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Rajs Notes

of
English

Language

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CONTENTS
No.
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Topics
dqN 'kCn
Imperative Sentences/orders
Is/am/are
Was/were
Will/shall be
Capitalization
Punctuation
Articles (a/an and the)
Numbers& opuA
The Tense & dky vkSj mlds dkj
lkekU; orZeku dky
lkekU; Hkwrdky
lkekU; Hkfo";dky
Verb +ing
viw.kZ orZeku dky
viw.kZ Hkwrdky
viw.kZ Hkfo"; dkyA
An important use of It
iw.kZ orZeku dky
iw.kZ Hkwrdky
iw.kZ Hkfo";dky
iw.kZ fujarj orZeku dky
iw.kZ fujarj Hkwrdky
iw.kZ fujarj Hkfo";dky
is/am/are+to
was/were+to
will/shall+be+to

Page number
08
09-18
18-27
28-35
35-42
42-43
43-44
44-47
47-53
53
54-73
73-88
88-105
106-107
107-117
118-126
126-131
131
131-142
142-147
147-150
150-154
155-156
156-158
158-159
159
159-160

2829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950-

is/ am/ are+ about+to


was/were+about+to
will/shall+be+about+to
Used to
Modal Auxiliaries (Verbs)
have/has to
Had to
Will/Shall have to
Need
Dare
Special Rules
Active and Passive Voice
Co- relatives
Some important words
Pronunciation-mPpkj.k
Silent letters
dfBu mPpkj.k okys 'kCn
Words which are difficult to spell
dqN egRoiw.kZ u vkSj muds mkj
Exclamatory Sentences
Direct and Indirect Speech (Narration)
Parts of Speech
Noun-laKkA
THE NOUN: GENDER
MASCULINE AND FEMININE GENDER
The Numbers& opuA
f;k ls laKk
foks"k.k ls laKk
laKk ls laKk
51- Pronouns-loZukeA
Relative Pronouns
52- Adjective-foks"k.kA
laKk ls foks"k.k

160-161
161-162
162-163
163-164
165-178
178-179
179-180
180-181
181-182
182-183
183-189
189-209
209-218
218-221
221-256
256-262
262
263
263-264
264-266
267-271
272
272-274
274
274-277
277
277-284
285-286
286-287
288-294
294-297
298-300
300-307

53-

54-

5556575859606162636465666768697071-

f;k ls foks"k.k
fo'ks"k.k ls foks"k.k
Comparison of Adjectives
Verb-f;kA
Transitive and Intransitive verbs
Infinitive
Gerund
Participle
f;k ds :i
laKk ls f;k
laKk ls f;k
Adverb-f;kfoks
f;kfoks"k.kA
laKk ls foks"k.k
f;kfoks"k.k dk okD;ksa esa ;ksx
laca/kokpd vO;;
laca/kokpd vO;;ksa dk okD;ksa esa ;ksx
leqPp;cks/kd vO;;
foLe;kfncks/kd vO;;
dgkorsa
WORDS WHICH CONFUSE
le; ds vuqlkj cksys tkus okys dqN egRoiw.kZ okD;
dqN fgUnh dh okD;kSyh
LokLF; vkSj chekfj;kWa
;k=k vkSj le;
dqN egRoiw.kZ kCn vkSj muds foijhrkFkhZ
'kjhj ds vaxks ds uke
Body Conditions and ailments
fo'ks"kK
RELATIONS- fjrs
is'kk&(Occupations)
O;fDr;ksa ds dkj
i'kq (Animals)

307-309
310
310-318
318-319
319-320
321-325
325-329
329-330
330-336
337
337-338
338-342
342-345
345-363
364-365
365-392
392-407
407-408
408-411
411-436
436-438
438
438-439
439-440
440-443
443-446
446-447
447
447-448
449-451
451-452
452-453

72737475767778798081-

i'kq if{k;ksa rFkk tho tarqvksa ds cPPks


jSaxus okys tho tarq
i{kh (Birds)
Qy Qwy ,oa lfCt;ksa ds uke
vUu vkSj [kkus ;ksX; inkFkZ
?kj dh oLrqvksa ds uke
vkoktsa (Sounds)
tarqvksa rFkk if{k;ksa dh vkoktsa
Numerals
Shape and Size

453-454
454-455
455-456
456-458
458-460
460-462
462-463
463-464
464-466
466-467

dqN kCn
eSaus ;s uksV~l mu gtkjksa yksxksa dks /;ku esa j[k dj rS;kj fd;k gS tks dkQh
le; ls vaxzsth Hkk"kk dks lh[kuk pkgrs gSa ij fdUghaa dkj.kksa ls vc rd mUgsa ;s Hkk"kk
le> esa gh ughaa vkbZA vkius kk;n bl ckr ij dHkh /;ku fn;k gks fd dqN fo|kFkhZ
tks viuh iwjh i<+kbZ ,d English Medium Ldwy esa dj rks ysrs gSa ysfdu fQj Hkh
oks bl Hkk"kk esa Bhd <ax ls ckr ughaa dj ikrs ;k vius fopkjksa dks bl Hkk"kk esa O;Dr
ughaa dj ikrs] eSaus ;kl fd;k gS fd eSa mudh leL;k dks bl iqLrd ds ek/;e ls gy
djus esa fdlh dkj lgk;d cu ldwaA
eSaus fgUnh ek/;e ds yksxks ds ckjs esa ckr ughaa dh rks bldk eryc ;s ughaa gS fd
oks bl iqLrd dks i<+dj vaxzsth ughaa lh[k ldrs] fcYdqy oks yksx Hkh cM+h vklkuh ls
vaxzsth lh[k ldrs gSaA
fdlh Hkk"kk dks lh[kus ds fy, fnekax esa vf/kd cks> Mkyus dh t:jr ughaa gksrh
cl gesa ;kl djrs jguk pkfg,A xyfr;kWa rks lHkh ls gksrh gS vkSj gesa mu xyfr;ksa dks
lq/kkjuk gS] muls Mjuk ughaa gS] ;fn ge Mjdj gkj eku ysa rks gekjh bPNk rks ogha [kRe
gks tkrh gS] ;fn dksbZ vkids fdlh xyr mPpkj.k ;k xyr okD; ij gWalrk gS rks vki Hkh
mlds lkFk gWal nsa vkSj mlls tkusa fd vkius dgkaW xyrh dh vkSj mls lq/kkjsaA jkst dqN
egRoiw.kZ kCnksa dks ;kn djsa vkSj mudk ;ksx okD;ksa esa djsaA vius fe=ksa ds chp mu okD;ksa
dks t:jr ds fglkc ls cksysaA

lko/kku jgsa mu yksxksa ls tks vius&vkidks vkils egku lkfcr djus dh dksfkk
esa yxs jgrs gSa vkSj cgqr lkjs ,sls loky djrs gSa ftuds mkj kk;n mUgsa irk gks vkSj
vkidks ughaaA ijh{kk ,d vPNh pht gS ij ,slh ijh{kk fdl dke dh tks vkids vkRefookl
dks [kRe dj ns] ftlds dkj.k vki NksVh&NksVh phtksa esa Hkh xyfr;kWa djus yxsaA ;fn dksbZ
O;fDr vkidks dqN fl[kkus ds mn~ns; ls vkils dqN iwWaNrk gS rks oks cMs+ se Hkko ls u
djsxk vkSj ;fn vki xyr gSa rks oks vkidks cM+s I;kj ls ml ckr dks le>k,xk]mlds vanj
ks/k ;k ?keaM dh Hkkouk ughaa gksxhA vaxzsth Hkk"kk ek= ,d ek/;e gS] viuh ckr dks le>kus
dk ;k fdlh dh ckr dks le>us dk] bl Hkk"kk dks lh[k dj dksbZ O;fDr egku ughaa curk]
egku curk gS rks vius deZ] xq.kksa vkSj vius fopkjksa ls] ;fn vkids deZ]xq.k vkSj fopkj Bhd
ughaa gSa rks vki fdruk Hkh i<+&fy[k ysa mldk dksbZ vFkZ ughaaA
vki lksp jgs gksaxs fd eSaus bl iqLrd dh dksbZ [kkl rkjhQ ughaa dh] lp gS D;ksafd ;s
dke rks vkidks djuk gS] vkidks gh ;s crkuk gS fd vkidks esjk ;s Fke ;kl dSlk yxk]
vkids lq>koksa dk eSa iwjs fny ls Lokxr djrk gwWa] vki vius lq>ko t:j crk,saA
Ashish Raj Bansal
The full name of the Author is Mr. Ashish Banshkar.
His nick name is Raj.
His Fathers name is Mr. Shankar Lal Banshkar.
He is known to his students by the name Mr. Ashish Raj Bansal.
Address: Naya Mohalla, Sihora. Ward no. 01. (Jabalpur-MP)

Rajs Notes of English Language

f;k Verb%

fdlh Hkh thfor 'kjhj ls gksus okyk ;k fd;k tkus okyk


oks action ftls ek= fd;k tk ldrk gS] Nw ughaa ldrs] ns[k ughaa ldrs] ek= dj
ldrs gSa tSls& lksuk] tkxuk] mBuk] cSBuk ;s f;k ds mnkgj.k gSaA fgUnh Hkk"kk esa
f;k dks cksyrs le; var esa *uk* ;s mPpkj.k gksrk gSA
futhZo oLrq drkZ dHkh ughaa gks ldrh fQj Hkh dHkh&dHkh
dHkh&dHkh mUgsa drkZ
ds :i esa ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
vaxszth Hkk"kk esa f;k dks rhu :iksa esa ckVk x;k gS%&
1st form (Present) gksrk gS
g]
2nd form (Past) gksrk gS] vkSj
3rd form (Past Participle/Perfect) gksrk gSA
Example:
V1 f;k dk igyk :i
(Present)
fgUnh vFkZ
1. Go tkuk
2. Come vkuk
3. Speak cksyuk
4. Help enn djuk
5. Switch on pkyw djuk
6. Open [kksyuk
7. Do

djuk

V2 f;k dk nwljk :i
(Past)
fgUnh vFkZ
went x;k
came vk;k
spoke cksyk
helped enn dh
switched on pkyw fd;k
opened
did

[kksyk

fd;k

V3 f;k dk rhljk :i
(Past Participle/Perfect)
fgUnh vFkZ
gone pyk x;k@tk pqdk
come vk x;k @vk pqdk
spoken cksy fn;k @cksy
pqdk
helped en~n dj fn;k@
dj pqdk
switched on pkyw dj
fn;k @dj pqdk
opened [kksy fn;k @
[kksy pqdk
done dj fn;k@dj pqdk

iqLrd ds ist ekad 327 ls 333 esa vkSj Hkh cgqr lkjh Verbs dks fy[kk x;k gSA

deZ object
tc fdlh deZ dks djus ds fy, f;k dh tkrh gS rks oks f;k dk deZ ;k
Objectdgykrk
dgykrk gSA
Object nks dkj ds gksrs gSaA
1. Direct object. 2. Indirect object.

Rajs Notes of English Language

1.

Direct object % oLrq ;k deZ direct objective dgykrk gSA


tSls- a/the pen, the light, the door, this work etc.

2.
Indirect object: ftrus Hkh objective pronouns/case gksrs gSaA
tSls& me, you, us, them, him, etc. ;s lHkh Indirect object
dgykrs gSaA
buds ckjs esa vkxs page no.-15 esa fn;k x;k gSA

vkns'k& Orders/Imperative Sentences


Formulae (Active Voice)
For affirmative : Main verb 1+ object.
For negative
: Don't+ main verb 1+ object

vkns'k

tc ge fdlh ls dqN djus ds fy, dgrs gSa rks oks vkns'k dgykrk gS]
tSls% ogkWa tkvksA bl okD; esa igys ns[kuk ;s gks
gksxk fd f;k D;k gS ^ogkWa* ;k
^tkuk*A ^tkvks* eryc *tkuk* eryc ;s fd f;k tkuk gS rks igys ge *tkuk*
dks vaxzsth esa go cksysaxs fQj okD; esa tks Hkh cprk gS mlds ckn cksy nsaxs ;k
fy[k nsaxs rks okD; gksxk 'Go there.' ogka
ogkaW& there.)
Bhd blh dkj&
dkj
1 ogkaW tkvks A
Go there.
2 ;gkaW vkvksA
Come here.
3 lp cksyksA
Speak the truth.
4 lnk lp cksyksA
Always speak the truth.
5 lp dk lkFk nksA
Help the truth.
6 fctyh pkyw dj nksA
Switch on the light.
7 fctyh can dj nksA
Switch off the light.
8 njoktk [kksy nksA
Open the door.
9 viuh vkaW[ksa [kksyksA
Open your eyes.

Rajs Notes of English Language

10 viuk dke djksA


Mind your (own) business/ Do your work.

tSls&

;fn ge okD; esa t+ksj nsdj dguk pkgrs gSaA


Do+V1+object.

1-

ogkWa t:j tkukA


Do go there.
2t:j vkukA
Do come.
3eq>s t:j crkukA
Do tell me.
4i= t:j iksLV dj nsukA
Do post the letter.
5eq>s crk t:j nsukA
Do tell me.
6eq>s Qksu t:j djukA
Do call me./ Do give me a phone call.
7fctyh t:j can dj nsukA
Do switch off the light.
8njcktk t:j can dj nsukA
Do close the door.
9mls tkudkjh t:j ns nsukA
Do inform him.
10-- bl ckjs esa lkspuk t:jA
10
Do think about this/it.
vc buds udkjkRed ns[ksa%
1ogkaW er tkvks A
Don't go there.
2;gkWa er vkvksA
Don't come here.
3lp er cksyksA
Don't speak the truth.
4lnk lp er cksyksA
Don't always speak the truth.
5lp dk lkFk er nksA
Don't help the truth.
6fctyh pkyw er djks A
Don't switch on the light.
7fctyh can er dj nksA
Don't switch off the light.

Rajs Notes of English Language

8-

njoktk er [kksyksA
Don't open the door.
9viuh vkaW[ksa er [kksyksA
Don't open your eyes.
10-- eq>s ijskku er djksA
10
Don't disturb me.

vuqjks/k&
k Request
tc ge vius cM+ksa ls ckr djrs gS rks gesa lH; gksuk pkfg,A
vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa fdlh ds fr vknj O;Dr djus ds fy;s gesa Please bl
vaxzsth 'kCn dk iz;ksx djuk pkfg;s gSA
tSls%&

12345678910101111121213131414-

ogkaW tkb;s A
Please, go there.
;gkWa vkb;sA
Please, come here.
lp cksfy,A
Please, speak the truth.
lnk lp cksfy,A
Please, always speak the truth.
lp dk lkFk nhft;sA
Please, help the truth.
fctyh pkyw dj nhft;sA
Please, switch on the light.
fctyh can dhft;sA
Please, switch off the light.
njoktk [kksy nhft;sA
Please, open the door.
viuh vkaW[ks [kksfy;sA
Please, open your eyes.
viuk dke dfj;sA
Please do your work.
ogkWa er tkb;s A
Please, don't go there.
;gkaW er vkb;sA
Please, don' come here.
>wB er cksfy;sA
Please, don't tell lies.
lnk lp er cksfy;sA
Please, don't always speak the truth.

Rajs Notes of English Language

15mldk
dk lkFk er nhft;sA
15- ml
Please, don't help him.
1616- fctyh pkyw er dhft;s A
Please, don't switch on the light.
1717- fctyh can er dfj;sA
Please, don't switch off the light.
1818- njoktk er [kksfy,A
Please, don't open the door.
1919- viuh vkWa[ks er [kksfy;sA
Please, don't open your eyes.
2020- ,slk dke er dhft,A
Please don't do such work/thing.

Never with Orders


(Never dk fgUnh vFkZ ^dHkh ughaa*)

Never+V1 +object/ C.O.S.


Tkc gesa bl dkj ds OkkD;ksa dks dguk gksxk%
tSls%&
1 ogkaW dHkh er tkukA
Never go there.
2 ;gkaW dHkh er vkukA
Never come here.
3 eq>s dHkh xkyh er nsukA
Never abuse me.
4 dHkh >wB er cksyukA
Never tell lies.
5 dHkh fdlh dk fny er nq[kkukA
Never hurt anybody.
6 dHkh pksjh er djukA
Never steal.
7 dHkh esjs f[kykQ er CkksyukA
Never speak against me.
8 dHkh cqjh vknrksa esa er iM+ukA
Never get into bad habits.
9 dHkh vius ekrk firk dh vkKk dk vuknj
er djukA
Never disobey your parents.
10 dHkh fdlh ls ukjkt er gksukA
Never get angry with anybody.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Always with Orders


( Always dk fgUnh vFkZ ^ges'kk ;k lnk *)
*
Formulae:
Affirmative =
Always + V 1+ obj.
Negative

Don't + always +V1+obj.

Tkc gesa bl dkj ds OkkD;ksa dks dguk gksxk%


tSls%&
1 ges'kk vius cM+ks dk vknj djksA
Always respect your elders.
2 ges'kk lp dk lkFk nksA
Always help the truth.
3 ges'kk lp cksyk djksA
Always speak the truth.
4 ges'kk le; ij vk;k djksA
Always come in/on time.
5 ges'kk er jks;k djksA
Don't always weep/cry.
6 ges'kk eq>ls er yM+k djksA
Don't always fight (with) me.
7 ges'kk fdlh ds ?kj er tk;k djksA
Don't always go to anybody's home.
8 ges'kk mls ijs'kku er fd;k djksA
Don't always disturb him/her.
9 ges'kk gokbZ fdys er cuk;k djksA
Don't always build castle in the air.
10 gesakk etkd er fd;k djksA
Dont always joke.
vc tjk bu okD;ksa dks if<;sA
1
2
3
4
5

[kkuk [kkus
[kkus tkvks
tkvksA
gekjs lkFk cSBus vkvksA
ckgj [ksyus
us tkvksA
thus ds fy;s [kkvks
[kkvks A
[kkus ds fy;s er ftvksA

;fn gesa ,d okD; esa ,d lkFk nks f;k,sa feyrh gSa


rks gesa vaxzsth esa vuqokn djus ds fy;s ml f;k dks igys
fy[kuk gksxk Tkks igys gksxhA
tSls%& 1 [kkuk [kkus tkvksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

^[kkuk
^[kkuk [kkus tkvksA* bl okD; esa gesa nks f;k,sa [kkuk vkSj tkuk
fey jgh gSA rks drkZ igys tk,sxk fQj [kk,sxkA blfy;s gesa igys tkuk
vkSj fQj mlds ckn [kkuk fy[kuk gksxkA vaxzsth esa f;k ds ckn f;k dks
tksM+us ds fy;s ge to dk ;ksx djrs gSaA rks igys Go vk,xk fQj ge
to ls nwljh f;k eat dks tksM+dj fy[k nsaxs rks iwjs okD; dqN bl rjg
cusaxsA
1 [kkuk [kkus tkvksA
Go to eat.
2 gekjs lkFk cSBus vkvks
vkvksA
Come to sit with us.
3 ckgj [ksyus tkvks
tkvksA
Go out to play.
4 thus ds fy;s [kkvks
[kkvks A
Eat to live.
5 [kkus ds fy;s er ftvksA
Don't live to eat.

The case- dkjd


Subjective case
or/ ;k
Nominative case

Accusative case
or/ ;k
Objective case

Possessive case
or/ ;k
Genitive case

I eSa@eSus
me eq>s
my/mine esjk
You rqe@rqeus@ vki @vkius you rqEgs@vkidks
your/ yoursrqEgkjk@vkidk
Thou rw@rwus rq>s
thee rq>s
thy/ thine rsjk
We ge@geus
us gesa
our/ours gekjk
They os@mUgksus
them mUgsa
their/ theirs mudk
He oks@mlus iqfYyax
him mls
his mldk
She oks@mlusL=h fyax
her mls
her/hers mldk
Shweta 'osrk
Shweta 'osrk dks
Shweta's 'osrk dk
Rajesh jkts'k
Rajeshjkts'k dks
Rajesh'sjkts'k dk
This ;g@;s
it bls
its bldk
That oks@og
it mls
its mldk
It ;g@;s@oks@og
it bls@mls
its bldk@mldk
These ;s cgqopu ds fy;s them bUgs
their/theirs budk
Those oks cgqopu ds fy;s them mUgs
their/theirs mudk
blds ckj esa vkSj Hkh foLrkj ls ge vkxs i<+saxsA
Reflexive Pronouns:
IMyself- eSa [kqnA
You- Yourself- rqe [kqnA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Reflexive Pronouns:
You (more than one&,d ls vf/kd) -yourselves- rqe yksx [kqnA
We-ourselves-ge yksx [kqnA
They-Themselves- os yksx [kqnA
He-himself- oks [kqnA
She- herself- oks [kqnA
Shweta- herself-'osrk [kqn
Rajesh- himself-jkts'k [kqn
It- itself-;s [kqnA

Use of ' Let'


Tkc ge fdlh dks dksbZ dk;Z djus dh vuqefr nsuk ;k ysus ds fy;s dgrs gSa
rc ge let dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
Formulae:
Positive
:Let + Objective case+ V1+ object.
Negative :Let + Objective case+ not+ V1+ object.
Or
Don't + let + Objective case+ V1+ object.
tSls%&

eq>s tkus nksA


Let me go.
2 mls cksyus nksA
Let him speak.
3 mUgs tkus nksA
Let them go.
4 lhek dks vanj vkus nksA
Let Seema come in.
5 eq>s ns[kus nksA
Let me see.
6 jfo vkSj jk/kk dks ;s djus nksA
Let Ravi and Radha do this.
7 mls dksf'k'k djus nksA
Let him try.
8 mls ejus nks A
Let him die.
9 mls pk; cukus nksA
Let her make tea.
10 tkus nksA
Let it be/go.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Negatives:- 1

eq>s er tkus nksA


Let me not go./ Don't let me go.
2 mls er cksyus nksA
Let him not speak./ Don't let him speak.
3 mUgs er tkus nksA
Let them not go./ Don't let them go.
4 lhek dks vanj er vkus nksA
Let Seema not come in./ Don't let Seema come in.
5 eq>s er ns[kus nksA
Let me not see./ Don't let me see.
6 jfo vkSj jk/kk dks ;s er djus nksA
Let Ravi and Radha not do this./ Don't let
Ravi and Radha do this.
7 mls dksf'k'k er djus nksA
Let him not try./ Don't let him try.
8 mls ejus er nks A
Let him not die./ Don't let him die.
9 mls pk; er cukus nksA
Let her not make tea./ Don't let her make tea.
10 tkus er nksA
Let it not be./ Don't let it be.

Let's

(Let's +V1+ object)

Let's dk iz;ksx bl izdkj ds okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
tSls%& 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

pyks pysa A
Let's go.
pyks ?kj pysaA
Let's go home.
pyks [kkuk [kk,saA
Let's eat food.
pyks [kkuk cuk;saA
Let's cook.
pyks mls le>k,A
Let's explain to him.
pyks mls ijs'kku djsaA
Let's disturb/bother him.
pyks Vh -ohoh- ns[ksaA
Let's watch T.V.
pyks ?kweusa pysa A
Let's go for a walk.

Rajs Notes of English Language

9
10

pyks bl ckr dks Hkwy tk,A


Let's forget this/ it/this thing.
pyks mls ughaa crkrsA
Let's not tell him.

Is/ am / are
(is+not=isn't, am+not=aren't, are+not=aren't)
Is gSA

Am

I am eSa gwaWA
We are ge gSaA
He is oks gSaA
This is ;s gSA
These are ;s gSaA

gwWaA

Are gSa@ gksA


You are rqe gksA
They are os gSaA
She is oks gSA
That is oks gSA
Those are oks gSaA

,d okD; dks ge 4 dkj ls fy[k ;k cksy


1
2
3
4

ldrs gSaA

lk/kkj.k (Assertive/affirmative)
udkjkRed (Negative)
'uokpd (Interrogative)
'uokpd udkjkRedA (Interrogative Negative)

1 lk/kkj.k
Assertive/affirmative: lk/kkj.k :Ik ls dgh x;h ckr
/kkj.k okD; dgykrs gSaA
2 udkjkRed
Negative: ftl fgUnh okD; esa *ughaa* 'kCn feyrk gS rks oks
okD; udkjkRed okD; dgykrk gSA
3 'uokpd
oks okD; ftls i<us ls fdlh 'u dk cks/k
Interrogative:
gksrk gS oks okD; 'uokpd okD; dgykrs
gSaA
4 'uokpd udkjkRedA
Interrogative Negative: oks okD; ftls i<us ls udkjkRed 'u dk
cks/k gksrk gS oks 'uokpd udkjkRed okD;
dgykrs gSaA
tSls%&

eSa vkdk'k gwWaA


I am Akash.
eSa vkdk'k ughaa gwWaA
I am not Akash.

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
;k

mkj%
2

mkj%
;k

mkj%

D;k rqe vkdk'k gks\


Are you Akash?
gka] eSa vkdk'k gwWaA
Yes, I am.
ughaa] eSa vkdk'k ughaa gwaWA eSa jksgu gwWaA
No,I am not. I am Rohan.
D;k rqe vkdk'k ughaa gks\
Are you not Akash?
ughaa] eSa vkdk'k ughaa gwWaA
No,I am not.
rqe esjs nksLr gksA
You are my friend.
rqe esjs nksLr ughaa gksA
You are not my friend.
D;k eSa rqEgkjk nksLr gwWa\
Am I your friend ?
gkWa] rqe esjs nksLr gks A
Yes, you are.
ughaa] rqe esjs nksLr ughaa gksA
No, you aren't.
D;k eSa rqEgkjk nksLr ughaa gwaW \
Am I not your friend ?
gkaW rqe esjs nksLr gksA
Of course, you are.

ge [kq'k gSaA
We are happy.
ge [kq'k ughaa gSaA
We are not happy.
D;k vki [kq'k gSa\
Are you happy?
gkaW] ge [kq'k gSaA
Yes, we are.
D;k vki Ykksx [kq'k ughaa gSa\
Are you not happy?
Ukgha] ge [kq'k ughaa gSA
No, we aren't.

os gekjs lkFk gSaA


They are with us.
os gekjs lkFk ughaa gSaA
They are not with us.

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k os gekjs lkFk gSa\


Are they with us?
gkaW] os gekjs lkFk gSaA
Yes, they are.
D;k os gekjs lkFk ughaa gSa\
Are they not with us?
Ukgh] os gekjs lkFk ughaa gSA
No, they aren't.
5

oks esjk HkkbZ gSA


He is my brother.
Okks esjk HkkbZ ughaa gSA
He is not my brother.
D;k oks rqEgkjk HkkbZ gS \
Is he your brother ?
gkaW] oks esjk HkkbZ gSA
Yes, he is.
D;k oks RkqEgkjk HkkbZ ughaa gS \
Is he not your brother ?
Ukgha] oks esjk nksLr gSA
No, he isn't. He is my friend.
6

oks chekj gSA


She is ill.
Okks chekj ughaa gSA
She is not ill.
D;k oks chekj gS\
Is she ill?
gkaW oks chekj gSA
Yes, she is.
D;k oks chekj ughaa gS\
Is she not ill?
Ukgh oks chekj ughaa gSA
No, she isn't.

vfuy vPNk yM+dk gSA


Anil is a good boy.
vfuy vPNk yM+dk ughaa gSA
Anil is not a good boy.
D;k vfuy vPNk yM+dk gS\
Is Anil a good boy?
gkaW] oks vfuy vPNk yM+dk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Yes, he is .
D;k vfuy vPNk YkM+dk ughaa gS\
Is Anil not a good boy?
Ukgh] oks vfuy vPNk yM+dk ughaa gS\
No, he isn't .

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS
vkSj ;fn okD; udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1-

eSa rqEgkjk nksLr gwaW] gS uk\


uk\
I am your friend, aren't I ?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, you are. / No, you aren't.

2-

eSa rqEgkjk nq'eu ughaa gwa] gS uk\


uk\
I am not your enemy, am I ?
gkaW rqe esjs nq'eu ughaa gksA@ ughaa rqe gksA
Yes, you aren't. / No, you are.

3-

rqe vkt Bhd ughaa gks] gS uk\


uk\
You are not well today, are you ?
gkaW] eSa vkt Bhd ughaa gwaA@ ughaa] eSa Bhd gwaWA
Yes, I'm not. / No, I am fine.

4-

ge lkFk gSa] gS uk\


uk\
We are together, aren't we?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, we are./ No, we aren't.

5-

ge xyr ughaa gSa] gS uk\


uk\
We are not wrong, are we?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, we aren't./ No, we are.

6-

os rqEgkjs nksLr gSa] gS uk\


uk\
They are your friends, aren't they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they are./ No, they aren't.

Rajs Notes of English Language

7-

os fpfdRld ughaa gSa] gS uk\


uk\
They aren't doctors, are they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they aren't./ Yes, they aren't.

8-

oks rqEgkjk HkkbZ gS] gS uk \


He is your brother, isn't he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he is. / No, he isn't.

9-

oks lgh ughaa gS] gS uk \


He is not right, is he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he isn't./ No, he is.

1010- vkt cgqr BaM gS] gS uk \


It is very cold today, isnt it?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, it is./ No, it isnt.
1111- uhye [kq'k gS] gS uk \
Neelam is happy, isn't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
1212- vkt xehZ ughaa gS] gS uk \
It isn't hot today, is it?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
No, it isn't./ Yes, it is.

Question Words
What - D;k\
D;k\@ tks]
Where- dgkaW\@tgkaW]
Whose- fdldk\
fdldk\@ftldk]
@ftldk
Whom- fdlls\@ ftlls]
How- dSls\]
How many- fdrus\@ftrus]
How far- fdruh nwj\

When- dc\
dc\@tc]
Why - D;ksa\]
Which- dkSu lh\
lh\@ tks
oLrqvksa ;k tkuojksa ds fy,
Who - dkSu@tks ekuo ds fy,]
fy,
How much-fdruk
fdruk\
fdruk\@ftruk]
How long- dc rd\
rd\@tc rd]
How often- fdruh ckj\
ckj\

Rajs Notes of English Language

vc rd geusa lh[kk dh tc gesa fgUnh okD;ksa dh 'kq:vkr esa


^D;k* ;s fgUnh 'kCn feyrk gS rks ge lgk;d f;k dks okD;ksa dh 'kq:vkr
esa j[kdj okD; dks vaxzsth esa cnyrs gSaA
What dk ;ksx gesa ml le; djuk gksrk gS tc ^D;k* ;s fgUnh
'kCn gesa fgUnh okD; ds chp esa feyrk gSA
tSls% ;s D;k gS \] oks D;k gS \]rqEgkjs ikik th D;k gSa\
oks 'u tks lgk;d f;k ls 'kq: gksrs gSa] gesa mudk mkj ^gkWa * ;k
^ughaa * esa gh nsuk gksrk gS
gS] ij oks okD; tks Question Words ls 'kq: gksrs gSa]
gesa mudk tcko foLrkjiwoZd
nsuk gksrk gSA
TkSls%

;s D;k gS \ bl okD; esa gesa okD; ds chp esa ^D;k* fey jgk gS rks
gesa What dk ;ksx djds gh okD; cukuk gksxkA lcls igys ge ^D;k* dks
vyx djsaxs ] mlds ckn cprk gS ^;s gS\] ;s gS \* vaxzsth esa gksxk This
vc This is. dks interrogative esa fy[ksaxs rks cusxk is this? vc bls What
is.vc
ds vkxs yxk nsaxs rks okD; cusxk& What is this? ;s D;k gS\
Bhd blh dkj%
What
- D;k\
D;k\
'u%
;s D;k gS\
What is this?
mkj%
;s ,d dye gSA
It is a pen.
'u%
oks D;k gS\
What is that?
mkj%
oks ,d vke dk isM+ gSA
It is a mango tree.
'u%
rqe D;k gks\
What are you?
mkj%
eSa ,d fo|kFkhZ gwaWA
I am a student.
'u%
vkids ikik th dk D;k uke gS\
What is your father's name?
mkj%
esjs ikik th dk uke Jh 'kadj yky Cka'ky gSA
My father's name is Mr. Shankar Lal Bansal.
'u%
vkidh ekrk th dk D;k uke gS\
What is your mother's name?
mkj%
esjh ekrk th dk uke Qwycrh Cka'ky gSA
My mother's name is Mrs. Foolbati Bansal.
'u%
vkids firk th D;k gSa\
What is your father?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

Bhd blh dkj%


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

esjs firk th ,d fk{kd gSaA


My father is a teacher.
vkidh ekrk th D;k gSa\
What is your mother?
esjh ekrk th ,d x`g.kh gSaA
My mother is a housewife.
;s cgqopu D;k gSa\
What are these?
;s vke gSaA
They are mangoes.
oks cgqopu D;k gSa\
What are those?
oks dqflZ;kaW gSaA
They are chairs.
laKk D;k gS\
What is noun?
laKk fdlh O;fDr] txg] ;k oLrq dk uke gSA
Noun is the name of a person, place or thing.
rqEgkjs HkkbZ dk uke D;k gS\
What is your brother's name?
esjs HkkbZ dk uke vf[kys'k gSA
My brother's name is Akhilesh.
mldh tsc esa D;k gS\
What is in his pocket?
mldh tsc esa ,d xsan gSA
It is a ball in his pocket.

When- dc\
dc\
rqEgkjk tUe&fnu dc gS\
When is your birthday?
esjk tUe&fnu 5 vxLr dks gSA
It is on 5th of August.
fnokyh dc gS\
When is Diwali?
fnokyh ijlksa gSA
It is day after tomorrow.
xehZ dc gksrh gS\
When is it hot?
xehZ] xehZ ds ekSle esa gksrh gSA
It is (It's) hot in the summer season.
uhye dk vxyk isij dc gS\
When is Neelam's next paper?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

mldk vxyk isij dy gSA


It is tomorrow./ It's tomorrow.
/Her paper is tomorrow.

Where- dgkaW\

vkidk ?kj dgkaW gS \


Where is your home?
esjk ?kj flgksjk esa gSA
My home is at Sihora/ It's at Sihora.
nhid dgkaW gS\
Where is Deepak?
oks vius dejs esa gSA
He is in his room.
iqLrd dgkaW gS\
Where is the book?
oks Vscy ij gSA
It's (it is) on the table.
rkt egy dgkaW gS\
Where is the Taj Mahal?
oks vkxjk esa gSA
It is in Agra.

Why- D;ksa\

rqe mnkl D;ksa gks\


Why are you sad?
D;ksafd eSa chekj gwaWA
Because I am ill.
rqEgs tYnh D;ksa gS\
Why are you in a hurry?
D;ksafd eq>s igys gh nsj gks xbZ gSA
Because I am already late.
rqEgsa nsj D;ksa gks xbZ\
Why are you late?
VSfQd dh otg lsA
Because of the traffic.

Who- dkSu\

rqe dkSu gks\


Who are you?
eSa nhid gwaWA
I am Deepak.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%

vkSj oks dkSu gSa\


And who are they?
os esjs nksLr gSaA
They are my friends.
vkids ikik dkSu gSa\
Who is your father?
Jh jke ukjk;.k nqcs] esjs ikik gSaA
My father is Mr. Ramnarayan Dubey./
Mr. Ramnarayan Dubey is my father.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
fdldk@fdldh\

;s fdldh dye gS\


Whose pen is this?
;s esjh gS@;s esjh dye gSA
It is mine/ It is my pen.
oks fdldh eksVj lkbdy gS\
Whose motorcycle is that?
oks clar dh gSA
It's (It is) Basant's.
;s fdldh leL;k gS\
Whose problem is this?
;s jktk dh leL;k gSA
It is Raj's/ It is Raj's problem.

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh\


lh\

rqEgkjk ?kj dkSu lk gS\


Which house is yours?
oks tks xqykch jax dk gSA
That one which is red in colour.
vkt VhVh- oh ij dkSu lh fQYe gS\
Which movie is on T.V. today?
t; gksA
It's (It is) Jai Ho.

How- dSls\

vki dSls gSa\


How are you?
eSa Bhd gwaWA
I am fine.
vkids pkpk dSls gSa\
How is your uncle?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

oks Hkh Bhd gSaA


He is also fine.
;s ?kj dSlk gS\
How is this house?
cgqr [kwclwjr gSA
It is so/very beautiful.

How much- fdruk\


fdruk\

ckWVy esa fdruk ikuh gS\


How much water is there in the bottle?
cgqr de ikuh gSA
There is very little water in it.
rqEgkjs fny esa esjs fy, fdruk se gS\
How much love is there in your heart for me?
esjs fny esa rqEgkjs fy, cgqr lkjk se gSA
There is a lot of love in my heart for you.
rqEgkjs [kkrs esa fdruk iSlk gS\
How much money is there in your account?
esajs [kkrs esa dqy 500 :i;s gSA
There is only 500 rupees in my account.

How many- fdrus\


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

mlds ifjokj esa fdrus lnL; gSa\


How many members are there in his family?
mlds ifjokj esa dqy rhu lnL; gSaA
There are only three members in his family.
Vksdjh esa fdrus Lkarjs gSa\
How many oranges are there in the basket?
Vksdjh esa dksbZ larjk ughaa gSA
There is on orange in it./ there is not any.
Vscy ij fdruh iqLrdsa gSa\
How many books are there on the table?
Vscy ij nks iqLrdsa gSaA
There are two books on it.

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


rd\
oks ;gkaW fdruh nsj rd gS \
How long is she here?
oks ;gkaW nks ?kaVs rd gSA
She is here for two hours.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Was/ were
(was+not=wasn't, were+not=weren't)

Was Fkk@FkhA
I was
We were
He was
This was
These were
1

eSa FkkA
ge FksA
oks FkkA
;s FkkA
os FksA

were FksA
You were rqe FksA
They were os FksA
She was
oks FkhA
That was oks FkkA
Those were oks FksA etc.

eSa dy chekj FkkA


I was ill yesterday.
eSa dy chekj ughaa FkkA

I was not ill yesterday.


D;k rqe dy chekj Fks\
Were you ill yesterday?
gkWa] eSa dy chekj FkkA
Yes, I was.
D;k rqe dy chekj ughaa Fks\
Were you not ill yesterday?
Ukgh] eSa dy chekj ughaa FkkA
No, I wasn't.
2

rqe ogkaW FksA


You were there.
rqe ogkaW ughaa FksA
You were not there.
D;k eSa ogkaW Fkk\
Fkk\
Was I there?
gkWa] rqe ogkWa FksA
Yes, you were.
D;k eSa ogkaW ughaa Fkk\
Fkk\
Was I not there?
Ukgha] rqe ogkaW ughaa FksA
No, you weren't.

os gekjs lkFk FksA


They were with us.
os gekjs lkFk ughaa FksA
They were not with us.

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k os rqEgkjs lkFk Fks\


Were they with you?
gkaW] os gekjs lkFkA
Yes, they were.
D;k os rqEgkjs lkFk ughaa Fks\
Were they not with you?
Ukgha] os gekjs lkFk ughaa FksA
No, they weren't.
4

oks vius dejs esa FkkA


He was in his room.
Okks vius dejs esa ughaa FkkA
He was not in his room.
D;k oks vius dejs es Fkk\
Fkk\
Was he in his room?
gkaW] oks vius dejs esa FkkA
Yes, he was.
D;k oks vius dejs esa Fkk\
Fkk\
Was he not in his room ?
Ukgha] oks ckxhps esa FkkA
No, he wasn't. He was in the garden.

oks RkS;kj FkhA


She was ready.
Okks rS;kj ughaa FkhA
She was not ready.
D;k oks rS;kj Fkh\
Fkh\
Was she ready?
gkaW] oks rS;kj FkhA
Yes, she was.
D;k oks RkS;kj ughaa Fkh\
Fkh\
Was she not ready?
Ukgha] oks rS;kj ughaa FkhA
No, she wasn't.

vfuy vius dke esa O;Lr FkkA


Anil was busy in his work.
vfuy vius dke es O;Lr ughaa FkkA
Anil was not busy in his work.
D;k vfuy vius dke es O;Lr Fkk\
Fkk\
Was Anil busy in his work?
gkaW] oks vius dke esa O;Lr FkkA
Yes, he was .

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k vfuy vius dke esa O;Lr ughaa Fkk\


Fkk\
Was Anil not busy in his work?
Ukgha] oks vius dke esa O;Lr ughaa FkkA
No, he wasn't.

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS vkSj ;fn
okD; udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1eSa lgh Fkk] gSa uk \
I was right, wasn't I?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, you were. / No, you weren't.
2-

eSa ogkaW ughaa Fkk] gSa uk \


I was not there, was I?
gkaW] rqe ogkaW ugha FksA@ ughaa] rqe FksA
Yes, you weren't. / No, you were.

3-

rqe dy ?kj ij Fks] gSa uk\


uk\
You were at home yesterday, weren't you?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.

4-

oks dy rqEgkjs lkFk ughaa Fkk] gSa u \


He was not with you yesterday, was he?
gkaW] dy oks esjs lkFk ughaa FkkA@ ughaa oks FkkA
Yes, he wasn't. / No, he was.

5-

iwtk ?kj ij Fkh] gSa uk\


uk\
Pooja was at home, wasn't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she was./ No, she wasn't.

6-

ge xyr ughaa Fks] gS uk \


We were not wrong, were we?
gkaW] ge xyr ughaa FksA@ ughaa] ge FksA
Yes, we weren't./ No, we were.

7-

os rqEgkjs f[kykQ Fks] gSa uk\


uk\
They were against you, weren't they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they were./ No, they weren't.

Rajs Notes of English Language

8-

rqEgkjk HkkbZ dy ?kj ij ughaa Fkk] gS uk \


Your brother was not at home yesterday, was he?
gkaW] oks ?kj ij ughaa FkkA@ ughaa] oks FkkA
Yes, he wasn't./ No, he was.

9-

oks dy mnkl Fkh] gSa uk\


uk\
She was sad yesterday, wasn't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she was. / No, he wasn't.

1010- oks mkj lgh ughaa Fkk] gS uk \


That answer was not correct, was it?
gkaW] oks lgh ughaa FkkA@ ughaa] oks FkkA
Yes, it wasn't./ No, it was.
1111- uhye [kq'k Fkh] gS uk\
uk\
Neelam was happy, wasn't she?
gkaW] oks [kq'k FkhA@ ughaa] oks [kq'k FkhA
Yes, she was . / No, she wasn't.
1212- dy cgqr BaM Fkh] gSa uk\
uk\
It was very cold yesterday, wasn't it?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, it was./ No, it wan't.

