.
Rename:
Changes the name of the selected code to a new name you enter.
Re-code:
Reassigns all the code references associated with the selected code to another code.
Import List:
Imports a list of code names and optional code descriptions from a file that was
exported from another study file.
Tip: To share a common set of codes among members of your research team, first use
the Export List command to export the code list, then use this command to import it
into all other copies of the study file.
Export List:
Exports the master code list and code descriptions to a file. This file can be imported
into another HyperRESEARCH study file.

The Codes menu versus the Edit Code menu


Most of the commands in the Edit Code menu can also be found in the Codes menu,
located in the HyperRESEARCH menu bar. However, the two menus do different things.
The commands in the Codes menu only change the specific code references in the study
window, but the Edit Code menu in the Code List Editor changes the master code list
itself.
For example, if you select a code in the Code List Editor window and then choose
Rename from the Edit Code menu at the top of the window, the new name is applied
to all of that codes code references, throughout your study. But if you select a specific
code reference in the Study window and then choose Codes
Rename, the new name
is assigned only to the single highlighted code reference, and other references that use
the code are unchanged.
Changes made to the master code list are global. They affect all related code
references throughout your study, regardless of code or case selection. When
deleting codes from the master code list, you may prefer to save your study first in case
of mistakes, because there is no Undo for deleting a code.

Using the Apply Code button to create a code reference


To code source material, follow these steps:

Open a source file.

Select the relevant portion of the source.

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Select a code in the Code List Editor window.

Click Apply Code.

The new code reference is added to the current case in the study window.
HyperRESEARCH provides a number of shortcuts and advanced techniques to speed up
the coding process. For more information, see the topic Coding Source Material.

Adding descriptions to codes


Each code in the master code list can have a description associated with it. The code
description can contain any text you want, allowing you to include your own notes about
the code.
To show the Description box, click the arrow control at the bottom of the Code List
Editor window. Click the arrow again to hide the Description box, allowing more room
for the code list.

To change the description of a code, select the code in the list, then enter your
comments in the Description box at the bottom of the window.

The Annotation Window


The Annotation window adds an annotation to a code reference. An annotation is a note
to yourself or to other researchers. You can include any amount of text in an annotation.

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To open the Annotation window, click a code reference in the study window, then choose
Codes

Annotate. The Annotation window opens for you to enter a note.

Tip: To automatically open the Annotation window when you click a code reference,
check the View Annotation box at the bottom of the study window.
Each code reference can have its own annotation. Code references that have an
annotation are marked in the study window with a symbol.
To change the font or text size, click the Font Settings button at the top of the window.

The Code Map Window


The Code Map lets you visually display your master codes and the relationships between
them. It works like a drawing program: you place a rectangle representing each master
code you want to work with, then draw connections between them to display the
relationships you want to examine. You can also add pictures and text memos to help
you organize your work.

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To open the Code Map window, choose Codes


Code Map. A blank code map appears,
with a set of tools at the top of the window. These tools let you add, highlight, and
connect codes and memos. To the right of the tools is the Action menu, marked with a
gear symbol
. At the bottom of the window is an additional set of tools that lets you
control the overall size and behavior of the code map window.
For more information about using the Code Map, see the Mapping Code Relations and
Selecting Codes topics.

The Code Maps menu


The Code Maps menu, at the top left of the Code Map window, lets you choose a code
map to work with. When you first open the Code Map window, there is only one code
map, named Code Map 1.

To add a new code map, click the + button.


To delete the current code map, click the button.
To switch to another code map, choose its name from the menu.

The Code Map tools


There are four tools available at the top of the window: Select, Add, Link, and Mark.
Click any of the tools to work with that tool. (Each tool is described below.)

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The Select, Add, and Mark tools also have menus that modify the action of the tool.
To open the menus, press and hold the mouse button on the tools icon.
Tip: You can also select a tool by typing the first letter of the tool name. For example,
typing S chooses the Select tool.

The Select tool and the Select menu


Use the Select tool to select or resize objects in the Code Map: codes, pictures, memos,
and links.
To select an object in the Code Map, click it with the Select tool. To select additional
objects, click them while holding down the Shift key.

To change an objects size, first select it, then drag one of the small square handles at
the corners and sides of the selected object. Resizing codes and other objects lets you
express your feelings about their relative significance, making some larger and others
smaller.
To remove a code, click it with the Select tool, then press the Delete key.
If you hold down the mouse button over the Select tool, a menu appears. This menu
lets you select all objects, or select any type of object.
Select All Objects:
Selects every objectcodes, memos, images, and linksin the code map.
Select All Nodes:
Selects every code in the code map.
Select All Links:
Selects every link (without selecting the codes they link together).
Select All Memos:
Selects every memo in the code map.
Select All Images:
Selects every image in the code map.

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Select None:
Deselects all selected objects.
Invert Selection:
Selects everything that wasnt selected, and deselects everything that was.
Select Connected:
Selects all codes that are linked to the currently selected code or codes. In the dialog
box that appears, you can specify how many levels of link to follow.

For example, in the code map shown above, if you select the code technologically
creative, then choose Select Connected from the Select menu and specify 1 level,
the codes computer as creativity tool and more involved with data are selected.
These two codes are the only ones that are directly lined to technologically creative,
as the link lines show.

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If you specify 2 levels of connection, then all the codes that are linked either to
technologically creative or to one of its links will be selected. These are all the codes
that are colored yellow in the image above.

The Add tool and the Add menu


Use the Add tool to place codes in the Code Map.
To add a code, choose the Add tool and then click at the location where you want to
place the code. A dialog box appears listing all codes in your study. Select the code to
add, then click Select to add that code to the Code Map. A box appears where you
clicked, with the name of the code in it.
Tip: To add several codes at once, click them in the dialog box while holding down the
Control key (Windows) or Command key (Mac). If you select multiple codes, a box is
added for each code.
If you hold down the mouse button over the Add tool, a menu appears. This menu adds
codes to the code map.
Add Nodes From Selected Codes:
Lists all the codes that are currently selected in the study. (You select a subset of codes
using the Select Codes menu near the bottom of the study window.) When you choose
a code, a box labeled with the codes name is added to the code map.

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Add Nodes From Master Codes:
Lists all codes in the study, whether or not they are in the currently selected set of
codes. (This list is the same as the list in the Code List Editor.) When you choose a
code, a box labeled with the codes name is added to the code map.
When you use the Add menu to add codes, the new codes appear at the top left of the
code map. If they overlap existing codes, simply move them out of the way using the
Select tool.

The Link tool


To indicate a relationship between codes, use the Link tool to connect them with a line.
First select a code to link, then click the Link tool. A line appears between the selected
code and the mouse pointer. As you move the mouse, the line follows the pointer. To
complete the link, click another code. The two codes are now connected by a line. If you
move one of the codes, the link moves with it, continuing to connect the two codes
visually.
To create links between one code and several others in a single step, first select the
several codes. (To select more than one code, Shift-click each code.) Then click the
Link tool. When you click a code, all the selected codes are linked to that code.
To remove a link, click it with the Select tool, then press the Delete key. (When a code
is deleted, all links to it are deleted automatically.)
The Link tool does not have a menu associated with it.

The Mark tool and the Mark menu


Use the Mark tool to highlight codes for special attention. When a code is marked, it
turns a bright yellow color thats visually distinct from other codes in the Code Map.
To mark a code, choose the Mark tool, then click the code.
If you hold down the mouse button over the Mark tool, a menu appears. This menu lets
you mark and unmark codes, or select only the marked codes in the study window.
Mark Selection:
Highlights all selected codes. (To select a code, click it with the Select tool.)
Unmark Selection:
Unhighlights all selected codes.
Mark All Nodes:
Highlights all codes in the code map.
Unmark All:
Removes highlighting from all codes in the code map.
Select Marked Nodes:
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Selects all the highlighted codes. (Use this command if you want to do something with
the set of all marked codes.)
Select Unmarked Nodes:
Selects all the codes that dont have yellow highlighting. Use this command if you want
to do something with the set of all codes that arent marked.)
Apply Marked Set to Study Window:
Applies the set of highlighte codes to the study windowd. (This action is equivalent to
choosing By Name from the Select Codes menu at the bottom of the study window,
then selecting the names of the marked codes to display.)