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaa gS fd Question Word dk ;ksx djrs
le; gesa igys Question Words dks vyx djuk gS fQj okD; dks
interrogative esa ;k interrogative negative esa cnydj Question Words
ds ckn j[kdj mlesa var esa 'uokpd fpUg yxkuk gSA
tSls%
oks D;k Fkk\
Fkk\
lcls igys ge Question Word ^D;k* (what) dks vyx djsaxsA rc
okD; cpsxk ^oks Fkk * A vc bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs That was.
vc bls interrogative esa cnysaxs rks cusxk was that? vc ge bls
Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks cusxk&
k
What was that? oks D;k Fkk \

Rajs Notes of English Language

Bhd ,sls gh%

What-D;k\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

dy D;k Fkk\
Fkk\
What was yesterday?
dy lkseokj FkkA
It was Monday yesterday.
nhid bl dEiuh esa D;k Fkk\
Fkk\
What was Deepak in this company?
oks bl dEiuh esa ,d eSustj FkkA
He was a manager in this company.
mlds cSx esa D;k Fkk\
Fkk\
What was in his bag.?
mlds cSx esa ,d canwd FkhA
It was a gun in his bag.

Bhd blh dkj


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

When - dc\
dc\

mldk tUefnu dc Fkk \


When was his birthbay?
mldk tUe&fnu 24 uoEcj dks FkkA
It (His birthday) was on 24th of November.
oks ogkaW dc Fkh \
When was she there?
oks lqcg ogkWa FkhA
She was there in the morning.

Where- dgkaW\

rqe vc rd dgkaW Fks \


Where were you so far?
eSa rks vius dejs esa FkkA
I was in my room.
vatyh dgkaW Fkh\
Fkh\
Where was Anjali?
oks viuh pkph ds ;gkaW FkhA
She was at her aunt's.
ml le; jktk dgkaW Fkk\
Fkk\
Where was Raja (at) that time?
oks eSnku esa FkkA
He was in the ground.
esyk dgkaW Fkk \
Where was the fair?
esyk lr~/kkjk esa FkkA
It was at Stdhara.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

Why- D;ksa\

rqEgsa nsj D;ksa gks xbZ Fkh \


Why were you late?
D;ksafd cl nsj ls FkhAA
Because, the bus was late.
oks ogkaW D;ksa ughaa Fkk \
Why was he not there?
D;ksafd mldk LokF; [kjkc FkkA
Because he was run down in health.
fuf/k ijs'kku D;ksa Fkh\
Why was Nidhi disturbed/worried?
D;ksadh mldk ilZ ughaa fey jgk FkkA
Because she couldn't find her purse.

Who- dkSu\

Hkkjr ds Fke /kku ea=h dkSu Fks \


Who was the first Prime Minister of India?
iafMr tokgj yky usg:A
Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru.
njokts ds ihNs dkSu Fkk \
Who was behind the door?
tSd Fkk] viuk dqkkA
It was Jack, our dog.
gekjs lkFk dkSu Fkk \
Who was with us?
gekjs lkFk dkQh yksx FksA
There were many (enougha) people with us.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
fdldk@fdldh\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

Whose ds lkFk gesa'kk object isgys yxrk fQj okD; cukrs gaSA
;s fdldh dye Fkh \
Whose pen was this?
;s esjh FkhA
It was mine.
oks fdldh eksVj lk;fdy Fkh \
Whose motorcycle was that?
oks uhjt dh FkhA
It was Neeraj's.
;s fdldh leL;k Fkh\
Whose problem was it?
;s gejh leL;k FkhA
It was ours.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh \


Which ds lkFk gesa'kk object isgys yxrk fQj okD; cukrs gaSA
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqEgkjk ?kj dkSu lk Fkk \


Which house is yours?
oks&tks xqykch jax dk FkkA
It was the one which was pink in colour.
vkt Vh- oh ij dkSu lh fQYe Fkh \
Which movie was on T.V. today?
t; gksA
It was (It was) Jai Ho.

How-dSls@dSlh@dSlk\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

vkt dk fnu dSl Fkk \


How was the day today?
Bhd gh FkkA
It was ok.
jkeuxj esa ekSle dSlk Fkk \
How was the weather there in Ramnagar?
cgqr BaM FkhA
It was very cold there.
;k=k dSlh jgh \
How was the journey ?
cgqr Fkdk nsus okyhA
It was very tiring.

How much- fdruk\


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

unh esa fdruk ikuh Fkk \


How much water was there in the river?
cgqr de ikuh FkkA
There was very little water in it.
rqEgkjs fny esa mlds fy, fdruk se Fkk \
How much love was there in your heart for him?
esjs fny esa mlds fy, dksbZ se ughaa FkkA
There was no love in my heart for him.
rqEgkjs [kkrs esa fdrus iSlk Fks \
How much money was there in your account?
esjs [kkrs esa dqy 500 :i;s FksA
There was only 500 rupees in my account.

Rajs Notes of English Language

How many- fdrus\


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

mlds ifjokj esa fdrus lnL; Fks \


How many members were there in her family?
mlds ifjokj esa dqy rhu lnL; FksA
There were only three members in her family.
Vksdjh esa fdrus Lkarjs Fks \
How many oranges were there in the basket?
Vksdjh esa lkr larjs FksA
There were seven oranges in it.
Vscy ij fdruh iqLrdsa Fkh \
How many books were there on the table?
Vscy ij nks iqLrdsa FkhA
There were two books on it.

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


'u%
mkj%

oks ;gkaW fdruh nsj rd Fkh \


How long was she here?
oks ;gkaW nks ?kaVs rd FkhA
She was here for two hours.

How far- fdruh nwj\


'u%
mkj%

oks rqels fdruh nwj Fkk \


How far was he from you?
oks eq>ls 10 dne nwj FkkA
He was 10 steps far/away from me.

Will be / Shall be
(will+not= won't, shall+not= shan't)
Will be / shall be gksxk@ gksxh\
h\
vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa drkZ I rFkk We ds lkFk shall be gh yxrk gS ij
cksyrs le; bl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk gksrk gS fd ;fn gesa drkZ I, we
feyrk gS rks lk/kkj.k okD;ksa vkSj udkjkRed okD;ksa dks cukrs le; ge
will be dk ;ksx dj ldrs gSa tc gesa fdlh ls dksbZ oknk djuk gksrk
gS ;k /kedh nsuh gksrh gSaA ijarq ;fn ge 'uokpd ;k 'uokpd udkjkRed
okD;ks dks cukrs gSa rc shall be dk gh ;ksx djuk
djuk pkfg,] vkSj ;fn I,
we dks NksM+dj dksbZ vU; drkZ feyrk gS ;k feyrs gSa rc Will be dk ;ksx
djrs gSaA
tSls% 1 eSa dy bl le; Hkksiky esa jgwaWxkA
I will be in Bhopal this time tomorrow.

Rajs Notes of English Language

eSa dy bl le; Hkksiky esa ughaa jgwaWxkA


I will not be in Bhopal this time tomorrow.
D;k rqe dy bl le; Hkksiky esa jgksxs\
Will you be in Bhopal this time tomorrow?
gkaW] dy bl le; eSa Hkksiky esa jgwaWxkA
Yes, I will.
D;k rqe dy bl le; Hkksiky esa ughaa
jgksxs\
Will you not be in Bhopal this time tomorrow?
Ukgha] dy eSa bl le; Hkksiky esa ughaa jgwaWxkA
No, I won't.
2

rqe ?kj ij jgksxsA


You will be at home.
rqe ?kj ij ughaa jgksxsA
You will not be at home.
D;k eSa ?kj ij jgwaxk\
k\
Shall I be at home?
gkaW] rqe ?kj ij jgksxsA
Yes, you will.
D;k eSa ?kj ij ughaa jgwaxk\
k\
Shall I not be at home?
Ukgha] rqe ?kj ij ughaa jgksxsA
No, you won't.

os cxhps esa gksaxsA


They will be in the garden.
os cxhps esa esa ughaa gksaxsA
They will not be in the garden.
D;k os cxhps esa gksaxs\
Will they be in the garden?
gkWa]os cxhps esa gkasxsA
Yes, they will.
D;k os cxhps esa ughaa gksaxs\
Will they not be in the garden?
Ukgha] os cxhps esa ughaa gkasxsA
No, they won't.

oks vius dejs esa gksxkA


He will be in his room.
Okks vius dejs esa ughaa gksxkA
He will not be his room.

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k oks vius dejs esa gksxk\


k\
Will he be in his room?
gkWa] oks vius dejs esa gksxkA
Yes, he will.
D;k oks vius dejs esa gksxk\
k\
Will he not be in his room ?
Ukgha] oks vius dejs esa ughaa gksxkA
No, he won't.
5

oks Ldwy esa gksxhA


She will be at school.
Okks Ldwy esa ughaa gksxhA
She will not be at school.
D;k oks Ldwy esa gksxh\
h\
Will she be at school?
gkaW] oks Ldwy esa gksxhA
Yes, she will.
D;k oks Ldwy esa ughaa gksxh \
Will she not be at school ?
Ukgha oks ?kj ij gksxhA
No, she will be at home.

vk'kuk fdpu esa gksxhA


Ashna will be in the kitchen.
vk'kuk fdpu esa ughaa gksxhA
Ashna will not be in the kitchen.
D;k vk'kuk fdpu esa gksxh\
h\
Will Ashna be in the kitchen?
gkWa] vk'kuk fdpu esa gksxhA
Yes, she will.
D;k vk'kuk fdpu esa ughaa gksxh\
h\
Will Ashna not be in the kitchen?
Ukgha] oks vius dejs esa gksxhA
No, she won't. She will be in her room.

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS
vkSj ;fn okD;k udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1-

rqe vkt jkr ikVhZ esa jgksxs] gS uk\


uk\
You will be in the party tonight, wont you?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, I will. / No, I won't.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

eSa rqEgkjs lkFk ughaa jgWwaxk] gS u\


u\
I shall not be with you, shall I?
gkaW] rqe ughaa jgksxsA@ugha
@ughaa] rqe jgksxsA
Yes, you won't. / No, you will.

3-

oks yky jax ds diM+s esa gksxh] gS u\


u\
She will be in red dress, won't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she will. / No, she won't.

4-

dy Nqh ughaa jgsxh] gS u\


u\
It will not be any holiday tomorrow, will it?
gkaW] ughaa jgsxhA@ ughaa] jgsxh NqhAA
Yes, it won't. / No, it will (be).

5-

vkids firk th vkWfQl esa gksaxs] gS u\


u\
Your father will be in the office, won't he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he will./ No, he won't.

6-

gesa nsj ughaa gksxh] gS u\


u\
We shall not (shan't) be late, shall we?
gkaW] ughaa gksxhA@ ughaa] gksxh gesa nsjA
Yes, we won't./ No, we will.

7-

,d fnu oks esjs lkFk gksxh] gS u\


u\
One day she will be with me, won't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she will./ No, she won't.

8-

dy ge dVuh esa gksaxs] gS u\


u\
We shall be in Katni towmorrow, shan't we?
gkaW] @ ughaaA
Yes, we will./ No, we won't.

9-

oks gesa'kk bekunkj jgsxk] gS u\


u\
He will always be honest, won't he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he will. / No, he won't.

1010- ;s vPNk ughaa xksxk] gS u\


u\
This will not be good, will it?
gkaW] ughaa gksxk@ ughaa] lgh gksxkA
Yes, it won't./ No, it will.

Rajs Notes of English Language

1111- rqe gesa'kk [kq'k jgksxs ] gS u\


u\
You will always be happy, won't you?
gkaW] eSa gesa'kk [kq'k jgwWaxkA@ ughaa]A
Yes, I will. / No, I won't.
1212- jkts'k MkWDVj cusxk] gS u\
u\
Rajesh will be a doctor, won't he?
gkaWA@ ughaa] oks bathfu;j cusxkA
Yes, he will./ No, he won't, he will be an engineer.

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaas gS fd Question Words dk ;ksx djrs le;
gesa igys Question Words dks vyx djuk gS fQj okD; dks interrogative
esa ;k interrogative negative esa cnydj Question Words ds ckn j[kdj mlesa
var esa 'uokpd fpUg yxkuk gSA tSls% oks D;k gksxk\
k\ lcls igys ge
Question Word ^D;k* (what) dks vyx djsaxsA rks okD; cpsxk * oks gksxk**A
vc bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs That will be. vc bls interrogative esa
cnysaxs rks cusxk will that be? vc ge bls Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks
cusxk What will that be? oks D;k gksxk \A
Bhd ,sls gh%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%

rqe ogkWa D;ksa ughaa gksxs@jgksxs \


Why will you not be there?

What - D;k\
D;k\

dy D;k gksxk \
What will be tomorrow?
dy eaxyokj gksxkA
It will be Tuesday tomorrow.
rqe Hkfo"; esa D;k cuksxs@gksxs\
What will you be in future?
eSa ,d f'k{kd cuwxkWaA
I will be a teacher.
mlds cSx esa D;k gksxk\
k\
What will there be in his bag?
mlds cSx esa lfCt;kWa gksaxhA
There will be vegetables in his bag.

When- dc\
dc\

mldk tUefnu dc gksxk\


k\
When will her birthday be?/
When will be her birthday?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%

mldk tUe&fnu
tUe&fnu vxys efgus gksxkA
It will be in the next month.
oks ;gkaW dc gksxh\
h\
When will she be here?
oks ;gkaW 'kke dks gksxhA
She will be here in the evening.

Where- dgkaW\

rqe dy dgkaW jgksxs\


Where will you be tomorrow?
?kj ij gh jgwaWxkA
I will be at home only.
ckny bl le; dgkaW gksxk\
k\
Where will Badal be this time?
oks bl le; Ldwy esa gksxkA
He will be at school this time.
vatyh dgkWa gksxh \
Where will Anjali be?
oks vius dejs esa lks uhan esa jgh gksxhA
She will be asleep in her room.
dk;Ze dgkaW gksxk\
k\
Where will the progamme be?
dk;Ze Ldwy esa gh gksxkA
It will be at/in the school only.

Why- D;ksa\

rqe dy vuqifLFkr D;ksa jgksxs\


Why will you be absent tomorrow?
D;ksafd eSa dy 'kgj ds ckgj jgwaWxkA
Because I will (I'll) be out of station tomorrow.
oks ukjkt D;ksa gksxh\
h\
Why will she be angry?
D;ksafd mls ;s lc ilan ughaaA
Because she does not like all this.
oks Mjsxk D;ksa@oks D;ksa Mjsxk\
k\
Why will he be scared?
D;ksafd mls va/ksjs ls Mj yxrk gSA
Because he is scared of darkness.

Who- dkSu\

Hkkjr dk vxyk /kku ea=h dkSu gksxk\


k\
Who will be the next Prime Minister of India?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

eSa dqN dg ughaa ldrkA


I can't say anything./ I have no idea about it.
fotsrk dkSu cusxk\
k\
Who will be the winner?
jkds'k cusxk] D;ksadh oks cgqr rst nkSM+rk gSA
Rakesh will be, because he runs very fast.
Vksdjh esa yxHkx 10 ls 12 larjs gksaxsA
There will be about 10 to 12 oranges in the
basket.
Vscy ij fdruh iqLrdsa gksaxh\
h\
How many books will there be on the table?
Vscy ij yxHkx 20 iqLrdsa gksaxhA
There will be about 20 books on it.

How-dS
dSls@dSlh\
h\

rqe 'kkar dSls jgksxs\


How will you be quiet?
eq>s ,d PkkWdysV ns nksA
Give me a chocolate.
f'keyk esa ekSle dSlk gksxk\
k\
How will the weather be there in Shimla?
ogkaW cgqr T;knk BaM gksxhA
It will be too cold there.
;k=k dSlh jgsxh\
h\
How will the journey be?
cgqr Fkdk nsus okyh jgsxhA
It will be very/so tiring.

How much- fdruk\


fdruk\

unh esa fdruk ikuh gksxk\


k\
How much water will there be in the river?
cgqr de ikuh gksxkA
There will be very little water in it.
rqEgkjs fny esa mlds fy, fdruk se gksxk\
k\
How much love will there be in your heart for
him?
esjs fny esa mlds fy, dksbZ se ughaa gksxkA
There will be no love in my heart for him.
rqEgkjs [kkrs esa fdrus iSlk gksaxs\
How much money will there be in your account?
esajs [kkrs esa dqy 5000 :i;s gksaxsA
There will be only 5000 rupees in my account.

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

mlds ifjokj esa vkB lnL; gksaxsA


There will be eight members in her family.

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


rd\

rqe ;gkWa fdruh nsj rd jgksxs\


How long will you be here?
eSa ;gkWa iwjs fnu jgwWaxkA
I will (I'll) be here the whole day.

How far- fdruh nwj\

oks [kEHkk ;gkaW ls fdruh nwj gksxk \


How far will that pole be from here?
oks yxHkx 12 fQV dh nwjh ij gksxkA
It will be about 12 feet far/away.

Capitalization
1-

234-

5678-

okD; esa fuEu fy[kr LFkkuksa esa ij vaxzsth ds cM+s v{kjksa dk


;ksx djrs gSa&
tc fdlh Hkh okD; dh kq:vkr dh tkrh gS rc okD; dh
kq:vkr ds igys kCn dk igyk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
A cat is jumping on the road. He is waiting for you.
Indirect speech esa Inverted comma ds vanj fy[ks
okD; dh kq:vkr Capital letter ls gksrh gSA
She said, Ram is busy now.
The personal pronoun I gesakk Capital gh gksrk gSA
She doesnt believe in God, but I do.
fdlh O;fDr] ikyrq tkucj dk uke ;k fdlh txg ds uke dk
igyk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
Do you know Radha?
Our dogs name is Jack.
Bhopal is the capital of M.P.
yksxkss ds titles ds fy, mldk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
Mr. Rai, Mr. Pather, Mrs. Vandana, Prime Minister.
yksxks ds uke ds laf{kIr :i esa mldk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
S.L. Bansal, R.K. Gupta.
eksgYys] jksM] vkSj bekjrksa ds uke dk igyk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
Naya Mohalla, Patel Marg, Jama Masjid.
iqLrdksa ds titles dk uke] ukVdksa ds uke] xhrksa ds uke] Vh-ohlhfj;Yl ds uke] fQYe ds uke vkfn dk igyk v{kj cM+k gksrk gSA
English Reader, Ye Rishta Kya Kehlata He,

Rajs Notes of English Language

9-

fdlh Hkh dfork dh gj ykbu esa igyk v{kj cM+k gh gksrk gSA
Who sat and watched my infant head
When sleeping on my craddle bed,
And tears of sweet affection shed?
My mother.

Punctuation
1. Full stop (.)
2. Comma (,)
3. Apostrophe ( )
4. Question mark (?)
5. Exclamation Mark (!)
6. Quotation Mark/Inverted Comma (......)
12-

12-

3-

121-

1. Full stop (.)


lk/kkj.k okD;ksa vkSj vnskkRed ds var esa bldk ;ksx fd;k
Tkkrk gS tSls& Everything is over now.
Abbreviations vkSj initials crkus ds fy;s tSls&
M. A.
M.L.A.
2. Comma (,)
kCnks dks ,d nwljs ls vyx djus ds fy;s tSls&
She is tall, tental and lovely girl.
Indirect speech esa reporting verb dks vyx djus ds fy;s
tSls&
He said, I will out today.
dksbZ pht+ fdlh dh gS ;s crkus ds fy;s] tSls&
Rakeshs hat. Anils bat.
4. Question mark (?)
tc fdlh okD; dks i<rs le; u dk cks/k gkrk gS
mlds var esa] tSls&
What are you doing?
Question tags ds var esa tSls&
You are not happy, are you?
5. Exclamation Mark (!)
Surprise vkSj Strong feelings dss fy;s] tSls&
How cold it is! What a beautiful girl she is!

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

12-

Interjection ds ckn tSls&


Wow!
O!
Alas!
Ouch!

Oh!
Hurray!

6. Quotation Mark/Inverted Comma (......)


;fn fdlh O;fDr us dqN dkgk vkSj mlds dgs x,s kCnks dks
tSlk dk rSlk fy[kus ds fy, tSls&
The teacher said, Keep quiet.
songs, poems, books ds titles dks nkkZus ds fy,

tSls& He is reading Amrit Wani

Articles
a/an and the
a

vkSj an indefinite articles gksrs gSa budk ;ksx mu


x.kuh; laKk 'kCnksa ds igys fd;k tkrk ftUgs ge crkuk
pkgrs gSa fd oks la[;k esa ,d gSA vkSj

the definite

article gSA
a

mu laKk 'kCnksa ds igys yxrk gS ftUgsa i<+srs le; isgys


O;atu (consonant) dh /ouh gksrh gS(
tSls% A+consonant sound word.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

That is a kite.
og ,d irax gSA
This is a horse.
;g ,d ?kksM+k gSA
He is a European.
oks ,d ;wjksfivu gSA
The cow is a useful animal.
xk; ,d mi;ksxh i'kq gSA
I saw a one eyed man this morning.
vkt lqcg eSus ,d vkWa[k okyk vkneh ns[kkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

an

mu laKk 'kCnksa ds igys yxrk gS ftUgsa i<+srs le; isgys


Loj (vowel) dh /ouh gksrh gS(
tSls% An+ vowel sound word.
1. This is an egg.
;g ,d vaMk gSA
2. She is doing an M.A.
oks ,e,e- ,- dj jgh gSA
3. Ram is eating an apple.
jke ,d lso [kk jgk gSA
4. We use an umbrella during rainy season.
ge Nkrs dk mi;ksx o"kkZ ds ekSle esa djrs gSaA
5. I am an Indian.
eSa ,d Hkkjrh; gwWaA
6. He is an honest (h silent-vkW
vkWusLV)man.
V
oks ,d bekunkj O;fDr gSA
7. I will come back after an hour(h silent-vk
vkoj
vkoj).
oj
eSa ,d ?kaVs esa okil vk tkWaxkA
8. It is an easy question.
;s ,d vklku u gSA
oSls O;fDr;ksa ds uke ds igys article dk ;ksx ugha
fd;k tkrk ij fQj Hkh dqN bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks cksyus
ds fy;s ge article dk ;ksx dj ysrs gSa(
A Mr. Gupta came to meet you in the morning.
dksbZ xqIrk th lqcg vkils feyus vk, FksA
ftls eSa ugha tkurkA
A Shivani asked me your address this moring.
fdlh fkokuh uke dh yM+dh us vkt eq>ls rqEgkjk
irk iwWaNkA
ftls eSa ugha tkurkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

the
the

dk ;ksx fuEu fyf[kr LFkkuks ij fd;k tkrk gS(

tSls%

1.

the

dk ;ksx mu laKk 'kCnksa ds fy;s djrs gSa ftlds ckjs


esa igys ls gh irk gksrk gS(
tSls%
1.
We are going to the club.
ge Dyc tk jgs gSaA
ogh Dyc tgkWa ge gesakk tkrs gSa
2.
This is the book I wanted.
;s ogh iqLrd gS tks eSa pkgrk FkkA
3.
This is the girl who stole my pen.
;s ogh yM+dh gS ftlus esjk isu pqjk;kA
ysfdu ;fn ge fdlh oLrq ds ckjs esa lekU; rkSj ij
ckr djrs gSa rc ge the dk ;ksx ugha djrs(
Milk is good for health.
(general)
The milk is in the kitchen.
(particular)

2.

the

dk ;ksx ,d opu laKk ds lkFk iwjs lewg ds ckjs esa


crkus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
tSls%
1.
The cat and the lion are of the same family.
fcYyh vkSj 'ksj ,d gh ifjokj ds gSaA
2.
The cow is a useful animal.
xk; ,d mi;ksxh i'kq gSsA
3.
The rose smells sweet.
xqykc dh [kqkcq I;kjh gksrh gSA
ij tc ge vkneh vkSj vkSjr ds iwjs lewg dh ckr
djrs gSa rc ge the dk ;ksx ugha djrsA
Man is helpless.
vkneh vlgk;@etcwj gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Woman is very hard working.


vkSjrsa cgqr T;knk dke djus okyh gksrh gSaA

3.

the dk

;ksx gulfs, rivers, seas, oceans, island ds lewg vkSj


ioZr J[kykvksa ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
the Persian Gulf; the ganga; the Yamuna; the Indian Ocean;
the Andamas; the Himalayas; the Alps.
I want to visit the Indian Ocean.

4.

xzFkksa ds uke ds igys(


the Vedas; the Puranas; the Ramayana; the bible; the Koran.
She reads the Ramayana every morning.

5.

,slh frd oLrqvksa ds uke ds igys vkSj mu oLrqvks ds


uke ds igys tks nqfu;k esa lcls vyx vkSj vuks[kh gS(
The sun; the moon; the sky; the earth; the Taj Mahal; the
Pacific Ocean; the Arabian Sea; etc.
The sun rises in the east.

6.

v[kckjksa ds uke ds igys(


the Times of India; the Patrika; the Dainik Bhaskar; the Nayi
Duniya; etc.
I read the times of India.

7.

foks"k.k ds igys ;fn laKk ds ckjs esa igys ls Kkr gks(


The rich should help the poor.

8.

Race vkSj community etc, ds igys(


The Hindus; the Sikhs: the Jains; the Christians; etc.

9.

fn'kkvksa ds uke ds igys(


the east; the west; the north; the south;

10.

Superlative degree ds igys(


She is the tallest girl in the class.

11.

The dk ;ksx dqN bl rjg ds okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy;s


comparative degree ds lkFk Hkh fd;k tkrk gS(
The higher you go, the colder it is.
vki ftruk ij tk,saxs mruh gh BaM yxsxhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

The sooner you come, the sooner we will start.


ftruh tYnh vkvksxs mruk tYnh ge 'kq: djsaxsA
The less said about it, the better it is.
bl ckjs esa ftruk de dgsa mruk vPNk gksxkA

Omission of the
the dk ;ksx ugha fd;k tkrk
1.

the

dk ;ksx Proper noun ds igys ugha


fd;k tkrk(
Rakesh goes to his office at 9:30 am.
Sanjay comes regularly.

2.

the

dk ;ksx Hkk"kkvksa ds uke ds igys ugha fd;k

tkrk(
I teach English.
They peak Marathi.

3.

the

dk ;ksx HkksT; inkFkZ ds uke ds igys ugha fd;k

tkrk(
We had lunch at 1:30pm.
They will eat/have dinner at 9 pm.

Numbers& opuA
vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa ek= nks dkj ds gh opu gksrs gS%&
1 ,d opu
2 cgqopu

- Singular number
- Plural number

T;knkrj laKkvksa 'kCnksa ds cgqopu s yxkdj gh


cuk, tkrs gSa (-s):
tSls%
eye-eyes,
year-years,
rose-roses,
cow-cows
bee-bees,
tree-trees,
shop-shops,
house-houses

oks 'kCn ftldk var s, -ss, -x, -sh, ;k ch ij gksrk gS] muds cgqopu cukus

Rajs Notes of English Language

ds fy, gesa var esa- es tksM+uk gksrk gSA


tSls%
ass-asses,
brush-brushes, gas-gases,
watch-watches, box-boxes,
bunch-bunches,
glass- glasses,
church-churches
Vowels(Loj)= a,e,io,u
Consonants(O;atu)= b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z

;fn fdlh laKk 'kCn 'kCn dk var y ij gksrk gS vkSj ;fn y ls igys dksbZ
O;atu feyrk gS rc ,sls 'kCnksa ds cgqopu y dks gVkdj ies yxkdj cuk,
tkrs gSaA
tSls% fly- flies,

pony-ponies,

city-cities,

lady- ladies,
family-families,

army-armies,
baby-babies,

Rajs Notes of English Language

reply-replies
duty-duties,
country-countries

ysfdu ;fn fdlh laKk 'kCn 'kCn dk var y ij gks] vkSj y ls igys dksbZ
Loj feyrk gS rks y dks vyx ughaa djrs ] ek= -s yxkdj cgqopu cukrs gSaA
tSls&
ray-rays,
way-ways
key-keys,

boy-boys,
day-days,
monkey-monkeys

toy-toys,
essay-essays,

,sls laKk 'kCn ftUkdk var f ;k fe ij gksrk gS] mudk cgqopu f ;k fe dks
gVkdj ves yxkdj cuk;k tkrk gSA
tSls%
life- lives,
wolf-wolves,
leaf- leaves,

half- halves,
calf- calves,
thief- thieves.

wife-wives,
knife- knives,

ij dqN 'kCn bl fu;e ds viokn gSa] bu 'kCnksa ds cgqopu s yxkdj gh


cuk, tkrs gSaA
tSls% roof- roofs,
hoof-hoofs,
cliff- cliffs,
safe- safes,

chief- chiefs,
proof- proofs,
whiff- whiffs,
gulf- gulfs

dqN 'kCn ,ls Hkh gSa ftudk cgqopu s ;k ves yxkdj cuk,sa nksuksa gh lgh
gksrs gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

tSls% scarf- (scarfs-scarves),


dwarf- (dwarfs-dwarves)

hoof- (hoofs-hooves),

,sls laKk 'kCn ftudk var O;atu ds ckn o ij gksrk gS rks cgqopu esa cnyus
ds fy,,, -es yxkrs gSaA
buffalo- buffaloes,
tSls% hero-heroes,
negro- negroes,
potato- potatoes,
mango- mangoes,

tomato- tomatoes
volcano-volcanoes,
mosquito- mosquitoes.

ij /;ku jgs dh bl fu;e ds Hkh dqN viokn gSa fd ge buds cgqopu -s


yxkdj gh cukrs gSaA
tSls% kilo- kilos,

logo- logos,

Rajs Notes of English Language

photo- photos,
radio- radios,

piano- pianos,
studio- studios

dqN 'kCnksa dk cgqopu mlds vanj ds Loj esa ifjorZu djds cuk;k tkrk gSA
tSls% foot- feet,
woman- women,
louse- lice,

mouse- mice,
man- men,
goose- geese,
tooth- teeth,
washerman - washermen

dqN 'kCnksa esa -en yxkdj cgqopu cuk;k tkrk gSA


tSls% child- children,

ox- oxen

stepson dk cgqopu stepsons gksrk gS] Bhd blh dkj vkxs ns[ksa]
tSls%
stepson
stepmother
passer-by
maidservant
son-in-law
father-in-law
mother-in-law

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

stepsons,
stepmothers,
passers-by,
maidservants,
sons-in-law,
fathers-in-law
mothers-in-law

dqN laKk 'kCnksa dk cgqopu fcYdqy gh vyx rjhds ls fd;k tkrk gS]
gesa mUgsa ;kn gh djuk iM+rk gS]
tSls%
focus- foci,
fungus- fungi,
crisis- crises,
curriculum-curricula,

formula- formulae,
hypothesis- hypotheses,
criterion- criteria
medium- media

Rajs Notes of English Language

nucleus- nuclei,
parenthesis- parentheses,
radius- radii,

oasis- oases,
syllabus- syllabi
thesis- theses

dqN laKk 'kCn ,ls Hkh gksrs gSa fd pkgs ge mUgsa ,d opu esa j[ksa ;k cgqopu
esa j[ksa] muesa dksbZ ifjorZu ughaa gksrk&
tSls%
sheep-sheep,
fish- fish,
pair-pair,
score- score,
thousand- thousand

deer- deer,
trout-trout,
dozen- dozen,
hundred- hundred

dqN 'kCn gesa'kk ,d opu esa gh fy[ks tkrs gSa vkSj ,d opu
drkZ dh gh lgk;d f;k dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&
tSls%
scenery, furniture, news, innings, mathematics, physics,
politics.
Examples:
1. This news is not true.
2. This furniture is not for sale.
3. The scenery was charming.
4. Mathematics is a difficult subject.

vkSj dqN 'kCnksa esa gesa'kk cgqopu dh lgk;d f;k dk gh ;ksx fd;k
tkrk gS vkSj mUgs fy[kk Hkh gesa'kk cgqopu esa tkrk gSA
tSls% cattle, trousers, people, clothes, scissors,
spectacles, thanks, alms, riches.
Examples:
1.
His trousers are torn.
2.
Her clothes were dirty.
3.
These scissors are blunt.
4.
Many people are kind-hearted in
this world.

vc ge okD;ksa dks ,d opu ls cgqopu esa cnyuk


lh[ksaxs&

The Singular Number


(,d opu)

The Plural Number


(cgqopu opu)

I, me, my, mine, myself.


You, you, your, yours, yourself.

We, us, our, ours, ourselves.


You, you, your, yours,
yourselves.

Rajs Notes of English Language

The Singular Number


(,d opu)

The Plural Number


(cgqopu opu)

He, him, his, himself.

They, them, their, theirs,


themselves.

She, her, her/hers, herself.

They, them, their, theirs,


themselves.

This, it, its.

These, them, their, thier-

That, it, its.

Those, them, their-

It, it, its

They, them, their-

The Singular Number


(,d opu)
Examples:
1- eSa ,d f'k{kd gwWaA
I am a teacher.
2- eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh nksA
Give me a glass of water.
3- ;s esjh nqdku gSA
This is my shop.
4- oks edku esjk gSA
That house is mine.
5- ;s esjk gSA
It's mine.
6- rqe fo|kFkhZ gksA
You are a student.
7- D;k ;s rqEgkjh@vkidh iqLrd gS \
Is this your book?
8- mls cqykvksA
Call him.
9- ;s mldk gSA
It is his.
10- oks dHkh mnkl ughaa jgrhA
She is never sad.
11- mls ,d isu vkSj ,d isafly nksA
Give her a pen and a pencil.

The Plural Number


(cgqopu)
ge f'k{kd gSaA
We are teachers.
gesa dqN Xykl ikuh nksA
Give us some glasses of water.
;s gekjh nqdkusa gSaA
These are our shops.
oks edku gekjs gSaA
Those houses are ours.
;s gekjs gSaA
They are ours.
rqe yksx fo|kFkhZ gksA
You are students.
D;k ;s rqe yksxks@vki yksxksa dh iqLrdsa gS \
Are these your books?
mUgs cqykvksA
Call them.
;s,d opu mudk gSA
It is theirs.
os dHkh mnkl ughaa jgrsA
They are never sad.
mUgsa isu vkSj isaflysa nksA
Give them pens and pencils.

Rajs Notes of English Language

tSls% book-books,
ysfdu water- waters

gksxk]
ughaa gksxk]

pen-pens, gksxk]
ink- inks ughaa gksA

nks dkj ds noun gksrs gSaA


1. Countable nouns vkSj 2. Uncountable nouns

/;ku jgs ge dsoy mUgha laKk 'kCnksa dks cgwopu esa cny ldrs gSa ftUgs
ge ,d&,d djds fxu ldrs gS ;k x.kuk dj ldrs gSaA
,d opu ls cgqopu esa cnyus dk vH;kl vfPN rjg ls djsa D;ksafd
bldh vo;Drk gesa Present indefinite tense esa f;k ds lkFk s,es,
;k ies yxkus esa lgk;d gS

The Tense & dky

(Tense means time)

tSlk dh ge tkurs gSa fd *dky* rhu dkj ds gksrs gSa vkSj gj


dky dks pkj dkjksa esa ckaVk x;k gSA

1- Present Tense orZeku dkyA


1- Present Indefinite
2- Present Continuous
3- Present Perfect
4- Present Perfect Continuous
2- Past Tense Hkwr dkyA
1- Past Indefinite
2- Past Continuous
3- Past Perfect
4- Past Perfect Continuous
3- Future Tense Hkfo"; dkyA
1-

234-

Future Indefinite
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous

Rajs Notes of English Language

Present Indefinite Tense/ Simple Present Tense

lkekU; orZeku dkyA


lkekU; orZeku dky dk ;ksx orZeku dh vknrksa dks crkus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj oks fdlh dh Hkh vknr gks ldrh gSA ;k ;fn
ge bls nwljs 'kCnksa esa le>uk pkgsa rks ,d rjhdk ;s Hkh gS fd tc gesa
fgUnh okD;ksa ds var esa f;k ds rqjar ckn *g* ls igys *r* feyrk gS
ek=k pkgs tks Hkh gks rks ,ls okD; lkekU; orZaeku dky ds okD; dgykrs
gSaA ;s ckr dh var esa gesa *g* feys gh t:jh ughaa D;ksafd dbZ ckj okD; esa
*g* ughaa gksrs gq, Hkh okD; lkekU; orZeku dky dk gh gksrk gS
tSls%
oks ;gkaW vkrk gSA bl okD; esa vki ns[ksaxs dh *vkrk*
tks dh ,d f;k gS *vkuk*mlds rqjar ckn gesa *r* tks *g*
ds igys gS blh fy, ge le> ldrs gSa fd ;s lkekU; orZeku
dky dk okD; gSA
lkekU; orZeku dky ds okD;ksa dks cukus ds fy, gesa uhps fn;s x,
lw=ksa dk /;ku iwoZd v/;;u djuk gksxkA tc okD; esa drkZ cgwopu gks A
blesa drkZ *eSa*] *rqe*] *vki* Hkh gks] rc Hkh gesa okD;ksa dks vaxzsth esa cksyus
ds fy, bu lw=ksa dk gh ;ksx djuk gksrk gSA
Formulae (Active Voice.)
Assertive/ Affiramative:
Subject+main verb 1st form+ object.
Negative

Subject+do+not+main verb 1st form+


object.
(do+not=don't)
With 'Never'
:
Subject+never+main verb 1st form+ object.
Interrogative
:
Do+Subject+ v1+object?
Negative Interrogative :
Do+Subject+not+v1+object?
Or
Don't+Subject+v1+object?
Negative Interrogative with 'Never': Do+Subject+never+v1+object?

1-

eSa jkst ;gkaW vkrk gwWaA


I come here daily.
eSa jkst ;gkaW ughaa vkrkA
I do not come here daily.
eSa ;gkWa dHkh ughaa vkrk gwWaA
I never come here.
D;k rqe ;gkaW jkst vkrs gks \
Do you come here daily?
gkaW] eSa ;gkWa jkst vkrk gwaWA
Yes, I do.

Rajs Notes of English Language

ughaa] eSa jkst ;gkaW ughaa vkrA


No, I don't.
D;k rqe ;gkaW jkst ughaa vkrs\
Do you not come here daily? /
Don't you come here daily?
ughaa] eSa ;gkaW dHkh&dHkh vkr gwaWA
No, I come here sometimes.
D;k rqe ;gkWa dHkh ughaa vkrs\
Do you never come here?
ughaa] eSa ;gkWa dHkh ughaa vkrkA
No, I never do.
2-

rqe >wB cksyrs gksA


You tell lies./ You lie.
rqe >wB ughaa cksyrsA
You do not tell lies./You don't lie.
rqe dHkh >wB ughaa cksyrsA
You never tell lies./ You never lie.
D;k eSa >wB cksyrk gwaW\
Do I tell lies?/ Do I lie?
gkaW] rqe >wB cksyrs gksA@ugha
@ughaa rqe ughaa cksyrsA
Yes, you do./ No, you don't.
D;k eSa >wB ughaa cksyrk\
rk\
Do I not tell lies?/ Do I not lie?
ughaa] rqe >wB ughaa cksyrsA@gkWa rqe cksyrs gksA
No, you don't./ Yes, you do.
D;k eSa dHkh >wB ughaa cksyrk\
rk\
Do I never tell lies./ Do I never lie?
eq>s ughaa irkA
I do not know./ I don't know.

3-

ge 'kke dks [ksyus tkrs gSaA


We go to play in the evening.
ge 'kke dks [ksyus ughaa tkrsA
We do not go to play in the evening.
ge [ksyus dHkh ughaa tkrsA
We never go to play.
D;k vki yksx 'kke dks [ksyus tkrs gks\
Do you go to play in the evening?

Rajs Notes of English Language

gkaW] ge 'kke dks [ksyus tkrs gSaA@ugha


@ugha tkrsA
Yes, we do./ No, we don't.
D;k vki yksx 'kke dks [ksyus ughaa tkrs\
Do you not go to play in the evening?
ughaa] ge 'kke dks dksfpax tkrs gSaA
No, we go to coaching (in the evening).
D;k vki yksx dHkh [ksyus ugha tkrs \
Do you never go to play?
lkekU;r% gekjs ikl [ksyus ds fy, le; ughaa gksrkA
We generally don't have time to play.
;fn gesa fdlh okD; esa nks f;k ,d lkFk feyrh gS rks igys
dkSu lh f;k vk,xh ;s bl ckr ij fuHkZj gS fd dkSu lh f;k igys
gksxhA tSls% ge 'kke dks [ksyus tkrs gSaA bl okD; esa igys tk,asxs
fQj [ksysaxs] rks gesa igys f;k ^tkuk* fQj ^[ksyuk* to ds ckn j[kuk
gksxk&
We go to play in the evening.
ge 'kke dks [ksyus tkrs gSaA
1os ;gkaW i<us vkrs gSaA
They come here to read/study.
os ;gkaW le; fcrkus ughaa vkrsA
They do not come here to pass time.
os dHkh >xM+k ughaa djrsA
They never fight.
D;k os rqEgkjh enn djrs gSa\
Do they help you?
gkaW] os esjh enn djrs gSaA@ugha
@ughaa djrsA
Yes, they do./ No, they don't.
D;k os bl ckjs esa ughaa tkurs\
Do they not know about this?
fcydqy] os bl ckjs esa tkurs gSaA
Of course, they do.
D;k os dHkh >xM+k ughaa djrs\
Do they never querral?
djrs gSa ij gesa'kk ughaaA
Yes, they do, but not always.
2-

jkuh vkSj mldh cgu flgksjk esa jgrh gSaA


Rani and her sister live at Sihora.

Rajs Notes of English Language

lfpu vkSj fnus'k ,d lkFk jgrs gSaA


Sachin and Dinesh live together.
vej vkSj vkuan dHkh ughaa i<rsA
Amar and Anand never study.
D;k Losrk vkSj f'k[kk rqEgkjs ;gkaW vkrh gSa\
Do Sweta and Shikha come to you?
gkaW] oks vkrh gSaA
Yes, they do.
D;k uhjt vkSj nhid ,d lkFk ughaa jgrs\
Do Neeraj and Deepak not live together?
ughaa os vyx&vyx jgrs gSaA
No, they don't. They live separately.

;fn drkZ doer ,d opu gks I rFkk you dks NksM+dj]rc


vaxzsth esa vuqokn djus ds fy, gesa uhps fn, x, lw=ksa dk ;ksx
djuk gksxkA
Formulae(Active Voice.)
Affirmative :
Negative :
Negative with
'Never'
:
Interrogative:
Negative
Interrogative:

Negative
Interrogative
with 'Never':

1-

Subject+main verb 1st form+s/es+ object.


Subject+does+not+main verb 1st form+ object.
(does+not = doesn't)
Subject+ never+V1+s/es+obj.
Does+Subject+ V1+object?

Does+Subject+not+V1+object?
Or
Doesn't+Subject+V1+object?

Does+Subject+never+V1+object?

oks ;gkaW vkrk gSA


He comes here.
oks ;gkaW ughaa vkrkA
He does not come here.
oks ;gkaW dHkh ughaa vkrkA
He never comes here.
D;k oks ;gkaW vkrk gS\

Rajs Notes of English Language

Does he come here?


gkWa ] oks ;gkaW vkrk gSA
Yes, he does.
D;k oks ;gkaW ughaa vkrk\
vkrk\
Does he not come here?
ughaa ] oks ;gkaW ughaa vkrkA
No, he doesn't.
D;k oks ;gkaW dHkh ughaa vkrk\
vkrk\
Does he never come here?
vkrk gS ij dHkh&dHkhA
Yes, he does, but now and then.
2-

3-

oks gesa'kk lp cksyrh gSA


She always speaks the truth.
oks ughaa jksrhA
She does not (doesn't) cry/ weep.
oks dHkh lp ughaa cksyrhA
She never speaks the truth.
D;k oks rqEgs ilan djrh gS\
Does she like you?
eq>s ughaa irkA
I don't know.
D;k oks ;s ughaa tkurh gS\
Does she not know this?
gkaW]fcydqy oks ;s tkurhA
Of course she does.
D;k oks viuk dke le; ij dHkh ughaa
[kRe djrh\
djrh\
Does she never finish her work in time?
ughaa] dHkh ughaaA
No, she never does.
lwjt iwoZ ls fudyrk gSA
The sun rises in the east.
;gkWa o"kkZ ughaa gksrhA
It doesn't rain here.
e:LFky esa dHkh ckfj'k ughaa gksrhA
It never rains in desert.
D;k oks rqEgkjs lkFk jgrk gS\
Does he live with you?

Rajs Notes of English Language

ughaa] oks fcgkj esa jgrk gSA


No, he doesn't. He lives in Bihar.
D;k iwue viuh lgsfy;ksa ds chp [kq'k
ughaa jgrh gS\
Does Poonam not feel happy amidst/among
her friends?
ughaa] ,lk ughaa gSA
No, it's not so.

;fn okD; esa drkZ ughaa feyrk gS rks gesa it dks drkZ cukuk
iM+rk gSA (for imperson verbs we use 'it' as subject
tSls%
1-

vPNk yxrk gSA


It feels good.
vPNk ughaa yxrkA
It does not (doesn't) feel good.
D;k vPNk yxrk gS\
Does it feel good?
gkWa] vPNk yxrk gS@ughaA
Yes, it does./ No, it doesn't.
D;k vPNk ughaa yxrk gS\
Does it not feel good?/ Doesn't it feel good?
ughaa@ fcYdqy gkWa ] vPNk yxrk gSA
No, it doesn't. / Of course, it does.

With 'Always' Always lnk] gesa'kk


Assertive/
Affiramative

Subject+always+main verb 1st form(s/es)


+ object.

Negative

Subject+do/does+not+always+main verb
1st form+ object.

Interrogative

Do/does+Subject+always+ v1+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Do/does+Subject+always+v1+object?
Or

Don't/Doesn't+Subject+always+v1+object?

Rajs Notes of English Language

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

eSa gesa'kk le; ij vkus dk ;kl


djrk gwWaA
I always try to come in time.
oks gesa'kk gh eq> ij gWalrk gSA
He always laughas at me.
rqe rks gesa'kk gh nsj ls vkrs gksA
You always come late.
oks rks gesa'kk gh dksf'k'k djrk gSA
He always tries.
EkSa gesa'kk gh vki yksxks dks [kq'k j[kus
dh dksf'k'k djrk gwWaA

I always try to keep you happy.


oks gesa'kk ;gkaW ughaa vkrkA
He does not always come here.
7.
oks gesa'kk gh rqEgsa ughaa fpM+krhA
She does not always annoy you.
8.
vktkn vf[kys'k dk nksLr gS vkSj
oks gesa'kk ;gkaW [ksyus vkrk gSA
Ajad is Akhilesh's friend and he always
comes here to play.
9.
esjh ekWa gesa'kk eq>s fdlh u fdlh pht
ds fy, MkaVrh gSA
My mother always scolds me for something or
otherwise.
10. oks gesa'kk cdokl gh djrk gSA
He always talks nonsense.
6.

dqN vkSj mnkgj.k


1eSa lksprk gwWaA
I think.
2,d dqkk HkkSadrk gSA
A dog barks.
3lw;Z pedrk gSA
The sun shines.
4rkjs pedrs gSaA
The stars twinckle.
5rqe gWalrs gksA
You laugh.

Rajs Notes of English Language

67-

D;k rqe Hkxoku esa ;dhu j[krs gks


Do you believe in God?
dqN yksxksa dk O;fDrRo nksxyk gksrk gSA
os dgrs dqN gSa vkSj djrs dqNA
Some people have dual personality. They say
something, but do otherwise.

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS vkSj
;fn okD; udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1.
eSa rqEgkjh enn djrk gwWa] gS uk\
uk\
I help you, don't I?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, you do. / No, you don't.
2-

rqe ogkWa ugha tkrs] gS uk\


uk\
You don't go there, do you?
gkaW] eSa ogkWa ughaa tkrkA@ ughaa] eSa tkr gwWaA
Yes, I don't. / No, I do.

3-

oks rqEkls Mjrh gS] gSa uk\


uk\
She fears you, doesn't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

4-

fl[kk rqEkls uQjr


uQjr djrh gS] gS uk\
uk\
Sikha hates you, doesn't she?
gkaW] oks djrh rks gSA@ ughaa rksA
Yes, she does do. / No, she doesn't.

5-

iwtk nsgjknwu esa ugha jgrh] gS uk\


uk\
Pooja doesn't live in Dehradoon, does she?
gkaW] oks ugha jgrhA
Yes, she she doesn't./ No, she doesn't.

6-

ge viuk cpiu dHkh ughaa Hkwyrs] gS uk\


uk\
We never forget our childhood, do we?
gkaW] dHkh ughaA
Yes, we never do.

Rajs Notes of English Language

7-

os gesa'kk lkFk jgrs gSa] gSa uk\


uk\
They always stay together, don't they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they do./ No, they don't.

8-

rqEgkjs pkpk rqEgsa cgqr I;kj djrs gSa]


gSa uk\
uk\
Your uncle loves you so much, doesn't he?
gkaW] djrs rks gSaA@ ughaa] oks flQZ fn[kkok
djrs gSaA
Yes, he does./ No, he just pretends.

9-

oks ges'kk ,lk gh lksprh gS] gSa uk\


uk\
She always thinks so, doesn't she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

10-

rqe Hkh eq>ls nwj tkuk pkgrs gks] gS uk\


uk\
You also want to go away from me, don't you?
ughaa dHkh ughaaA
No, never.

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaa gS fd Question Words dk
;ksx djrs le; gesa igys Question Words dks vyx
djuk gS fQj okD; dks interrogative esa ;k interrogative
negative esa cnydj Question Words ds ckn j[kdj mlesa
var esa 'uokpd fpUg yxkuk gSA
tSls% rqe D;k djrs gks \ lcls igys ge Question Word
*D;k*(what) dks vyx djsaxsA rks okD; cpsxk *rqe djrs gks *A
vc bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs ' you do.' vc bls
interrogative esa cnysaxs rks cusxk do you do? vc ge bls
Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks cusxk What do you do?
rqe D;k djrs gks\A
Bhd ,ls gh%

rqe ogkWa D;ksa ughaa tkrs\


Why do you not go there?

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

What- D;k\
D;k\

rqe D;k djrs gks\


What do you do ?
eSa i<kbZ djrk gwWaA
I read/study.
oks D;k pkgrk gS\
What does he want?
oks dqN iSls pkgrk gSA
He wants some money.
rqEgkjs cSx esa D;k gS\
What do you have in your bag?
dqN iqLrdsa gSaA
I have some books in my bag.
vkids firk th D;k djrs gSa\
What does your father do ?
esajs ikik th cSad esa dke djrs gSaA
My father/He works in a bank.
rqe Hkfo"; esa D;k cuuk pkgrs gks\
What do you want to be in future?
eSa vHkh bl ckjs esa ughaa lksprkA
I don't think about it now.
rks fQj D;k lksprs gks\
What do you think then?
eSa le>rk gwWa dh gesa orZeku ds ckjs
esa gh lkspuk pkfg,A
I think that we should think about present only.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1- rqe D;k dguk pkgrs gks\
What do you want to say?
2- oks D;k djuk pkgrk gS\
What does he want to do?
3- jk/kk D;k dgrh gS\
What does Radha say?
4- rqe D;k lksprs gks\
What do you think?
5- dk'k D;k djrk gS\
What does Prakash do?

Rajs Notes of English Language

6-

rqEgkjk bjknk D;k gS\


What do you intend?
7- rqEgkjk bjknk D;k djus dk gS\
What do you intend to do?
8- mlds fopkj D;k gSa\
What does he think?/ What is his thinking?
9- oks bl ckjs esa D;k tkurk gS\
What does he know about this?
10-- oks D;k dgrh gS\
10
What does she say?

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

When- dc\
dc\

lqcg dc gksrh gS\


When is it morning?
lqcg gksrh gS tc lwjt fudyrk gSA
It is morning when the sun rises.
oks ;gkaW dc vkrk gS\
When does he come here?
oks eq>s ijs'kku djrh gS tc esa i<kbZ
djrk gwWaA
She disturbs me when I read/study.
fnlEcj dc vkrk gS\
When does December come?
fnlEcj uoEcj ds ckn vkrk gSA
December comes after November.

dqN vkSj 'u%


12345-

rqe dc vkrs gks\


When do you come?
rqe dc tkrs gks\
When do you go?
oks [kkuk dc [kkrk gS\
When does he eat food?
rqe dc ugkrs gks\
When do you take bath?/ When do you bathe?
eEeh euk dc djrh gS\
When does mother refuse?

Rajs Notes of English Language

678910-

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqe [kq'k dc esglwl djrs gks\


When do you feel happy?
oks dc eqLdqjkrh gS\
When does she smile?
oks lksprk dc gS\
When does he think?
oks vkrk dc gS\
When does he come?
os [ksyus dc tkrs gSa\
When do they go to play?

Where- dgkaW\@ From Where dgkaW ls\

rqe dgkaW jgrs gks\


Where do you live?
eSa flgksjk esa jgrk gwaWA
I live at Sihora.
rqe flgksjk esa dgkWa jgrs gks\
Where do you live in Sihora?
eSa flgksjk esa u;k eksgYyk esa jgrk gwWaA
I live in Sihora at Naya Mohalla.
fnus'k dgkWa tkrk gS\
Where does Dinesh go?
oks dgha ughaa tkrk gS] oks ?kj ij gh
jgrk gSA
He doesn't go anywhere, he stays at home.
uhye dgkWa ls vkrh gS\
From where does Neelam come?
Where does Neelam come from?
oks xkslyiqj ls vkrh gSA
She comes from Gosalpur.
rqe dgkWa dke djrs gks\
Where do you work?
eSa e>xokWa ,d Ldwy esa i<kus tkrk gwWaA
I go to Manjhagawan to teach in a school.
rqe iqLdsa dgkWa ls [kjhnrs gks\
From where do you buy books?
eSa lat; iqLrd Hk.Mkj ls iqLrdsa [kjhnrk gwWaA
I buy books from Sanjay Pustak Bhandar.

Rajs Notes of English Language

dqN vkSj 'u%


1jkts'k dke dgkWa djrk gS\
Where does Rajesh work?
2os [ksyus dgkWa tkrs gSa\
Where do they go to play?
3fp= dqekj jk; th dgkWa jgrs gSa\
Where does Mr. Chitra Kumar Rai live?
4Ekksguh'k tcyiqj ds fy, cl dgkWa ls
idM+rk gS\
From where does Mohnish catch a bus to/for
Jabalpur?
5rqEgsa dgkWa vPNk yxrk gS\
Where do you feel good/better?
6oks lqcg dgkWa ls okil vkrh gS\
From where does she come back in the morning?
7rqe viuk cLrk dgkWa Hkwy tkrs gks\
Where do you forget your bag?
8- blds fy, iSlk dgkWa ls vkrk gS\
From where does the money come for it?
9ikuh dgkWa ls fxjrk gS\
From where does the water fall?/
From where does it rain?
10- dy ge dgkWa feyrs gSa\
Where do we meet tomorrow ?

Why- D;ksa\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqe fpark D;ksa djrs gks\


Why do you worry ?
D;ksafd ;s fpark dh ckr gSA
Because it is a matter to worry about.
oks tkrh D;ksa ughaa\
Why does she not go?
D;ksafd oks tkuk gh ughaa pkgrhA
Because she does not want to go at all.
rqe mlls Mjrs D;ksa gks\
Why do you fear him?
D;ksafd oks eq>s cgqr cqjh rjg ihVrk gSA
Because he beats me so badly.

Rajs Notes of English Language

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqe esjh ckr D;ksa ughaa lqurs\
Why don't you listen to me?
2rqe 'kkar D;ksa ughaa cSBrs\
Why don't you sit quiet?
3rqe viuh iqLrd fudky dj i<rs
D;ksa ughaa\
Why don't you take out your book and read?
5lat; ,slk D;ksa cksyrk gS\
Why does Sanjay say so?
6oks le; ij D;ksa ughaa vkrh\
vkrh\
Why doesn't she come on/in time?
7rqe Hkwy D;ksa tkrs gks fd eSa rqEgkaWjk
ekfyd gwaW\
Why do you forget that I am you master?
8rqe viuk le; D;ksa cjckn djrh gks\
Why do you waste your time?
9oks eq>s le>rh D;ksa ughaa\
Why doesn't she understand me?
10- rqe Hkyk ,slk lksprs D;ksa gks\
Why ever do you think so?

Who

- dkSu\

Simple Present Tense esa Who ls 'kuksa dks cukus ds fy,


*dkSu* ds LFkku ij Who j[k fn;k tkrk gSA
drkZ ;fn ,d opu gks rks f;k ds lkFk s/es yxrk gS vkSj ;nh
cgqopu gks rc f;k ds lkFk s/es ughaa yxrk gSA
Who- dkSu\
'u%

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

ogkaW dkSu tkrk gS\


Who goes there?
vatyh tkrh gSA
Anjli goes./ Anjali goes.
ogkaW dkSu&dkSu tkrk gS\
Who go there?
esjk HkkbZ vkSj eSaA
My brother and I go there.
jkst dkSu ughaa vkrk\
vkrk\
Who doesn't come daily?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

vkuan jkst ughaa vkrkA


Anand doesn't come daily.
oks dkWyst fdlds lkFk tkrh gS\
Who does she go to college with?
oks vatyh vkSj ek;k ds lkFk dkWysTk
tkrh gSA
She goes to college with Anjli and Maya.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1dkSu tkurk gS\
Who knows ?
2dkSu&dkS
&dkSu tkurk gS\
Who know?
3- ,slk dkSu lksprk gS\
Who thinks so?
4dkSu dgrk gS fd rqe xyr gks\
Who says that you are wrong?
5jkr dks dkSu ns[krk gS\
Who sees at night?
6mls dkSu ilan djrk gS\
Who likes her?
7rqEgsa lcls T;knk dkSu ilan gS\
Who do you like the most?
8oks fdlls I;kj djrh gS\
Who does she love?
9vki yksxksa dks vaxzsth dkSu i<krk gS\
Who teaches you English?
10- Okks Qksu ij fdlls ckr djrk gS\
Who does he talk with on phone?/With whom
does he talk on phone?

'u%
mkj%
'u%
'u%

Whom- fdlls\

rqe bl fo"k; ds ckjs esa fdlls iwNrs gks\


Whom do you ask about this subject?
eSa vius ikik th ls iwNrk gwWaA
I ask my father.
oks fdlls feyuk pkgrh gS\
Whom does she want to meet?
oks Ldwy dSls tkrk gS\
How does he go to school?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

ku%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

oks viuh csgu ls feyuk pkgrh gSA


She wants to meet her sister.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
fdldk@fdldh\

rqe vius x`g dk;Z esa fdldh en~n


ysrs gks\
Whose help do you take with your homework?
eSa viuh ekWa dh enn ysrk gwWaA
I take my mother's help.
mls fdlds xhr ilan gS\
Whose songs does he like?
mls eqds'k ds xhr ilan gSA
He likes Mukesh's songs.
rqe fdldh dEiuh esa dke djrs gks\
In whose company do you work?
eSa vkfnR; dh dEiuh esa dke djrk gwWaA
I work in Adity's company.

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh\


lh\

rqEgsa dkSu lk fo"k; ilan gS\


Which subject do you like?
eq>s foKku fo"k; ilan gSA
I like science subject.
rqe dkSu lk v[kckj i<rs gks\
Which news paper do you read?
eSa nSfud HkkLdj i<rk gwWaA
I read the Dainik Bhaskar.

How-dS
dSls@dSlh\
h\

oks Ldwy dSls tkrk gS\


How does he go to school?
oks cl ls Ldwy tkrk gSA
He goes to school by bus.
rqe ;s dSls tkurs gks\
How do you know this?
esjs pkpk th us eq>s crk;kA
My uncle told me.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%

oks vius xzkgdksa ds lkFk dSlk O;ogkj


djrk gS\
How does he deal with his costumers?

mkj%

oks cgqr vPNk O;ogkj djrk gSA


He deals/behaves very politely.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1oks ;s dSls djrk gS\
How does he do this ?
2oks dSlk i<rh gS\
How does she study?
3oks dSlk [ksyrk gS\
How does he play?
4jfo dSlk gkj djrk gS\
How does Ravi smite?
5:ik dSlk i<+
i<+krh
krh gS\
How does Roopa teach?

How much- fdruk\


fdruk\

'u%

rqEgsa fdruk iSlk pkfg,\


pkfg,\
How much money do you want?
eq>s 5000 :i; pkfg,A
I want Rs. 5000.
rqe bl ckjs esa fdruk tkurs gks\
How much do you know about this?
eSa bl ckjs esa lc dqN tkurk gwWaA
I know everything about it.
oks ,d fnu esa fdruk dke djrk gS\
How much does he work in a day?
oks ,d fnu esa 6 ?kaVs dke djrk gSA
He works (for) 6 hours in a day.

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
dqN vkSj 'u%
12-

rqEgkjs ikl fdruk iSlk gS\


How much money do you have ?
vkidks fdruk vuqHko gS\
How much experience do you have?

Rajs Notes of English Language

345-

oks jkst fdruk i<rk gS\


How much does he read/study daily?
fot; fdruk nw/k ihrk gS\
How much milk does Vijay drink?
;s xk; fdruk nw/k nsrh gS\
How much milk does this cow give?

How many- fdrus\


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqe jkst fdruh jksVh [kkrs gks\


How many chapaties do you eat daily?
eSa jkst 6 ls 8 vkB jksfV;kWa [kkrk gwWaA
I eat 6 to 8 chapaties daily.
oks vius cSx esa fdruh iqLrd ykrk gS\
How many books does he bring in his bag?
oks vius cSx esa 14 iqLrd ykrk gSA
He brings 14 books in his bag.
rqe ,d fnu esa fdrus ckj [kkrs gks\
How many times do you eat in a day?
eSa ,d fnu esa ek= nks ckj [kkrk gwWaA
I eat only two times in a day.

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


rd\

rqe fdruh nsj rd i<rs gks\


How long do you study/read daily?
eSa nks ?kaVs lq
lqcg vkSj nks ?kaVs 'kke dks i<+rk gwWaA
I study for two hours in the morning and two hour
in the evening.
oks rqEgkjs lkFk fdruh nsj rd jgrk gS\
How long does he stay with you?
oks esjs lkFk 'kke rd jgrk gSA
He stays with me till evening.

How far- fdruh nwj\


'u%

xkWao ds yksx ikuh ykus ds fy, ;gkWa ls


fdruh nwj tkrs gSa\
How far do the village people go from here to
bring water?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

mUgsa 2 fdfd-eheh- pyuk iM+rk gSA


They have to walk two kilometres.

Question Words dk ;ksx ge bl rjg ls Hkh dj ldrs gSaA


tSls%
1D;k djsa\
2345678-

What to do?
dc tk,\
tk,\
When to go?
dgkWa tk,\
tk,\
Where to go?
,slk D;ksa djsa\
Why to do so?
dkSu lh iqLrd [kjhnsa\
Which book to buy?
fdlls iwNs\
Whom to ask?
;s dSls djsa\
How to do this?
D;k rqEgsa [kkuk cukuk vkrk gS\
Do you know how to cook?

Present Indefinite/ Simple Present Tense ds okD;ksa


dks ;fn t+ksj nsdj dguk gksxk rks OkkD; bl dkj ls cusaxsA
S+do/does+V1+ object.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

eSa jkst+ ;gkaW vkrk gh gwWaA


I do come here daily.
rqe >wB cksyrs gh gksA
You do lie./You do tell lies.
ge iqLrdky; i<+us tkrs gh gSA
We do go to library to read.
os ;gkWa vkrs gh gSaA
They do come here.
oks fuf'pr gh lgh dgrk gSA
He does say the right thing.

Rajs Notes of English Language

6.
7.
8.

oks fuf'pr gh gekjh en~n djrh gSA


She does help us.
balku fuf'pr gh xyfr;kWa djrk gSA
Man does do mistakes.
jke vkSj ';ke ogkWa dke djrs gh gSaA
Ram and Shyam do work there.

Past Indefinite/ Simple Past Tense

lkekU; HkwrdkyA

tc ,sls okD;ksa dks dgrs gSa ftlesa okD; esa dksbZ f;k
Hkwrdky esa 'kq: gqbZ vkSj Hkwrdky esa gh [kRe gks xbZ ;k gqbZ] ,slk
cks/k gksrk gS rks ,sls okD; lkekU; Hkwrdky ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
tSls% 1234-

eSa dy ogkaW x;k FkkA


I went there yesterday.
rqeus D;k dgk\
dgk\
What did you say?
oks ;gkaW D;ksa vkbZ Fkh \
Why did she come here?
mlus eq>s 200 :i; fn,A
He gave me 200 rupees.

Formulae (Active Voice.)


Affirmative :
Negative :
Negative
with 'Never' :
Interrogative :
Negative
Interrogative :

Subject+main verb 2nd form+ object.


Subject+did+not+main verb 1st form+ object.
(did+not = didn't)
Subject+ never+V2+obj.
Did+Subject+ V1+object?
Did+Subject+not+ V1 +object?
Or
Didn't+Subject+ V1 +object?

Rajs Notes of English Language

Negative Interrogative
with
'Never'
:
Did+Subject+never+V1+object ?
Examples:
1eSa dy ogkaW x;k FkkA
I went there yesterday.
eSa dy ogkWa ughaa x;k FkkA
I did not go there yesterday.
eSa dHkh ogkWa ughaa x;kA
I never went there.
D;k rqe dy ogkWa x, Fks\
Did you go there yesterday?
gkWa] eSa x;k FkkA@ugha
FkkA@ughaa] ughaa x;kA
Yes, I did./ No, I didn't.
D;k rqe ogkaW ughaa x,\
x,\
Did you not go there?
ughaa]eSa ogkaW ughaa x;kA
No, I didnt
D;k rqEus viuh ftou esa dHkh >wB
ughaa cksykA
Did you never lie in your life?
Ukgh ,slk ughaa gSA dHkh uk dHkh rks gj
fdlh dks >wB cksyuk gh IkM+rk gSA
No, it is not so. Now and then everyone has
to lie.
D;k rqe ogkaW dHkh ughaa ughaa x,\
x,\
Did you never go there?
ugha] dHkh ughaa x;kA
No, I never did.
2-

rqeus ,slk dgkA


You said so.
rqeus ,slk ughaa dgkA
You did not say so.
rqeus ,slk dHkh ughaa dgkA
You never said so.
D;k eSus ,slk dgk\
dgk\
Did I say so?

Rajs Notes of English Language

gkWa] rqeus ,slk ghs dgkA@ugha


dgkA@ughaaA
Yes, you did./ No, you didn't.
D;k rqeus ,slk ughaa dgk\
dgk\
Did you not say so?
gkaW] dgk rks FkkA
Yes, I did say so.

3-

geus eSp thrkA


We won the match.
ge eSap ughaa thrsA
We did not win the match.
geus dHkh eSap ughaa thrkA
We never won any match.
D;k rqe yksx eSap thrs\
Did you win the match?
gkaW] thrsA@ughaa] gkj x,A
Yes, we did./ No, we didn't./we lost it.
D;k rqe yksx dy ughaa vk, Fks \
Did you not come yesterday?
ughaa] ge yksx dy ughaa vk, FksA
No, we didn't.

4-

mUgksaus mls [kwc ihVkA


They beat him badly/very much.
mUgksaus gesa ughaa cqyk;kA
They did not invite us.
mUgksaus dHkh gekjh enn ughaa dhA
They never helped us.
D;k mUgksaus vkidks vkeaf=r fd;k\
fd;k\
Did they invite you?
gkaW] fd;kA@ugha
fd;kA@ughaa fd;kA
Yes, they did./ No, they didn't.

5-

mls xqLlk vk;kA


He got angry.
mlus ughaa fpYyk;kA
He did not shout.

Rajs Notes of English Language

mlus eq>ls bl ckjs esa dHkh ughaa iwNkA


He never asked me about this.
D;k mlus rqels bl ckjs esa iwNk\
k\
Did he ask you about this?
gkWa]iwNk Fkk ij eSus mls ughaa crk;kA
Yes, he did, but I didn't tell him.
D;k rqeus eq>ls >wB ughaa dgk\
dgk\
Did you not lie to me?
gkWa] dgk FkkA vkSj bl ckr ds fy, eq>s
vQlksl gSA
Yes, I did. And I am sorry for it.
6-

mlus eq>ls bl ckjs esa ckr dhA


She talked to me about this.
mlus esjh enn ughaa dhA
She did not help me.
mlus dHkh eq>ls bl ckjs esa ckr
ughaa dhA
She never talked to me about this.
D;k mlus rqEkls bl ckjs esa ckr dhA
Did she talk/speak to you about this?

ughaa rks] dHkh ughaaA


No, she never did.
D;k mlus rqEgsa iSls ughaa Hksts\
Did she not send you money?
gkWa] fcYdqy Hkst fn, FksA
Of course, she did.
D;k mlus rqEkls bl ckjs esa dHkh
ughaa iwNk\
k\
Did she never ask you about this?
ughaa] dHkh ughaaA
No, she never did.
7-

fufru us esjk /kU;okn fd;kA


Nitin thanked me.
jktk us esjh iqLrd okil ughaa dhA
Raja did not return my book.
jksgu us ,slk dHkh ughaa dgkA
Rohan never said so.

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k vej us rqEgkjk fny nq%[kk;k\


[kk;k\
Did Amar hurt you?
gkWa] mlus esjk fny nq[kk;kA
Yes, he did.
D;k ckny us rqEgsa iSls m/kkj ughaa fn;s\
Did Badal not lend you any money?
gkWa] fn;s FksA ij eSus lkjs [kpZ dj fn,A
Yes, he did, but I spent them/it all.
8-

D;k rqEgkjs f'k{kd us rqEgsa ;s fu;e


dHkh ughaa crk;k\
crk;k\
Did your teacher never tell you this rule?
gkWa] crk;k FkkA ij eSa Hkwy x;k\
x;k\
Yes, he did. But I forgot.

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS vkSj
;fn okD; udkjkRed gks rc lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1-

rqe dy vk, Fks] gS uk\


uk\
You came yesterday, didn't you?
gkaW eSa dy vk;k FkkA@ ughaa eSa ughaa
vk;k FkkA
Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.

2-

ge ogkWa ughaa x;s Fks] gS uk\


uk\
We did not go there, did we?
gkaW] ge ogkWa ughaa FksA@ ughaa] ge
x,s FksA
Yes, we didn't. / No, we did.

3-

mUgksaus ogkWa etk fd;k] gS uk\


uk\
They enjoyed there,didn't they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they did. / No, they didn't.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

5-

mlus ,slk dgk Fkk] gS uk\


uk\
He said so, didn't he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he did. / No, he didn't.
mlus ,slk ughaa dgk Fkk]] gS uk\
uk\
She did not say so, did she?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, she didn't./ No, she did.

6-

uhjt us flQZ rqEgkjk bLrseky fd;k]


gS uk\
uk\
Neeraj just used you, didn't he?
gkaW] @ ughaaA
Yes, he did./ No, he didn't.

7-

eSus dksbZ xyrh ughaa dh] gS uk\


uk\
I did not do any mistake, did I?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, you didn't./ No, you did.

8-

nksuks esa ls dksbZ ughaa vk;k] gS uk\


uk\
Neither of them came, did either?
gkaW] @ ughaa] ,d vk;k FkkA
Yes, neither did./ No, one came.

9-

rqeus pksjh ughaa dh] gS uk\


uk\
You did not steal, did you?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, didn't. / No, I did.

10-

".k us jko.k dks ekjk] gS uk\


uk\
Krishn killed Rawan, didn't he?
ughaa] jke us ekjk FkkAA
No, he didn't. Ram did.

11-

;s rqEgkjs fnekx esa vk x;k] gS uk\


uk\
It got into your head, didn't it?
gkaW] @ ughaa]A

Rajs Notes of English Language

12-

Yes, it did. / No, it didn't.


dy cgqr rst o"kkZ gqbZ] gS uk\
uk\
It rained very heavily yesterday, didn't it?
gkaWA@ ughaa
Yes, it did./ No, it didn't.

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaa s gS fd Question Words dk ;ksx
djrs le; gesa igys Question Words dks vyx djuk gS fQj
okD; dks interrogative esa ;k interrogative negative esa cnydj
Question Words ds ckn j[kdj mlesa var esa 'uokpd fpUg
yxkuk gSA tSls% rqeus D;k lkspk \ lcls igys ge Question
Word *D;k* (what) dks vyx djsaxsA rks okD; cpsxk *rqeus lkspk *A
vc bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs ' you thoughat.' vc bls
interrogative esa cnysaxs rks cusxk did you think? vc ge bls
Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks cusxk&
What did you think? rqeus D;k lkspk\A
Bhd ,sls gh%

rqe ogkWa D;ksa ughaa x,\


x,\
Why did you not go there?

What - D;k\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

mlus rqels D;k ckr dh\


dh\
What did he speak/ talk to you ?
mlus vius pkpk th ds ckjs esa ckr dhA
He talked about his uncle.
mls D;k pkfg, Fkk\
\
What did she want?
mls ,d Xykl ikuh pkfg, FkkAA
She wanted a glass of water.
mUgksus ogkWa D;k fd;k\
fd;k\
What did they do there?
mUgksaus ogkWa ,d Vscy yxk;k vkSj
pys x,A
I set a table there and went away.
oks igys D;k dke djrk Fkk\
\

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

What work did he do before?


oks igys c<+bZ dk dke djrk FkkAA
He did carpenting before.
rqe cuuk D;k pkgrs Fks\
What did you want to be?
eSa MkWDVj cuuk pkgrk Fkk ij iSlksa
dh ctg ls ughaa cu ldkA
I wanted to be a doctor, but because of
money I couldn't be.
rks rqeus fQj D;k lkspk\
k\
So, what did you think then?
vHkh rd rks dqN ughaa lkspkA
I thoughat nothing/ I did not think anything so far.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqeus eq>s D;k fn;k\
fn;k\
What did you give me?
2oks D;k tkuuk pkgrh Fkh\
Fkh\
What did she want to know?
3rqeus ogkWa D;k ns[kk\
kk\
What did you see?
4mlus ,slk D;k dgk fd oks ukjkt
gks x;k\
x;k\
What did he say that she got angry?
5rqEgsa bl ckjs esa D;k irk Fkk\
Fkk\
What did you know about this?
6vc mUgksaus D;k fd;k\
fd;k\
What did they do now?
7rqEkus lqcg D;k [kk;k Fkk\
\
What did you eat in the morning?
8rqe dguk D;k pkgrs Fkss\
What did you want to say?
9jkds'k D;k pkgrk Fkk\
\
What did Rakesh wish/want?
10- oks D;k cuuk pkgrh Fkh\
Fkh\
What did she want to be/become?

Rajs Notes of English Language

When- dc\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

vjs!rqe dc vk,\
vk,\
Hey! When did you come?
vHkh gh vk;kA
I came now only/ just now.
oks f'keyk dc x;h Fkh\
\
When did he go to Shimla?
oks ogkWa twu ds eghus esa xbZ FkhA
She went there in the month of June.
eSus rqEkls dc iwaWNk\
k\
When did I ask you?
rks D;k gqvk! eSaus rqEgkjs fcuk iwWaNs
gh rqEgs crk fn;kA
So what! I told you without your asking.
oks vkf[kjh ckj ;gkWa dc vkbZ Fkh\
Fkh\
When did she come here last time?
oks rks fiNys gh grs ;gkaW vkbZ FkhA
She came here last week only.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1eSaus ,slk dc dgk\
dgk\
When did I say so?
2jfoUnz us ;s fdrkc dc iwjh dh\
dh\
When did Ravindra complete this book?
3jktk us rqEgsa xkyh dc nh\
nh\
When did Raja abuse you?
4eSaus rqels oknk dc fd;k Fkk\
Fkk\
When did I promise you?
5rqEgsa ;s ukSdjh dc feyh\
feyh\
When did you get this job?
6geus ;s ikB dc i<+k Fkk\
Fkk\
When did we read this lesson?
7eSaus ;s x`gdk;Z dc fn;k Fkk\
Fkk\
When did I give this homework?
8mlus rqEgsa bl ckjs esa dc crk;k\
crk;k\
When did he tell you about this?
9vkius eq>s dc cqyk;k Fkk\
Fkk\
When did you call me?
10- rqeus dc ,slk lquk\
k\
When did you hear (about) this?

Rajs Notes of English Language

Where- dgkaW\@ From where- dgkaW ls\


rqe lqcg dgkWa x, Fks \
Where did you go in the morning?
mkj%
?kweus x;k FkkA
I went for a walk.
'u%
mlus esjk p'ek dgkWa j[kk\
j[kk\
Where did she put my glasses/ spectacles?
mkj%
Vscy ijA
On the table.
'u%
lfpu us ;s fdrkc dgkWa ls ykbZ\
From where did Sachin bring this book?
mkj%
fo/kkrk okys ds ;gkWa lsA
From Vidhata stationery.
'u%
mlus viuk dkWyst dgkWa ls iwjk fd;k\
fd;k\
From where did he complete his college?
Where did he complete his college from?
mkj%
,l,l-,l,l- dkWyst] flgksjk lsA
From S.S. college, Sihora.
'u%
rqe esjs HkkbZ dks dgkaW ys x, Fks\
Where did you take my brother?
mkj%
eSa mls vius ?kj viuk u;k dEI;wVj
fn[kkus ys x;k FkkAA
I took him to my home to show him my new
computer.
'u%
oks igys dgkWa jgrh Fkh\
\
Where did she live before?
mkj%
igys oks vius pkpk ds ;gkWa jgrh FkhA
She lived at her uncle's.
dqN vkSj 'u%
1rqeus esjk eksckbZy dgkWa ns[kk Fkk\
Fkk\
Where did you see my mobile?
2oks rqels dgkWa feyh Fkh\
\
Where did she meet you?
3fp=dqekj jk; dks dgkWa ukSdjh feyh\
feyh\
Where did Mr. Chitrakumar Rai get a/the job?
4oks dgkWa ls vkbZ Fkh\
\
From where did she come?
5rqeus mls igys dgkWa ns[kk Fkk\
\
Where did you see him/her before?
'u%

Rajs Notes of English Language

678910-

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

ge fiNyh ckj dgkWa feys Fkss\


Where did we meet last time?
os dgkWa tkuk pkgrs Fks\
Where did they want to go?
fiNyh jkr rqeus dgkWa fcrkbZ Fkh\
\
Where did you spend (the) last night?
mlus rqels dgkWa tkus dks dgk\
dgk\
Where did he ask/tell you to go?
oks Hkksiky esa dgkWa jgrh Fkh\
\
Where did she live in Bhopal?

Why- D;ksa\

rqeus dke iwjk D;ksa ughaa fd;k\


fd;k\
Why did you not complete the work?
D;ksafd esjs ikl le; gh ughaa FkkA
Because I didn't have time at all.
oks ogkWa D;ksa ughaa x;k\
x;k\
Why did he not go there?
D;ksafd oks tkuk gh ughaa pkgrk FkkA
Because he didn't want to go at all.
rqEkus eq>s iSlksa ds fy, /kksdk D;ksa fn;k\
fn;k\
Why did you deceive me for money?
eSa lpeqp cgqr 'kehZank gwWaA
I am really very sorry (for this).

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqeus mldh lykg D;ksa ugha ekuh\
ekuh\
Why did you not follow his advice?
2rqe ogkWa D;kas x, Fks\
Why did you go there?
3mlus rqels bruh cqjh rjg ls ckr
D;ksa dh\
dh\
Why did he talk to you so badly?
4pijklh us vc rd ?kaVh D;ksa ughaa ctkbZ\
Why didn't the poen ring the bell yet?
5jkedqekj us lcls iSls D;kas fy,\
fy,\
Why did Ramkumar take money from everyone?
6rqe dy D;ksa ughaa vk, Fks\
Why did you not come yesterday?

Rajs Notes of English Language

78910-

vkt vkids ikik us vidks D;ksa MkaWVk\


k\
Why did your father scold her today?
;s rqEgkjs fnekx esa D;ksa ughaa p<+k\
Why did it not get to your head?
f'k[kk us vc rd [kkuk D;ksa ughaa [kk;k\
[kk;k\
Why didn't Shikha eat food yet?
rqeus mldh eqlhcr esa mldh enn D;ksa
ughaa dh\
dh\
Why didn't you help her in her problems?

Who- dkSu@fdlus\
Past Indefinite /Simple Past Tense esa Who ls 'uksa dks
cukus ds fy, *dkSu* ds LFkku ij Who j[k fn;k tkrk vkSj f;k ds
nwljs :Ik (V2) dk ;ksx fd;k tkr gSa
;fn okD; esa drkZ (doer/subject) uk gks rksA
tSls% 'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

ogkaW dkSu x;k Fkk\


\
Who went there?
eSa x;k FkkAA
I went./I did.
vkidks fdlus crk;k\
crk;k\
Who told you?
ikBd lj usA
Mr. Pathak told./Mr. Pathak did.
lqcg rqels feyus dkSu vk;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Who came to meet you in the morning?
lqjs'k ds ikik thA
Suresh's father.
rqEgsa ,slk fdlus crk;k\
crk;k\
Who told you so?
jks'kuh usA
Roshni did,/ Roshni told.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1dkSu tkurk Fkk fd ,slk gksxk\
k\
Who knew that it would happen so?
2esjk isu fdlus fy;k\
fy;k\
Who took my pen?

Rajs Notes of English Language

345678910-

,slk fdlus dgk\


dgk\
Why said so?
rqEgsa fdlus ekjk\
ekjk\
Who beat/hit you?
dy jkr ckgj dkSu x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Who went out last night?
mls fdlus ilan fd;k\
fd;k\
Who liked her?
rqEgsa lcls T;knk dkSu ilan vk;k\
vk;k\
Who did you like the most?
jkuh dh enn fdlus dh\
dh\
Who helped Rani?
vkidks foKku fo"k; fdlus i<k;k\
i<k;k\
Who taughat you science (subject)?
vkt [kkuk fdlus cuk;k\
cuk;k\
Who cooked (food) today?

Whom- fdlls \
'u%
mkj%

rqeus bl ckjs esa fdlls iwaWNk\


k\
Whom did you ask about this ?
eSaus vius ikik th ls iwNkA
I asked my father.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

rqeus bl x`gdk;Z esa fdldh enn yh\


yh\
Whose help did you take in this homework?
eSaus vius HkkbZ dh enn yhA
I took my brother's help.
ueu us fdldk isu pqjk;k\
k;k\
Whose did Naman steal?
mlus fdlh dk isu ugha pqjk;kA oks rks
mlh dk FkkA
He did not steal anybody's pen. It was his own.

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh\


lh\

rqEkus dkSu lh 'kVZ [kjhnh\


[kjhnh\
Which shirt did you buy?
oks] lQsn okyhA
That the white one.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

mlus fdl dEiuh dk Qksu [kjhnk\


[kjhnk\
Of which compay mobile did he purchase/buy ?
mlus Likbl okyk [kjhnkA
He boughat/purchased the spice one.

How-dS
dSls@dSlh\
h\

rqe yksx ogkWa dSls x, Fks\


How did you go there?
ge Vsu ls x, FksA
We went by train.
rqEgs ;s dSls irk pyk\
pyk\
How did you come to know this/
How did you know this?
esjs pkpk th us eq>s crk;kA
My uncle told me.
mlus ;s dSls fd;k\
fd;k\
How did he do this?
cM+h vklkuh lsA
Very easily.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1oks dTkZ esa dSls iM+@Ql x;k\
x;k\
How did he get into debts?
2mlus fdl rjg ls mldh enn dh\
dh\
How did he help her?
3oks dSlk [ksyk\
k\
How did he play?
4vkuan okil dSls vk;k\
vk;k\
How did Anand come back?
5:ik us fiNys lky dSlk i<+k;k Fkk\
Fkk\
How did Roopa teach last year ?
'u%
mkj%
'u%

How much- fdruk\


fdruk\

rqeus vkt fdruk dke fd;k\


fd;k\
How much work did you do today?
vkt eSus cgqr lkjk dke fd;kA
I worked a lot today./ I did a lot of work today.
mlus rqEgsa fdruk iSlk fn;k\
fn;k\
How much money did he give you?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

mlus eq>s dksbZ iSlk ughaa fn;kA


He did not give me any money.
rqeus lqcg fdruk nw/k fy;k Fkk\
\
How much milk did you take in the morning?
eSus lqcg nw/k ughaa fy;k FkkA
eEeh us fy;k FkkAA
I did not take milk in the morning. Mother did.
/ Mother took.

'u%
mkj%

dqN vkSj 'u%


1- mlus fdrus iSls ekaxs \
23-

4-

How much money did she ask for ?


rqeus bl edku ds fy, fdruk iSlk
pqdk;k\
k;k\
How much money did you pay for this house?
oks jkst fdruk i<+rh Fkh\
\
How much did she read/study daily?

fot; us fdruk nw/k fi;k\

How much milk did Vijay drink/take/have?

5-

Xkk; us vkt fdruk nw/k fn;k\


How much milk did the cow give today?

How many- fdrus\


'u%

oks vkt ;gkWa fdrus ckj vk;k Fkk\


How many times did he come here today?

mkj%

flQZ nks ckjA


Only two times.

'u%
mkj%
'u%

vkt rqeus fdrus okD; lh[ks\


How many sentences did you learn today?

vkt eSus nl okD; lh[ksA

I learnt/learned ten sentences today.

vkt mlus fdrus iUus i<s+\

How many pages did he read (jhM) today?

mkj%

mlus pkj iUus i<s+ FksA


He read (jSM) four pages.

Rajs Notes of English Language

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


'u%

nhid us esjk fdruh nsj rd bartkj fd;k Fkk\


How long did Deepak wait for me?
mlus rhu ?kaVs rd bartkj fd;k FkkA
He waited for three hours.
rqe ogkWa dc rd :ds Fks\
How long did you stay there?
eSa tYnh okil vk x;k FkkA
I came back soon/early.