The Action menu


The Action menu is at the top right of the Code Map window, marked by a gear symbol
, and lets you add and resize pictures, memos, and codes.

New Memo:
Creates a text memo field in the code map. You can enter any text you want into the
memo. Use the Select tool to move or resize it. You can add as many memos as you
want.
Place Image:
Displays the contents of a picture file in the code map. You can choose any file on your
disk thats in PNG, JPEG, GIF, or BMP format. The file is only displayed, not imported,
so if you move, rename, or delete the picture file, it will disappear from the code map.
The image is placed behind all other objects in the code map, so it forms a background
if other objects overlap it.
Tip: To change the image to display another file, double-click it and select the picture
file you want to use.
Scale Selected Image:
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Resizes the selected image to the specified percentage.
To make the image smaller than actual size, enter a value less than 100 (for example,
scaling the image to 50% makes it half the original height and width). To make it
larger, enter a value greater than 100 (for example, scaling the image to 200% makes
it twice as large).
Restore Selection to Original Size:
Changes the selected objects back to their original size. Pictures are scaled to 100%,
and codes and memos are resized to fit their text.
Restore All to Original Size:
Changes all objects back to their original size. whether they are currently selected or
not. Pictures are scaled to 100%, and codes and memos are resized to fit their text.
Rename Current Code Map:
Changes the name of the currently selected code map (for example, Code Map 1) to
the new name you enter.
Resize Relative to Frequency:
Resizes all codes in the current code map according to their frequency in the study.
Codes used more frequently are displayed in a larger box, and codes used less
frequently are displayed in a smaller box. The frequency count is shown in parentheses
next to the code name.

The page controls


At the bottom of the Code Map window are controls for adjusting properties of the map:

Page Size:
Click Page Size to display a dialog box that controls the page size of the code map.
Enter the page height and width in inches.
Show Page Breaks:
If this box is checked, the Code Map window displays faint blue lines at page
boundaries. Use the page-break lines to see where page breaks will occur when you print
the code map.
Snap to Grid:
If this box is checked, when you create, drag, and resize objects, they are automatically
placed on an imaginary grid. Use this feature to make the code map neater. If you want
to control the exact placement of objects in the Code Map window, uncheck this box,
and objects will be placed exactly where you put them.

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Grid Size:
Hold down the mouse button over the Grid Size control to choose a grid size in pixels.
The grid size controls the coarseness of the imaginary grid that objects snap to. (If the
Snap to Grid box is unchecked, the Grid Size menu is unavailable.)

The Hypothesis Window


The Hypothesis window helps you determine whether your study data supports a
particular inference youve proposed. You test a hypothesis by proposing a set of rules
concerning the proposed relationship between codes. The Hypothesis Tester then
examines your study to see whether the relationship actually exists.
For an introduction to the Hypothesis Tester as used in an example study, see
Tutorial 7: Using the Hypothesis Tester.
To open the Hypothesis window, choose Hypothesis

New.

The Hypothesis window consists of two main sections: the Hypothesis Rule List in the
top half, and the Rule Editor in the bottom half. The Show Rule Editor triangle hides
and shows the Rule Editor.
The Hypothesis Rule List simply lists the Rules youve defined in the Rule Editor.
These rules translate your hypothesis into terms that HyperRESEARCH can understand.
See the Testing Hypotheses and Hypothesis Menu topics for more information about
using the Hypothesis Tester.
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See the Testing Hypotheses and Hypothesis Menu topics for more information about
using the Hypothesis Tester.

The Hypothesis Rule List


The Hypothesis Rule List displays the rules youve defined in the Rule Editor.
When you have finished building and adding new rules, click Export or Display to test
the hypothesis. If you click Display, the results are shown in a window. If you click
Export, the results are saved in a text file whose name you enter.
Click Cancel to close the Hypothesis Tester window.