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

How far- fdruh nwj\

'u%

oks fdruh nwj rd rqEgkjs lkFk pyh\


pyh\
How far did she walk/go with you?
T;knk nwj rd ughaaA
Not very far.

mkj%

Past Indefinite/ Simple Past Tense ds okD;ksa dks


;fn t+ksj nsdj dguk gksxk rks OkkD; bl dkj ls cusaxsA
S+did+V1+ object.
tSls%

12345-

eSa dy fuf'pr gh vk;k FkkA


I did come yesterday.
oks fuf'pr gh ogkWa xbZ FkhA
She did go there.
mlus rqEgkjk eksckby pqjk;k gh FkkA
He did steal your mobile.
fu'kkUr us esjh bulYV gh dh FkhA
Nishant did insult me.
mlus fuf'pr gh rqEgkjh iqLrd ykSVkbZA
He did return your book.

Future Indefinite/ Simple Future Tense

lkekU; Hkfo";dky

,sls okD; ftUkesa Hkfo"; esa dksbZ dk;Z@f;k dh tk,sxk]

Rajs Notes of English Language

,slk dgk tkrk gS rks oks okD; Future Indefinite/ Simple


Furture Tense ds okD; dgs tkrs gSaA
tSls%

123-

eSa dy vkWaxkA
oks ogkWa dHkh ughaa tk,xhA
eSa rqEgkjh enn d:aWxkA etc.

bl rjg ds okD;ksa dks cukus ds fy, gesa vkxs fn, x, lw=ksa


dk ;ksx djuk gksrk gSA

Formulae (Active Voice)


Affirmative
Negative

:
:

Subject+will/shall+ V1+object.
Subject+will/shall+ not+V1+object.

Negative
with 'Never'

Subject+ will/shall+never+V1+obj.

Interrogative

Will/shall+Subject+ V1+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Will/shall+Subject+not+V1+object?
Or
Won't/Shan't +Subject+V1+object?

Negative
Interrogative
with 'Never'

Will/shall+Subject+never+V1+object?

bl ckr ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsa fd I vkSj We ds lkFk Shall


yxrk vkSj vU; lHkh drkZ (subjects/doers)ds lkFk will yxrk
gS ij ;fn ge fdlh ls oknk djrs] /kedh nsrs gSa rks ge I vkSj
We ds lkFk Hkh Will yxkrs gSaA ij ,slk ge (Affirmative/simple)
lk/kkj.k vkSj (Negative) udkjkRed okD;ksa esa gh dj ldrs gSa]
D;ksafd ge [kqn gh ek= ,slh ethZ dj ldrs gSa] ;fn ge fdlh ls
iwaWNrs gSa rks fQj ;s mldh ethZ gks tk,xhA
Examples:
1eSa ogkWa dy tkmWaxkA
I shall go there tomorrow.

Rajs Notes of English Language

eSa dy ogkWa tkaWxkA oknk


I will go there tomorrow.
eSa ogkaW ughaa tkWaxkA
I shall not go there.
eSa dy ogkWa iDdk ughaa tkWxkA
I will not go there.
eSa ogkWa dHkh ughaa tkWaxkA
I will never go there.
D;k rqe ogkWa tkvksxs\
Will you go there?
gkWa] eSa ogkWa tkWaxkA ughaa] ughaa tkWaxkA
Yes, I will./ No, I won't.
D;k rqe ogkWa ughaa tkvksxs\
Will you not go there?
gkWa] ughaa tkWaxk@fcYdqy] tkWaxkA
Yes, I won't./Of course, I will definitely go.
D;k rqe vc ogkWa dHkh ughaa tkvksxs\
Will you never go there now?
ughaa dHkh ughaaA
No, I'll ( I will ) never.
2-

rqe dy vkvksxsA
You will come tomorrow.
rqe ;gkaW vc ughaa vkvksxsA
You will not come here now.
rqe mls vc dHkh ijs'kku ughaa djksxsA
You will never distub her now.
D;k eSa dy vkWaxk@vkWa\
Shall I come tomorrow?
gkWa] rqe vkvksxsA ughaa] ughaa vkvksxsA
Yes, you will./ No, you won't.
D;k eSa dy ughaa@uk vkWaxk@vkWa\
Shall I not come tomorrow?
gkWa] rqe ughaa vkvksxsA fcYdqy vkvksxsA
No, You won't./ Of course, you will.
D;k eSa vc ogkWa dHkh ughaa tkWaxk\
k\
Shall I never go there?

Rajs Notes of English Language

ughaa dHkh ughaaA


No, you'll ( you will ) never.
3-

ge vkt 'kke dks [ksyus pysaxsA


We shall go to play in the evening.
ge vkt 'kke dks [ksyus pysaxsA oknk
We will go to play in the evening.
ge mudh enn ughaa djsaxsA
We shall not help them.
ge mudh enn fcYdqy ughaa djsaxsA
We will not help them.
ge mudh enn dHkh ughaa djsaxsA
We will never help them.
D;k ge 'kke dks [ksyus pysaxs\
Shall we go to play in the evening?
gkWa] pysaxs@ughaaA
Yes, we'll (we will)/ No, we won't.
D;k ge 'kke dks [ksyus ughaa pysaxs\
Shall we not go to play in the evening? Or
Shan't we go to play in the evening?
gkWa] ughaa A fcYdqy vkvksxsA
No, we won't./ Of course, we will.
D;k ge dHkh ughaa thrsaxs\
Shall we never win?
ge dy thrsaxsA
iDdk ughaa gSA
We shall win tomorrow.

3-

mUgs ogkaW dqN iSlksa dh t:jr gksxhA


They will need some money there.
os dy ughaa vk,saxsA
They will not (won't ) come tomorrow.
D;k os gekajh enn djsaxs\
Will they help us?
gkWa] D;ksafd mUgksaus oknk fd;k FkkAA
Yes, they will, because they promised.
D;k os gekjh enn ughaa djsaxs\
Will they not help us?
gkWa] ughaa djsaxs D;ksafd geus mudh enn ughaa dhA
Yes, they won't because we didn't help them.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

oks bl lky viuh i<+kbZ iwjh djus vesafjdk tk,xkA


He will go to America this year to complete
his study.

oks vkt ckgj gh [kkuk [kk,sxh A

She will eat out today.


oks rqels bl ckjs esa dHkh ughaa iwNsxkA
He will never ask you about this.
D;k rqe mls le>kus dk ;kl djksxs\
Will you try to expain to him/her?
gkWa] d:aWxkA
Yes, I will.

D;k oks f'kokuh ds lkFk tk;sxh ;k eSa mldk bartkj


d:Wa\
Will she go with Shivani or shall I wait for her?
FkksM+k bartkj djks oks rqEgkjs lkFk gh tk;sxhA
Wait for a while. She will go with you only.
5-

ujs'k bl ckr ij Hkjkslk ughaa djsxkA


Naresh will not believe/trust this.
ikl rks vkvks] ughaa ek:Waxk eSa rqEgsA
Just come near me. I won't beat/hit you.
D;k rqe vc eq>ls dHkh ckr ughaa djksxh\
h\
Will you never talk to me now?
ughaa ] dHkh ckr ughaa d:WaxhA
No, I will never.
D;k rqe vkvksxs gh ughaa\
Won't you come?

ughaa ,slk ughaa gS] vkWaxk ij FkksM+h nsj gks tk,xhA

No, it is not so. I'll (I'll- I will) come, but I will be


a little late.
D;k ge muls feyus pysaxs\
Shall we go to meet them?
ughaa] oks [kqn ;gkaW vk,saxsA
No, they (themselves) will come here themselves.
D;k ge mUgs bl ckjs esa dqN ughaa
crk,saxs\
Shall we not tell him/ her about this anything?
Or

Rajs Notes of English Language

Shall we not tell anything about this to her?


ughaa] dHkh ughaaA
No, we'll never.
6-

eSa ,d fp= cukWaxk vkSj rqe crkvksxs fd oks


dSlk gSA
I will draw a picture and you will tell me
how it is.
ikik th us eq>s MkaWVk vkSj blh dkj.k
eSa [kkuk ughaa [kkWaxkA
Father scolded me and that is why I will not
eat food .
;fn oks eq>s cqykrk gS] rks eSa tkWaxkA
If he invites me, I will go.
D;k rqe vkt cl ls tkvksxs ;k ckbd ls\
Will you go by bus or bike?
ckbd ls tkWaxkA
I will go by bike.
D;k vkt vki DYkkl ughaa ysaxs\
Would (for respect) you not take/ teach the class
today?
rqe Dykl esa pyks eSa vHkh vkrk gwWaA
You, go into the class. I just come.

7-

oks dqkk rqEgsa dkV ysxk ;fn rqe mlds


ikl tkrs gksA
That dog will bite you if you go near it.
eSa rqEgkjh enn ughaa d:Waxk ;fn rqEk
esjh ckr ughaa ekurs ekuksxsA
I will not help you if you don't obey/follow me.
D;k rqe eq>s tku ls ekj Mkyksxs ;fn
eSaus mls crk;k rks\
Will you kill me if I tell him/her?
D;k vki 'u i= fQj ls ughaa cuk,saxh]
;fn eSa ;s dgwaW fd vkius eq>s tks 'u
i= fn;s Fks eq>ls [kks x,\
x,\
Will you not set question papers again if I say
that I lost the question papers that you gave
me?

Rajs Notes of English Language

ughaa] ljA ;s vc vkidh leL;k gSA


No, sir. It is you problem now?

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS vkSj
;fn okD; udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1-

eSa nksuks vke [kk ywaWxk] gS uk\


uk\
I will eat both the mangoes, shan't I ?
gka
gkaW] [kk ysukA @ugha
@ughaa] ,d HkS;k ds fy,
j[k nsukA
Yes, you will./ No, you won't. Keep one for your
elder/big brother.

2-

rqe ,slk ughaa djksxs] gS uk\


uk\
You will not do so, will you?
gkWa] ughaa d:WaxkA
Yes, I won't.

3-

ge eSap thr tk;asxs] gS uk\


uk\
We will win the match, shan't we?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, we will. / No, we won't.

4-

oks uhys jax dk diM+k igusxk] gS uk\


uk\
He will wear a red dress/clothes, didn't he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, we will. / No, we won't.

5-

os vkt [ksyus ughaa vk;saxs] gS uk\


uk\
They will not come to play today, will they?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, they won't./ No, they will.

6-

ge 'kke dks ?kweus pysaxs] gS uk\


uk\
We will go for a walk in the evening, shan't we?
gkaW] @ ughaaA
Yes, we will./ No, we won't.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaa s gS fd Question Words dk ;ksx djrs
le; gesa igys Question Words dks vyx djuk gS fQj okD; dks
interrogative esa ;k interrogative negative esa cnydj Question
Words ds ckn j[kdj mlesa var esa 'uokpd fpUg yxkuk gSA
tSls% rqe vc D;k djksxs \ lcls igys ge Question Word
*D;k* (what) dks vyx djsaxsA rks okD; cpsxk *vc rqe djksxs*A vc
bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs ' you will do now.' vc bls
interrogative esa cnysaxs rks cusxk will you do now? vc ge bls
Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks cusxk&
What will you do now? vc rqe D;k djksxs\A
Bhd ,sls gh%

rqe ogkWa D;ksa ughaa tkvksxs\


Why will you not gothere?

What- D;k\
D;k\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqe esjs fy, ogkWa ls D;k ykvksxs\


What will you bring for me from there ?
ns[kwWaxk vxj dqN vPNk feyk rks ys vkWaxkA
I will see if I find anything better, I will bring.
oks vc D;k djsxk\
k\
What will he do now?
oks Ldwy dh i<+
i<+kbZ [kRe dj ysus ds ckn
D;k djsxh\
h\
What will she do after completing her school?
oks vkxs dh i<+kbZ ds fy, Hkksiky tk;sxhA
She will go to Bhopal for further study.
rqe ;gkWa ls tkus ds ckn D;k djksxs\
What will you do after going from here
/ you go from here?
;gkWa ls tkus ds ckn esa FkksM+h nsj VhVh-OkhOkh- ns[kwWaxk
vkSj fQj lks tkWaxkA
After going from here, I will watch TV for a
little while and, then I will go to bed/ sleep.

Rajs Notes of English Language

dqN vkSj 'u%


1vki D;k djsaxs tc oks vkils yM+us
vk,sxk\
k\
What will you do when he will come to fight you?
2oks vkt jkr ds Hkkstu esa D;k [kk,sxh\
h\
What will she eat in the dinner tonight?
3'kke dks
dks ge D;k [ksy dkSu lk [ksy [ksysaxs\
What game shall we in the evening?
4vki D;k [kkuk ilan djsaxs\
What would (for respect) you like to eat?
5oks bl ckjs esa D;k dgsxh\
h\
What will she say about this/it?

When- dc\
'u%

eSa vkids ikl dc vkWa\


When shall I come to you?
dy lqcg vk tkvksA
Come tomorrow morning.
rqe dy fdrus cts tkvksxs\
At what time will you go tomorrow?
eSa lqcg 7%30 cts fudywWaxkA
I will leave at 7:30 am.
ge dke dc 'kq: djsaxs\
When shall we start/begin the work?
ge vHkh gh 'kq: djsaxsA
We will start/begin just now.
rqeus Qhl teka ugha dhA dc tekaW
djksxs\
You did not pay your fee. When will you pay it?
lj] eSa vkt gh ikik ls dgwWaxkA oks cgqr
tYn gh teka dj nsaxsA
Sir, I will tell my father just today. He will pay
very soon.

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

dqN vkSj 'u%


1-

rqc dc mBksxs\ igys gh cgqr nsj gks


xbZ gS\
When will you get up? It is already so/very late?

Rajs Notes of English Language

2345678910-

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

jfo fdrus cts rd ogkWa igqWap tk,xk\


tk,xk\
By what time will Ravi reach there?
ge fQj dc feysaxs\
When shall we meet again?
vc rks rqEgkjh 'kknh esa gh feysaxs\
We will meet at your marriage now?
gs Hkxoku ! eq>s ukSdjh dc feysxh\
h\
Oh God! When shall I get a job?
ge ;s ikB dc i<+saxs\
When shall we read this lesson?
rqe esjs iSls dc ykSVkvksxs\
When will you return my money?
rqEgsa lqdwu dc feysxk\
k\
When will you have a sigh of relief?
fu[kr mls i= dc fy[ksxh\
h\
When will Nikhat write to him?
rqe esjs 'u dk mkj dc nksxs\
When will you answer my question?

Where- dgkaW@ From where dgkaW ls\

eSa ;s Vsoy dgkWa j[kwWa \


Where shall I put this table?
ogkaW] ml dejs esaA
There in that room.
uhrk dy dgkWa ls vk,sxh\
h\
From where will Neeta come tomorrow?
oks dy fnYyh ls v,sxhA
She will come from Delhi tomorrow.
rqe 'uokpd fpUg dgkWa yxkvksxs\
Where will you put/keep a question mark?
,d 'uokpd okD; ds var esaA
At the end of an interrogative sentence.
oks viuk dkWyst dgkaW ls iwjk djsxh\
h\
Where will she complete her college from?
eq>s ughaa irkA eSus mlls iwWaNk Fkk ij
mlus eq>s ughaa crk;kA
I don't know. I asked her but she did not tell me.
oks viuk dkWfpax lsaVj dgkWa [kksysxh\
h\
Where will she open/start her coaching centre

Rajs Notes of English Language

/center ?
mkj%
tcyiqj esaA
In Jablapur.
'u%
vc vki yksx dgkWa jgus tk,saxs\
Where will you (people) go to live now?
mkj%
vc ge yksx ukxiqj esa jgsaxsA
We will live in Nagpur now.
dqN vkSj 'u%
1ge [ksyus dgkWa pysaxs\
Where shall we go to play?
2oks eq>s dgkWa feysxh\
h\
Where will she meet me?
3Okks I;kt+ dgkWa Nhysxh\
h\
Where will she peel the onions?
4oks vxyk eSap dgkaW [ksysaxs\
Where will they play the next match?
5gesa fd'kfe'k dgkWa feysxk\
k\
Where shall we get currant?
6gesa Hkkstu ds ckn fe"Bku dgkWa feysxk\
k\
Where shall we get dessert?
dessert- [kkus ds ckn ijkslk tkus okyk dqN ehBk
7eq>s jLlh dgkWa feysxh\
h\
Where shall I get a rope/cord?
8ge dgkWa ls mudk ihNk djuk 'kq:
djsaxs\
From where shall we start chasing them?
9eSa ;s dWkfi;kWa tkaWpus ds fy, dgkWa cSBw\
Where shall I sit to check these copies/
notebooks ?
10- rqe cl LVsaM esa eq>s dgkWa feyksxs\
Where will you meet me at the bus stand?

Why
'u%
mkj%

- D;ksa\

rqe dy D;ksa ughaa vkvksxs\


Why will you not come tomorrow?
D;ksafd eq>s dy ,d t:jh dke gSA
Because I have an important work tomorrow.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%

oks vkt dke djus D;ksa ughaa tk,sx\


Why will he not go to work today?
mkj%
D;ksafd oks chekj gSA@mldh rfo;r
Bhd ughaa gSA
Because he is ill/ he he is run down in health.
'u%
oks eq>ls ;s lc D;ksa dgsxk\
k\
Why will he say all this to me?
mkj%
D;ksafd bu lc dh ftEesnkjh rks rqEgkjh
Fkh] gS uk\
uk\
Because the responsibility of all this was yours,
wan't it?
gkaW] esjh gh FkhAA
Yes, it was.
dqN vkSj 'u%
1rqe ;s ukSdjh D;ksa NksM+ nksxs\
Why will you leave this job?
2oks mls vLohdkj D;ksa dj nsxh@nsxk\
k\
Why will she reject him?/ Why will he reject her?
3ujs'k eq>s D;ksa ekjsxk\
k\
Why will Naresh beat me?
4csVk vki vkt Ldwy D;ksa ughaa tk,saxs\
(Dear) Why will you not go to school, dear.?
5os vius fMikVZesaV ls lhek dks D;ksa
fudky nsaxs\
Why will they dismiss Seema from their
department?

Who- dkSu@fdlus\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

ogkaW dkSu tk,xk\


tk,xk\
Who will go there?
ge lc tk,saxsA
I all will go.
;s lc dkSu djsxk\
k\
Who will do this all/all this?
eq>s ughaa irk ij eSa rks ughaa d:WaxkA
I don't know but I will not do.
bl 'u dk mkj nsus ds fy, dkSu [kM+k
gksxk\
k\
Who will stand to answer this question?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%

mkj%

lj eq>s irk gSA eSa bldk mkj nwWaxkA


Sir, I know. I will answer it.
esjk isu ughaa py jgk gSA eq>s ,d isu nsdj
esjh enn dkSu djsxk\
k\
My pen is not running. Who will help me giving
me a pen?
esjs ikl nks isu gSaA rqe ,d ys yksA
I have two pens. (you) Take one.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1vxj eSa rqEgkjk dke d:Waxk] rks esjk
dke dkSu djsxk\
k\
If I do your work, who will do my work then?
2cq/kokj dks dkSu vk,sxk\
k\
Who will come on Wednesday?
3fr;ksfxrk esa Hkkx dkSu&dkSu ysxk\
k\
Who will participate in the competition?
4eSa blds ckjs esa fdlls ckr d:Wa\
Who shall I talk about this with/to?/
With/To whom shall I talk about this?
5ge fdlds lkFk pysa\
Who shall we go with?/ With whom shall we go?
6mls dkSu ilan djsxk\
k\
Who will like her?
7vc dkSu i<+kus vk,saxs\
Who will come to teach now?
8jktk dks ogkWa dkSu feysxk\
k\
Who will meet Raja there?
9gokbZ vM~Ms ij esjk bartkj dkSu djsxk\
k\
Who will wait for me at the airport ?
10- bl dqlhZ ij dkSu cSBsxk\
k\
Who will sit on this chair?

Whom- fdlls\
'u%

ge bl ekeys ds ckjs esa fdlds lkFk ckr djsa\

mkj%

With whom shall we discus about this matter


/case?
Jh jfo 'kadj frokjh th bl ekeys esa
gesa lgh lykg ns ldrs gSaA
Mr. Ravishankar Tiwari ji can give some better

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%

advice in this matter/case.


EkSa ;s i= fdls nwWaxk\
k\
To whom shall I give this letter?
Jh dk'k feJk th dksA
To Mr.Prakash Mishra.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
'u%

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

eSa vaxzsth fo"k; ds fy, fdldh iqLrd


[kjhnwWa\ 'kekZ dh ;k oekZ dh\
dh\
Whose book shall I buy for English subject?
Sharma's or Varm's?
nksuks gh iqLrdsa vPNh gSA dksbZ lh Hkh
ys yksA
Both the books are good. Take any one.
rqe bl dke esa fdldh enn yksxs\
Whose help will you take in this work?
eSa fdlh dh enn ughaa ywWaxkA eSa ;s
[kqn d:WaxkA
I will not take anybody's help. I will do it myself.

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh\


'u%
mkj%
'u%

mkj%

eSa vkidks dkSulk isu nwWa] yky


;k uhyk\
uhyk\
Which pen shall I give you, red or blue?
yky okykA
The red one.
Ldwy ds ckn rqe dkSu ls dkWyst esa
tkvksxh\
h\
Which college will you go after schooling?/
To which college will you go after schooling?
';ke lqUnj dkWystA flgksjk esa ,d gh rks
dkWyst gS] gS uk\
uk\
The Shyam Sundar college. There is only college
in Sihora, isn't it?
ughaa ;kj ,d vkSj gSA
No dude, there is one more.

Rajs Notes of English Language

How-dSls@dSlh\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

oks ogkWa dSls igqWapsxh\


h\
How will she reach there?
oks esjs lkFk cl esa vk,xhA
She will come with me by bus.
rqe ogkWa dSls tkvksxs\
How will you go there?
eSa viuh ckbd ls tkWaxkA
I will go by my bike.
rqe ;s dSls djksxs\
How will you do this?
cM+h vklkuh lsA
Very easily.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqe bl leL;k dks dSls gy djksxs\
How will you solve this problem?
2oks bruk lkjk dke vdsys dSls djsxh\
h\
How will she do this much work alone?
3;s nok@xksyh ysus ds ckn eSa dSlk eglwl
d:Waxk\
k\
How shall I feel after I take this medicine/pill?
4;fn dkj rqe ys tkvksxs rks eSa vius
vkWfQl dSls tkWaxk\
k\
How shall I go to my office if you take the car?
5rqEgs ;s dSls irk pysxk dh ge igWaqp
x, gSa\
How will you come to know that we have
reached?

How much- fdruk\


'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

eSa bl iqLrd ds fy, fdruk iSlk pqdkWa\


How much money shall I pay for this book?
ek= 200 :i;sA
200 rupees only./Only 200 rupees.
;s thUl eq>s fdrus dk iM+sxk\
k\
How much will this jeans coat me?
700 :i;sA
Rupees 700.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

rqe vkSj fdruk dke djksxs\


How much work more will you do more?
bruk [kRe djds eSa dke can dj nwWaxkA
After I finish this much, I will stop working.
fdruk ued nwWa\
How much salt shall I give?
flQZ ,d PkqVdh ued nksA
Only a pinch./ Give me just a pinch of salt.
rqe mruh nwj vdsys dSls jgksxs\
How will you stay /dwell there alone so far?
eq>s tkus nks] mPNk yxsxk rks jgwWaxk
ojuk okil vk tkWaxkA
Let me go. If I feel better, Ill stay, otherwise Ill
come back.
rqe ;s dSls djksxs\
How will you do this?
cM+h vklkuh lsA
Very easily.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqe mlls fdruk iSlk m/kkj yksxs\
How much money will you borrow from him?/
How much money will you take from him on loan?
2rqe bl leL;k dks dSls gy djksxs\
How will you solve this problem?
3oks bruk lkjk dke vdsys dSls djsxh\
h\
How will she do this much work alone?
4;s nok@xksyh ysus ds ckn eSa dSlk eglwl
d:Waxk\
k\
How shall I feel after I take this medicine/pill?
5;fn dkj rqe ys tkvksxs rks eSa vius
vkWfQl dSls tkWaxk\
k\
How shall I go to my office if you take my car?
6rqEgsa ;s dSls irk pysxk dh ge igWaqp x, gSa\
How will you come to know that we have reached?

How much- fdruk\


'u%

eSa bl iqLrd ds fy, fdruk iSlk pqdkWa\


How much money shall I pay for this book?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

ek= 200 :i;sA


Rupees 200 only./Only 200 rupees.

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

;s thUl eq>s fdrus dk iM+sxk \


How much will this jeans cost me?
700 :i;sA
700 rupees.
rqe mls fdruk iSlk m/kkj nksxs\
How much will you lend him?
T;knk ughaa] ek= ,d gtkjA
Not very much, one thousand only.
kDdj fdruh nwWa\
How much sugar shall I give you?
nks fdyksA
2 kg.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1-

rqe mlls fdruk iSlk m/kkj yksxs\


How much money will you borrow from him?
Or

2345-

How much money will you take from him on


loan?
rqe fdruk ikuh fivksxs\
How much water will you drink/take/have?
oks bl ckjs esa fdruk lkspsxh\
h\
How much will she think about this?
lCth esarqe fdruk rsy Mkyksxs\
How much oil will you pour into the curry?
vkWaVs esa fdruk ikuh feykWa\
How how water shall I mix with flour?

How many- fdrus\


'u%
mkj%
'u%

rqe fdrus diM+s [kjhnksxh\


h\
How many dresses will you buy/purchase?
flQZ nksA
Only two.
oks ,d fnu esa fdruh fdrkcsa Nkisaxs\
How many books will they print in a day?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

yxHkx 100AA
About 100.
oks fdruh jksVh [kk,sxk\
k\
How many chapatties will he eat?
oks pkj jksfV;kWa [kk ysxkA
He will eat 4 chpaties.

'u%
mkj%

How long- dc rd@fdruh nsj rd\


rd\

'u%

rqe ;gkWa dc rd :dksxs \


How long will you stay here?
nks ?kaVs rdA
For two hours.
oks fdruh nsj rd rqEgkjk bartkj djsxk\
k\
How long will he wait for you?
mlls dgks dh eSa cl nks feuV esa vk tkWaxkA
Tell him that I will come in just 2 minutes.

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

How far- fdruh nwj\


'u%

rqe bl jkLrs esa fdruh nwj rd tkvksxs\


How far will you go on this way/path/road.
T;knk nwj rd ughaaA esjk ?kj ikl esa gh gSaA
Not very far. My home is just around.

mkj%

Future Indefinite/ Simple Future Tense ds


okD;ksa dks ;fn t+ksj nsdj dguk gks rks ftlds lkFk will
yxrk gS mlds lkFk shall yxkdj vkSj ftlds lkFk shall
yxrk gS mlds lkFk will yxkdj cksyrs gSaA
tSls%
1234-

oks vk;sxk ghA


He shall come.
eSa vkWaxk ghA
I will come.
os tk;saxs ghA
They shall go.
ge mudh enn t:j djsaxsA
We will help them.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Verb +ing (Present Participal)


vc ge f;k ds lkFk ing TkksM+us ds fu;eksa dks lh[ksaxs&
1- vf/kdkak verbs esa lh/ks ing tksM+ nsrs gSaA
tSls%
ask- asking,
bring- bringing,
catch- catching,
tell- telling
hear- hearing

2-

pray- praying,
buy- buying,
say- saying,
do- doing,
weep-weeping,

play- playing
sing-singing
drink- drinking
teach- teaching
book- booking

ftu f;kvksa dk var e ij gksrk gS muesa e gVkdj ing


tksM+rs gSaA
tSls%
bite- biting,
rise- rising,

make- making,
drive- driving,

come- coming
give- giving

bl fu;e dk viokn ;s gS dh dye ds lkFk vkSj be


ds lkFk ing tksM+rs le; e dks ughaa gVkrs lh/ks ing tksM+
nsrs gSaA
tSls% dye- dyeing, be- being. )
ftu f;kvksa ds var esa ee feyrk gS rc ge e dks ughaa gVkrs
lh/ks ing tksM+ nsrs gSaA
tSls%
see- seeing,

agree- agreeing,

flee- fleeing.

3- ;fn fdlh f;k dk var consonant(b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,


p,q,r, s,t, v,w,x, z) ij gksrk gS vkSj mlls igys gesa dksbZ
vowel(a,e,i,o,u) feyrk gS rks ing tksM+us ds fy, vafre
consonant dks ,d vkSj ckj fy[kdj ing tksM+rs gSaA
tSls%

put- putting,
hit- hitting,
control- controlling,

cut- cutting,
run- running,
forget- forgetting,

stop- stopping,
wrap- wrapping,

quarrel- quarrelling

ysfdu ;fn y ij var gks rks y nksckjk ughaa fy[kk tkrk ek=
ing tksM+ nsrs gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

TkSls%
play- playing, pray- praying
4- ;fn fdlh f;k dk var ie ij gksrk gS rkc ie ds LFkku
ij y yxkdj ing tksM+rs gSaA
tSls%

die- dying,

lie- lying,

tie- tying.

Present Continuous/Progressive Tense

viw.kZ orZeku dky

tc dksbZ drkZ (subject) ;s dgs fd oks ;k dksbZ vkSj drkZ


ml le; cksyrs le;&at the time of speaking fdlh
dk;Z dks dj jgk gS rks ,sls okD; Present Continuous/
Progressive Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
tSls%
1- eSa tk jgkWa gwaWA
drkZ tkrs le; ;s okD; cksy jgk gSA
2- rqe >wB cksy jgs gksA
bl okD; esa dksbZ vU; drkZ ckyrs le; D;k dj jgk gS ;s
crk;k tk jgk gS
,sls okD;ksa dks vaxzsth esa cksyus ds fy, gesa bu lw=ksa dk
;ksx djuk gksrk gSA

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative

:
:
:

Subject+is/am/are+V1+ ing+object.
Subject+is/am/are+not+V1 +ing+object.
Is/am/are+subject+V1+ ing+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Is/am/are+subject+not+ V1 +ing+object?
Or
Isnt/arent+Subject+ V1 +ing+object?

1-

eSa tk jgk gwWaA


I am going.
eSa ughaa tk jgk gwWaA
I am not going.
D;k rqe tk jgs gks\

Rajs Notes of English Language

Are you going?


gkWa] eSa tk jgk gwWa@ughaa] eSa ughaa tk
jgk gwWaA
Yes, I am. / No, Im not.
D;k rqe ogkWa ugha tk jgs gks\
Are you not going there?
ughaa] D;ksfd eSa cgqr Fkdk gqvk gwWaA
No, Im not, because I am very/so tired.
2-

rqe vc eq>s ijskku dj jgs gksA


You are disturbing me now.
rqe lp ughaa dg jgs gksA
You are not speaking/telling/saying the truth.
D;k eSa rqEgsa Ckksj dj jgk gWaw\
Am I boring you?
ughaa] rks@ gkWa rqe eq>s cksj dj jgs gksA
No, you arent./ Yes, you are.
D;k eSa dksfkk ughaa dj jgk gwWa\
Am I not trying?
gkWa] dj rks jgs gksA
Yes, you are.

3-

ge [ksyus tk jgs gSaA


We are going to play.
ge le; cjckn ughaa dj jgs gSaA
We are not wating (our ) the time.
D;k ge vPNk dke ughaa dj jgs gSa\
Are we working well?
vjs fcydqy] vPNk dke dj jgs gSa\
Of course, we are.

4-

os dy vk jgs gSaA
They are coming tomorrow.
os eSnku esa ugha
ugha [ksy jgs gSaA os ?kj ij [ksy jgs gSaA
They are not playing in the ground. They are
playing at home.
D;k os vkt vk jgs gSa\
Are they coming today?
gkWa] os vk jgs gSaA kke rd igqap tk,saxsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Yes, they are. They will reach by the evening.


D;k os vPNk ughaa [ksy jgs gSa\
Are they not playing well?
gkWa] os vPNk ughaa [ksy jgs gSaA eq>s yxrk
gS fd oks eSp gkj tk,saxsA
Yes, they arent. I think that they will lose
the match.
5-

oks bl lky chch-,- dj jgk gSA


He is doing B.A. this year.
oks i<+ ughaa jgk gS] oks lks jgk gSA
He is not studying /reading. He is asleep
(sleeping).
D;k oks rqEgkjs lkFk vk jgk gS\
Is he coming with you?
gkWa@ ughaa] oks lat; ds lkFk vk,sxkA
Yes, he is./ No, he isnt, he will come with Sanjay.
D;k oks ijh{kk dh rS;kjh ughaa dj jgk gS\
Is he not preparing for examination?
ughaa] oks vktdy dke djus tkrk gSA
@dke ij tkrk gSA
No, he isnt. He goes to work now a days/ these days.

6-

oks jlksbZ esa [kkuk idk jgh gSA


She is cooking in the kitchen.
oks vkt dkWfpax ugha tk jgh gSA
She is not going to coaching today.
D;k oks
oks vius vkWfQl esa dke dj jgh gS\
Is she working in her office?
gkWaA
Yes, she is.
D;k oks ,slk djds mls /kksdk ughaa ns
jgh gSA
Is she not cheating him/her, doing this/so?

7-

kkaar dqlhZ dks rkM+us dh dkfkk dj


jgk gSA
Prashant is trying to break the chair.
vadq dke ughaa dj jgh gSA oks viuh

lgsfy;ksa ls ckr dj jgh gSA


Anku is not working. She is talking to her friends.
D;k jk.kk jkst Ldwy vk jgk gS\
Is Rana coming to school daily/regularly/
every day?
gkWa] jkst vk jgk gSA
Yes, he is.
D;k uhye esjk etkd ughaa mM+k jgh gS\
Is Neelam not making my fun?
ughaa] oks rks flQZ lp cksy jgh gSA
No, she is just speaking the truth.
8-

Jh foosd th vkSj Jh fp=dqekj th cPpksa


dh vad&lwph cuk jgs gSaA
Mr. Vivek and Mr. Rai are preparing the results
of the students.
fk[kk vkSj kkfjdk vkt Ldwy ughaa tk jgha gSaA
Shikha and Sharika are not going to school today.
D;k lat; vkSj kkyuh ,d lkFk vk jgs gSa\
Are Sanjay and Shalini coming together?
Ukgha] lat; ckbd ls vk jgk gS vkSj kkyuh cl
ls vk jgh gSA
No, they arent. Sanjay is coming by (his) bike and
Shanili is coming by bus ?
D;k rqe vkt [ksyus ughaa tk jgs gks\
Are you not going to play today?
ughaa] ijh{kk dk le; py jgk gS vkSj
eq>s i<+kbZ djuh gSA
No, Im not. It is exam time and I have to study.

Question Tag (?)


;fn okD; lk/kkj.k gks rks udkjkRed Tag yxrk gS vkSj ;fn
okD; udkjkRed gks rks lk/kkj.k Tag yxrk gSA
1-

rw vk gh jgk gS] gS uk\


uk\
Thou are just coming, arent thou?
gkWa] eSa ?kj ls fudy gh jgk gWaA
Yes. I am just leaving from home.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

jktsk flQZ viuk le; cckZn dj jgk


gS] gS uk \
Rajesh is just wasting his time, isnt he?
gkWa]A
Yes, he is.

3-

vkt ge muds ;gkWa ughaa tk jgs gSa] gS uk\


uk\
We are not going to them today, are we?
gkaWA@ ughaa ge tk jgs gSaA
Yes, we arent. / No, we are (going).

4-

oks xqLlk dj jgk gS] gS uk\


uk\
He is getting angry, isnt he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA
Yes, he is. / No, he isnt.
He is getting angry, isnt he?
gkaWA@ ughaaA Yes, he is. / No, he isnt.
oks vc ogkWa ughaa tk jgk gS] gS uk\
uk\
He is not going there now, isnt he?
gkaWA@ ughaa] oks tk jgk gSA
Yes, he isnt. / No, he is (going).

5-

Question Words
gesa ;s ckr Hkwyuh ughaa gS fd Question Words dk ;ksx
djrs le; gesa igys Question Words dks vyx djuk gS fQj
okD; dks interrogative esa ;k interrogative negative esa cnydj
Question Words ds ckn j[kdj mlesa var esa 'uokpd fpUg
yxkuk gSA tSls% oks D;k dj jgk gS\ lcls igys ge Question
Word *D;k* (what) dks vyx djsaxsA rks okD; cpsxk *oks dj jgk gS
*] vc bl okD; dks vaxzsth esa dgsaxs ' he is doing.' vc bls
interrogative esa cnysaxs rks cusxk Is he doing? vc ge bls
Question Word ds ckn j[ksaxs rks cusxk&
What is he doing? oks D;k dj jgk gSs\A

Rajs Notes of English Language

Bhd ,sls gh%

rqe dgkWa tk jgs gks\


Why are you going?

What - D;k\
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
u%
mkj%

rqe D;k dg jgs gks\


What are you saying ?
eSa dg jgk gwWa fd gesa ;s dke vkt gh
[kRe djuk gSA
I am saying that we have to finish this work
today only.
os D;k [ksy jgs gSa\
What are they playing?
os fdsV [ksy jgs gSaA
They are playing cricket.
rqe D;k djus dh dksfkk dj jgs gks\
What are you trying to do?
eSa bl isuMkbo dks fudkyus dh dksfkk
dj jgk gwWa ij ckgj gh ugha vk jgh gSA
I am trying to take out this pendrive, but it is not
coming out.
eEeh] vkt vki jkr ds [kkus esa D;k idk jgha gSa\
Mummy/mom, what are you cooking in the
dinner today?
nky] pkoy] dqN lcth vkSj jksVhA
Pulse, rice, some vegetables and chapatties.
oks vkt&dy D;k dj jgk gS\
What is he doing these days/ now a days?
oks vkt&dy dke dh rykk dj jgk gSA
He is looking for a job now a days/ these days.
oks D;k <wM+ jgs gSaA
What are they looking for (searching/seeking)?
mudh xsan [kks xbZ gS] vkSj os ogh <wM+ jgs gSaA
They have lost their ball, and they are looking
for it.

dqN okD; vkidks le> esa ughaa vk jgs gksaxs ij dksbZ ckr
ughaa vkxs i<+rs &i<+rs vkidks lcdqN le> esa vk tk,sxkA
dqN vkSj u%
1rqe D;k lksp jgs gks\
What are you thinking?

Rajs Notes of English Language

234-

'u%

oks D;k dksLkZ dj jgh gS\


What course is she doing?
oks D;k fy[k jgh gS\
What is she writing?
rqe Dykl esa D;k [kk jgs gks\
What are you eating in the class?

When- dc\
dc\

rqEk gekjs ;gkWa dc vk jgs gks\


are you coming to us?
mkj%
vktdy cgqr O;Lr gwWa] eSa vxys efgus
esa t:j vkWaxkA
I am very/so busy now a days/ these days. I will
come in the next month.
'u%
os vkxjk dc tk jgs gSa\
When are they going to Agra?
mkj%
eq>s ughaa irk@eq>s ugha ekyweA
I dont know.
'u%
rqe esjk iSlk dc yksVk jgs gks\
When are you returning my money?
mkj%
eq>s dy rd esjh ru[kk fey tk,sxh
vkSj fQj ijlksa] eSa rqEgkjk iSlk ykSVk nwWaxkA
I will get my payment (pay) by tomorrow, and
then I will return it (your money) day after
tomorrow.
dqN vkSj u%
1rqe ukSdjh ds fy;s fonsk dc tk jgs gks\
When are you going to abroad for job?
2oks okil dc vk jgk gS\
When is he coming back?
3rqe ;s iqLrd iwjh dc dj jgs gks\
When are you completing this book/ When are
you going to complete this book ?
4oks rqEgsa ysus dc vk jgs gSa\
When are they coming to take you?

'u%

Where- dgkaW@ From where dgkaW ls\

rqe dgkaW tk jgs gks\


Where are you going?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

eSa ?kweus tk jgk gwWaA


I am going for a walk.
yM+ds dgkaW [ksy jgs gSa\
Where are the boys playing?
os eSnku esa [ksy jgs gSaA
They are playing in the ground.
ge fifDud ij dgkWa py jgs gSa\
Where are we going for a picnic?
pyks fojkku pyrs gSa] oks ,d ifo=
LFkku gSA
Lets go to Virashan. It is a holy place.
oks i<kbZ dgka dj jgh gS\
Where is she studying?
vius dejs esaA
In her room.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1os vc dgkWa jgus tk jgs gSa\
Where are they going to live now?
2vkt jkr rqe dgkWa lks jgs gks] bl dejs
esa ;k fQj ml dejs esa \
Where are you sleeping tonight, in this room or
in that room?
3latho dgkWa ls vk jgk gS\
Where is Sanjeev coming from?
or
From where is Sanjeev coming?
4oks dkWyst dgkW ls dj jgh gS\
From where is she doing her college?
5rqe eq>s dgkWa ls ns[k jgs gks \ eq>s rks rqe
fn[k gh ughaa jgs gksA
From where are you looking at me? I cant even
see you.

Why- D;ksa\
'u%

vki bl rjg gekajs ?kj ds lkeus D;ksa


[kM+s gSa\
Why are you standing like this in front of our
home?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%

mkj%

eSa vius nsLr dk bartkj dj jgk gwWa]


oks FkksM+h nsj esa vkus gh okyk gSA
I am waiting for my friend. He is just about to
come after some time.
rqe vkt Ldwy D;ksa ughaa tk jgs gks\
Why are you not going to school today?
D;ksafd eq>s cq[kkj gSA
Because I have fever.
oks bl rjg fpYyk D;ksa jgk gS\
Why is he shouting like this?
oks fpYyk ughaa jgk gSA oks xkuk xk
jgk gSA
He is not shouting. He is singing.
oks bruh tksj ls D;ksa xk jgk gS\
Why is he singing so loudly?
kk;n oks viuh vokt
vokt lcdks lqukuk pkgrkA
mlds ikl
ikl ekbd Hkh rks ughaa gS ukA
Perhaps, he wants everyone to listen to his voice.
After all he doesnt have any mike.
oekZ th vkSj mudk ifjokj vkt D;ksa ughaa
vk jgk gS\
Why are Mr. Varma and his family not coming
today?
vkt oekZ
oekZ th dks ,d t:jh ehfVax esa tkuk gSA
oks yksx dy vk tk,saxsA
Mr. Varma has to go to attend a meeting today.
They will come tomorrow.

dqN vkSj 'u%


1rqe ogkWa bl rjg ls D;ksa [kM+s gks\
Why are you standing there like this/that?
2oks bl rjg ls jks D;ksa jgh gS\
Why is she crying like this?
3oks xqLlk D;ksa dj jgk gS\
Why is he getting angry?
4rqe eqLdqjk D;ksa jgh gks\
Why are you smiling?
5rqe ,slk D;ksa dg jgs gks\
Why are you saying so?

Rajs Notes of English Language

678910-

oks bl rjg ls vius Hkfo"; ds lkFk


f[kyokM+ D;kas dk jgh gS\
Why is she playing with her future like this?
fuf/k ,lk D;ksa lksp jgh gS\
Why is Nisha thinking so?
rqe eq>s bl rjg ls ?kwj D;ksa jgs gks\
Why are you staring at me like this?
oks rEgsa bl rjg ls D;ksa ns[k jgk gS\
Why is he looking at you like this?
oks bl eksgYys dks NksM+dj D;ksa tk jgs gSa\
Why are they going, having left this street?

Who
- dkSu\
Present ContinuousTense esa Who ls 'kuksa dks
cukus ds fy, *dkSu* ds LFkku ij Who j[k fn;k tkrk gSA
drkZ /;ku jgs ftlds ckjs esa ge iwaNrs gSa ;fn ,d opu
gks rks is yxrk gS] vkSj ;nh cgqopu gks rks f;k ds igys
are yxrk gSA
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

d{kk esa gYyk dkSu dj jgk gS\


Who is making noise in the class?
lj] jkgqy] oks MSDl ctk jgk gSA
Sir, Rahul, he is playing desk in the class..
d{kk esa gYyk dkSu&dkSu dj jgk gS\
Who are making noise in the class?
lj] jkf/kdk vkSj vukfedk yM+ jgha gSA
Sir, Radhika and Anamika are quarrelling.
bl xkus ij dkSu ukap jgk gS\
Who is performing a dance on this song?
/Who is dancing on this song?
jkskuhA
Roshni.
lkroh d{kk esa bl oDr dkSu i<k jgs gSa
;gkWa dksbZ ,d gh drkZ gS \
Who is teaching in seventh class?
vfHkyk"kk eSeA
Abhilasha mam.

Rajs Notes of English Language

dqN vkSj 'u%


1;s i= igqWapkus dkSu tk jgk gS\
Who is going to deliver this letter?
2ml dejs esa dkSu i<+ jgk gS\
Who is studying in that room?
3njokts ij dkSu [kM+k gS\
Who is standing at the door?
4EkSnku esa dkSu yksx [ksy jgs gSa\
Who are playing in the ground?
5njoktk dkSu [kV[kVk jgk gS\
Who is knocking at the door?
6vk/kh jkr dks VhVh-ohoh- dkSu ns[k jgk gS\
Who is watching T.V. at midnight?
7rqels ;s lc iwWaN dkSu jgk gS\
Who is asking you all this?
8ogkWa fxVkj dkSu ctk jgk gS\
Who is playing guitar there?
9esjs lkFk dkSu&dkSu vk jgk gS\
Who are coming with me?
10- rqEgs ijskku dkSu dj jgk gS\
Who is disturbing you?

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

Whom- fdlls\

rqe bl >xM+s ds ckjs esa fdlls crkus


tk jgs gks\
Whom are you going to tell about this dispute?
eSa ikik ls crkWaxhA eEeh] rks gesakk rqEgkjk gh
i{k ysrh gSA
I will tell papa. Mom, she always takes your side.
oks fdlls feyus tk jgh gS\
Whom is she going to meet/ visit?
oks viuh lgsfy;ksa ls feyus tk jgh gSA
She is going to meet/visit her friends.
oks Qksu ij fdlls ckr dj jgk gS\
To whom is he talking on the fone/phone?
oks viuh cqvk ls ckr dj jgk gSA
He is talking to his aunt.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Past Continuous/Progressive Tense


viw.kZ HkwrdkyA
tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgs fd oks ;k dksbZ vkSj
drkZ fdlh dk;Z dks Hkwrdky esa dj jgk FkkA rks ,sls okD;
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
;k ge nwljs 'kCnksa esa dg ldrs gSa fd tc gesa fgUnh okD;ksa
ds var esa *jgk Fkk*] *jgh Fkh* ;k *jgs Fks * f;k ds rqjar
ckn feyrs gSa rks ,sls okD;&Past Continuous/Progressive
Tense- viw.kZ HkwrdkyA ds okD; dgykrs gSa%
tSls% 1- eSa vius dejs esa dke dj jgk FkkAA
2- oks Dykl esa ukap jgh FkhAA

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative : Subject+was/were+V1+ ing+object.
Negative
: Subject+was/were+not+V1 +ing+object.
Interrogative :Was/were+subject+V1+ ing+object?
Negative
Interrogative :Was/were+subject+not+ V1 +ing+object?
Or
Wasnt/werent+Subject+ V1 +ing+object?
1-

eSa vius dejs esa dke dj jgk FkkA


I was working in my room.
eSa vius dejs esa dke ughaa dj jgk FkkA eSa Vh-ohns[k jgk FkkA
I was not working in my room. I was watching
T.V.
D;k rqe vius dejs esa dke dj jgs Fks\
Were you working in your room?
gkWa] eSa vius dejs esa dke dj jgk FkkA@ughaaA
Yes, I was. / No, I wasnt.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

rqe >wB cksy jgs FksA


You were telling a lie./ You were lying.
rqe i<+ ughaa jgs FksA rqe mu yM+dks ds lkFk [ksy
jgs FksA
You were not studying. You were playing with
those boys.
D;k eSa [ksy esa phfVax dj jgk Fkk\
Was I cheating in the game?
gkWa] rqe [ksy esa phfVax dj jgs FksA
@ughaa rqe phfVax ughaa dj jgs FksA
Yes, you were. / No, you werent.

3-

ge rks flQZ mls le>k jgs FksA


We were just explaining to him/her.
ge mls MkaV ughaa jgs FksA
We were not scolding him/her.
D;k ge mls ihV jgs Fks \
Were we beating him/her?
ughaa] ge mls ughaa ihV jgs FksA gkWa] ge mls ihV
jgs FksA
No, we werent. / Yes, we were.

4-

os eSnku esa yM+ jgs FksA


They were fighting in the ground.
os dke ughaa dj jgs FksA os flQZ ckrsa dj jgs FksA
They were not working. They were just talking.
D;k os eSnku esa yM+ jgs Fks \
Were they fighting in the ground?
gkWa]A @ugha
@ughaa]A
Yes, they were. / No, they werent.
D;k os esjs ckjs esa ughaa iwWaN jgs Fks\
Were they asking about me?
ughaa]A
No, they werent.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

oks ikS/kks dks ikuh ns jgk FkkA


He was watering the plants.
oks ikS/kks dks ikuh ughaa ns jgk FkkA oks mUgs NkaV
jgk FkkA
He was not watering the plants. He was paring
them. (pare-V1)
D;k oks cl ds ihNs cl idM+us ds fy;s nkSM+ jgk
Fkk ;k ,sls gh nSM+ jgk Fkk\
Was he running after the bus to catch it or he
was just running?
fcYdqy] cl idM+us ds fy, gh nSM+ jgk FkkA
Of course, he was running after it to catch it.
D;k oks esjk et+kd ughaa mM+k jgk Fkk \
Was he not making my fun?
ughaaA oks flQZ lp dg jgk FkkA
No, he wasnt. He was just peaking/saying
the truth.

4-

oks Dykl esa ukaWp jgh FkhA


She was dancing in the class.
oks i<+ ughaa jgh FkhA oks fy[k jgh FkhA
She was not reading. She was writing.
D;k oks esjs ckjs esa ckr dj jgh Fkh \
Was she talking about me?
gkWa]A ughaa]A
Yes, she was. / No, she wasnt.
D;k oks esjs f[kykQ ughaa cksy jgh Fkh \
Was she not speaking against me?
ughaaA@ gkWa] oksy jgh Fkh vkSj eq>s ughaa yxrk fd
oks dqN xyr cksy jgh FkhA
No, she wasnt./ Yes, she was, and I dont
think that she was speaking anything wrong.

5-

jkuh jks jgh FkhA


Rani was crying.

Rajs Notes of English Language

jkf/kdk Vh-oh- ughaa ns[k jgh Fkh] oks fofM;ks xse [ksy
jgh FkhA
Radhika was not watching TV. She was playing a
video game.
D;k Jheku ikBd th d{kk esa i<+k jgs Fks\
Was Mr. Pathak teaching in the class?
gkWa]A ughaa]A
Yes, he was. / No, he wasnt.
D;k oanuk eSe vki yksxks ls u ughaa iwWaN jgha Fkha \
Was Vandna mam not asking you questions?
ughaa] oks iwWaN jgha Fkha] vkSj ftUgksaus mkj ughaa fn;k
mUgksaus mUgsa ltk nh A
No, she was, and they who didnt answer her
questions, she punished them .

Question words
(eq>s yxrk gS fd vc rd rks vki question words
dk ;ksx djuk lh[k gh x, gksaxs vkSj ;fn ughaa rks igys
ihNs ds iUuksa dks ns[kdj ,d ckj fQj ls le> ysa fQj
vkxs dk v/;;u djsaA)

What - D;k\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqe lqcg D;k dj jgs Fks \


What were you doing in the morning (eksfuax) ?
eSa ?kj ij u i= VkbZi dj jgk FkkA
I was typing question papers (on computer)
at home.
oks rqEkls D;k iwWaN jgh Fkh \
What was she asking you?
oks eq>ls jsyos LVsku dk jkLrk iwWaN jgh FkhA
She was asking me the way to/of the railway
station .

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

dqN vkSj
12345-

oks D;k dgus dh dksfkk dj jgk Fkk\


What was he trying to say?
oks ;s crkus dh dksfkk dj jgk Fkk fd rqe xyrh ls
mldk eksCkkby ys tk jgs FksA
He was trying to tell you that you were taking
his mobile by mistake.
rqe >kfM+;ksa ds ihNs D;k dj jgs Fks\
What were you doing there behind the bushes?
eSa ogkWa lw&lw dj jgk FkkA
I was urinating there. (urinate V1)
oks ml jkr ikVhZ esa D;k igus gqbZ Fkh \
What was she wearing in the party that night?
,d uhys jax dh lkM+h ftldh otg ls oks cM+h
Hkn~nh yx jgh FkhA
She was wearing a sari of red colour because
of which she was looking comical./ which gave
her a comical appearance.
u%
oks D;k dg jgh Fkh\
What was she saying?
rqe esjs dejs esa D;k dj jgs Fks\
What were you doing in my room?
oks D;k dj jgk Fkk tc vki i<+k jgs Fks\
What was he doing when you were teaching?
oks dkSulk [ksy [ksy jgs Fks\
What/which game were they playing?
D;k rqe lksp jgs Fks\
What were you thinking?

When - dc\
'u%
mkj%

rqe yksx dc [ksy jgs Fks \


When were you (guys) playing ?
ge yksx kke dks [ksy jgs FksA
We were playing in the evenign.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

oks rqEkls ;s dc iwWaN jgh Fkh\


When was she asking you (about) this/it?
oks dy eq>ls ;s iwWaN jgh FkhA
She was asking me this/it yesterday.
oks [ksy dc jgh Fkh\
When was she playing?
oks [ksy ughaa jgh Fkh] oks iwjs fnu i<+ jgh FkhA
She was not playing, she was studying the
whole day.

Where - dgkWa \ From where-dgkW


dgkWa ls\

rw lqcg dgkWa tk jgk Fkk \


Where were thou going in the morning ?
eq>s Vsu idM+uh Fkh rks eSa LVsku tk jgk FkkA
I had to catch the train, so I was going to
the station.
yM+ds dgkWa kksj dj jgs Fks\
Where were the boys making noise?
yM+ds d{kk esa kksj dj jgs FksA
The boys were making noise in the class.
oks dgkWa tkus dh ckr dj jgh Fkh \
Where was she talking to go?
kkar jgks vkSj vc eq>ls dksbZ u er djksA
Be quiet and dont ask me any question now.
or
Be quiet and dont question me any more.
cqjk er ekuks eSa rks cl ,sls gh iwWaN jgk FkkA
Dont mind, I was just asking.
eEeh dgkWa ls okil vk jgha Fkh\
From where was mother coming back?
oks ukuh ds ;gkWa ls okil vk jgha FkhA
She was coming back from grandmothers.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%

mkj%

oks lruk esa dgkWa jg jgh Fkh \


Where was she living/staying in Satna?
mlus ,d dejk fdjk;s ij fy;k FkkA
She took a room there in rent.

Why- D;ksa\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

oks D;ksa jks jgh Fkh \


Why was she crying/weeping ?
T;ksfr us mldk f[kykSuk Nhu fy;k vkSj blh fy,
oks jks jgh FkhA
Joty snatched her toy, so she was crying.
os yM+ D;ksa jgs Fks\
Why were they fighting?
oks nks juksa ds fy, yM+ jgs FksA
They were fighting for two runs.
oks ikdZ esa vdsys D;ksa cSBk Fkk \
Why was he sitting alone in the park?
oks vius nksLrksa dk bartkj dj jgk Fkk A
He was waiting for his friends.

Who- dkSu\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%

rqels ,slk dkSu dg jgk Fkk \


Who was saying so to you?
iwtk eq>ls ,slk dg jgh FkhA
Pooja was saying so to me.
vkt Vhe esa dkSu&dkSu [ksy jgs Fks \
Who were playing in the team today?
Vhe esa lfpu vkSj fnusk dks feykdj 11 yM+ds
[ksy jgs FksA
Besides Sachin and Dinesh, there were 11 boys
playing in the team.
vdsys dkSu tk jgk Fkk\
Who was going alone?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%

:ik vdsys tk jgh FkhA


Rupa was going alone.
fcuk vuqefr ds d{kk ds ckgj dkSu tk jgk Fkk\
Who was going out of the class without
permission?
lj] ;s vfudsr vkSj mTtoy fcuk vuqefr ds tk
jgs FksA
Sir, these Aniket and Ujjwal were going without
permission.

Whom- fdlls\
'u%
mkj%

oks Qksu ij fdlls ckr dj jgh Fkh\


Whom was she talking on fone/phone?
oks vius ifr ls ckr dj jgh FkhA
She was talking to her husband.

Whose- fdldk@fdldh\
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

oks fdlds dEI;wVj ij dke dj jgk Fkk \


On whose computer was he working?
oks esjs dEI;wVj ij dke dj jgk FkkA
He was working on my computer.
oks fdldk iSlk <wa< jgh Fkh \
Whose money was she searching/finding?
iSlk ughaa] viuh fjax <wa< jgh FkhA
It was not money that she was finding, it was
her ring.

Which- dkSu lk@dkSu lh@dkSu ls\


'u%
mkj%

u%

os fdl VkWfid ij ckr dj jgs Fks \


On which topic were they talking?
os *Hkkjr esa xjhch* ij ckr dj jgs FksA
They were talking on Poverty in India.

fiNys lky rqe fdl Ldwy tk jgs Fks \


Which school were you going last year?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

fiNys lky eSa tcyiqj ds ,d Ldwy tk jgk FkkA


I was going to a school of Jabalpur last year.

How-dSls\
'u%
mkj%

os dSlk [ksy jgs Fks\


How were they playing?
os cgqr vPNk [ksy jgs FksA
They were playing very well.

vc vki lkjs question words dk ;ksx vius vuqlkj


dj ldrs gSa
vidks bl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk gksxk fd dqN f;kvksa dk ;ksx
fdlh Hkh dky ds Continuous/ Progressive Tense ds lkFk ughaa
dj ldrs gSa%
tSls%
agree, adore, amuse, attract, believe, care, cost,
dislike, exist, fear, forget, hear, imagine, like,
need, please, realise, recognize, regard, regret,
remember, respect,suppose, think, trust, want,
and wish.

Future Continuous/Progressive Tense

viw.kZ Hkfo"; dkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) bl ckr dk vuqeku yxkrs
gq, dgrk gS fd oks ;k dksbZ vU; drkZ Hkfo"; esa fdlh dke@f;k
dks dj jgk gksxk A rks ,sls okD; FutureContinuous/Progressive
Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
;k ge nwljs 'kCnksa esa dg ldrs gSa fd tc gesa fgUnh okD;ksa ds
var esa *jgk gksxk*] *jgh gksxh* ;k *jgs gksaxs* f;k ds rqjar ckn feyrs
gSa& rks ,sls okD; Future Continuous/Progressive Tenseviw.kZ Hkfo"; dkyA ds okD; dgykrs gSa%
tSls% 1- dy eSa bl le; lqcg ikS/kks dks ikuh ns
jgk gksWaxkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

oks vc vk jgh gksxhA

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative

:
:
:

Subject+will/shall+be+V1+ ing+object.
Subject+will/shall+not+be+V1 +ing+object.
Will/shall+subject+be+V1+ ing+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Will/shall+subject+not+ be+V1 +ing+object?


Or
Wont/shant+Subject+be+ V1 +ing +object?

1-

dy eSa bl le; lqcg ikS/kks dks ikuh ns


jgk gksWaxkA
I shall be watering the plants this time tomorrow.
dy eSa bl le; fufpr gh ikS/kks dks
ikuh ns jgk gksWaxkA
I will be watering the plants this time tomorrow.
eSa dy ogkWa ughaa tk jgk gksWaxk D;ksafd
eSa ?kj ij gh :dwWaxkA
I wont be going there because I will stay at
home only.
D;k rqe muds lkFk dy lke dks eSp [ksy jgs gksxs\
Will you be playing a mactch with them in the
evening tomorrow?

2-

oks vc vk jgh gksxhA


She will be coming now.
oks dqN ughaa fy[k jgk gksxkA
He will not be writing anything.
or
He will be writing nothing.
D;k os vius [ksr esa gy pyk jgs gksaxs\
Will they be ploughaing in their field?
gkWaA@ ughaaA
Yes, they will be. / No, they wont be.

Rajs Notes of English Language

D;k oks bl le; vius dejs esa i<+ ughaa jgh gksxh\
Will she not be studying in her room this time?
3-

dy ge bl le; ?kj ij cSBdj Hkkjr vkSj


ikfdLrku dk eSap ns[k jgs gksaxsA
Well be watching the India Pakistan match
this time tomorrow.
dy ge bl vkWfQl esa dke ughaa dj jgs gksaxsA
We shall not be working in this office tomorrow.

4-

jkds'k bl jsl esa ughaa nkSM+ jgk gksxk] gS uk\


Rakesh will not be running in this race, will he?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he wont be./ No, he will be.

5-

js[kk bl le; dkWfpax esa i< jgh gksxh] gS uk\


Rekha will be studying in the coaching (at)
this time, won't she?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, she will be./ No, she wont be.

Question Tag (?)


1-

dy rqe jkWa>h ls okil vk jgs gksxs] gS uk \


You will be coming back from Ranjhi tomorrow,
wont you be?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, I will be./ No, I wont be.

2-

oks dy muds lkFk ughaa tk jgk gksxk] gS uk \


He will not be going with them tomorrow, will he
be?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he wont be./ No, he will be.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3-

lwjt vius nksLrksa ds lkFk viuk x`gdk;Z dj jgk gksxk] gS uk\


Suraj will be doing his homework with his friends,
wont he be?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he will be./ No, he wont be.

Wh question words
What, When, Where, Why, Who, Whom, Whose, Which,
How, How many, and How much.
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

rqe dy bl le; D;k dj jgs gksxs\


What will you be doing this time tomorrow?
dy eSa bl le; vke ds isM+ ds uhps cSBdj vkjke
dj jgk gksWaxkA
We will be relaxing under a mango tree this time
tomorrow.
oks ;s dke dc djsxh\
When will she be doing this work?/ When will
she do this work?
oks dy iwjs fnu ;gh dke dj jgh gksxhA
She will be doing the same work the whole day.
os bl oDr dgkWa [ksy jgs gksaxs\
Where will they be playing this time?
os jktw xzkWaM esa [ksy jgs gksaxs A
They will be playing in the Raju ground.
oks ogkWa D;ksa tk jgh gksxh\
Why will she be going there?
oks ogkWa fdlh dke ls gh tk jgh gksxhA QkYkrw rks
oks dgha tkrh ughaa gSA
She will be going there for some work. She
never goes anywhere unnecessarily.
dy dkSu vk,xk\
Who will be coming tomorrow?/ Who will
come tomorrow?
rqEgkjs ekWaek vkSj ekaWehA

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%

'u%

mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

Your maternal uncle and aunt.


jfo fdlls ckr dj jgk gksxkA
To whom will Ravi be talking?/ Who will Ravi be
talking to?
eq>s ughaa irk rqe [kqn tkdj irk dj yksA
I dont know. Go yourself and let yourself know.
D;k ge dy ,d lkFk dke dj jgs gksaxs\
Shall we be working together this time tomorrow?
gkWa dj jgs gksaxsA@ughaa] ge dy ,d lkFk dke ughaa
dj jgs gksaxsA
Yes, we will be./ we wont be.
oks fdldh lk;dy pyk jgk gksxk \ mlds ikl rks
lk;dy ughaa gSA
Whose cycle will he be riding? He hasnt got
a cycle.
pyk jgk gksxk fdlh dh lk;dy A blls rqEgkjk D;k
ysuk nsuk\
He will be riding somebodys cycle. What
business do you have with it?
10oh ds ckn rqe dkSu lk fo"k; i<+ksxs \
Which subject will you be studying after twelfth?
eSa foKku fo"k; i<wWaxkA
I will be studying science subject.
os dSls vk jgs gksaxs \
How will they be coming?
os cl ls vk jgs gksaxs A
They will be coming by bus.
ml dejs esa fdrus yksx cSBs gksaxs\
How many people/persons will be sitting in
that room?
yxHkx 25 ls 28 yksxA
About 25 to 28 people/persons.
oks fdruk rsy [kjhn jgh gksxh \
How much oil will she be buying?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%

yxHkx 5 ls 6 yhVj A
About 5 to 6 litters.

An important use of It
(It+objective case .....(take) to+V1)
tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks dguk gksrk gS rks ge it dk
;ksx djrs gSa%
tSls%
1- eq>s Ldwy igWaqPkus esa 15 feUkV~l yxrs gSaA
It takes me 10 minutes to reach school.
2- mls rS;kj gksus esa 2 ?kaVs yxrs gSA
It takes her two hours to get ready.
3- flgksjk ls Hkksiky igqWapus esa 10 ?kaVs yxrs gSaA
It takes 10 hours to reach Bhopal from Sihora.
4- eq>s bl iqLrd dks fy[kus esa 3 lky yxsA
It took me 3 years to write this book.
5- jkr gks tkrh gS tc ge ?kj igqWaprs
r gSaA
It gets dark when we reach home.
6- vPNk yxrk gS tc oks [kqk jgrh gSA
It feels good when she is happy.
7- bl dke dks [kRe djus esa rqEgs iwjk fnu yxsxkA
It will take you the whole day to finish this work.
buds udkjkRe vkSj uokpd okD; cukuk rks vki lh[k gh
pqds gSA

Present Perfect Tense- iw.kZ orZekudkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgs fd oks ;k dksbZ vkSj
drkZ fdlh f;k@dk;Z dks OkrZeku dky esa dj pqdk gS ;k dj
fy;k gS] rc ,sls okD; Present Perfect Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
;k ge nwljs 'kCnksa esa dg ldrs gSa fd tc gesa fgUnh okD;ksa
ds var esa *pqdk gS*] *pqdh gS* ;k *pqds gSa * f;k ds rqjar ckn feyrk

Rajs Notes of English Language

gSa rks ,sls okD;& Present Perfect Tense- iw.kZ orZekudkyA ds


okD; dgykrs gSaA bl dky esa gesa bl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk gksxk fd
;fn drkZ (subject/doer) ,d opu gS I rFkk You dks NksM+dj rc
muds lkFk has dk ;ksx djuk gksxk vkSj ;fn drkZ cgqopu gS I rFkk
You dks feykdj] rc muds lkFk have dk ;ksx djrs gSA
tSls%
1- eSa [kkuk [kk pqdk gwWaA@eSus [kkuk [kk fy;k gSA
2- oks vkWfQl pyh xbZ gSA@oks vkWfQl tk pqdh gSA

Formulae (Active voice)


has+not=hasnt, have+not=havent.
Affirmative :
Negative
:
Interrogative :

Subject+has/have+V3+object.
Subject+has/have+not+V3 +object.
Has/ have+subject+V3+object?

Negative
Interrogative :

Has/have+subject+not+V3+object?

I have,
they have,

You have,
these have,

We have,
those have

Ram and Shyam have,


He has,
it has,
father has,

She has,
Ram has,
this has,
that has,
mother has.

Short forms:

1-

I have- Ive,
We have- Weve,
She has- Shes,
eSa [kkuk [kk pqdk gwWaA@eSus
fy;k gSA
I have eaten food.

You have- Youve,


He has- Hes,
It has- its etc.
[kkuk [kk

Rajs Notes of English Language

eSus vHkh ughaa [kk;k gSA


I have not eaten yet/now.(Ive not eaten.)
D;k vkius [kkuk [kk fy;k gS\
Have you eaten food?
gkWa] eSu [kkuk [kk fy;k gSA@ugha
@ughaa vHkh
ughaa [kk;kA
Yes, I have. /No, I havent yet.
D;k rqEkus mUgsa ughaa cqyk;k gS\
Have you not called them?/ Havent you
called them?
vksg! ekaQ djuk eSa Hkwy x;kA vHkh tk
djds cqyk yqaxkA
Oh! I am sorry, I forgot. Ill (will) just go and
call them.
2- rqeus esjk fny nq[k%;k gSA
You have hurt me./ You have offended me.
rqeus lc dqN cckZn dj fn;k gSA
You have ruined/spoiled everything.
D;k eSus vkidh Hkkoukvksa dks Bsl
igwWapkbZ gS\
Have I hurt your feelings?
ughaa fcYkdqy ughaaA@ gkaW] fcydqyA
No, not at all./ Yes, of course you have.
D;k eSaus rqEgkjk dqN fcxkM+k gS\
Have I done anything wrong to you?
rqeus esjh iwjh ft+nxh cckZn dj nh
vkSj vc iWawNrs gks fd rqeus dqN fcxkM+k
gS ;k ughaaA keZ vkuh pkfg, rqEgsa!
You have ruined all my life and now you are
asking whether you have done anything wrong
to me or not. You should be ashamed of yourself !
D;k eSaus rqEgkjk cks> ughaa mBk;k gS\
Have I not taken your responsibilities?
/ Have I not borne you burdens?

Rajs Notes of English Language

ughaa] lcdqN eq>s gh djuk iM+rk gSA


No, you havent. I have to do everything myself./
I myself have to do everything.
3-

geus lkjk dke dj fy;k gSA


We have done all the works.
ge vc rd mlls ugha feysA
We have not met him/her yet.
D;k ge dHkh ogkWa x, gSaA
Have we ever been to there?
gkWa] ge ,d ckj ogkWa tk pqds gSaA
eq>s yxrk gS fd rqe Hkwy x, gksA
Yes , we have once. I think that you have
forgetton.
D;k geus mUgsa bl ckjs esa tkudkjh
ughaa nh\
nh\
Have we not inform them about it?
gkWa] ughaa nh@ugha
nh@ughaa] nh gSA
Yes, we havent./ No, we have.

4-

os gfj;k.kk ls okil vk x, gSaA


They have come back from Haryan.
mUgksaus vHkh rd viuh ktsDV Qkby tek ughaa dh gSA
They have not submitted their project file yet.
D;k vUgksus dke djuk kq: dj fn;k gSA
Have they started to work?/ Have they started
working?
gkW] mUgksaus dke djuk kq: dj fn;k gSA
@ughaa ughaa fd;k gSA
Yes, they have./ No, they havent.
D;k mUgksus rqEgkjs lansk dk tckc vHkh rd ughaa
fn;k \
Have they not answered your message yet?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, they have./ No, they havent.

Rajs Notes of English Language

5-

mlus viuh kVZ QkM+ yh gSA@mldh kVZ QV xbZ gSA


He has torn his shirt.
mldk iSj VwV x;k gSA@mlus viuk iSj rksM+ fy;k gSA
She has broken her leg.
D;k mlus rqEgsa bl ckjs esa crk;k gS \
Has he/she told you about this/it?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he/she has./ No, he/she hasnt.
D;k mls vc&rd viuh chekjh ls NqVdkjk ughaa
feyk gS\
Hasnt she recovered from her illness?/
Hasnt she got rid of her illness?
fcYdqy Bhd gS vc oksA
She is very fine now. / She is perfectly all right
now.
D;k ;s ckr lp ughaa gS fd gjfkr dks ,d uSdjh
fey xbZ gS\
Isnt it true that Harshit has got a job?
gkWa ;s lp ughaa gS] @ugha
@ughaa] ;s lp gS A
Yes, it isnt./ No, it is.

6-

p;u lks x;k gSA


Chayan has gone to bed.
uezrk us :fp dks dksbZ i= ughaa fy[kk gSA
Namrta has not written any letter to Ruchi.
D;k kSySanz us dksbZ ljkjr dh gS \
Has Shailendra done any mischief?
gkWa] mlus vkbZuk rksM+ fn;k gSA
Yes , he has broken the mirror.

D;k fu/kh us LdsUM ;wfuV VsLV ughaa fn;k gS\


Hasnt Nidhi taken second unit test ?
gkWa@ughaa] mlus fn;k gSA
Yes, she hasnt./ No, she has(taken).

Rajs Notes of English Language

/;ku jgs give test eryc *ijh{kk ysuk* take test eryc
*ijh{kk nsuk* gksrk gSA

Question Tag (?)


1-

rqEkus viuk ch-,- iwjk dj fy;k gS] gS uk \


You have completed your B.A. , havent you?
gkWaA@ughaa vHkh ughaaA
Yes, I have./No, not yet.

2-

ge iwjk dke [kRe dj pqds gSa] gS uk \


We have completed all the works, havent we?
gkWaA
Yes , we have.

3-

mUgksus dksbZ lansk ughaa Hkstk gS] gS uk\


They havent sent any message, have they?
gkWa]@ughaa] Hkstk gS ,dA
Yes, they havent./ No, they have sent one.

4-

ikik vkWfQl ls okil vk x, gSa] gS uk \


Papa/ father has come back from office, hasnt
he?
gkWaA@ughaa vHkh ughaaA
Yes, he has./No, he hasnt.
oks vHkh rd ughaa vkbZ] gS uk \
She hasnt come yet, has she?
gkWaA
Yes , she hasnt.
ge igys fey pqds gSa] gS uk\
We have met before, havent we?
gkWa@ughaaA
Yes, Yes we have./ No, we havent.

5-

6-

Rajs Notes of English Language

7-

lk{kh us rqEgsa ;s crk;k gS] gS uk \


Shakshi has told you this, hasnt she?
gkWaA@ughaa] mlus ughaa crk;kA
Yes, she has./No, she hasnt.
8- fgekakw us dqN ughaa fd;k gS] gS uk \
Himanshu has done nothing, has he?
ughaa] mlh us lcdqN fd;k gSA
No, only he has done everything.
vc&rd vki yksxksa dks Wh Question words ;kn gks x,s
gksaxs rks vc ge budk lh/ks ;ksx dj ldrs gSa

Question words?
'u%

mkj%

'u%

mkj%

'u%
mkj%

eSuas rqEgkjk D;k fcxkM+k gS tks rqe eq>s bl rjg


ijskku dj jgs gks\
What wrong have I done to you that you are
disturbing me like this?
rqEkus esjk dqN ughaa fcxkM+k gSA vkSj eSa rqEgsa ijskku
ughaa dj jgha gwaWA
You have done no wrong to me. And Im not
disturbing you.
;s rqEkus D;k fd;k gS\ rqEkus rks esjk eksckbZy [kjkc dj
fn;k gSA
What have you done this? You have spoilt my
mobile.
eSa rks cl xse pkyw djus dh dksfkk dj jgk FkkA
eq>s ekQ dj nksA
I was just trying to start the game. Please,
forgive me./ Im sorry.
mlus D;k fu.kZ; fy;k gS\
What has she decided ?
mlus fu.kZ; fy;k gS fd oks vkxs dh i<+kbZ ds fy,
fnYyh tk,xhA
She has decided that she will go to Delhi for

further study/studies.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

mlus bl ckjs esa D;k lkspk gS\


What has she thoughat about this ?
mlus lkspk gS fd oks vc ;s dke ughaa djsxhA
She has thoughat that she will not do this
work now.
rqEkus ;s dc fd;k gS\
When have you done this ?
eSaus ;s vkt lqcg fd;k gS A
I have done it this morning.
mls ;s dc irk pyk gS \
When has he come to know this ?
mls ;s vkt nksigj dks irk pyk gSA
He has come to know it this afternoon.
rqEk dgkWa pys x,s gks\
Where have you gone ?
eSa rks ?kj okil vk x;k gwWa A
I have come back home.
mlus esjh QkbZy dgkWa j[kh gS \
Where has he kept my file?
mlus rqEgkjh QkbZy dckWMZ esa j[kh gSA
He/ she has kept your file in the cupboard.
os dgkWa ls vk, gS \
Where have they come from?/From where
have theycome?
os dVuh ls vk, gSaA
They have come from Katni.
rqeus ;s ikskkd dgkWa ls [kjhnh gS\
Where have you boughat this dress from?
vthr ds ;gkWa lsA
From Ajeet garments.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%

'u%

mlus ;s ckr dgkWa fyf[k gS\


Where has he written this thing?
viuh M;jh esaA
In his diary.

mlus fdldk fny rksM+k gS\


Whose heart has he broken?
ge lc dkA
Of all of us.
jktk us fdldk eksCkkbZy pqjk;k gS\
Whose mobile has Raja stolen?
jktk us :fp dk eksckbZy pqjk;k gSA
Raja has stolen Ruchis mobile.
bl dke esa mlus fdldh en~n yh gS\
Whose help has she taken in this work?
mlus viuh cgu dh enn yh gSA
She has taken her sisters help.
vfHkuo us fdldh iqLrd m/kkj yh gS\
Where book has Abhinav borrowed?
vfuy dhA
Anils.
lat; vkSj fukkar us fdlds iSls ywVs\
Whose money has Sanjay and Nishant robbed?
vk'kh"k dsA
Ashishs.
rqEgs ;s fdlus crk;k gS\
Who has told you this?
uezrk usA
Namrta.
esjh ckbd dkSu ys x;k gS\
Who has taken my bike?

mlus fdldk fny rksM+k gS\


Whose heart has he broken?

Rajs Notes of English Language

mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

ge lc dkA
Of all of us.
jktk us fdldk eksCkkbZy pqjk;k gS\
Whose mobile has Raja stolen?
jktk us :fp dk eksckbZy pqjk;k gSA
Raja has stolen Ruchis mobile.
bl dke esa mlus fdldh en~n yh gS\
Whose help has she taken in this work?
mlus viuh cgu dh enn yh gSA
She has taken her sisters help.
vfHkuo us fdldh iqLrd m/kkj yh gS\
Where book has Abhinav borrowed?
vfuy dhA
Anils.
lat; vkSj fukkar us fdlds iSls ywVs\
Whose money has Sanjay and Nishant
robbed?
vk'kh"k dsA
Ashishs.
rqEgs ;s fdlus crk;k gS\
Who has told you this?
uezrk usA
Namrta.
esjh ckbd dkSu ys x;k gS\
Who has taken my bike?
lat; rqEgkjh ckbd ys x;k gSA
Sanjay has taken your bike.
;s u;k eksCkkby fdlus [kjhnk gS\
Who has boughat this new mobile?
:ik us [kjhnk gSA
Rupa has (boughat it).

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

rqeus bl ckjs esa fdlls crk;k gS\


Who have you told about this?
EkSus iwue dks crk;k gSA
I have told Poonam.
mlus bl ckjs esa fdlls ckr dh gS\
To whom has he talked about this?
mlus bl ckjs esa Jheku ikBd th ls ckr dh gSA
He has talked to Mr. Pathak about this.
rqe vkt D;ksa ughaa vkbZ gks \
Why have you not come today?
D;ksafd eq>s ?kj ij dqN t:jh dke gSaA
Because I have some important works
at home.
rqe okil dSls vk, gks \
How have you come back?
EkSa viuh lk;dy ls okil vk;k gwWaA
I have come back by my (bi)cycle.
mlus ;s dSls fd;k gS \
How has he done this?
mlus ;s cgqr vPNh rjg le>dj fd;k gSA
He has done it, having understood it well.
vkt fdrus fo|kFkhZ vk, gSa\
How many students have come today?
vkt 38 fo|kFkhZ vk, gSaA
38 students have come today.
vkius esjs dejs esa fdruh ekseckh;kWa tykbZ gSa \
How many candles have you lightened in
my room?
EkSaus vkids dejs esa pkj ekseCkkh;kWa tykbZ gSaA
I have lightened 4 candles in your room.

Rajs Notes of English Language

'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%

'u%
mkj%
'u%
mkj%

mlus fdruh lkM+h [kjhnh gS\


How many saries has she boughat?
mlus dksbZ lkM+h ughaa [kjhnh gSA oks nqdku [kjhnnkjh
ds fy, xbZ t:j Fkh ij mls dqN ilan ughaa vk;kA
She hasnt boughat any sari. She did go to the
shop for shopping but she didnt like anything.
oks ;gkWa fdrus ckj vk pqdh gS\
How many times has she come here?
oks ;gkWa dbZ ckj vk pqdh gSA eq>s ;kn ughaa fdruh
ckjA
She has come here many a time. I dont
remember how many times.
rqeus vkt fdruk iSlk dek;k gS\
How much money have you earned/earnt
today?
EkSaus vkt 200 :i;s dek, gSaA
I have earned 200 rupees today.
vkt mlus fdruk dke fd;k gS\
How much work has he done today?
mlus vkt cgqr lkjk dke fd;k gSA
I has worked a lot today./ He has done a lot
of work today.

Past Perfect Tense- iw.kZ HkwrdkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgs fd oks ;k dksbZ
vkSj drkZ fdlh dk;Z dks ;k f;k dks Hkwrdky esa dj pqdk Fkk
;k dj fy;k FkkA rks ,sls okD; Past Perfect Tense ds okD;
dgykrs gSaA ;k ge nwljs 'kCnksa esa dg ldrs gSa fd tc gesa
fgUnh okD;ksa ds var esa *pqdk Fkk*] *pqdh Fkh* ;k *pqds Fks *

Rajs Notes of English Language

f;k ds rqjar ckn feyrk gSa rks ,sls okD; Past Perfect
Tense- iw.kZ HkwrdkyA ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
tSls%
1- eSa 10 cts ?kj ls fudy pqdk FkkA@fudy x;k FkkA
2- oks okil pyh xbZ FkhA

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative

:
:

Interrogative

Negative
Interrogative :

Subject+had+V3+object.
Subject+had+not+V3 +object.
(had+not-hadnt)
Had+subject+V3+object?

Had+subject+not+ V3+object?
or
Hadnt + subject+V3+object?

1- eSa 10 cts ?kj ls fudy x;k FkkA


I had left from home at 10 oclock.
eSaus mls ughaa crk;k FkkA
I hadnt told her.
D;k rqe jkr dks gh okil vk x, Fks\
Had you come back at night only?
gkWa]A ughaa] eSa vius pkpk th ds ;gkaW :d x;k FkkA
Yes, I had./ I had stayed at my uncles.
2-

rqeus ,d xyrh dj nh FkhA


You had done a mistake.
rqeus dksbZ xyrh ughaa dh FkhA
You hadnt done any mistake.
D;k eSaus dksbZ xyrh dh Fkh \
Had I done a/any mistake?

Rajs Notes of English Language

gkWa]A@ugha
a] rqeus dksbZ xyrh ughaa dh FkhA
A
Yes, you had./No, you hadnt
(done any mistake).
D;k eSus dksbZ xyrh ughaa dh Fkh\
Hadnt I done any mistake?
ughaa dksbZ xyrh ughaa dh FkhA
No, you hadnt done any.
3-

HkwdEi us lc dqN cckZn dj fn;k FkkA


The earthquake destroyed everything.
geus muls dqN ughaa dgk FkkA
We hadnt said anything to them.
D;k mlus rqEgkjs iSls okil dj fn, Fks\
Had he returned your money?
gkWaA@ughaaA
Yes, he had./ No, he hadnt.
D;k jtuh eSe us rqEgsa ltk ughaa nh Fkh\
Hadnt Rajni mam punished you?
ughaa@ughaa] dksbZ ltk ughaa nh FkhA
No, she hadnt/ No, she hadnt given any
punishment.

4-

oks ,d ?kaVs esa ogkWa igqaWp x;k FkkA


He had reached there in an hour(vkoj).
oks esjs ikl ,d ?kaVs ds vanj&vanj ughaa igwWaph FkhA
mls nks ?kaVs yx x, FksA
She hadnt reached me within an hour. It took her
two hours.
D;k oks ogkWa le; ij igWaqp x;k Fkk\
Had he reached there in time?

Rajs Notes of English Language

gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he had./ No, he hadnt.
vkSj dqN okD;
1- mlus eq>s igys gh crk fn;k FkkA
He had already told me.
2- oks ml fnu dgha xbZ gh ughaa FkhA
She hadnt gone anywhere that day.
3- eSus mlls iwNk gh ughaa FkkA
I hadnt asked her.
4- mugksus gesa btktr gh ughaa nh FkhA
They hadnt permitted us./
They hadnt given us permision.
5- geus 5 cts kke dks dke djuk can dj fn;k FkkA
We had stopped working at 5pm.
6- f;adk us eq>s dHkh bl ckjs esa crk;k gh ughaa FkkA
Priyanka had never told me about this.
7910111213-

/ Priyanka had never told about this to me.

eSaus dHkh bl ckr ij /;ku gh ughaa fn;k FkkA


I had never noticed this/it.
eSaus dHkh mlls bl ckjs esa ckr gh ughaa dh FkhA
I had never talked to her over this matter.
lfpu us 9 cts jkr dks nqdku can dj nh FkhA
Sachin had closed the shop at 9pm.
eSa vkt lqcg 4 cts gh mB x;k FkkA
I had got up at 4(am) oclock this morning.
jktsk rks kke dks gh ykSV vk;k FkkA
Rajesh had come back in the evening.
eSaus mUgsa igys gh tkudkjh ns nh Fkh fd eSa vkWaxkA
I had already informed them that I would come.

Rajs Notes of English Language

;fn igyk okD; Hkwrdky dk gks rks will -would


esa cny tkrk gSA
14- mUgksus [ksr esa cht cks fn;s FksA
They had sowed in the field.
10- eSus rks ,slk dgk gh ughaa FkkA
I hadnt said so.
vc rd vkius bu okD;ksa dks udkjkRed] uokpd
vkSj uokpd udkjkRed esa cnyuk rks lh[k gh fy;k gSA
vkSj ;fn ughaa rks ,d ckr /;ku j[ks dh ;fn vki vkxs&vkxs
c<rs tk,saxs] rks fiNyk Hkwy Hkh ldrs gSaA rks csgrj gksxk dh
vki fiNyk nkSgjk ysus ds ckn
gh vkxs c<saA
Question Tag (?)
1- reus mUgsa tkudkjh ns nh Fkh] gS uk\
You had informed them, hadnt you?
gkWa]A@ugha
A@ughaaA
Yes, I had./No, I hadnt.
2- oks le; ij ughaa igWwph Fkh] gS uk\
She hadnt reached in time, had she?
gkWa] ughaa igwWaph FkhAA
Yes , she hadnt.
3- rqEgs btktr fey xbZ Fkh] gS uk\
You had got the permision, hadnt you?
gkWa]@ughaa] A
Yes, I had./ No, I hadnt.
4- jfo us lkjk etk [kjkc dj fn;k Fkk] gS uk \
Ravi had spoilt all the joy, hadnt he?
gkWa]A@ugha
aA
A
Yes, he had./No,he hadnt.