The Rule Editor


The Rule Editor has two main parts: the IF section, where you create the expression to
test, and the THEN section, where you specify what to do in each case where the IF
expression is true. When you have finished specifying both the IF and THEN sections,
click the OK button at the upper right of the Rule Editor section to add the new rule to
the Hypothesis Rule List in the top of the window.
In the IF section, you create a statement about codes in your study, using the Build
Expression menu:
Function:
Chooses one of the four functions Equals, Excludes, Includes, or Overlaps. (For
information about these functions, see the Code Proximity Functions topic.)
Code:
Selects a code from the master code list.
NOT:
Adds NOT to the rule. The boolean operator NOT looks for cases where the statement
following is not true. For example, if you choose NOT, then choose a code, the rule
specifies all the cases where that code is not used.
AND:
Adds AND to the rule. The boolean operator AND looks for cases where the statement
before and the statement after AND are both true. For example, if you choose a code,
then AND, then another code, the rule specifies all the cases where both codes are used.
OR:
Adds OR to the rule. The boolean operator OR looks for cases where either the
statement before OR or the statement after or both are true. For example, if you
choose a code, then OR, then another code, the rule specifies all the cases where one or
both codes are used.
The content of the Build Expression menu varies depending on the context. When you
begin, the menu contains the items Function, Code, and NOT. After you add a code or
function, the menu changes to contain AND and OR.
The expression you are building appears in the box below the Build Expression menu.
(For more information about building an IF statement, see the Expressions and
Selection Criteria topic.)
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The expression you are building appears in the box below the Build Expression menu.
(For more information about building an IF statement, see the Expressions and
Selection Criteria topic.)
To remove the entire expression and start over, click Clear IF.
In the THEN section, you specify what to do if the statements in the IF section are
found to be true, using the Actions menu:
Add Goal:
A goal is a final endpoint in a set of rules. If the statement in the IF section is found to
be true for a case and a goal is added, HyperRESEARCH considers the hypothesis to
have been proven for that case. (Most hypotheses have only one goal, although it is
possible to include multiple goals in a single hypothesis.) Therefore, you usually use
Add Goal in the final rule of your hypothesis.
Add Code:
Temporarily adds a code you specify to any case where the IF statement is found to be
true. You can use this temporary code in other, later rules in the same hypothesis.
Adding a temporary code is a handy way of marking a case for later use, and it also lets
you specify a code as functionally equivalent to a statement being true.
If the Add Themes to Cases box in the Hypothesis Rule List section is checked, the
code is permanently added to the case and can be seen in the study window. Otherwise,
the code is only temporary, and is not seen in the study window.
Remove Code:
Temporarily removes a code you specify, for any case where the IF statement is found
to be true. Temporarily removing a code is a handy way of hiding the code from other,
later rules in the same hypothesis. This command affects only the rules in the current
hypothesis. It does not change the master code list and does not remove any code
references from your study. Unlike the Add Code command, the Remove Code
command cannot be made permanent by checking a box. It is always temporary.
See the Testing Hypotheses topic for more information.

The Report Window


The Report window creates a summary report of your study data. In the Report window,
you specify what information will be included and how it will be sorted.
To open the Report window, choose Reports

New Report.

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The report includes only the cases and codes that are currently selected in your study.
(See the Selecting Cases and Selecting Codes topics for more information.) To create
a report on all cases and codes, first make sure to choose Cases
Cases and choose Codes

Select Codes

Select Cases

All

All Codes.

When you have finished setting up your report, click Export Text or Display to run the
report. If you click Display, the results are shown in a window. If you click Export
Text, the results are saved in a text file whose name you enter.
Click Cancel to close the Report window.
See the Running Reports topic for more information about reports.

Source types to include


The Source Types to Include section specifies which code references to include, based
on the source type of the code reference:
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The Source Types to Include section specifies which code references to include, based
on the source type of the code reference:
Text:
Text code references are those that refer to a word or phrase in a text file.
Image:
Image code references refer to a portion of an image file.
Movie:
Movie code references refer to a portion of a movie or audio file.
Theme:
Theme code references are added by the Hypothesis Tester, and are associated with the
case itself rather than with any specific source material. (For more information, see the
Testing Hypotheses topic.)
Check the box for each of the source types you wish to include. If a box is not checked,
code references with that source type will be ignored when creating the report.

Report elements to include


The Report Elements to Include section specifies the types of information that will be
in the report.
A report usually includes a list of code references. The checkboxes in the left column
control the display of code references. The checkboxes in the right column control the
display of global information about the study, which is placed on the first page of the
report, before the code reference information. If none of the boxes in the left column
are checked, no code reference information is included in the report.
Code reference information:
Check the Case Name, Code Name, Code Type, Code Reference, and Source
Name boxes to include this information for each code reference found. This information
is the same as is found in the study window for each code reference.
If all five of these boxes are checked, the Hyperlinks box is also checked. If
Hyperlinks is checked, the code reference is clickable in the Report Display window
(which you see when you click the Display button). When you click the hyperlink, the
source window opens and the quoted material is automatically highlighted or played. If
the Hyperlinks box is not checked, the code reference is displayed as plain text and is
not clickable.
The Code Frequency checkbox specifies whether to include the count of occurrences of
each code.
Tip: To obtain a frequency matrix of codes and cases, choose File
instead of creating a report.

Export Matrix

The Source Material checkbox includes the actual quotation from the source material in
each code reference. (Only text source material is included. Sources from images,
movies, or audio files cannot be included in a report. To easily access such source
material from a report, check the Hyperlinks box.)
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The Source Material checkbox includes the actual quotation from the source material in
each code reference. (Only text source material is included. Sources from images,
movies, or audio files cannot be included in a report. To easily access such source
material from a report, check the Hyperlinks box.)
The Annotations checkbox includes any annotations youve entered for each code
reference. For more information about annotating code references, see the Annotation
Window topic.
Global report information:
The Master Case List is a complete list of all cases in the current study. All cases are
included in this list, even if only a subset of cases is currently selected.
The List of Selected Cases is a list of the currently selected cases. (See the Selecting
Cases topic for more information about selecting cases.)
The Case Selection Criteria are the selection criteria used to select the current set of
cases. If all cases are selected, the selection criterion is All Cases.
The Master Code List is a complete list of all codes created for the current study. All
codes are included in this list, even if only a subset of codes is currently selected.
The List of Selected Codes is a list of currently selected codes. (See the Selecting
Codes topic for more information about selecting codes.)
The Code Selection Criteria are the current criteria for selected codes. If all codes are
selected, the selection criterion is All Codes.
The Master Source File List is a list of the names and locations of all of the source
files that have ever been coded for the current study. (Even if all the code references
for a particular source file are later deleted, that source file remains in the Master
Source File List.)

Sort report
You may sort the code references in a report by choosing the Case Name or Code
Name option at the bottom of the Report window.

Pagination
Use the pop-up menu in the Pagination section to choose whether to display the report
on multiple pages or on a single page.
If you display the report on a single page, all code references in the report appear in a
single scrolling list when the report is displayed. Codes or cases (depending on how the
report is sorted) are separated by a horizontal line.
If you display the report on multiple pages, the report includes one page per case or per
code, depending on how the report is sorted. (If you selected any of the checkboxes on
the right side of the Report Elements to Include section, these elements are placed
on the first page.) You can move between pages using the arrows at the top of the
Report display window.

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(The Pagination setting does not affect the format of exported reports.)

The Report Display Window and the Hypothesis


Display Window
The Report Display window (or Hypothesis Display window, if youre using the
Hypothesis Tester) appears when you click the Display button in either the Report
window or the Hypothesis window. It shows the results of the report or test.

The report information appears in the center of the window.


If you chose Display on Multiple Pages in the Pagination section of the Report
window, the page number appears at the top of the report window, as shown above. The
example displays a report consisting of 6 pages. The page being shown is number 2 of
6. Click the arrows to move between pages.
The Font Settings button changes the font and text size for easier viewing. (You may
find it convenient to use a monospaced font such as Courier to display reports.)
See the Running Reports or Testing Hypotheses topic for more information.

The Frequency Report Window


The Frequency Report window creates a summary of how often your codes have been
used in the study. In the Frequency Report window, you specify what information will
be included in the report.
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To open the Frequency Report window, choose Reports

Frequency Report.