Rajs Notes of English Language

5-

12-

345-

mlus ,d Hkh u dk mkj ughaa fn;k Fkk] gS uk \


He hadnt answered even a single question,
had he?
gkWa] ughaa fn;k FkkA
Yes , he hadnt.

Question words

oks dgkWa pyh xbZ Fkh\


Fkh\
Where had she gone?
rqEkus mls esjh btktr ds fcuk esjh dkj D;ksa ns
nh Fkh \
Why had you given him my car without my
permision?
oks dy bruh tYnh D;ksa pyh xbZ Fkh \
Why had she gone so soon yesterday?
rqeus vkt lqcg fdruk nw/k fy;k Fkk \
How much milk had you taken this morning?
rqeus ikBd lj ls D;ksa ughaa crk fn;k Fkk\
Why hadnt you told Mr. Pathak?

Future Perfect Tense- iw.kZ Hkfo";dkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgs fd oks ;k dksbZ vkSj
drkZ fdlh dk;Z dks ;k f;k dks Hkfo";dky esa dj pqdk gksxk ;k
dj fy;k gksxkA rks ,sls okD; Future Perfect Tense ds okD;
dgykrs gSaA ;k ge nwljs 'kCnksa esa dg ldrs gSa fd tc gesa fgUnh
okD;ksa ds var esa *pqdk gksxk*] *pqdh gksxh* ;k *pqds gksaxs * f;k ds
rqjar ckn feyrk gSa rks ,sls okD; Future Perfect Tenseiw.kZ Hkfo";dkyA ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
tSls%
1- dy eSa vc rd ogkWa igwWap pqdk gksWaxkA
2- oks okil vk xbZ gksxhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative :
Negative :
Interrogative :
Negative
Interrogative :

Subject+will/shall+have+ V3+object.
Subject+will/shall+not+have+V3+object.
Will/shall+subject+have+ V3+object?

Will/shall+subject+not+have+ V3+object?
or
Wont/shant +subject+have+V3+object?

1- dy eSa vc rd ogkWa igWawPk pqdk gksWaxkA


I will have reached there tomorrow by now.
oks vHkh ughaa vkbZ gksxhA
She will not have come yet.
D;k rqe dy rd okil vk pqds gksxs\
Will you have come back by tomorrow?
gkWa] vk pqdk gksWaxkA@
ughaa] eq>s ,d fnu
k
vkSj yxsxkA
Yes, I will have./ No, It will take me one more
day.
D;k eEeh us [kkuk cuk fy;k gksxk\
Will mother have cooked food ?
gkWaA@ ughaa]A
Yes, she will have./ No, she wont have.
D;k mlus dke iwjk ughaa dj fy;k gksxk\
Will he not have completed the work ?
gkWa]A@ ughaa]A
Yes, he will have./ No, he wont have.
2-

jsyxkM+h LVsku ls pyh xbZ gksxhA


The train will have left from the station.

Rajs Notes of English Language

tYnh djks! Vsu vHkh ughaa xbZ gksxhA


Hurry up! The train will not have gone yet.
D;k eSa ;s kke rd dj ywWaxk@dj pqdk gksWaxk\
Shall I have done this by the evening?
gkWaA@ ughaaA
Yes, you will have./ No, you wont have,
D;k mlus dejk ltk fn;k gksxk\
Will she have decorated the room?
gkWaA@ ughaa]A
Yes, she will have./ No, she wont have.
dqN vkSj okD;&
1- dy rd oks ;gkWa vk pqdh gksxhA
She will have come here by tomorrow.
2- jfo us i= Mky fn;k gksxkA
Ravi will have posted the letter.
3- vcrd oks pyh xbZ gksxhA
She will have gone by now.
4- iwtk dh ijh{kk 30 ekPkZ rd [kRe gks pqdh gksxhA
Poojas examination will have finished by 30th
of March.
5- mlus D;k fd;k gksxk\
What will he have done?
6- bfkrk us dke [kRe dj fy;k gksxk] gS uk\
Ishita will have finished the work,
wont she have?
7- oks dgkWa pyk x;k gksxk\
Where will he have gone?
8- lsty us mUgs cqyk;k gksxkA
Shejal will have called them.

Rajs Notes of English Language

9-

mlus [kkuk [kk fy;k gksxkA


He will have eaten food.
10- dy oks ;s iqLrd iwjh dj pqdh gksxh\
She will have completed this book tomorrow.

Present Perfect Continuous Tenseiw.kZ fujUrj orZekudkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgrk gS fd oks ;k
dksbZ vU; drkZ fdlh le; ls fdlh dk;Z dks dj jgk gS]
oks dke tks mlus fdlh le; kq: fd;k Fkk vkSj vc rd py
jgk gS ;k oks f;k tks mlus fdlh le; k: dh Fkh vkSj vc
rd py jgh gS rks ,sls okD; Present Perfect Continuous
Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA bl dky esa gesa bl ckr dk
/;ku j[kuk gksrk gS fd okD; fd var esa tc gesa le; crkuk
gksrk gS dh fdruh nsj ls oks f;k gks jgh gS rc fufpr
le; ds fy;s since yxkrs gSa vkSj vfufpr le; ds fy,
for dk ;ksx djrs gSaA lqcg] kke] nksigj vkSj jkr dks Hkh
fufpr le; ekuk tkrk gSA
TkSls%
1- fufpr le;%
lqcg ls&since morning, dy jkr ls&since last night
lu 2005 ls&since 2005 ,d cts ls&since 1 oclock
2- vfufpr le;%
yxHkx nks ?kaVs ls & for two hours,
pkj fnu ls
& for four daysr
rhu lky ls
& For three years,
dkQh nsj ls
& for a long time/for long
mnkgj.k:
1- eSa lqcg ls dke dj jgk gwWaA
I have been working since morning.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

oks yxHkx nks ?kaVs ls rqEgkjk bartkj dj jgk gSA


He has been waiting for you for two hours.

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative

:
:
:

Subject+has/have+been+V1+ing+object.
Subject+has/have+not+been+V1+ing +object.
Has/ have+subject+been+V1+ing+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Has/ have+subject+not+been+V1+ing+object?

1-

eSa lqcg ls fy[kkbZ dj jgk gwWaA


I have been writing since morning.
eSa lqcg ls ughaa fy[k jgk gwWa] eSaus
vHkh gh fy[kuk kq: fd;k gSA
I have not been writing since morning, I have
just started to write.
D;k vki lqcg fy[k jgs gSa\
Have you been writing since morning?
gkWaA ughaaA
Yes, I have been./ No, I havent been.
D;k oks rhu lky ls vaxzsth lh[k jgk gS\
Has he been learning English for three years?

2-

rqe lqcg ls eq>s ijskku dj jgs gksA


You have been disturbing me since morning.
oks fiNys nks grksa ls Ldwy ughaa vk jgk gSaA
He has not been coming school for the last
two weeks.
D;k ikuh dkQh nsj ls mcy jgk gS\
Has the water been boiling for long?
ughaaA
No, it hasnt been.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3-

fdlku lqcg ls [ksr es gy pyk jgs gSaA


Farmers have been ploughaing in the field since morning.
os dkQh fnuksa ls dke ij ughaa tk jgs gSaA
They have not been going to work for many days.
D;k os dkQh fnuksa ls ;gkWa vk jgs gSa \
Have they been coming here for many days?
gkWa]A@ugha
A@ughaaA
Yes, they have./ No, they havent.
D;k lqjsk vkSj jesk dkQh fnuksa ls ughaa vk jgs gS\
Have Suresh and Ramesh not been coming for
many days?
gkWa] os dkQh fnuksa ls ughaa vk jgs gSaA
Yes, they havent.

dHkh&dHkh okD; ds var esa le; dks ughaa cksyrs ij irk gksrk
gS fd f;k dkQh le; ls gks jgh gS rc Hkh ,sls okD;ksa dks cksyus ds
fy, ge bl dky dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls% 1- oks vktdy dM+h esgur dj jgh gSA
She has been working hard these days.
2- oks vktdy ogkWa ughaa tk jgh gSA
She has not been going there now a days.
3- uhye vktdy dEI;wVj lh[k jgh gSA
Neelam has been learning Computer these days.
4- ge vktdy nsj jkr rd dke dj jgs gSaA
We have been burning the candles at the both
ends these days.
5- vktdy mls cgqr vPNs lius vk jgs gSaA
She has been having very good dreams these
days.
6- eSa dkQh le; ls mls le>kus dh dksfkk dj jgk gwWaA
I have been trying to explain to him for long.
7- ge lu~ 1980 ls flgksjk esa jg jgs gSaA
We have been living at Sihora since 1980.

Rajs Notes of English Language

891011-

1213-

1415-

1-

oks nks ?kaVs ls rkys dks [kksyus dh dksfkk dj jghs gSA


She has been trying to open the lock for 2 hours.
vkt lqcg ls ckfjk gks jgh gSA
It has been raining since morning.
nksigj ls vksys fxj jgs gSaA
It has been hailing since noon.
oks lqcg ls [kkuk cuk jgh gS ij [kkuk vHkh rd rS;kj
ughaa gqvkA
She has been cooking food since morning, but
the food is not ready yet.
ge dkQh le; ls bl fr;ksfxrk esa Hkkx ysrs jgs gSaA
We have been participating in this competition
for many years.
eSa lqcg ls rqEgs Qksu dj jgk gwWaA rqe Qksu D;ksa
ughaa mBk jgs gks \
I have been calling you since morning.
Why arent you attending the call?
oks dkQh le; esjh txg ij dke dj jgk gSA
He has been acting for me for long.
oks lkyksa ls gekjs iSls pqjk jgk gSA
He has been stealing our money for years.

Question words

rqe lqcg ls D;k dj jgs gks \


What have you been doing since morning?
eSa lqcg ls viuk kstsDV rS;kj dj jgk gwWaA
I have been preparing my project since morning.
2- oks fiNys rhu lky ls D;k dj jgh gS\
What has she been doing for the last three
years?
oks ,d kbosV dEiuh esa dke djus tk jgh gSA
She has been going to a private company to work.
3- vki rhu fnuksa ls vkWfQl D;ksa ughaa vk jgs gSa\
Why have you not been coming the office for three days?

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

5-

6-

7-

8-

9-

D;ksafd eSa rhu fnuksa ls chekj gwWaA


Because I have been ill for three days.
vkB fnuksa ls dkSu rqEgsa ijskku dj jgk gS\
Who has been disturbing you for 8 days.
irk ughaa dkSu gSA eSa Qksu mBrk gwWa ij oks
dqN dgrk gh ughaaA
I dont know who he is. I pick up the phone but he
doesnt say anything.
rqe bl Ldwy esa fdrus lky ls i<+ jgs gks\
For how many years have you been reading in
this school?
EkSa bl Ldwy esa nks lky ls i<+ jgk gwWaA
I have been reading in this school for two years.
oks dc ls ckgj gS\
For how long has she been out?
oks lqcg ls ckgj gSA
She has been out since morning.
rqe ;gkWa dc ls gks\
How long have you been here?
eSa rks vHkh ghs vk;k gwWaA
I have just come.
rqe lqcg ls brus [kqk D;ksa gks \
Why have you been so happy since morning?
eSa rks cl ,ls gh [kqk gwWaA rqEgsa dksbZ ijskkuh gS
D;k \
I have just been happy.
Dyou (do you) have any problem with that?
vki ,d nwljs ls ckr D;ksa ughaa dj jgs gSa \
eryc dkQh le; ls
Why have you not been talking to each other?
D;ksafd ge ,d nwljs ls xqLlk gSaA
Because we have been angry with each other.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

iw.kZ fujUrj HkwrdkyA


tc dksbZ drkZ (subject/doer) ;s dgrk gS fd oks ;k dksbZ vU;
drkZ fdlh le; ls fdlh dk;Z@f;k dks dj jgk Fkk] ij vc ughaa dj
jgk gS] rks ,sls okD; Past Perfect Continuous Tense ds okD; dgykrs
gSaA
bl dky esa Hkh gesa bl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk gksrk gS fd
okD; ds
var esa tc gesa le; crkuk gksrk gS dh fdruh nsj ls oks
f;k gks jgh gS rc fufpr le; ds fy;s since yxkrs gSa vkSj
vfufpr le; ds fy, for dk ;ksx djrs gSaA lqcg] kke] nksigj
vkSj jkr dks Hkh fufpr le; ekuk tkrk gSA
TkSls%
1- fufpr le;%
lqcg ls
dy jkr ls
lu 2005 ls
,d cts ls

&
&
&
&

since morning
since last night
since 2005
since 1 oclock

2- vfufpr le;%
yxHkx nks ?kaVs ls
pkj fnu ls
rhu lky ls
dkQh nsj ls

&
&
&
&

for two hours


for four daysr
For three years
for a long time/for long

mnkgj.k:
1- eSa [ksr esa gy pyk jgk FkkA
I had been ploughaing the field since morning.
2- oks yxHkx nks ?kaVs ls rqEgkjk bartkj dj jgh FkhA
He had been waiting for you for two hours.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative

: Subject+had+been+V1+ing+object.
: Subject+had+not+been+V1+ing +object.
: Had+subject+been+V1+ing+object?

Negative
Interrogative

: Had+subject+not+been+V1+ing+object?

1-

23-

456-

eSa dkQh nsj ls rqEgkjs gh ckjs esa lksp jgk FkkA


I had been thinking of you for long.
oks nks fnuksa ls d{kk esa ughaa vk jgh FkhA
She had not been coming to attend the class
for two days.
D;k rqe lqcg ls ogh dke dj jgs Fks\
Had you been doing the same work since
morning?
gkWa] HkkbZ cgqr cM+k dke FkkA
Yes, bro, it was a huge task.
oks lqcg ls esjk fnekx [kk jgh FkhA
She had been boring me since morning.
rqe lqcg ls dj D;k jgs Fks \
What had you been doing since morning?
dy jkr Hkj dke fd;k rks eSa lqcg ls lks jgk FkkA
I worked the whole night yesterday, so I had
been sleeping.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

iw.kZ fujUrj Hkfo";dky

tc dksbZ drkZ bl ckr dk vuqeku yxkrk gS fd oks Hkfo";


esa fdlh dke dks fdlh le; ls dj jgk gksxk rks ,sls okD;
Future Perfect Continuous Tense ds okD; dgykrs gSaA
mnkgj.k:
1- eSa dy bl le; lqcg ls ikuh ds MCcs ihuh ls Hkj
jgh gksWaxhA
h
I shall have been filling the cans of water with

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

water since morning.


oks dy bl iqLrd dks pkj lky ls fy[k jgh gksxhA
eryc mls dy bl iqLrd dks fy[krs gq, pkj lky gks tk,saxsA

She will have been writing this book for four years.

Formulae (Active voice)


Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative

:
:
:

Subject+will/shall+have+been+V1+ing+object.
Subject+will/shall+not+have+been+V1+ing+object.
Will/shall+subject+have+been+V1+ing+object?

Negative
Interrogative

Will/shall+subject+not+have+been+ V1+ing+object?

1-

2-

34-

5-

6-

dy jke rhu ?kaVs ls cl esa lQj dj jgk gksxkA


Ram will have been trevelling in the bus for
three hours.
1 tuojh oks nks eghuksas ls vaxzsth lh[k jgk gksxkA
eryc 1 tucjh dks mls vaxzsth lh[krs gq, nks eghus gks tk,saxsA
She will have been learning English for two
months on 1st of January.
dy oks lqcg ls dke ughaa dj jgh gksxhA
She wont have been working since morning.
D;k rqe dy lqcg ls dke dj jgs gksxs\
Will you have been working since morning?
gkWaA@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, Ill have been./ No, I wont have been.
oks lqcg ls D;k dj jgk gksxk\
What will he have been doing since morning?
oks lqcg ls unh esa rSj jgk gksxkA
He will have been swimming in the river since
morning.
esjh ekWa dy bl LosVj dks ,d grs ls cqu jgh gksxhA
My mother will have been knitting/weaving this
sweater for a week.

Rajs Notes of English Language

7-

os lqcg ls dgkWa [ksy jgs gksaxs\


Where will they have been playing since
morning?
os lqcg ls eSnku esa [ksy jgs gksaxsA
They will have been playing in the ground
since morning.
8- ekyh lqcg ls ikS/kks dks ikuh ns jgk gksxkkA
The gardener will have been watering the plants
since morning.
9- :ik pkj ?kaVs ls VsLV dh rS;kjh dj jgh gksxhA
Rupa will have been preparing for test for four
hours.
10- dy bl dke dks nks grksa ls dkSu dj jgk gksxk \
Who will have been doing this work for two
weeks?
fk[kk bl dke dks nks grksa ls dj jgh gksxhA
Shikha will have been doing this work for two
weeks.

Subject+is/am/are+to+V1+obj.
tc drkZ ij fdlh f;k dks djus dk dksbZ noko ughaa gksrk
gS vkSj oks ;s bPNk O;Dr djrk gS fd mls ;k fdlh vU; drkZ dks
dksbZ f;k ;k dk;Z djuk gS rc ,sls okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy,
Is/am/are+to dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls%&
1- eq>s tkuk gSA
I am to go.
2- rqEgsa ogkWa kkar cSBuk gSA
You are to sit there quiet.
3- eq>s rqEgkjh dksbZ ckr ughaa lquuhA
I am not to listen to you.
4- vc gesa D;k djuk gS \
What are we to do now?

Rajs Notes of English Language

5-

vc gesa dgkWa tkuk gS \


Where are we to go now?
6- mls dy ughaa vkuk gS \
She is not to come tomorrow.
7- rqEgsa esjh enn djuh gSA
You are to help me?
8- rqEgsa ogkWa D;ksa tkuk gS\
Why are you to go there?
9- mUgs vkt nsj ls vkuk gSA
They are to come late today.
10- rqEgs ,slk dqN ughaa djuk gSA
You are not to do any such thing.

Subject+was/were+to+V1+object.
tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks dguk gksrk gS rc ge
S+was/were+to dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls%&1- eq>s tkuk Fkk rks eSa x;kA
I was to go, so I went.
2- mls xqLlk gksuk Fkk rks oks gks xbZA
She was to get angry, so she got angry.
3- mls dguk Fkk rks mlus dg fn;kA
He was to say, so he said.
4- vids yM+ds dks Qsy gksuk Fkk rks oks Qsy gks x;kA
Your son was to fail, so he failed.
5- ;s gksuk Fkk rks gks x;kA
It was to happen, so it happened.

Subject+will/shall+be+to+V1+obj.
tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks dguk gksrk gS rc ge
S+will/shall+to dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
drkZ ij dksbZ noko ughaa gksrk gSA
tSls%&
1- oks vkus dks gksxhA
She will be to come.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2345-

rqEgs ;s nksckjk ughaa djuk gksxkA


You will not be to do it again.
eq>s vc tkuk gksxkAdrkZ ij dksbZ noko ughaa gSA
I will be to go now.
mUgs vPNk [ksyuk gksxkAdrkZ ij dksbZ noko ughaa gSA
They will be to play well.
mls Vh-oh- ns[kuh gksxhA
She will be to watch T.V.

S+is/ am/ are+ about+ about to+V1 +obj.


tc ge ;s dguk pkgrs gSa fd ge ;k dksbZ vU; drkZ fdlh
dke dks djus okyk gS rks ge S+is/am/are+about to +V1+obj.
dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls% 1- eSa vkt cukjl tkus okyk gwWaA
I am about to go to Banaras today.
2- rqe ,slk ughaa djus okys gksA
You are not about to do this./
You are not going to do this.
3- os dy vkus okys gSaA
They are about to come tomorrow./
They are going to come tomorrow.
4- D;k rqe ;s ,d ckj fQj ls djus okys gks \
Are you about to do this/it again?/
Are you going to do this/it again.
gkWaA
Yes, I am.
5- vc rqe D;k djus okys gks\
What are you about to do now?/
What are you going to do now?
6- oks bl jfookj dks dgkWa tkus okyh gS\
Where is she about to go this Sunday?
7- oks vkus gh okyk gSA
He is just about to come.

Rajs Notes of English Language

9-

1011121314-

15-

fiNyh ckj geus muds lkFk /kksdk fd;k Fkk blh fy;s
oks vkt gekjs lkFk ughaa [ksyus okys gSaA
We cheated them last time, so (that is why) they
are not about to play with us.
nsosanz bl nkSM+ esa Hkkx ughaa ysus okyk gSA
Devendra is not about to participate (run) in
this race.
rqe dSls tkus okys gks \
How are you about to go?
oks rqEkls dHkh ekQh ughaa ekxus okykA
He is never about to apologize to you.
fukk gesakk ds fy, ;gkWa ls tkus okyh gSA
Nisha is about to go from here for ever.
geus mls bruk ijskku fd;k gS fd oks gekjh enn
ughaa djus okykA
We have disturbed/bothered him in such a
manner that he is not about to help us.
vkius mls bl rjg MkaV fn;k gS fd oks nksckjk Dykl
esa ughaa vkus okyhA
You have scolded her/him in such a manner that
she/he is not about to come to attend the class
again.

Subject+was/were+about+to+V1+obj.
tc ge ;s dguk pkgrs gSa fd ge ;k dksbZ vU; drkZ fdlh
dke dks djus ckyk Fkk rks ge S+was/were+about to +V1+
obj.dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls% 1- eSa vkus gh okyk FkkA
I was just about to come.
2- eq>s irk gS fd rqe mldh enn ughaa djus okys FksA
I know that you were not about to help him/her.
3- lwjt vLr gksus okyk FkkA
The sun was about to set down.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

D;k rqe mls lp crkus okys Fks \


Were you about to tell her the truth.
gkWaA Yes, I was.
5- oks dke [kRe djds vkus okyh FkhA
She was about to come after she finished her
work/having finished her work.
6- oks xqfM;k bruh [kwclwjr Fkh eSa fd mls viuh csVh
ds fy, [kjhnu okyk FkkA
That doll was so pretty that I was about to buy
it for my daughater.
7- os vPNk [ksy jgs Fks vkSj eSp thrus gh okys FksA
They were playing well and about to win the
match.
8- rqe ml oDr D;k djus okys Fks \
What were you about to do (at) that time?
9- oks dgkWa ls okil vkus okyh FkhA
From where was she about to come back.
10- eSa mls iSls nsus gh okyk Fkk ij oks ukjkt gksdj
pyh xbZA
I was just about to give her money, but she got
angry and went away.

S+will/shall+be+about+to+V1+obj.
tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks dguk gksrk gS rc ge
S+will/shall+about+to+V1+obj. dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls%&
1- dgha er tkb,A oks vkus ghs okys gksaxsA
Please, dont go anywhere. He will just be about
to come.
2- dy eSa bl le; jk;lsu igqWapus okyk gksWaxkA
I will be about to reach Raisen this time
tomorrow.
3- tYnh djks! cl vkus okyh gksxhA
Make haste! The bus will be about to come.

Rajs Notes of English Language

45-

lkjk dPkjk ckgj Qsad nksA iik vkus gh okys gksaxsA


Throw all the rubbish out. Father will just be
about to come.
oks nqdku can djus okyk gksxkA
He will be about to close the shop.

Used to
Used to dk ;ksx Hkwrdky dh vknrksa dks crkus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA
tSls% 1- eSa Jh lkabZ fpYMal Ldwy esa i<k;k djrk FkkA
I used to teach in Shri Sai Childrens school.
2- oks igys ;gkWa vk;k djrh FkhAA
She used to come here before.
3- ge lqcg lSj ij tk;k djrs FksA
We used to go for a walk in the morning.
4- oks cgqr >wB cksyk djrh FkhA
She used to tell lies far too much.
5- oks nwljksa dk cgqr etkd mM+k;k djrh Fkh] ij tc
dksbZ mldk etkd mM+rk rks oks jksus yxrh FkhA
She used to make fun of others, but if one made
fun of her, she used to cry.
buds udkjkRed vkSj u okpd nks rjhds ls cuk, tk ldrs
gSa%&
tSls% 1- eSa ;gkaW ughaa vk;k djrk FkkA
I used not to come here./I didnt use to come
here.
3- D;k vki ;gkWa vk;k djrs Fks\
Used you to come here./Did you use to come
here?

is/am/ are + used to+V1+ing


orZeku dh vknrksa dks crkus ds fy, ge Simple Persent
Tense esa Hkh cksy ldrs gSa ysfdu fQj Hkh vknr ij t+ksj nsus

Rajs Notes of English Language

ds fy, is/am/ are + used to+V1+ing dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA


tSls% 1- eSa jkst lqcg ,d Xykl nw/k ihrk gwaWA
I am used to drinking a glass of milk daily.
2- oks jkst eq>ls >xM+us vk tkrh gSA
She is used to coming to fight/quarrel me daily
3- esjs ikik th dks eq> ij fpYykus dh
vknr gSA
My father is used to shouting at me.
5- mls cgqr rst xkM+h pykus dh vknr gSA
He is used to riding very fast.
6- D;k vkidks lqcg tYnh mBus dh vknr gS\
Are you used to getting up early in the morning?

orZeku dky esa ge Used to dk ;ksx dqN bl rjg


ls Hkh dj ldrs gSaA
tSls% 123-

eq>s bl isu dh vknr gSA


I am used to this pen.
mls bl ?kj dh vknr gSA
He is used to this house.
jfo dks va/ksjs dh vknr gSA
Ravi is use to darkness.

ysfdu tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa Future ds fy;s dguk


gksrk gS] rc gesa be used to ;k get used to dk ;ksx djuk
gksxk&
tSls%
1- rqEgs tYn gh bu lc dh vknr gks tk,xhA
You will get used to all this very/so soon.
2- oks mlds lkFk jgsxk rks mls Hkh nk: ihus dh vknr
gks tk,xhA
If he is in his company, he will also get used to
drinking.
3- tYn gh rqEgs bl kksj dh vknr gks tk,xhA
You will get used to this noise so/very soon.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Modal Auxiliaries (Verbs)


can, could, may, might, should/ oughat to, must, would, need,
used to, dare,

can-lduk (can+not=cant/cannot)
can dk ;ksx fdlh O;fDr ;k oLrq dh Nerk dks crkus ;k
iwWaNus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
tSls% 1- eSa ;s dke dj ldrk gwWaA
I can do this work.
2- rqe mldh enn dj ldrs gksA
You can help him.
3- D;k rqe esjh enn dj ldrs gks\
Can you help me?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, I can/ No, I cant.
4- eSa viuk xzgdk;Z eEeh ds okil vkus ls
igys [kRe dj ldrk gwWaA
I can finish my homework before mother
comes back.
5- D;k rqe bruk otu mBk ldrs gSa\
Can you lift this much weight?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, I can/ No, I cant.
6- oks rqEgkjs fy, dqN Hkh dj ldrh gSA
She can do anything for you.
7- D;k vki vaxzsth esa ckr dj ldrh gSa\
Can you speak/talk in English?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, I can/ No, I cant.
8- eSa vkids fy, D;k dj ldrk gwWa\
What can I do for you?
9- D;k oks bl dke dks ,d fnu esa dj ldrk gS \
Can he do this work in a day?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he can/ No, he cant.

Rajs Notes of English Language

10- rqe ;s dSls dj ldrs gks\


How can you do this?
eSa ;s vius nsLrksa dh enn ls dj
ldrk gwWaA
I can do this with the help of my friends.
11- ,d O;fDr ,d oDr esa nks dke dSls
dj ldrk gS\
How can a person do two things at a time?
13- brus kksj esa dksbZ dsls lks ldrk gS\
How can one sleep in such a noise?
14- rqe ,slk dSls dg ldrs gks\
How can you say so/like this?
15- bruh csTtrh dksbZ dSls cnkZLr dj ldrk gS\
Who can bear such an insult?
16- D;k rw I;kuks ctk ldrk gS\
Can thou play piano?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, I can/ No, I cant.
20- ge nksckjk dgkWa fey ldrs gSa\
Where can we meet again?
ge nksckjk rqe tgkWa pkgks ogkWa fey
ldrs gSaA
We can meet again where ever you want.
21- rqe ejkBh cksy ldrs gks] gS uk\
uk\
You can speak Marathi, cant you?
gkWa] ughaaA
Yes, I can./ No I cant.
22- bl lanwd esa cgqr lkjk lkeku vk ldrk gSA
This chest can have so many things.

Couldnt- (could+not=couldnt)
could dk ;ksx dbZ vFkZ esa fd;k tkrk gSA
tSls 1- could (dqM) dk ;ksx Hkwrdky esa fdlh dh Nerk D;k
Fkh O;Dr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh

Rajs Notes of English Language

Hkwrdky ds le; dks crkuk t:jh gksrk gSA


tSls%&
1- oks igys fcuk pesa ds ns[k ikrh FkhA
She could see without glasses/spectacles
before.
2- oks igys cgqr rst py ikrk FkkA
He could walk very fast before.
3- rqe esjk isu ughaa <w< ikbZ] gS uk\
You couldnt find my pen, could you?
No I couldnt./ Yes, I could. Here it is.
4- vf[kysk le; ij igwWap ldk] gS uk\
Akhilesh could reach in time, couldnt he?
Yes,he could./ No, he couldnt.
5- vt eSa ,d :i; Hkh ughaa dek ldkA
I couldnt earn even a single rupee today.
2- could (dqM) dk ;ksx ,slh laHkkoukvksa dks O;Dr djus ds
fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gS ftlds gksus ;k uk gksus
dh LkaHkkouk vf/kd gksrh gSA
tSls%&
1- Hkkjr ;s eSp thr ldrk gSA
India could win this match.
2- vkt ckfjk gks ldrh gSA
It could rain today.
3- dqN Hkh gks ldrk gSA
Anything could happen.
4- oks ?kj ij gks ldrk gSA
He could be at home.
5- oks kk;r vkt uk vk,sA
He could not come today.
6- oks kk;n ;gkWa vc dHkh ughaa vk,xkA
He could never come here now.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3- could (dqM) dk ;ksx cM+h fouezrk ls fdlh ls dqN djus


ds fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gS ftlesa gesa Please dh t:jr
ughaa gksrhA
tSls%
1- D;k vki FkksM+ f[kldsaxs\
Could you move a little?
gkWa] fcydqy D;ksa ughaaA
Of course, why not.
2- D;k vki eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh nsaxs\
Could you give me a glass of water.\
gkWa] [kqkh lsA
Of course, with pleasure.
3- D;k vki esjs ,d u dk tckc nsaxs\
Could you answer my one question?
4- D;k vki FkksM+k ykbV pkyw dj nsaxh\
h\
Could you switch on the light?
gkWa] fcydqy D;ksa ughaaA
Of course, why not.
5- D;k vki eq>s viuk FkksM+k lk le; nasxs\
Could you spare a few moments for me?
EkkQ djuk eSa vHkh FkksM+k O;Lr gwWaA kke dks vk tkvksA
I am sorry, I am a little busy now. Come in the
evening.
6- D;k vki FkksM+k /khjs cksyus dk d"V djsaxs\
Could you speak a little slowly?
Bhd gSA
Ok.

4- could (dqM) dk ;ksx xqLls esa /khesa ls dqN dgus ds fy, Hkh
fd;k tkrk gS tks vpkud ls gh dguk gksrk gS&
tSls%

123-

vki kkar jgks uk!


You could be quiet.
vki FkksM+k kkar jgus dh dksfkk rks dj ghs ldrs gks!
You could try to be a little quiet.
FkksM+k [kqk fn[kus dk ;kl rks dj gh ldrs gks!
You could try to look a little happier.

Rajs Notes of English Language

May
May(es) dk ;ksx Hkh dbZ dkj ls fd;k tkrk gSA
1- May dk ;ksx ,slh laHkkoukvksa dks O;Dr djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gS tks gks Hkh ldrh gS ;k ughaa Hkh gks ldrh vkSj
ughaa Hkh gks Hkh ldrh gS ;k gks Hkh ldrh gSA 50&50A
tSls%
1- vkt ikuh fxj ldrk gSA
It may rain today.
eryc vkt ekSle ,slk gS fd ikuh fxj Hkh ldrk
gS vkSj ughaa Hkh
2- oks kk;n vkt ughaa vk,xhA
She may not come today.
ughaa Hkh vk ldrh gS vkSj vk Hkh ldrh gSA
3- dqN Hkh gks ldrk gSA
Anything may happen.
4- oks ?kj ij gks ldrh gSA
She may be at home.
5- gesa nsj gks ldrh gSA
We may be late.
6- kk;n oks vkt ughaa vk,xkA
He may not come today.
7- gks D;k ldrk gS\@D;k gks ldrk gS\
What may it be?
8- mldh D;k djus dh laHkkouk gS\
What may he do?
7- uhye dh dgkWa tkus dh laHkkouk gS\
Where may Neelam go?
2- May dk ;ksx fdlh f;k@dke dks djus dh vuqerh gS
;k ughaa gS O;Dr djus ds fy;k fd;k tkrk gS] drkZ
ml f;k@dke dks djsa ;k uk djsa ;s mldh ethZ&
tSls% 1- vki esjh ckWVy ls ikuh ih ldrs gSaA
You may drink water from my bottle.

Rajs Notes of English Language

234-

5-

NksVs cPps bl dejs esa ughaa vk ldrsA


Small kids/children may not come into/in
this room.
oks gekjs lkFk vk ldrh gSA
She may come with us.
;fn rqe pkgks rks rqe esjk eksckby nks fnuksa ds fy,
ys ldr gksA
You may take my mobile for two days if you
want.
rEgs ,slk djus dh bTkktr ughaa gSA
You may not do this/so.

3- May dk ;ksx vuqerh ekaxus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gS&


tSls% 12-

3456-

D;k eSa vanj vk ldrk gwWa\


May I come in?
Yes, you may./ No, you cant.
D;k eSa vkids Qksu ls ,d dkWy dj
ldrk gwWa\
May I make a phone call with your phone?
Of course, why not.
D;k ge ckgj [ksyus tk ldrs gSa\
May we go out to play?
No, you cant. Its raining outside.
D;k oks gekjs lkFk vk ldrh gS\
May she come with us?
Yes, she may.
D;k eSa vius lkFk vius nksLr dks Hkh yk ldrk gwWa\
May I bring my friend along with me?
Yes, you may./No, you cant.
lj] D;k eSa jkst bl d{kk esa vk
ldrh gwWa\
Sir, May I come to attend this class daily?
Of course, with pleasure.

Rajs Notes of English Language

7-

D;k eSa ;gkaW cSB ldrk gwWa\


May I sit here?
8- D;k eSa ;s MCck [kksy ldrk gwWa\
May I open this box?
9- D;k eSa fnusk ls ckr dj ldrk gwWa\
May I speak/talk to Dinesh?
10- D;k eq>s ,d Xykkl ikuh fey ldrk gS\
May I have a glass of water?
12- D;k eSa vidks FkksM+h nsj ds fy, ijskku dj ldrk gWaw\
May I disturb/bother you for a little while?
13- eEeh] D;k ge dqN nsj Vh-oh- ns[k ldrs gSa\
Mom, may we watch T.V. for a while?

4- May dk ;ksxs fdlh dks nqvk ;k cn~nqvk nsus ds fy, Hkh


fd;k tkrk gS vkSj okD; vds var esa foLe;kfn cks/kd
fpUg ! ( exclamatory sign) yxk;k tkrk gS&
tSls%
12345-

Hkxoku vkidh vk;q yach djs!


May you live long!
Hkxoku djs rqe bl lky ikl gks tkvks!
May you pass this year!
Hkxoku djs oks tYnh Bhd gks tk,!
May he get well soon!
Hkxoku djs oks eq ds cy fxj tk,!
May he fall on mouth!
Hkxoku djs ikih tYnh ej tk,sa!
May siners die soon!

May with so that


tc gesa ,ls okD;ksa dks dguk gksrk gS&
tSls%

12-

eSa lqcg tYnh mBrk gwWa rkdh eSa lqcg&lqCkg rkth gok
ysus tk ldwA
oks ;gkWa vkrh gS rkdh oks kkarh ls i< ldsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

1-

234-

567-

so that ds ckn tks okD; cksyrs gSa mlesa ge may


dk ;ksx djrs gSaA oSls can dk ;ksx djds Hkh okD; dks
cksy ldrs gSa ijarq may , can dh vis{kk vf/kd kq) ekuk
tkrk gSA
eSa lqcg tYnh mBrk gwWa rkdh eSa lqcg&lqCkg rkth gok
ysus tk ldqA
I get up early in the morning so that I may go to
have some fresh air.
oks ;gkWa vkrh gS rkdh oks kkafr ls i< ldsA
She comes here so that she may study here
peacefully.
oks dM+h esgur ls i<rk gS rkdh Fke Js.kh esa ikl
gks ldsA
He studies hard so that he may pass in 1st rank.
oks dksfkk djrk jgrk gS rkdh oks ,d fnu lQy gks
ldsA
He keeps on trying so that he may succeed one
day.
oks jkst vH;kl djrs gSa rkdh vPNk [ksy ldsaA
They prectice daily so that they may play well.
D;k rqe ;gkWa bl fy, vkrs gks fd ;s lc dj ldks \
Do you come here so that you can/may do all
this?
tYnh pyrs gSa rkdh ge le; ls igys igqaWp ldsa A
Lets go soon so that we may reach before time.

Might (ekbV)
Might dk ;ksx de laHkkouk dks O;Dr djus ds fy;k fd;k
tkrk gSA
tSls% 1- vkt oks vk ldrh gSA
She might come today.
2- oks kk;n vkt ughaa vk,xkA
He might not come today.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3-

oks kk;n bl ckjs esa gesa uk crk,A


She might not tell us about this.
4- ;s [kcj kk;n lp gksA
This news might be true.
5- kk;n esa bls dy kke rd iwjk dj ywaWxkA
k
I may complete it by tomorow evening.
Might dk ;ksx dHkh&dHkh vkKk ekaxus ds fy, Hkh dj fy;k
tkrk gS ij ;ksx esa may gh gSA
tSls% 1- D;k eSa njcktk [kksy ldrk gwWa\
Might I open the door?
2- D;k eSa vkidk eksckby ns[k ldrk gwWa\
Might I have a look at your mobile?

Might with so that


Hkwrdky esa dqN djus ds fy, dqN fd;k&
tSls%
1- mlus iwjh dksfkk dh rkdh oks ml dfBu dk;Z
dks dj ldsA
He tried his best so that he might do that task.
2- oks lqcg ;gkWa vkbZ Fkh rkdh oks rqels fey ldsA
She came here in the morning so that she might
meet you.
3- eSus lkjh phtsa O;ofLFk <ax ls teka nh Fkh rkdh
mls <aw<us esa rdyhQ uk gksA
I had arranged everything in proper order so
that she might not have any difficulty in finding
them.
4- eSus rqEgsa crk;k rkdh rqe tku ldksA
I told you so that you might know.
5- eSus lkjs cVu can dj fn;s rkdh fctyh dh cjcknh
uk gksA
I switched buttons off so that there might not be
any wastage of electricity.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Should(kqM)- pkfg,
Should- tc ge fdlh dks lykg nsrs gSa ;k fdlh ls lykg
ysrs gSa fd fdlh dks dksbZ dke djkuk pfg, ;k ughaa djuk pkfg,]
vkSj ftls lykg nh tk, oks mls ekus ;k uk ekus] bl ckr ls dsoy
lykg ysus okys dks gh QdZ iM+rk gS rc ge Should- dk ;ksx djrs
gSa &
tSls% 1- rqEgsa jkst Ldwy tkuk pkfg,A
You should go to school regularly/daily.
2- gesa lp dk lkFk nsuk pkfg,A
We should help the truth.
3- mUgsa >wB ughas cksyuk pkfg,A
They should not lie/ tell lies.
4- D;k gesa vius fe=ksa dks mudh eqlhcr esa mUgs NksM+
nsuk pkfg,\
Should we leave our friends in their crises/
difficult conditions.
ughaa] fcydqy ughaaA
No, we mustnt.
5- gesa [ksyus dgkaW pyuk pkfg,\
pkfg,\
Where should we go to play?
gesa ckgj fdlh eSnku esa [ksyus pyuk pkfg,A
We should go out to a groud to play in.
6- ;s fdldk drZO; gS vkSj fdls djuk
pkfg,\
pkfg,\
Whose duty is this/it and who should do?
7- eq>s ogkWa dSls tkuk pkfg,] cl ls ;k Vsu ls\
How should I go there by bus or by train?
8- fdls le; ij vkuk pkfg,\
Who should come in time?
ge lc dks le; ij vkuk pkfg,A
All of us should come in time.
9- ukSdjh ds fy, eq>s dkgkWa vkosnu nsuk pkfg,\
Where should I apply for a job?

Rajs Notes of English Language

rqEgs ukSdjh ds fy, fdlh dEiuh esa vkosnu djuk


pkfg,A
You should apply to a company for a job.
10- D;k eSa vkidh enn d:\
Should I help you?
ughaa] t:jr ughaa gSA
No, you neednt. ;s ckr vkidks vkxs le> vk tk,xhA
11- D;k eSa mls bl ckjs es tkudkjh ns nwWa\
Should I inform her about this?
gkWa] rqEgs ns nsuh pkfg,A
Yes, you should..

Should with lest/before

tc gesa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks dguk gksxk rc ge ,sls


dgsaxs&
tSls% 1- tYnh tkvks dgha ,slk uk gks fd cl NwV tk,A
Go fast lest/before the train should leave.
2- bl lw= dks dgha fy[k yks dgha ,slk uk gks fd rqe
Hkwy tkvksA
Write this formula somewhere lest you should
forget it.
3- lEHky dj pyks dgha ,slk uk gks fd rqe fxj tkvksA
Walk cautiously lest you should fall.
4- esjh utjksa ls nwj gks tkvks dgha ,slk uk gks fd eSa
rqEgs FkIiM+ ekj nwaWA
Get out off my sight (get lost) lest/before I should
slap you.
5- oks diM+ tks lw[k x, gSa mUgs vanj j[k yks dgha ckfjk
uk kq: gks tk,A
Keep the clothes in which have dried lest/before
it should start raining.
6- cqjh vknrksa ls lko/kku jgks dgha ,slk uk gks fd rqEgsa Hkh oks
vknrs yx tk,A
Beware of bad habits lest/before you too should fall in them.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Would (oqM~)
Would dksbZ f;k@dke gksxk gh ;k ughaa gh gksxk bl vFkZ
dks O;Dr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS&
tSls% 1- eSa dy vkWaxk ghA
I would come tomorrow.
2- ge le; ij igqWap gh tk,saxsA
We would reach in time.
3- vc Hkkjr eSap thr gh tk,xkA
India would win/prevail the match now.
4- eSa dy vkWaxk gh ughaaA
I would not come tomorrow.
5- eSa rqEgs crkWaxk gh ughaaA
I would not tell you.
6- vc vki D;k djsaxs \
What would you do now?
7- oks vk,saxh gh ughaaA
She would not come.
Would dk ;ksx fdlh ls vknj ds lkFk dqN djus ds fy,
Hkh fd;k tkrk gS tSls% oks D;k djsaxs\] vki dgkWa tk,saxs\]
,sls okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy, Hkh Would dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls%
1- D;k vki eq>s 2 ?kaVksa ds fy;s viuh cbd nsaxs \
Would you give me your bike for two hours?
2- D;k eSa vkils ,d O;fDrxr u iWwaN ldrk gwaW \
Would I ask you a personal question?
3- D;k vki f[kMfd;kWa can dj nsaxh \
Would you close the windows?
4- D;k vki kkar cSBsaxh\
Would you sit quiet?
5- Qwycrh th dgkWa tk,saxh\
Where would Foolbatiji go?
6- D;k vki ;s cSx bl Vscy ls gVk ysaxs\
Would get this bag off this table, please?

Rajs Notes of English Language

Woud with rather

tc gesa bl dkj ds OkkD;ksa dks cksyuk gksrk gS rc


ge would ds lkFk rather dk ;ksx djrs gSa&
tSls% 1- eSa ej tkWaxk ij vc rqEgkjs ;gkWa dHkh
ughaa vkWaxkA
I would rather die than come to you.
2- eSa R;kxi=
R;kxi= ns nwaxk ij bruh ckr ughaa lquwaxkA
I would rather resign than hear this much.
3- oks dgha Hkh pyh tk,xh ij ;gkWa ughaa vk,xhA
She will go rather anywhere than come here.
4- jkdsk Hkwdk ej tk,xk ij pksjh dHkh ughaa djsxkA
Rakesh would rather starve than steal.
5- eSa ej tkWaxh ij ml yM+ds ls kknh ughaa
d:WaxhA
I would rather die than marry that boy.

Must(eLV)-pkfg, gh
tc dksbZ f;k@dke djuk ;k uk djuk vR;kf/kd vfuok;Z
gks] fd ;fn uk fd;k tk, ;k fd;k tk, rks uk dsoy drkZ dks
cYdh nwljksa dks Hkh QdZ iM+rk gS] rc ge must dk ;ksx djds
,sls okD;ksa dks cukrs gSaA
tSls%
1- vkidks xkM+h /kheh xrh ls pykuh gSA
You must drive slowly.
2- vidks ;s djuk gh ughaa gSA
You must do this.
3- gesa le; ij gh igqWapuk gSA
We must reach in time.
4- D;k eq>s dy vkuk gh gS\
Must I come tomorrow?
gkWa]@ugha
@ughaa\
Yes, you must./ No, you neednt.?
5- gj ,d dks fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk pkfg,A
Everyone must follow the rules.

Rajs Notes of English Language

6-

78-

vkidks Ldwy jkst i<+kus tkuk pkfg,


D;ksafd ;s cPpks ds Hkfo"; dh ckr gSA
You must go to school to teach there daily/regu
larly, because it is a matter of childrens future.
vkidks
vkidks viuk vijk/k Lohdkj djuk gh pkfg,A
You must confess your guilt.
D;k mls vkt vkuk gS\
Must he come today?
gkWa] @ugha
@ughaaA
Yes, he must./ No, he neednt.

have/has to
;fn drkZ ij fdlh f;k@;k dke dks djus djus dk dksbZ
noko gksrk gS] rc ,sls okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy, gesa have/has to
dk ;ksx djuk iM+rk gS&
tSls%
1- eq>s ogkWa jkst tkuk iM+rk gSA
I have to go there daily.
2- eq>s ogkWa jkst ugha tkuk iM+rkA
I dont have to go there daily.
3- gesa fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk iM+rk gSA
We have to follow the rules.
4- mUgsa lkjk dke vdsys gh djuk iM+rk gSA
They have to do all the works alone.
5- rqEgs cgqr lkjk dke djuk iM+rk gSA
You have to work a lot.
6- eEeh dks lqcg tYnh mBuk IkM+rk gSA
Mother has to get up early in the morning.
7- eq>s ;s lc ughaa djuk iM+rkA
I dont have to do all this.
8- D;k rqEgs ogkWa jkst tkuk iM+rk gS \
Do you have to go there daily/ everyday?

Rajs Notes of English Language

9101112131415-

uhye dks mldh enn djrk iM+rk gSA


Neelam has to help.
rqEgsa jkst D;k djuk iM+rk gS \
What do you have to do daily?
mls dgkWa tkuk iM+rk gS \
Where does he/she to have to go?
iwtk dks dgkWa ls cl cnyuh iM+rh gS\
From where does Pooja have to change the bus?
bruk lkjk dke fdls djuk iM+rk gS\
Who has to do this much work?
rqEgsa ;s dSls djuk iM+rk gS\
How do you have to do this?
mls ;s D;ksa djuk iM+rk gS\
Why does she have to do this?

Had to
;fn drkZ ij fdlh f;k@;k dke dks djus dk djus dk dksbZ
noko Fkk] rc ,sls okD;ksa cksyus ds fy, gesa had to dk ;ksx djuk
gS&
tSls%
1- eq>s ogkWa jkst tkuk iM+kA
I had to go there daily.
2- eq>s mldh enn ughaa djuh iM+hA
I didnt have to help her.
3- gesa VSDlh ughaa feyh vkSj gesa iSny vkuk iM+kA
We didnt get any texi and we had to come on
foot.
4- mUgsa lkjk dke vdsys gh djuk iM+kA
They had to do all the works alone.
5- eSa mls euk ughaa djuk pkgrk Fkk] ij eq>s euk djuk
iM+kA
I didnt want to refuse her, but I had to refuse.
6- mls ;s dke ,d ckj fQj djuk iM+kA
He had to do this work once again.

Rajs Notes of English Language

789101112131415-

:de.kh dks lcds lkeus ekQh ekaxuh iM+hA


Rukmani had to apologize before everyone.
D;k rqEgs ogkWa tkuk iM+k \
Did you have to go there?
rhk dks 10oh d{kk fQj ls i<uh iM+hA
Pratish had to read 10th class again.
rqEgsa jkst D;k djuk iM+k \
What did you have to do daily?
mls dgkWa tkuk iM+k\
Where did he/she to have to go?
jktuanuh dks ;s D;ksa djuk iM+k\
Why did Rajnandini have to do this?
fQj ;s dke fdls djuk iM+k\
Who had to do this then?
rqEgs ;s dSls djuk iM+k\
How did you have to do this?
mls ,lk D;ksa dguk iM+k\
Why did she have to say so/like this?

Will/Shall have to

;fn drkZ ij fdlh f;k@;k dke dks djus dk dksbZ noko


gksxk] rc ,sls okD;ksa cksyus ds fy, gesa will/shall have to dk
;ksx djuk IkM+sxk gS&
tSls%
1- eq>s ogkWa jkst tkuk iM+sxkA
I will have to go there daily.
2- eq>s mldh enn ughaa djuh iM+sxhA
I wont have to help her.
3- gesa VSDlh ughaa feyk jgh gS vkSj vc gesa iSny tkuk
iMs+xkA
We cant get any texi and now we will have to
go on foot.
4- mUgsa lkjk dke vdsys gh djuk iM+sxkA
They will have to do all the works alone.

Rajs Notes of English Language

5-

6-

789101112131415-

eSa mls euk ughaa djuk pkgrk ij eq>s euk djuk


iM+sxkA
I dont want to refuse her, but I will have to
refuse.
rqe tk rks jgs gks ij ;kn jgs fd rqEgsa dy okil Hkh
vkuk iM+sxkA
You are going, but remember that you will have
to come back tomorrow.
:de.kh dks lcds lkeus ekQh ekaxuh iM+sxhA
Rukmani will have to apologise in front of
everyone.
D;k rqEgs ogkWa tkuk iM+sxk\
k\
Will you have to go there?
rhk dks 10oh d{kk fQj ls i<+uh iM+sxhA
Pratish will have to read 10th class again.
rqEgsa jkst D;k djuk iM+sxk\
What will you have to do daily?
mls dgkWa tkuk iM+sxk\
k\
Where will he/she have to go?
jktuanuh dks ;s D;ksa djuk iM+sxk\
Why will Rajnandini have to do this?
fQj ;s dke fdls djuk iM+sxk \
Who will have to do this work then?
rqEgs ;s dSls djuk iM+sxk \
How will you have to do this?
mls ,lk D;ksa dguk iM+sxk\
Why will she have to say so/like this?

Need
tc fdlh f;k@dke dks djus dh t:jr gksrh gS ;k ughaa
gkrh gS rc need dk ;ksx djrs gSaA
tSls%&
1- rqEgs vius cky dVkus dh t:jr gSA
I need have a hair cut.

Rajs Notes of English Language

234-

678-

9-

rqEgsa eq>s le>kus dh t:jr ughaaA


You need not explain to me./
You dont need to explain (to) me.
D;k rqEgsa ogkWa tkuk t:jh gS\
Need you go there?
Yes, I do./ No, I dont.
rqEgs D;k tuuk t:jh gS\
What need you know?/
What do you need to know?
The time table.
rqEgkjh enn fdldks pkfg,\
Who needs your help?
eq>s rqEgkjh t:jr gSA
I need you.
rqEgsa fdrus iSlksa dh t:jr gS\
How much money need you?/
How much money do you need?
Ekq>s 10 gtkj :i; dh t:jr gSA
I need ten thousand rupees.
rqEgsa ogkaW fdl pht dh t:jr gksxh\
h\
What will you need there?
eq>s ogkWa lkjh phtksa dh t:jr gksxh
D;ksafd eSa dqN Hkh ughaa ysdj tk jgk gWawA
I will need everything there because I am taking
/carrying nothing.

Dare
1-

Dare: dk ;ksx orZeku dky esa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks ckyus ds


y;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1- eq>esa lp cksyus dk lkgl gSA
I dare to speak the truth.
2- rq>esa mlls ;s ckr dgus dk lkgl ugha gSA
You dont dare to tell him this/it.
3- mlesa bl dke dks djus dk lkgl gSA
He dares to do this work/task.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

3-

4- mlesa lp Lohdkj djus dk lkgl ughaA


She doesnt dare to accept the fact.
5- D;k vkiesa isM+ ls dwnus dk lkgl gS\
Do you dare to jump from the tree?
6- D;k mlesa ;s lp nqfu;k ds lkeus ykus dk lkgl gS\
Does he dare to bring this fact to the public?
Dare: dk ;ksx Hkwr dky esa bl dkj ds okD;ksa dks ckyus ds
y;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1- mlesa lkai dks ejus dh fgEer ugha FkhA
He dared not kill the snake.
2- eq>esa mls euk djus dh fgEer ugha FkhA
I dared not refuse her/him.
3- mlesa ;s lp lquus dh fgEer ugha FkhA
He dared not listen to/hear this fact.
Dare: dk ;ksx How(interrogative sentences) ds lkFk bl
dkj ds okD;ksa dks ckyus ds y;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1- rqEgkjh eq>s xkyh nsus dh fgEer dSls gqbZ\
How dare you abuse me?
2- vkidh nsj ls vkus ds fgEer dSls gqbZ\
How dare you come late?
3- mldh bruh fgEer\
How dare he?
4- mldh esjh vuqerh ds fcuk ;gkWa ls tkus dh fgEer dSls gqbZ\
How dare he go from here without my permission?

Special Rules
was/were to have, would have, should have, could have,
might have, must have

was/were to have+V3
tc gesa bl dkj ds okD; dguk gks&
1- eq>s 10 cts tkuk Fkk ij Vsu ds dkj.k eSa ysV gks x;kA
I was to have gone at 10 o clock but I got late

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

because of the train.


eSap 2 cts kq: gksuk Fkk ij ckfjk gksus ds dkj.k ysV
kq: gqvkA
The match was to have started at 2 oclock but it
started late because of rain.

would have+V3

tc drkZ ;s dguk pkgrk gS fd oks fdlh f;k@dke dks dj


ysrk ;k ughaa dj ysrk rc ,sls okD;ksa dks cksyus ds fy,
would have+V3 dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&
tSls% 1- eSa pyk tkrkA ij x;k ughaa
I would have gone.
2- rqe vk tkrsA ij vk, ughaa
You would have come.
3- eSa ;s dHkh ughaa djrkA ij fd;k
I would never have done this.
4- oks vc rd ?kj igWap tkrhA
She would have reached home by now.
6- jfo mls lp crk nsrkA
Ravi would have told her the truth.
;fn okD; esa dksbZ krZ gks rc bl dkj ls cus okD;ksa esa oks
okD; ftLkesa krZ gS oks Past perfect tense esa gh fy[kk@cksyk
tkrk gSA
tSls% 1- ;fn rqeus eq>s lqcg crk;k gksrk rks eSa rqEgkjk dke dj
nsrkA
If you had told me in the morning, I would have
done your work.
2- vxj eq>s irk gksrk rks eSa rqEgs crk nsrkA
If I had known, I would have told you.
I known, I would have told you.
3- ;fn oks ;gkWa vkbZ gksrh rk vPNk gksrkA
If she had come here, it would have been good.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4-

;fn mlus esjh enn ughaa dh gksrh rks eSa ;s dHkh ughaa
dj irkA
If she hadnt helped me, I would have never have
done this/it.
5- rqe D;k dj ysrs ;fn eSaus rqEgsa crk fn;k gksrk\
What would you have done if I had told you?
6- ;fn mlus viuh iwjh dksfkk dh gksrh rks oks ;s
dfBu dk;Z iwjk dj ysrhA
If she had tried her best, she would have
completed this task.
7- ;fn oks vkidks viuh xkM+h esa ughaa ykrk rks rqe le;
ij ughaa igqWap ikrhA
If he hadnt broughat you on his bike, you
wouldnt have
reached in time.
8- ;fn ckfjk ughaa gqbZ gksrh rks eSa t:j vkrkA
If it hadnt rained, I would definitely have come.
9- ;fn oks FkksM+k vkSj rst nkSM+rk rks oks cl idM+ ysrkA
If he had run a little faster, he would have caughat
the bus.
10- ;fn oks mls cpkus ds fy, ikuh esa ughaa dwnrk rks oks
ej tkrh D;ksafd mls rSjuk ughaa vkrkA
If he hadnt jumped into the water to save her,
she would have died, because she doesnt know
how to swim.
11- vc rd rks eSa ?kj igwWap tkrkA
I would have reached home by now.

Should have
should have tc gesa ;s crkuk gks fd fdlh drkZ dks
dksbZ dke ;k f;k djuh pkfg, Fkh ij mlus ughaa fd;k] ;k
ughaa djuk pkfg, Fkk ij fd;k rc ,sls okD;ksa ds fy, ge
should have +V3 dk ;ksx djrs gSa&

Rajs Notes of English Language

tSls% 12345678-

9-

101112-

13-

rqEgas vkuk pkfg, FkkA


ij rqe vk, ughaaA
You should have come.
gesa mudh enn ughaa djuh pkfg, FkhA
ij geus mudh enn dh
We should not have helped them.
D;k rqEgsa ,slk djuk pkfg, Fkk\
Should you have done so?
eq>s ;s dSls djuk pkfg, Fkk\
How should I have done this?
gesa iqLrdsa dgkWa ls [kjhnuh pkfg, Fkh\
Where should we have boughat/purchased
books from?
;s fdls djuk pkfg, Fkk \
Who should have done this?
gesa ml vkneh dk Hkjkslk ughaa djuk pkfg, FkkA
We shouldnt have relied on that man./
We shouldnt have trusted that man.
rqEgsa mldh ldy ns[kuh pkfg, FkhA oks cgqr
eklwe yx jgk FkkA
You should have seen his face. He was looking so
innocent.
mUgsa oks dke fn, x, le; ij [kRe dj ysuk pkfg,
FkkA
They should have finished that work in the given
time.
;s ckr lquus ls igys eq>s cgjk gks tkuk pkfg, FkkA
I should have been deaf before I had heard it.
rqEgsa ykbu esa [kM+s jguk pkfg, FkkA
You should have kept on standing in the queue.
;fn vkidks Nqh pkfg, Fkh rks vkidks vkosnu i= nsuk
pkfg, FkkA
If you had wanted leave, you should have given
an application.
rEgsa mlls ,slk ughaa dguk pkfg, FkkA
You should not have said so to him/her.

Rajs Notes of English Language

14- ;fn rqEgs Vh-oh- ughaa ns[kuh Fkh rks rqEgs Vh-oh- can dj
nsuh pkfg, FkhA
If you were not to watch the T.V. , you should
have switched it off.

Could have
could have tc gesa ;s crkuk gks fd dksbZ drkZ fdlh
dke ;k f;k dks dj ldrk Fkk ij mlus ughaa fd;k] ;k ughaa
dj ldrk Fkk ij dj ik;k] rc ,sls okD;ksa ds fy, ge could
have +V3 dk ;ksx djrs gSa&
tSls% 12-

3456-

7-

8-

eSa vk ldrk FkkA ij vk;k ughaaA


I could have come.
eSa mldh enn dj ldrk Fkk ij oks bruk /keaMh gS
fd eSaus mldh enn ughaa dhA
I could have helped him, but he is so proud that
I didnt help him.
;fn mlus dksfkk dh gksrh rks oks le; ij vk ldrh
FkhA
If she had tried, she could have come in time.
ge eSp thr ldrs FksA
We could have won the match.
ge eSp gkj tkrsA
We could have lost the match.
;fn mlus eq>ls igys dgk gksrk rks eSa mldh enn
dj ldrk FkkA
If she had told me earlier, I could have helped
her.
;fn rqe FkksM+h nsj igys vkrh rks rqe mlls fey ikrh
@ldrh FkhA
If you had come a little earlier, you could have
met her.
eSa D;k dj ldrk Fkk \
What could I have done?

Rajs Notes of English Language

9-

rqe ;s dSls dj ldrs Fks \


How could you have done that?
10- eSa vkils dgkWa fey ldrk Fkk \
Where could I have met you?
11- ;s dkSu dj ldrk Fkk \
Who could have done this?
12- ge eSap dSls thr ldrs Fks \ gekjs ikl rks ,d Hkh
vPNk xsanckt gh ughaa FksA
How could we have won the match? We didnt
have even a single good bowler.

Might have
Might have tc fdlh ij kd gks] rc ge might
have+V3 dk ;ksx djrs gSa&
tSls%
1- gks ldrk gS fd oks ;gkWa vk;k gksA
He might have come here.
2- gks ldrk gS fd vkius gh pkHkh dgha j[kh gks vkSj Hkwy
xbZA
You might have kept the keys somewhere else
and forgot.
3- gks ldrk gS fd mlus gh esjs iSls pqjk, gkasA
He might have stolen my money.
4- gks ldrk gS fd ml pksj us gh mldk [kwu fd;k gksA
That thief might have killed him.
5- esjk ilZ fdlus pqjk;k gksxk\
Who might have stolen my purse?

Must have
Must have tc dksbZ ckr ;dhu ls dguh gks] rc ge
must have+V3 dk ;ksx djrs gSa&
tSls%1- mlh us rqEgkjk ilZ pqjk;k gksxkA
He must have stolen your purse.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2345-

rqEgh us mls ijskku fd;k gksxkA


You must have teased her/him.
mlus ,slk fd;k gh ughaa gksxkA
He must not have done so.
oks Hkkx gh x;k gksxkA
He must have run away.
oks vius xkWao gh x;k gksxkA
He must have gone to his village.

Need have
Need have tc dksbZ f;k djus ;k uk djus dh
t:jr Fkh ysfdu fQj Hkh fd;k ;k ugha fd;k] rc ge
need have+V3 dk ;ksx djrs gSa&
tSls%
12345-

rqEgs ;s dke djus dh t:jr FkhA


You need have done this work.
rqEgs mls ;s crkus dh t:jr ugha FkhA
You need not have told this.
mls D;k djus dh t:jr Fkh\
What need he have done?
D;k rqEgs ,d u;k eksckby ysus dh t:jr Fkh\
Need you have taken a new mobile?
ml ;gkWa vkus dh t:jr ugha FkhA
She need not have come here.

Active and Passive Voice


Active rFkk Passive Voice esa varj%&
Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- ActiveVoice esa egRo drkZ


dks fn;k tkrk gSA
2- ActiveVoice esa dky ds
vk/kkj ij f;k ds :i

1- PassiveVoice esa egRo deZ


dks fn;k tkrk gSA
2- PassiveVoice esa geskk f;k
ds rhljs :i dk ;ksx fd;k

cnyrs gSaA

tkrk gSaA

vc ge Active vkSj Passive Voice dk foLrkj ls v/;;u


djsaxs%&

Passive Voice of Imperative Sentences/orders


Complement of the Sentence (C.O.S)
okD; dk oks Hkkx tks okD; dks iwjk djrk gSA

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Affirmative : V1+Object/C.O.S.
Negative : Dont + V1 +Object/C.O.S.
1- ;s djksA
Do it/this.
2- eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh nksA
Give me a glass of water.
3- mls QkaWlh
lh ij p<k nksA
Hang him.
4- MkWDVj dks cqykvksA
Call the doctor.
5- njoktk can dj nksA
Close the door.
6- eq>s ijskku er djksA
Dont disturb me.
7- mUgs ltk er nksA
Dont punish them.
8- ml Vscy dks ogkWa er j[kksA
Dont put that table there.
9- ;s i= er tykvksA
Dont burn this letter.
1010- tkucjksa dks er ekjksA
Dont kill animals.

Affirmative: Let+O+be+V3+C.O.S.
Negative: Let+O+not+be+V3+C.O.S.
1- ;s fd;k tk,A
Let it/this be done.
2- eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh fn;k tk,A
Let me be given a glass of water.
3- mls QkW
QkWalh ij p<k fn;k tk,A
Let him be hanged.
4- MkWDVj dks cqyk;k tk,A
Let the doctor be called.
5- njoktk can dj fn;k tk,A
Let the door be closed.
6- eq>s ijskku uk fd;k tk,A
Let me not be disturbed.
7- mUgs ltk uk nh tk,A
Let them not be punished.
8- ml Vscy dks ogkWa uk j[kk tk,A
Let that table not be put there.
9- ;s i= uk tyk;k tk,A
Let this letter not be burnt/burned.
1010- tkucjksa dks uk ekjk tk,A
Let animals not be killed.

ysfdu tc ge Request dks Passive Voice esa cnyrs gSa


rc mls cnyus dk rjhdk vyx gksrk gS Please yxkdj ugha
tSls%

Active Voice

Passive Voice

Affirmative: Please, V1+O/C.O.S.


Negative : Please,dont + V1 +Object/
C.O.S.

Affirmative: You are requested +to +


V1 +O/C.O.S.
Negative:
You are requested +not+
to + V1 +O/C.O.S.

1- ;s Qkby vkt iwjh dhft,A


1- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd ;s Qkby vkt
iwjh dhft,A
Please, complete this file today.
You are requested to complete
this file today.
2- ;s i= iksLV dj nhft,A
Please, post this letter.

2- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd ;s i= iksLV


dj nhft,A
You are requested to post this
letter.

3- njoktk [kksy nhft,A


Please, open the door.

3- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd njoktk [kksy


nhft,A
You are requested to open the
door.
4- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd dejk lkQ dj
nhft,A
You are requested to clean the
room.
5- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd kkar cSfB;sA
You are requested to sit quiet.

4- dejk lkQ dj nhft,A


Please, clean the room.
5- kkar cSfB;sA
Please, sit quiet.

6- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd kksj uk djsaA


You are requested not to make
noise.
7- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd mls ijskku uk
7- mls ijskku er dhft,A
djsaA
Please, dont disturb him.
You are requested not to
disturb him.
8- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd njoktk uk
8- njoktk er [kksfy;sA
[kksysaA
Please, dont open the door.
You are requested not to open
the door.
9-vkils vuqjks/k gS fd eq>s xyr uk
9- eq>s xyr er lef>;sA
le>saA
Please, dont misunderstand me.
You are requested not to
misunderstand me.
10- vkils vuqjks/k gS fd Vh-oh- pkyw uk
10- Vh-oh- pkyw er dhft,A
djsaA
Please, dont switch on the TV.
You are requested not to switch
on the TV.
6- kksj er dhft,A
Please, dont make noise.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Tense ds Passive voice cukrs le; gesa bl ckr dk [k;ky


j[kuk t:jh gS fd Objective Case tSls me, him, her, them etc. ls
okD; dh kq:vkr ugha gksrh gSA Active voice ls tc ge okD;ksa dks
Passive voice esa cnyrs gSa rc /;ku jgs fd objective casesubjective case esa cny tkrk gS& tSls% me dk I gks tkrk gS] him
dk he gks tkrk gS] her dk She gks tkrk gS, them dk they gks trk
gS etc.
Active voice esa drkZ lf; gksrk gS rFkk Passive voice esa drkZ
fuf"; gksrk gSA

Passive voice of Simple Present Tense


/ Present Indefinite Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+V1(s/es)+O/C.O.S.

O+is/am/are+V3+C.O.S.+by+Agent.

1- eSa i= fy[krk gwWaA


I write a letter.
2- yksx nw/k ls eD[ku cukrs gSasA
People make butter from
milk.
3-oks x`gdk;Z iwjk djrk gSA
He completes homework.
4-iqfyl pksj dks idM+rh gSA
The police catch the thief.
5-ge eSnku esa fdsV [ksyrs gSaA
We play cricket in the ground.

1-i= fy[kk tkrk gSA esjs }kjk


A letter is written. (by me)
2-eD[ku nw/k ls cuk;k tkrk gSA
Butter is made from milk.
3-x`gdk;Z fd;k tkrk gSAmlds }kjk
Homework is completed. (by him)
4-pksj dks idM+k tkrk gSA
The thief is caughat.
5- fdsV eSnku esa [ksyk tkr gSA
Cricket is played in the ground.

tSlk fd Passive Voice esa egRo drkZ dks fn;k tkrk gS


bl fy;s dbZ ckj Agent (A) dks ugha crk;k tkrk gSA tc dkrkZ
someone, somebody, they, people ;k dksbZ ,slk djrk gks ftldk crk;k
tkuk vfuok;Z ugha gksrk rc Agent dks ughaa fy[kk tkrk gSA tSls%& yksx
dgrs gSaA People say. dks Passive Voice esa cnyrs le; ^yksx* dks
crkuk t:jh ugha gSA ,slk dgk tkrk gSA It is said. (Passive voice)
Rajs Notes of English Language

Negatives:

Active Voice

Passive Voice

N.- S+do/does+not+V1+....

O+is/am/are+not+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.

1-eSa mls ugha tkurkA


I do not know him.
2-oks nloh d{kk dks ugha i<+krhA
She does not teach 10th class.
3-os gekjh enn ugha djrsA
They do not help us.
4 jkdsk mls d{kk esa ltk ugha
nsrkA
Rakesh does not punish him
in the class.
5-yksx ,sls yksxksa dk vknj ugha
djrsA
People do not respect such
people.
Interrogatives:

1-mls ughaa tkuk tkrk esjs }kjkA


He is not known to me.
2-nloh d{kk dks ugha i<+k;k tkrkA
10th class is not taughat. (by her)
3-gekjh enn ugha dh tkrhA
We are not helped.
4-mls d{kk esa ltk ugha nh tkrhA

Active Voice

Passive Voice

I.- Do/does+S+V1+......?
N.I.- Do/does+S+not+....?

Is/am/are+O+V3+........?
Is/am/are+O+V3+.........?

1-D;k os rqEgs ;gkWa ijskku djrs gSa\


Do they disturb you here?
2- D;k os ;gkWa [ksy fl[kkrs gSa\
Do they teach sports here?
3- D;k ikBd th vkidks xf.kr i<+krs
gSa\
Does Mr. Pathak teach you
mathematics?
4-D;k os ;gkW fdsV fl[kkrs gSa\
Do they teach you cricket here?
5-D;k os mUgsa Ldwy esa ltk nsrs gS\
Do they punish them in the
school?
6-D;k os pk; vle esa mxkrs gSa\
Do they grow tea in Assam?
7-D;k fdlku xsgwW vkWDVwcj esa mxkrs gSa\Y
Do farmers sow wheat in
October? PWGS DKS EKJ MKYRH GS\

He is not punished in the class. (by


Rakesh)
5-,sls yksxksa dk vknj ugha fd;k tkrkA
Such people are not respected.

1-D;k rqEgs ;gkWa ijskku fd;k tkrk gS\


Are you disturbed here?
2- D;k ;gkW [ksy fl[kk;k tkrk gS\
Are sports taughat here?
3- D;k vkidks xf.kr fl[kkbZ tkrh gSA
ikBd th ds }kjk\
Are you taughat mathematics by Mr.
Pathak?
4-D;k ;gkW fdsV fl[kk;k tkrk gS\
Is cricket taughat here?
5-D;k mUgs Ldwy esa ltk nh tkrh gS\
Are they punished in the school?
6-D;k pk; vle esa mxkbZ tkrh gSa\
Is tea grown in Assam?
7-D;k xsgwW vkWDVwcj esa mxk;k tkrk gSa\Y
Is wheat sowed in October? PWGS DKS D;K
FCYYH PWGS

With question words.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- rqe D;k i<+krs gks\

1- D;k i<+k;k tkrk gSrqEgkjs }kjk\

What do you teach?


2- oks D;k dgrk gS\
What does he say?
3- oks ;s dc djrk gS\
When does he do it/this?
4- oks ;s dSls djrh gS\
How does she do this?
5- ge [kkuk dgkWa cukrs gSa\
Where do we cook food?
6- rqe mls ltk D;ksa nsrs gks\
Why do you punish her?
7- os mls D;ksa MkaVrs gSa\
Why do they scold him?
8- gesa dkSu i<+krk gS\
Who teaches us?
9- ;s dkSu dgrk gS\
Who says this?
10- rqEgkjk iSlk dkSu pqjkrk gS\
Who steals your money?
11- oks dkSulh dkj pykrk gS\
Which car does he drive?
12-oks dkSulk dejk lkQ djrk gS\
Which room does he clean?
13- rqe dkSu lh iqLrd i<+rs gks\
Which book do you read?
14- oks fdruk iSlk pqdkrh gS\
How much money does she pay?
15- oks fdrus fo"k; i<+krk gS\
How many subjects does he teach?

What is taughat (by you)?


2- D;k dgk tkrk gS\
What is said (by him) ?
3- ;s dc fd;k tkrk gS\
When is it/this done?
4- ;s dSls fd;k tkrk gS\
How is this done? (by her)
5- [kkuk dgkW cuk;k tkrk gS\
Where is food cooked?
6- mls ltk D;ksa nh tkrh gS\
Why is he punished?
7- mls D;ksa MkaVk tkrk gS\
Why is he scolded?
8- gesa fdlds }jk i<+k;k tkrk gS\
By whom are we taughat?
9- ;s fdlds }kjk dgk tkrk gS\
By whom is this said?
10-rqEgkjk iSlk fdlds }kjk pqjk;k tkrk gS\
By whom is your money stolen?
11- dkSu lh dkj pykbZ tkrh gS\
Which car is driven by him
(by him)?
12-dkSu lk dejk lkQ fd;k tkrk gS\
Which room is cleaned?(by him)
13- dkSu lh iqLrd i<+h tkrh gS\
Which book is read(in chruch)?
14- fdruk iSlk pqdk;k tkrk gS\
How much money is paid?
15- fdrus fo"k; i<+k, tkrs gSa\
How many subjects are taughat (in
your class)?

Passive Voice of Simple Past Tense/


Past Indefinite Tense

Formulae:
Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.-S+V2+O/C.O.S.
N.-S+did+not+V1+.......
I.-Did+S+V1+......?
N.I.-Did+S+V1......?

O+was/were+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+was/were+not+V3+........
Was/were+O+V3......?
Was/were+O+not+V3......?

Rajs Notes of English Language

Affirmative sentences.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

1-eSus mls crk;kA


I told him.
2-jke us jko.k dks ekjkA
Ram killed Rawan.
3-ikik us eq>s iSls fn;sA
Father gave me money.
4-lanhi us mUgs tkudkjh nhA
Sandeep informed them.
5-mlus vo/ksk dks ltk nhA
He punished Avdhesh.
6-mUgksus mls QkWlh ij yVdk;kA
They hanged him.
7-fdlh us esjk eksckby pqjk;kA
Somebody stole my mobile.
8-jfo us mls ,d i= HkstkA
Ravi sent him a letter.
9-fcYyh us pwgs dks [kk;kA
The cat ate the mouse.
10-geus dejs dks ltk;kA
We decorated the room.

1-mls crk;k x;k esjs }kjkA


He was told by me.
2-jko.k dks ekjk x;k jke ds }kjkA
Rawan was killed by Ram.
3-eq>s iSls fn;s x,A
I was given money.
4-mUgs tkudkjh nh xbZA
They were informed.
5-vo/ksk dks ltk nh xbZA
Avdhesh was punished.
6-mls QkWlh ij yVdk;k x;kA
He was hanged.
7-esjk eksckby pqjk;k x;kA
My mobile was stolen.
8-mls ,d i= Hkstk x;kA
He was sent a letter.
9-pwgs dks [kk;k x;kA
The mouse was eaten.
10-dejs dks ltk;k x;kA
The room room was decorated.

Negatives
Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- mlus esjh enn ugha dhA


He did not help me.
2- fk{kd us mUgs ltk ugha nhA
The teacher did not punish them.
3- mUgksus gesa tkudkjh ugha nhA
They did not inform us.
4-fdlkuks us fiNys lky xsgwWa ugha cks;kA
Farmers did not sow wheat last
year.
5-ekyh us vkt ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha fn;kA
The gardener did not water
the plants today.

1- esjh enn ugha dh xbZA


I was not helped.
2- mUgs ltk ugha nh xbZA
They were not punished.
3- gesa tkudkjh ugha nh xbZA
We were not informed.
4- fiNys lky xsgwWa ugha cks;k x;kA
Wheat was not sowed last year.
5- vkt ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha fn;k x;kA
The plants were not watered
today.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Interrogatives

Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- D;k mlus rqEgs bl ckjs esa crk;k\


Did he tell you about this?
2- D;k vkius mUgs lHkk esa cqyk;k\
Did you call them in the meeting?
3- D;k mlus rqEgsa dksbZ i= Hkstk\
Did he send you any letter?
4- D;k mUgksus pksj dks ltk nh\
Did they punish the thief?
5- D;k mUgksus rqEgkjh vPNh [kkfrjnkjh dh\
Did they entertain you well?
6- D;k iqfyl us mls fxjrkj fd;k\
Did the police arrest him?
7- D;k rqEkus i= iksLV fd;k\
Did you post the letter?
8- D;k mlus dejs esa >kMw yxkbZ\
Did she sweep the room?

1- D;k rqEgs bl ckjs esa crk;k x;k\


Were you told about this?
2- D;k mUgs lHkk esa cqyk;k x;k\
Were they called in the meeting?
3- D;k rqEgsa dksbZ i= Hkstk x;k\
Were you sent any letter?
4- D;k pksj dks ltk nh xbZ\
Was the thief punished?
5- D;k rqEgkjh vPNh [kkfrjnkjh dh xbZ\
Were you entertained well?
6- D;k mls fxjrkj fd;k x;k\
Was he arrested?
7- D;k i= iksLV fd;k x;k\
Was the letter posted?
8- D;k dejs esa >kMw yxkbZ xbZ\
Was the room swept?

With question words

Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- rqeus mls D;k crk;k\


What did you tell him?
2- mlus rqels D;k iWawNk\
k\
What did he ask you?
3- oks mls dgkW ys x,\
Where did they take him?
4- mUgksus rkt egy dgkWa cuk;k\
Where did they build the Taj Mahal?
5- mUgksus rkt egy dc cuk;k\
When did they build the Taj Mahal?
6- iqfyl us pksj dks dc idM+k\
When did the police catch the thief?
7- mlus rqEgs iSlk D;ksa ugha fn;k\
Why did she not give you money?
8- rqeus mls ltk D;ksa nh\
Why did you punish him?
9- mlus ;s dSls fd;k\
How did he do this?
10- mlus dkSu lh dkj csph\
Which car did he sell?
12- mls fdlus ltk nh\
Who punished him?

1- mls D;k crk;k x;k\


What was he told?
2- rqels D;k iWawNk x;k\
x;k\
What were you asked?
3- mls dgkW ys tk;k x;k\
Where was he taken?
4- rkt egy dgkWa cuk;k x;k\
Where was the Taj Mahal built?
5- rkt egy dc cuk;k x;k\
When was the Taj Mahal built?
6- pksj dks dc idM+k x;k\
When was the thief caughat?
7- rqEgs iSlk D;ksa ugha fn;k x;k\
Why were you not given money?
8- mls ltk D;ksa nh xbZ\
Why was he punished?
9- ;s dSls fd;k x;k\
How was this done?
10- dkSu lh dkj csph xbZ\
Which car was sold?
12- mls fdlds }kjk ltk nh xbZ\
By whom was he punished?

13- vkt [kkuk fdlus cuk;k\


13- vkt [kkuk fdlds }kjk cuk;k x;k\
Who cooked today?
By whom was food cooked today?
14- jktk us fdldk iSlk pqjk;k\
14- fdldk iSlk pqjk;k x;k\
Whose money did Raja steal?
Whose money was stolen?
15- bl dke esa fdldh enn yh xbZ\
15- vfer us bl dke esa fdldh enn yh\
Whose help did Amit take with this
Whose help was taken with this
work?
work?

Future Indefinite or Simple Future Tense


Formulae:

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+will/shall+V1+O.
N. -S+will/shall+not+V1+O.
I. -Will/shall+S+V1+O?
N.I.- Will/shall+S+not+V1+O?
1- oks rqEgs ltk nsxkA
He will punish you.
2- ge mls ugha crk,saxsA
We will not tell him.
3- D;k oks ogkWa gekjh enn djsxk\
Will he help us there?
4- os dy bl eSnku esa fdsV
[ksysaxsA
They will play cricket in this
ground tomorrow.
5- oks bl unh ij ,d iqy cka/ksxsA
They will build a bridge over
this river.
6- oks rqEgsa ekaQ ugha djsxhA
She will not forgive you.
7- D;k fk{kd mUgsa ltk nsaxsa\
Will the teacher punish
them?
8- iqfyl bl ekeys dh tkaWp djsxhA
The police will look into the
matter.
9- jkuh ,d xhr xk,xhA
Rani will sing a song.
10- oks rqEgsa xksyh ekj nsxkA
He will you shoot you.
11- vthr vkt d{kk dks Ik<+k,sxkA
Ajeet will teach the class today.
12- os rqEgs bl ckr ds fy;s ltk
ughaa nsaxsA

O+will/shall+be+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+will/shall+not+be+V3+..
Will/Shall+o+be+V3+..?
O+will/shall+not+be+V3+..?
1-rqEgs ltk nh tk,xhA
You will be punished.(by him)
2-mls ugha crk;k tk,xkA
He will not be told.(by us)
3-D;k ogkWa gekjh enn dh tk,xh\
Shall we be helped there?
4- dy bl eSnku esa fdsV
[ksyk tk,xkA
Cricket will be played in
this ground tomorrow.
5-bl unh ij ,d iqy cka/kk tk,xkA
A bridge will be built over
this river.
6- rqEgsa ekaQ ugha fd;k tk,xkA
You will not be forgiven.
7- D;k mUgsa ltk nh tk,xh\
Will they be punished?
8- bl ekeys dh tkaWp dh tk,xhA
The matter will be looked
into.
9- ,d xhr xk;k tk,xkA
A song will be sung.
10- rqEgsa xksyh ekj nh tk,xhA
You will be shot.
11- d{kk dks i<+k;k tk,xkA
The class will be taughat.
12- rqEgs bl ckr ds fy;s ltk
ughaa nh tk,xhA

They will not punish you for this.

You will not be punished for this.

Passive Voice with question words:1 dy D;k fd;k tk,xk\


tk,xk\
What will be done tomorrow?
2 vkt gesa D;k fl[kk;k tk,xk\
tk,xk\
What shall we be taughat today?
or
What will be taughat us today?
3 mls ltk D;ksa nh tk,xh\
tk,xh\
Why will he be punished?
4 ;s dke dc fd;k tk,xk\
tk,xk\
When will this work be done?
5 mLkls u D;ksa iwWaNs tk,saxs \
Why will he be questioned?
6 mls dc bl ckjs esa crk;k tk,xk\
tk,xk\
When will he be told about this?
7 bl njokts dks dc [kksyk tk,xk\
tk,xk\
When will this door be opened?
8 bl fp= dks iwjk djus ds fy;s fdl jax
dk ;ksx fd;k tk,xk\
tk,xk\
Which colour will be used to complete this
painting?

Present Continuous or Progressive Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+is/am/are+V1+ing+O.
N.-S+is/am/are+not+V1+ing+O.
I. -Is/am/are+S+V1+ing+O?
N.I.-Is/am/are+S+not+V1+ing..?
1- jk/kk ,d i= fy[k jgh gSA
Radha is writing a letter.
2- ekyh ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha ns
jgk gSA
The gardener is not watering
the plants.
3- ekWa [kkuk idk jgh gSA
Mother is cooking food.
4- yksx isM+ dkV jgs gSaA
People are cutting trees.
5- pijklh ?kaVh ctk jgk gSA

O+is/am/are+being+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+is/amare+not+being+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
Is/am/are+O+being+V3....?
Is/am/are+O+not+being+V3....?
1-,d i= fy[kk tk jgk gSA
A letter is being written. (by Radha.)
2- ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha fn;k tk jgk gSA
The plants are not being watered.
3. [kkuk idk;k tk jgk gSA ekWa ds }kjk
Food is being cooked by mother.
4- isM+ dkVs tk jgs gSaA
Trees are being cut.
5- ?kaVh ctkbZ tk jgh gSAPkijlh ds }kjk

The peon is ringing the bell.


6- oks fp= ugha cuk jgh gSA
She is not drawing a picture.
7- os gesa >wB crk jgs gSaA
They are telling us lies.
8-D;k oks Qkby iwjh dj jgk gS\
Is he completing the file?
9-D;k os dejs dks lkQ dj jgs gSa\
Are they cleaning the room?
10- D;k lwjt ikS/kksa dks ikuh ns jgk gS\
Is Suraj watering the plants?

The bell is being rung. (by the peon)


6- fp= ugha cuk;k tk jgk gSA
A picture is not being drawn.
7- gesa >wB crk;k tk jgk gSaA
We are being told lies.
8- D;k Qkby iwjh dh tk jgh gS\
Is the file being completed?
9- D;k dejs dks lkQ fd;k tk jgk gS\
Is the room being cleaned?

10- D;k ikS/kksa dks ikuh fn;k tk jgk gS\


Are the plants being watered?

Passive Voice with question words:1 nhokj ij D;k fy[kk tk jgk gS\
What is being written on the wall?
2 vkt D;k idk;k tk jgk gS\
What is being cooked today?
3 mls ltk D;ksa nh tk jgh gS\
Why is he being punished?
4 eq>s D;ksa ijskku fd;k tk jgk gS\
Why am I being disturbed/ teased?
5
5 mLkls u D;ksa iwWaNs tk jgs gSa\
Why is she being questioned?
6
6 mls ;gkWa dc yk;k tk jgk gS\
When is he being broughat here?
7 ;s dke dSls fd;k tk jgk gS\
How is this work being done?
8 dejs dks iksrus ds fy;s fdl jax dk ;ksx fd;k
tk jgk gS\
Which colour is being used to paint the room?