Your frequency report will list all the codes in the Code List Editor, along with the total
number of times each code has been used in your study. (If you have selected certain
codes to work with, only the selected codes are shown. For more about code and case
selection, see the topics Selecting Codes and Selecting Cases.)
The checkboxes in the Frequency Report window allow you to include additional
information about each code. Each option is displayed in its own column in the frequency
report.
You can display the following optional information about each code, along with the total:
Minimum: The smallest number of times that the code has been used in any case in
your study. (If there are any cases in your study where the code has not been used, the
minimum for that code is zero.)
Maximum: The largest number of times that the code has been used in any case in
your study.
Mean: The average (arithmetic mean) number of times the code is used per case.
Standard Deviation: The standard deviation of the distribution of codes across the
cases.

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Bar Graph: A horizontal bar thats proportional to the total number of times the code
has been used in your study. (This is the same information as in the Total column,
presented in visual format to make it easier to scan.)
When you have finished selecting the information you want in your report, click Display
to show the report. The results are shown in a window:

The total number of codes shown, and the total number of uses of codes (that is, the
number of selected code references in your study) are displayed at the bottom of the
window.
The Export Text button asks you to specify a new file name, then creates a text file
with the frequency report information. The columns are separated by tabs, so the file
can be imported into a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel.
The Print button prints the frequency report.

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See the Analyzing Code Frequencies topic for more information about creating
frequency reports. Also see the Running Reports topic for information about creating
other kinds of reports.

The Autocode Window


The Autocode feature will search text source files for specified words or phrases and
assign a specified code or codes to the found text.
To open the Autocode window, choose Codes

Autocode.

The Autocode window includes three panels:


Sources: specifies which source files to search
Phrases: specifies what phrases to search for
Code: specifies which code or codes to assign to the found text
To use a panel, click its tab at the top of the window.
For an introduction to the autocoding feature as used in an example study, see
Tutorial 6: Advanced Code and Retrieve Features.

Sources
The Sources tab displays the currently selected cases in your study, and allows you to
assign text source files to each case. If the case selection is not exactly what you want,
cancel out of the Autocode dialog box, choose Cases
case selection, then choose Codes

Select Cases to revise your

Autocode again.

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Once the proper cases are showing in the Sources tab of the Autocode window,
double-click a case to assign a source file to that case. You may assign more than one
source file to a case. You may also assign the same source file to more than one case.

Phrases
The Phrases tab allows you to specify the words or phrases (the search string) you wish
HyperRESEARCH to search for and select.

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To enter a search string, click Select Phrase. Enter any phrase you wish
HyperRESEARCH to search for. (HyperRESEARCH will find only exact matches.) You
may enter multiple search strings; each passage of source material that matches any of
the search strings will be selected for Autocoding. You may also instruct
HyperRESEARCH to include a specified number of characters, words, or lines before and
after the found phrase in the source material selection.
If you make a mistake with your phrases, click Clear to remove all search phrases, and
enter them again.

Codes
The Codes tab allows you to specify the code or codes you wish assigned to the
passages specified in the Phrases panel. Click the Select Codes button to access your
Master Code List. You may select multiple codes; each selected code will be assigned to
every selection of source material as specified in the Phrases window.
Click Clear to clear the selected codes if you make a mistake.

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When youve specified the desired cases and corresponding source files, the target words
or phrases, and the codes to assign, click Autocode. HyperRESEARCH will open each
specified source material in turn, search for the given phrases, select the appropriate
chunk of source material (including any characters, words, or lines previous to or
following the found phrase, as specified in the Phrases panel), and assign the specified
codes to that chunk. The code references for the source material will be added to the
index cards of the cases as specified in the Sources panel. The Autocode feature may
take some time, especially when dealing with multiple and/or extensive source files.
At the bottom of the Autocode window are Save and Load buttons. The Save button
lets you save the current Autocode settings to a separate file so you can restore them
later or share them with others who may be working on your HyperRESEARCH study.
The Load button lets you load Autocode settings from one of these saved files.

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