Past Continuous or Progressive Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+was/were+V1+ing+O.
N.-S+was/were+not+V1+ing+O.
I. Was/were+S+V1+ing+O?
N.I.-Was/were+S+not+V1+ing..?
1- jk/kk ,d i= fy[k jgh FkhA
FkhA
Radha was writing a letter.
2- ekyh ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha ns

O+was/were+being+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+was/were+not+being+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
Was/were+O+being+V3....?
Was/were+O+not+being+V3....?
1-,d i= fy[kk tk jgk FkkA
FkkA
A letter was being written. (by Radha.)
2- ikS/kks dks ikuh ugha fn;k tk jgk FkkA
FkkA

jgk FkkA
FkkA
The gardener was not watering
the plants.
3- ekW
ekWa [kkuk idk jgh FkhA
FkhA
Mother was cooking food.
4- yksx isM+ dkV jgs FksA
People were cutting trees.
6- pijklh ?kaVh ctk jgk FkkA
The peon was ringing the bell.
6- oks fp= ugha cuk jgh FkhA
She was not drawing a picture.
7- os gesa >wB crk jgs FksA
They were telling us lies.
8- D;k oks Qkby iwjh dj jgk Fkk\
Was he completing the file?
9-D;k os dejs dks lkQ dj jgs Fks\
Were they cleaning the room?
10- D;k lwjt ikS/kksa dks ikuh ns jgk Fkk\
Was Suraj watering the plants?

The plants were not being watered.


3. [kkuk idk;k tk jgk FkkA ekWa ds }kjk
Food was being cooked by mother.
4- isM+ dkVs tk jgs FkkA
Trees were being cut.

5- ?kaVh ctkbZ tk jgh FkhAPkijlh ds }kjk


The bell was being rung. (by the peon)
6- fp= ugha cuk;k tk jgk FkkA
A picture was not being drawn.
7- gesa >wB crk;k tk jgk FkkA
We were being told lies.
8- D;k Qkby iwjh dh tk jgh Fkh\
Fkh\
Was the file being completed?
9-D;k dejs dks lkQ fd;k tk jgk Fkk\
Fkk\
Was the room being cleaned?

10- D;k ikS/kksa dks ikuh fn;k tk jgk Fkk\


Were the plants being watered?

Passive Voice with question words:-

1 rqEkls D;k iwWaNk tk jgk Fkk\


Fkk\
What were you being asked?
2 ?kaVh fdlds }kjk ctkbZ tk jgh Fkh\
Fkh\
By whom was the bell being rung?
3 mls ltk D;ksa nh tk jgh Fkh\
Fkh\
Why was he being punished?
4 bl ckjs esa dc crk;k tk jgk Fkk\
Fkk\
When was being told about this?
5
5 mLkls u D;ksa iwWaNs tk jgs Fks\
Why was she being questioned?
6
6 mls D;ksa ihVk tk jgk Fkk\
Fkk\
Why was he being beaten?
7 mls dSls ltk nh tk jgh Fkh\
Fkh\
How was he being punished?
8 dejs dks iksrus ds fy;s fdl jax dk ;ksx fd;k
tk jgk Fkk\
Fkk\
Which colour was being used to paint the room?

Future Continuous Tense ds Passive Voice ughaa


cuk, tkrsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Passive Voice of Present perfect Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+has/have+V3+O.
N.-S+ has/have +not+V3+O.
I. Has/have +S+V3+O?
N.I.-Have/has+S+not+V3+O?
1- jk/kk us ,d i= fy[kk gSA
Radha has written a letter.
2- lj us gesa vkt ;s ikB i<+k;k
gSA
The teacher has taughat us this
lesson today.

O+has/have+been+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+ has/have+not+been+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
Has/have+O+been +O+V3....?
Has/have+O+not+been +O+V3....?
1-,d i= fy[kk x;k gSA
A letter has been written. (by Radha.)
2- vkt ;s ikB i<+k;k x;k gSA
This lesson has been taughat today.
Or
vkt gesa ;s ikB i<+k;k x;k gSA
We have been taughat this lesson
today.
3. gesa bl ckjs esa ugha crk;k x;k gSA
We have not been told about this.

3- mlus gesa bl ckjs esa ugha


crk;k gSA
He has not told us about this.
4- D;k mUgksus dejk ltk fn;k
gS\
Have they decorated the room?
5- D;k mlus [kkuk idk fn;k gS\
Has she cooked food?
6- iqfyl us mls fxjrkj dj
fy;k gSA
The police has arrested him.
7- D;k vkius mls fueaf=r fd;k
gS\
Have you invited him?
8- fdlh us esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh gSA
Somebody has stolen my watch.
9-D;k mUgksus vkWfQl can dj fn;k gS\
Have they closed the office?
10- mUgksus ckr dh ppkZ dj yh gSA
They have discussed the matter.

4- D;k dejk ltk fn;k x;k gS\


Has the room been decorated?

5- D;k [kkuk idk fn;k xk;k gS\


Has food been cooked?
6- mls fxjrkj dj fy;k x;k gSA
He has been arrested.
7- D;k mls fueaf=r fd;k x;k gS\
Has he been invited?
8- esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh xbZ gSA
My watch has been stolen.
9- D;k vkWfQl dks can dj fn;k x;k
gS\
Has the office been closed?

10- ckr dh ppkZ dh tk pqdh gSA


The matter has been discussed.

Passive Voice with question words:1 mls bl ckjs esa D;k crk;k x;k gS\
What has he been told about this?
2 ;s dke fdlds }kjk fd;k x;k gS\
By whom has this work been done?

Rajs Notes of English Language

3 mls bl xkWao ls D;ksa fudky fn;k x;k gS\


Why has he been exiled from this village?
4 mls D;ksa fxjrkj fd;k x;k gS\
Why has he been arrested?
5
5 ;s vkbuk fdlds }kjk rksM+k x;k gS\
By whom has this mirror been broken?
6
6 ;s iqLrd fdlds }kjk fyf[k xbZ gS\
By whom has this book been written?
7 mls ;gkWa ls dgkWa ys tk;k x;k gS\
Where has he been taken from here?
8 ;s Vscy dgkWa ls [kjhnh xbZ gS\
From where has this table been boughat?

Passive Voice of Past perfect Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+had+V3+O.
N.-S+ had +not+V3+O.
I. Had +S+V3+O?
N.I.-Had+S+not+V3+O?
1- jk/kk us i= iksLV dj fn;k FkkA
FkkA
Radha had posted the letter.
2- lj us gesa dy ;s ikB i<+k
fn;k FkkA
FkkA
The teacher had taughat us this
lesson yesterday.

O+had+been+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
O+ had+not+been+V3+C.O.S.+by+A.
Had+O+been +O+V3....?
Had+O+not+been +O+not+V3....?
1-i= iksLV dj fn;k xk;k FkkA
FkkA
The letter had been posted.
2- dy ;s ikB i<+k fn;k x;k FkkA
FkkA
This lesson had been taughat yesterday.
Or
dy gesa ;s ikB i<+k;k x;k gSA
We had been taughat this lesson
yesterday.
3. gesa bl ckjs esa ugha crk;k x;k FkkA
We had not been told about this.

3- mlus gesa bl ckjs esa ugha


crk;k FkkA
FkkA
He had not told us about this.
4- D;k mUgksus dejk ltk fn;k
Fkk\
Fkk\
Had they decorated the room?
5- D;k mlus jk=h dk Hkkstu idk
fn;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Had she cooked the dinner?
6- iqfyl us mls fxjrkj dj
fy;k FkkA
The police had arrested him.
7- D;k vkius mls fueaf=r fd;k
Fkk\
Fkk\
Had you invited him?
8- fdlh us esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh FkhA

4- D;k dejk ltk fn;k x;k Fkk\


Fkk\
Had the room been decorated?

5- D;k jk=h dk Hkkstu idk fn;k x;k


Fkk\
Had the dinner been cooked?
6- mls fxjrkj dj fy;k x;k FkkA
He had been arrested.
7- D;k mls fueaf=r fd;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Had he been invited?

Somebody had stolen my watch.


9-D;k mUgksus vkWfQl can dj fn;k Fkk\
Had they closed the office?
10- mUgksus ckr dh ppkZ dj yh FkhA
They had discussed the matter.

8- esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh xbZ FkhA


My watch had been stolen.
9- D;k vkWfQl dks can dj fn;k x;k
Fkk\
Fkk\
Had the office been closed?

10- ckr dh ppkZ dh tk pqdh FkhA


The matter had been discussed.

Passive Voice with question words:-

1 mls bl ckjs esa D;k crk;k x;k Fkk\


Fkk\
What had he been told about this?
2 ;s dke fdlds }kjk fd;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
By whom had this work been done?
3 mls bl xkWao ls D;ksa fudky fn;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Why had he been exiled from this village?
4 mls D;ksa fxjrkj dj fy;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Why had he been arrested?
5
5 ;s vkbuk fdlds }kjk rksM+ fn;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
By whom had this mirror been broken?
6
6 ;s iqLrd fdlds }kjk fyf[k xbZ Fkh\
Fkh\
By whom had this book been written?
7 mls ogkWa ls dgkWa ys tk;k x;k Fkk\
Fkk\
Where hasd he been taken from there?
8 ;s Vscy dgkWa ls [kjhnh xbZ Fkh\
Fkh\
From where had this table been boughat?

Passive Voice of Future perfect Tense

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+will/shall+have+V3+O.
N.-S+ will/shall +not+not+V3+O.
I. Will/shall +S+have+V3+O?
N.I.- Will/shall +S+not+have+V3...?
1- jk/kk us i= iksLV dj fn;k
gksxkA
kA
Radha will have posted the letter.
2- lj us gesa dy ;s ikB i<+k
fn;k gksxkA
kA
The teacher will have taughat us

O+ will/shall+have+been+V3+C.O.S.+by..
O+ will/shall +have+not+been+V3+C.O.S..
Will/shall +O +have +been + V3+C.O.S.?
will/shall +O +not+have +been +V3+C.O.?
1-i= iksLV dj fn;k xk;k gksxkA
kA
The letter will have been posted.
2- dy ;s ikB i<+k fn;k x;k gksxkA
kA
This lesson will have been taughat
tomorrow.

this lesson tomorrow.

3- mlus gesa bl ckjs esa ugha


crk;k gksxkA
kA
He will not have told us about
this.
4- D;k mUgksus dejk ltk fn;k
gksxk\
k\
Will they have decorated the
room?
5- D;k mlus jk=h dk Hkkstu idk
fn;k gksxk\
k\
Had she cooked the dinner?
6- iqfyl us mls fxjrkj dj
fy;k gksxkA
The police will have arrested him.
7- D;k vkius mls fueaf=r fd;k
gksxk\
k\
Will you have invited him?
8- fdlh us esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh gksxhA
Somebody will have stolen my
watch.
9-D;k mUgksus vkWfQl can dj fn;k gksxk\
Will they have closed the office?
10- mUgksus ckr dh ppkZ dj yh gksxhA
They will have discussed the
matter.

Or
dy gesa ;s ikB i<+k;k fn;k xk;k tk
pqdk gksxkA
kA
We will have been taughat this lesson
tomorrow.
3. gesa bl ckjs esa ugha crk;k tk pqdk
gksxkA
We shall not have been told about this.
4- D;k dejk ltk fn;k x;k gksxk\
k\
Will the room have been decorated?

5- D;k jk=h dk Hkkstu idk fn;k x;k


gksxk\
Will the dinner have been cooked?
6- mls fxjrkj dj fy;k x;k gksxkA
He will have been arrested.
7- D;k mls fueaf=r fd;k x;k gksxk\
k\
Will he have been invited?
8- esjh ?kM+h pqjk yh xbZ gksxhA
My watch will have been stolen.
9- D;k vkWfQl dks can dj fn;k x;k
gksxk\
k\
Will the office have been closed?

10- ckr dh ppkZ dh tk pqdh gksxhA


The matter will have been discussed.

Passive Voice with question words:1 dy D;k fd;k x;k gksxk\


k\
What will have been done tomorrow?
2 mls ogkWa D;ksa cqyk;k x;k gksxk\
k\
Why will he have been called there?
3 mls dgkWa ys tk;k x;k gksxk\
k\
Where will he have been taken?
4 ;s dke fdlds }kjk fd;k x;k gksxk\
k\
By whom will this work have been done?

Rajs Notes of English Language

Perfect Continuous ds Passive Voice


fdlh Hkh Tense esa ugha cuk, tkrs gSaA

Modal Auxiliaries
can, could, may, might, should/ oughat to,
must, would etc.

Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.S+A.V.+V1+O.
N.S+ A.V. +not+not+V1+O.
I.
A.V. +S+have+V1+O?
N.I.A.V. +S+not+V1+O?
1- eSa ;s dke nks fnu esa iwjk dj
ldrk gwWaA
I can do this work in two days.
2- ge ;s dke vkt iwjk ugha dj
ldrsA
We cannot complete this work
today.
3- D;k os bl dke dks ,d
fnu esa iwjk dj ldrs gSa\
Can they complete this work in
a day?
4- ge eSp thr ldsA
We could win the match.
5- ge eSp ugha thr ldsA
Had she cooked the dinner?
6- D;k os oDr ij ckWDl Hkst
lds\
Could they send the box on/in
time?
7- oks mls ltk ns ldrk gSA
He may punish him.

O+ A.V.+be+V3+C.O.S.+by+A
O+ A.V. +not+be+V3+C.O.S+A
A.V. +O +be +V3+C.O.S. +by+A?
A.V. +O +not +be +V3+C.O.S.+A?
1-;s dke nks fnu esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA
This work can be done in two days.

8- oks 'kk;n rqEgs i= HkstsA


She might send you a letter.
9-ge ;s dke dy gh djsaxs\
We would do this work
tomorrow.

2- ;s dke vkt iwjk ugha fd;k tk


ldrkA
ldrkA
This work could not be completed
today.
3. D;k bl dke dks ,d fnu esa iwjk
fd;k tk ldrk gS\
Can this work be completed in a day?
4- eSp thrk tk ldkA
The match could be won. (by us)
5- eSp ugha thrk tk ldkA
The match could not be won.
6- D;k ckWDl dks oDr ij Hkstk tk
ldk\
ldk\
Could the box be sent in time?
7- mls ltk nh tk ldrh gSA
He may be punished.
8- 'kk;n rqEgs i= Hkstk tk,A
You might be sent a letter.
9- ;s dke dy gh fd;k tk;sxkA
This work would be done tomorrow.

10- vkidks ;s dke vkt [kRe dj ysuk


pkfg;sA
You should do this work today.
11- gesa mUgsa vuqerh ugha nsuk pkfg;sA
We should not permit /allow
them.
12- D;k gesa cPpks dks ;s vknr fl[kkuh
pkfg;s\
Should we teach children this
habit?
13- yksxks dks ,sls balkuks ij Hkjkskk djuk
gh ugha pkfg;sA
People must not trust such men.

10- ;s dke dj fn;k tkuk pkfg;sA

14- gesa ;s Qkby vkt gh iwjh djuh


pkfg;s gSA
We must complete this file
today.

14- ;s Qkbu vkt gh iwjh dh tkuh pkfg;s gSA


We must complete this file today.
or
This file must be completed today.

This work should be done today.


11- mUgsa vuqerh ugha nh tkuh pkft;sA
They should not be permitted /allowed.
12- D;k cPpks dks ;s vknr fl[kkbZ tkuh pkfg;s\
Should children be taughat this habit?
13- ,sls balkuks ij Hkjkskk fd;k gh ugha tkuk
pkfg;sA
Such men must not be trusted.

Passive Voice with question words:1 vc D;k fd;k tk ldrk gS\


What can be done now?
2 mls dSls lq/kkjk tk ldrk gS\
How can he be mended?
3 bl rLchj dks dgkWa yxk;k tk ldrk gS\
Where can this picture be put on?
4 ;s dke nks fnuksa esa dSls iwjk fd;k tk ldk\
ldk\
How could this work be completed in two days?
5
5 mls bl ckjs esa tkudkjh D;ksa nsuk pkfg;s\
Why should he be informed about this?
6
6 ;s dke fdlds }kjk fd;k tkuk pkfg;s\
By whom should this work be done?
7 mUgsa ltk D;ksa ugha nh tkuh pkfg;s\
Why should they not be punished?
8 esjk eksckby fdlds }kjk pqjk;k x;k gksxk\
k\
By whom might my mobile have been stolen?

Rajs Notes of English Language

have/has to
Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+have/has+to+V1+O.
N.- S+ have/has +not+to+V3..
I. Have/has +S+to+V3+O..?
N.I.- Have/has +S+not+to+V3+O..?
1- gesa ikS/kksa dks ikuh nsuk iM+rk
gSA
We have to water the plants.
2- eq>s ;s dke vdsys djuk iM+rk
gSA
I have to do this work alone.
3- gesa cPpksa dks ltk ugha nsuh
iM+rh\
h\
We dont have to punish
children?
4- gesa ,d dqWavk [kksnuk gSA
We have to dig a well.
5- mUgsa unh ij iqy cukuk gSA
They have to build a bridge over
the river.

O+ have/has+to+be+V3+C.O.S.+by+A
O+ have/has +not+to+be+V3+C.O.S+A
Have/has +O +to+be +V3+C.O.S. +by+A?
Have/has +O +not +to+be +V3+C.O.S.+A?
1-ikS/kks dks ikuh nsuk iM+rk gSA
The plants have to be watered.
2- ;s dke vdsys fd;k tkuk iM+rk gSA
This work has to be done alone.
3. cPpks dks ltk ugha nsuh iM+rh\
h\
Children have not to be punished.
4- ,d dqWavk [kksnk tkuk gSA
A well has to be dug.
5- unh ij iqy cuk;k tkuk gSA
A bridge has to be built over the bridge.

Had to
Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+had+to+V1+O.
N.- S+ had +not+to+V3..
I. Had +S+to+V3+O..?
N.I.- Had +S+not+to+V3+O..?
1- gesa ikS/kksa dks ikuh nsuk iM+kA
We had to water the plants.
2- eq>s ;s dke vdsys djuk iM+kA
I had to do this work alone.
3- gesa cPpksa dks ltk ugha nsuh
iM+rh\
h\
Can they complete this work in
a day?
4- gesa ,d dqWavk [kksnuk iM+kA
We had to dig a well.
5- mUgsa unh ij iqy cukuk iM+kA

O+ had+to+be+V3+C.O.S.+by+A
O+ had +not+to+be+V3+C.O.S+A
Had +O +to+be +V3+C.O.S. +by+A?
Had +O +not +to+be +V3+C.O.S.+A?
1-ikS/kks dks ikuh nsuk iM+kA
The plants had to be watered.
2- ;s dke vdsys fd;k tkuk iM+rk A
This work had to be done alone.
3. cPpks dks ltk ugha nsuh iM+rhA
Children have not to be punished.
4- ,d dqWavk [kksnk tkuk iM+kA
A well had to be dug.
5- unh ij iqy cuk;k tkuk gSA

They had to build a bridge over the


river.

A bridge had to be built over the bridge.

Will/ shall have to


Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+will/shall+have+to+V1+O.
N.- S+ will/shall +not+have+to+V1..
I. Will/shall +S+have+to+V1+O.?
N.I.- Will/shall +S+not+have+to+..?
1- gesa ikS/kksa dks ikuh nsuk iM+sxkA
We will have to water the plants.
2-eq>s ;s dke vdsys djuk iM+sxkA
I will have to do this work
alone.
3- gesa cPpksa dks ltk ugha nsuh
iMs+sxh\
h\
We will not have to punish
children?
4- gesa ,d dqWavk [kksnuk iM+sxkA
We will to dig a well.
5- mUgsa unh ij iqy cukuk iM+sxkA
They will have to build a bridge
over the river.

O+ will/shall/ have+to+be+V3+C.O.S.+..
O+ will/shall+not+have+to+be+V3+.
Will/shall +O +have+to+be +V3+C.O.S..?
Will/shall +O +not +have+to+be +V3+C..?
1-ikS/kks dks ikuh nsuk iM+sxkA
kA
The plants will have to be watered.
2- ;s dke vdsys fd;k tkuk iM+sxk A
This work will have to be done alone.
3. cPpks dks ltk ugha nsuh iM+rhA
Children will not have to be punished.
4- ,d dqWavk [kksnk tkuk iM+sxkA
A well will have to be dug.
5- unh ij iqy cukuk iM+sxkA
A bridge will have to be built over the
bridge.

Is/am/are to
Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+is/am/are+to+V1+O.
N.- S+ is/am/are+not+to+V1..
I. Is/am/are+S+to+V3+O..?
N.I.- Is/am/are +S+not+to+V1+O..?
1- eq>s ,d i= fy[kuk gSA
I am to write a letter.
2- vkidks x`gdk;Z tkWapuk gSA
You are to check the homework.
3- gesa ;s vkt ugha djuk gSA
We are not to do this today.
4- D;k vkidks ;s i= iksLV djuk
gS\
Are you to post this letter?
5- mls ;s ?kM+h lq/kkjuh gSA
He is to repair this watch.

O+ is/am/are+to+be+V3+C.O.S.+..
O+ is/am/are+not+to+be+V3+.
Is/am/are +O +to+be +V3+C.O.S..?
Is/am/are +O +not +to+be +V3+C..?
1-,d i= fy[kk tkuk gSA
A letter is to be written.
2- x`gdk;Z tkWapk tkuk gS A
The homework is to be checked.
3. ;s vkt ugha fd;k tkuk gSA
This is not to be done today.
4- D;k ;s i= iksLV fd;k tkuk gS\
Is this letter to be posted.

5- ;s ?kM+h lq/kkjh tkuh gSA


This watch has to be repaired.

Was/were to
Active Voice

Passive Voice

A.- S+was/were+to+V1+O.
N.- S+ was/were+not+to+V1..
I. Was/were+S+to+V1+O..?
N.I.- Was/were +S+not+to+V1+O..?
1- eq>s ,d i= fy[kuk FkkA
I was to write a letter.
2- vkidks x`gdk;Z tkWapuk FkkA
FkkA
You were to check the homework.
3- gesa ;s vkt ugha djuk FkkA
We were not to do this today.
4- D;k vkidks oks i= iksLV djuk
Fkk\
Fkk\
Are you to post that letter?
5- mls oks ?kM+h lq/kkjuh FkhA
He was to repair this watch.

O+ was/were+to+be+V3+C.O.S.+..
O+ was/were+not+to+be+V3+.
Was/were +O +to+be +V3+C.O.S..?
Was/were+O +not +to+be +V3+C..?
1-,d i= fy[kk tkuk FkkA
FkkA
A letter is to be written.
2- x`gdk;Z tkWapk tkuk Fkk A
The homework was to be checked.
3. ;s vkt ugha fd;k tkuk FkkA
This was not to be done today.
4- D;k oks i= iksLV fd;k tkuk Fkk\
Fkk\
Was that letter to be posted?

5- ;s ?kM+h lq/kkjh tkuh FkhA


That watch has to be repaired.

Active and Passive Voice of Special Rules


Would have, should have, could have etc.
Active Voice

Passive Voice

1- rqe vc&rd ;s dj ysrsA


You would have done this by now.
2- gesa mls ;s ckr ugha ckrkuh
pkfg;s FkhA
FkhA
We should not have told him this.
3- vkidks u;h iqLdr [kjhnus dh
t:jr ugha FkhA
You need not have boughat a new
book.
4- oks ;s dj ldrh FkhA
She could have done this.
5- eSa ;s dke vkidh enn ds
fcuk ugha dj ldrk FkkA
I could not have done this work
without your help.

1-;s vc&rd dj fn;k tkrkA


tkrkA
This would have been done by now.
2- mls ;s ckr ugha crkbZ tkuh Fkh A
He should not have been told this.
3. u;h iqLrd [kjhnus dh t:jr ugha
FkhA
A new book need not have been
boughat.
4- ;s fd;k tk ldrk FkkA
This could have been done.

5- ;s dke vkidh enn ds fcuk ughaa


fd;k tk ldrk FkkA
This work could not have been done
without your help.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Co- relatives
As soon as, No sooner..... than, as long as, as far as,
..... until, ..... till, so that, so......that, too .....to,
hardly ......when, not only ....but also, either-or,
Rajs Notes of English Language

neither-nor, although, scarcely.... when, rather.....than,


no less.....than,

As soon as
okD;
1tSls gh eq>s le; feyrk gS] eSa t:j vk tkWaxkA
k
As soon as I get time, I will come.
2tSls gh oks vk,xh] eSa rqEgsa crk nwWaxkA
As soon as she comes, I will tell you/ I will let
you know.
3tSls gh ge LVsku igqWaps] xkM+h tkus yxhA
As soon as we reached the station, the train
started going.
4tSls gh fk{kd d{kk esa vkrs gSa] fo|kFkhZ [kMs+ gks
tkrs gSaA
As soon as the teacher enters the class, the
students stand up.
5tSls gh eSa vkrk gwWa] oks pyh tkrh gSA
As soon as I come, she goes away.
6D;k oks pyh tkrh gS tSls gh rqe vkrs gks\
Does she go away as soon as you come?
7tSls gh mls tkudh nh tk,xh] oks gesa crk nsxkA
As soon as he is informed, he will tell us.
8eSa mls ysdj ogkWa vk tkWaxk tSls gh oks ;gkWa vkrh gSA
I will bring her there as soon as she comes here.
9tSls gh mldk uke iqdkjk x;k ok [kM+k gks x;kA
As soon as his name was called, he stood up.
10- tSls gh eq>s iSls fn;s tkrs gSa] eSa vkidks Hkst nwWaxkA
As soon as I am given money, Ill send you.

No sooner.... than
No sooner ds ckn okD; dks gesakk Interrogative esa j[kk
tkrk gS vkSj var esa full spop (.) gh yxrk gSA
okD;

Rajs Notes of English Language

12356789-

tSls gh eq>s le; feyrk gS] eSa t:j vk tkWxkA


k
No sooner do I get time than I will come.
tSls gh oks vk,xh] eSa rqEgsa crk nwWaxkA
k
No sooner does she come than I will tell you.
tSls gh ge LVsku igqWaps] xkM+h tkus yxhA
No sooner did we reach the station than the train
started going.
tSls gh fk{kd d{kk esa vkrs gSa] fo|kFkhZ [kMs+ gks tkrs gSaA
No sooner does the teacher enter the class than
the students stand up.
tSls gh eSa vkrk gwWa] oks pyh tkrh gSA
No sooner do I come than she goes away.
tSls gh mls tkudh nh tk,xh] oks gesa crk nsxkA
No sooner is he informed than he will tell us.
tSls gh mldk uke iqdkjk x;k ok [kM+k gks x;kA
No sooner was his name called than he stood up.
tSls gh eq>s iSls fn;s tkrs gSa] eSa vkidks Hkst nwWaxkA
No sooner am I given money than Ill send you.

as long as-tc rd
okD;
1- tc rd eSa ;gkWa gwWa ] rqEgs fpark djus dh t:jr
ugha gSA
As long as I am here, you need not worry.
2- tc rd vki bl Ldwy esa gks rc rd eSa Hkh jgwaWxkA
k
As long as you are in this school, I will also be.
3-

tc rd oks lgh gS eSa mldk lkFk nwWaxkA


k
As long as he is right, I will help him.

as far as-tgkW
tgkWa rd

okD;
1- tgkWa rd eq>s ;kn gS oks ml le; 12oh d{kk esa FkhA
As far as I remember, she was in 12th class that
time.

Rajs Notes of English Language

23-

tgkWa rd esjk lcky gS eSa ogkWa ugha tkWaxkA


k
As far as it is my question, I will not go there.
tgkWa rd eSa lksprk gwWa ];s dksbZ vPNh ckr ugha gSA
As far as I think, it is not a/any good thing.

..... until-rd----- ugha


okD;
1- tc&rd rqe esjs iSls ugha ykSVk nsrs eSa ;gkWa ls dgha
ugh tkWaxkA
k
I will not go anywhere until you return my
money.
2- tc&rd mlus fHk[kkjh dks Hkh[k ugha nh oks ogha
[kM+k jgkA
The beggar kept on standing there until he
gave him alms.
3- tc&rd eSa okil ugha vk tkrk rqe esjk ;gha
bartkj djksA
Wait for me until I come back.
4- tc&rd ;s dke uk gks tk,] eSa dgha ugh tk ldrkA
I cannot go anywhere until this work is done.

..... till-rd
okD;
1- dy eSaus <kbZ cts rd i<kbZ dhA
I studied till half past two yesterday.
2- oks kke rd fcYdqy Bhd FkkA
He was perfectly all right till the last evening.

so that
okD;
1- eSus mls cqyk;k rkfd oks gekjh enn
dj ldsA
I called him so that he might help us.

Rajs Notes of English Language

234-

oks rst nkSM+k rkdh oks cl idM+ ldsA


He ran fast so that he might catch the bus.
mlus rqEgkjh enn dh rkdh rqe mldh enn
dj ldksA
She helped you so that you might help her.
eSus njokts ij xzhl yxk;k rkdh njoktk vklkuh
[kksyk vkSj can fd;k tk ldsA
I put Greece on the door so that it might be opened
and closed easily.

So that
okD;
1- oks bruk chekj gS fd oks fcLrj ls mB ugha ldrkA
He is so ill that he cannot rise from his bed.
2- oks bruk ?keaMh gS fd oks rqEgkjh enn dHkh ugha dj
ldrkA
He is so proud that he can never help you.
3- oks bruk gksfk;kj gS fd oks bl tksM+ dks dqN gh
iyksa esa djysxkA
He is so intelligent that he will do this sum in
few seconds.
5- oks bruk le>nkj gks x;k gS fd vius fu.kZ; [kqn ys
ldsA
He has been so understanding that he can take
his decisions.
6- ;s ydM+h bruh etcwr gS fd bls vklkuh ls ugh rksM+k
tk ldrkA
This stick is so strong that it cannot be broken
easily.
6- ;s cSx bruk gYdk gS fd bls vklkuh ls mB;k tk ldrk gSA
This bag is so light that it can be lifted easily.
7- ;s pk; bruh BaMh gS fd bls fi;k ugh tk ldrkA
This tea is so cold that it cannot be drunk.
8- oks bruk ukjkt gS fd mls le>k;k ugh tk ldrkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

He is so angry that he cannot be explained.

too .....to
okD;
1- oks bruk chekj gS fd oks fcLrj ls mB ugha ldrkA
He is too ill to rise from his bed.
2- oks bruk ?keaMh gS fd oks rqEgkjh enn dHkh ugha
dj ldrkA
He is too proud to help you.
3- oks bruk ew[kZ gS fd oks bl leL;k dks gy ugha
dj ldrkA
He is too fool to solve this problem.
5- oks bruk NksVk Fkk fd esjs da/ks rd ugha vk ldkA
He was too short to reach my soldiers.
5- pk; bruh xje gS fd bls fi;k ugh tk ldrkA
The tea is too hot to drink.

hardly ......when

okD;
1- ge ckgj fudys gh Fks fd ikuh fxjus yxkA
We had hardly come out when it started raining.
2- eSa [kkuk [kkus cSBk gh Fkk fd oks vk xbZA
I had hardly sat to eat food when she came.

not only ....but also

okD;
1- oks flQZ vaxzsth gh ugha cYdh sap Hkh tkurk gSA
He knows not only English but French also .
2- eSa flQZ [kkuk gh ugha [kk;k cfYd ikuh Hkh ih;kA
I not only ete but drank water also.

either-or
okD;
1- ;k dh rqe ew[kZ gks ;k fQj eSa ew[kZ gwWaA
Either you or I am a fool.
2- ;k dh eSa vijk/kh gwWa ;k rqe vijk/kh gksA
Either I or you are guilty.
3- oks ;k mldk HkkbZ ogkWa dke djrk gSA
Either he or his brother works there.
4- rqe ;k fQj fukk FkksM+h nsj ds fy, tk ldrs gSaA
Either you or Nisha may go for a while.
5- mlus ;k fQj mlds nksLr us uhjt dks /kksdk fn;k gSA
Either he or his friend has cheated Neeraj.
6- IkkBd lj ;k lkgw lj ogkWa gksaxsA
Either Pathak sir or Sahu sir will be there.

although
okD;
1- Hkys gh oks xjhc gS ij bZekunkj gSA
Although he is poor, he is honest.
2- Hkys gh mlus xyrh dh ij ckn esa mlus mls lq/kkj
Hkh fy;kA
Although did a mistake, he ment it later.

scarcely.... when
okD;
1- eSa ?kj ls fudyk gh Fkk fd ckfjk kq: gks xbZA
I had scarcely left the house when it started
raining.
2- mlus mlds ckjs esa ckr djuk kq: gh fd;k Fkk fd oks
vk xbZA
He had scarcely started talking about her when
she came.

Rajs Notes of English Language

not only ....but also


okD;
1- oks flQZ vaxzsth gh ugha cYdh sap Hkh tkurk gSA
He knows not only English but French also .
2- eSa flQZ [kkuk gh ugha [kk;k cfYd ikuh Hkh ih;kA
I not only ete but drank water also.

either-or
okD;
1- ;k dh rqe ew[kZ gks ;k fQj eSa ew[kZ gwWaA
Either you or I am a fool.
2- ;k dh eSa vijk/kh gwWa ;k rqe vijk/kh gksA
Either I or you are guilty.
3- oks ;k mldk HkkbZ ogkWa dke djrk gSA
Either he or his brother works there.
4- rqe ;k fQj fukk FkksM+h nsj ds fy, tk ldrs gSaA
Either you or Nisha may go for a while.
5- mlus ;k fQj mlds nksLr us uhjt dks /kksdk fn;k gSA
Either he or his friend has cheated Neeraj.
6- IkkBd lj ;k lkgw lj ogkWa gksaxsA
Either Pathak sir or Sahu sir will be there.

although
okD;
1- Hkys gh oks xjhc gS ij bZekunkj gSA
Although he is poor, he is honest.
2- Hkys gh mlus xyrh dh ij ckn esa mlus mls lq/kkj
Hkh fy;kA
Although he did a mistake, he ment it later.
3- Hkys gh oks t[eh Fkk] oks cgqr rst nkSM+kA
Although he was hurt, he ran very fast.

scarcely.... when
okD;

Rajs Notes of English Language

12-

eSa ?kj ls fudyk gh Fkk fd ckfjk kq: gks xbZA


I had scarcely left the house when it started
raining.
mlus mlds ckjs esa ckr djuk kq: gh fd;k Fkk fd oks
vk xbZA
He had scarcely started talking about her when
she came.

rather.....than

okD;
1- oks ej tk,xh ij rqEkls ckr ugha djsxhA
She would rather die than talk to you.
2- eSa dksbZ Hkh leL;k dk lkeuk dj ywaWxk ij iSls m/kkj
ugha ywaWxkA
k
I would rather face any problem than borrow
money.

no less.....than
okD;
1- nsk ds /kku ea=h ls de egRoiw.kZ O;fDr us jk"Vh;
>aMk ugha Qgjk;kA
No less a person than the Prime Minister of
India hoisted the national flag.

Unless-tc rd ugha
okD;
1- tc rd rqe vkvksxs ugha eSa dgha ugha tkWaxkA
k
Unless you come, I wont go anywhere.
2- tc rd oks eq>ls ekQh ugha ekax ysrh eSa mlls ckr
ugha d:WaxkA
Unless she apologizes to me, I wont talke to her.
3- tc rd rqe dksfkk ugha djksxs rqels dSls cusxk\
How can you learn unless you try?

Rajs Notes of English Language

if....not- ;fn ugha


12-

3-

;fn rqe ugha vkvksxs eSa dgha ugha tkWaxkA


k
If you dont come, I wont go anywhere.
;fn oks eq>ls ekQh ugha ekxsxh rks eSa mlls ckr
ugha d:WaxkA
k
If she doesnt apologize to me, I wont talke
to her.
;fn rqe dksfkk ugha djksxs rks dSls lh[kksxs\
How can you learn if you dont try?

Enough...to

okD;
1- oks bruk rkdrcj gS fd oks bl cSx dks ,d gkFk ls
mBk ldrk gSA
He is strong engouh to lift this bag with his one
hand.
2- gekjs ikl bruk iSlk ugha gS fd ge dkj [kjhn ldsaA
We dont have enough money to buy/purchase a
car.

Some important words


go
12345-

D;k py jgk gS\


What is going on?
;s jkLrk vejikVu tkrk gSA
This road goes to Amarpatan.
vke lM+ x;s gSaA
Mangoes have gone bad/rotten.
oks ikxy gks xbZ gSA
She has gone mad.
Vsu tkus yxhA
The train started going.

Rajs Notes of English Language

12345-

run

cl 140 dh xrh ls py jgh FkhA


The bus was running at the speed
of 140km/ hour.
ekhu dSlh py jgh gS\
How is the machine running?
;s dkj MhTk+y ls pyrh gSA
This car runs on diesel.
;s Ldwy dkSu pykrk gS\
Who runs this school?
oks nkSM+ D;ksa jgk gS\
Why is he running?

Point/use
12345-

ogkWa tkus ls dksbZ Qk;nk ugha gSA


There is no use/ point in going there.
eq>s ;s djus esa dksbZ Qk;nk ugha yxrkA
I dont see any point/use in doing this.
D;k iNrkus ls dksbZ Qk;nk gS \
Is there any point/ use in repenting?
vc bartkj djus ls dksbZ Qk;nk ugha gSA
There is no use in waiting now.
,slk dgus ls D;k Qk;nk gksxk \
What use will there be in saying so?

Want
1234-

esjs ikik th pkgrs gSa fd eSa MkWDVj cuwA


My father wants me to be a doctor.
oks pkgrh gS fd eSa mls Hkwy tkWA
She wants me to forget her.
os pkgrs gSa fd ge ogkWa uk tk,saA
They want us not to go there.
os ugha pkgrs fd ge ogkWa tk,saA
They dont want us to go there.

Rajs Notes of English Language

5-

678-

78-

9101112131415-

eaS pkgrk gwWa fd rqe ;s dke cgqr tYnh djksA


I want you to do this work very soon.
oks pkgrk gS fd rqe mlls feyksA
He wants you to meet him.
gekjk Ldwy pkgrk gS fd ge ;s fr;ksfxrk thrsaA
Our school wants us to win this competition.
eaS pkgrk Fkk fd rqe mlls feyrh ij rqe rks vkbZ
gh ughaA
I wanted you to meet him/her, but you didnt
come at all.
oks pkgrk gS fd rqe mldk lkjk dke dj nksA
He wants you to do all his work (all of his work).
eaS pkgrk Fkk fd rqe mlls feyrh ij rqe rks vkbZ
gh ughaA
I wanted you to meet him/her, but you didnt
come.
ge pkgsaxs fd rqe@vki ;gkWa ls pys tk,saA
We want you to go from here.
oks pkgrh Fkh fd eSa mlds lkFk tkWaA
She wanted me to go with her.
rqe D;k pkgrs gks eSa D;k d:Wa\
What do you want me to do?
oks dgkWa pkgrk gS eSa tkWa \
Where does he want me to go?
rqe fdls pkgrs gks fd oks ;s dke djs\
Who do you want to do this work?
oks pkgrh gS fd eSa ogkWa tkWa vkSj mlls feywaWA
She wants me to go there and meet her.
eSa lp tkuuk pkgrk gWwaA
I want to know the truth.

wish
1-

rqe D;k pkgrs gks \


What do you wish?

Rajs Notes of English Language

2-

dkl eSa bl nsk dk jktk gksrk!


I wish if I were the king of this country!/
If I were the king of this country!
If she were my friend!
If you was my younger brother!
If they was present there!

as if
1- oks eq>s bl rjg vknsk nsrk gS tSls eSa mldk
ukSadj gwWaA
He orders me as if I were his servant.
2- oks ,slk djrh gS tSls dksbZ fgjksbu gksA
She acts as if she were a heroine.
3- oks mls ,ls MkaVrh gS tSls oks mldh ekWa gksA
She scolds her as if she were his mother.
4- oks rks ,slk ns[k jgk gS tSls eq>s [kk tk,xkA
He is looking at me as if he would eat me.

Pronunciation-mPpkj.k
Loj (vowels)%
v
vk
a
aa
,S
vks
ai o

b
i
vkS
au

bZ
ee
va
an/m

m
u
v%
ah

x
ga
V
ta
n
da
e
ma

?k
gha
B
tha
/k
dha
;
ya

M+
na
M
da
u
na
j
ra

oo

,
e

O;atu (consonants)%
d
ka
t
ja
r
ta
c
ba

[k
kha
>
jha
Fk
tha
Hk
bha

p
cha
<
dha
i
pa
y
la

N
chha
.k
na
Q
pha/fa
o
va

Rajs Notes of English Language

k
"k
sha sha

l
sa

g
ha

{k
K
t+
ksha gya (za)

v{kj ;fn vk/ks gksa rc


d~
k
t~
j

[k~
kh
>~
jh

x~
g
V~
t

?k~
gh
B~
th

p~
ch
M~
d

N~
chh
<~
dh

c~
b
k~
sh

Hk~
bh
"k~
sh

e~
m
l~
s

;~
y
g~
h

j~
r
{k~
ksh

y~
l
K~
gy

o~
v

ckjg[kM+h
d
ka
dS
kai

dk
kaa
dks
ko

fd
ki
dkS
kau

dh dq
kee ku
da
kam/n

dw
koo

ds
ke

d%
kah

[k [kk
f[k
[kh
[kq
[kw
kha khaa
khi
khee
khu
khoo
[kS
[kks
[kkS
[ka
[k%
khai
kho
khau
kham/n khah

[ks
khe

x
xk
ga gaa
xS
xks
gai
go

xs
ge

fx
gi

xh
gee
xkS
gau

xq
gu
xa
gam/n

xw
goo
x%
gah

blh dkj vc vki lkjks v{kjks dh ckjg [kM+h [kqn cuk lsdrs gSa ftlls
vkidks vaxzsth esa O;fDr;ksa vkSj LFkkuksa ds uke fy[kus esa fdlh dkj dh dksbZ
leL;k ugha gksxh%&
tSls%

jke
Ram
v{k;
Akshy

jkuh
Rani
tcyiqj
Jabalpur

vatyh
Anjali
flgksjk
Sihora

uhye
Neelam
lksukyh
Sonali

Rajs Notes of English Language

vc ge vaxzsth ds kCnksa dks i<+uk lh[ksaxs%&


Vowels : a,e,i,o,u.
Consonants: b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,
Semi-vowel: y
A=**,**
;fn fdlh vaxsth 'kCn dk var e ij gksrk gS rFkk e ls
igys ,d v{kj NksM+dj a feyrk gS rc a dk mPpkj.k nh/kZ
**,** gksrk gSA
tSls% bale
xkaWBA
dale
?kkVhA
tale
dgkuhA
gale
vkaW/kh] >a>kA
cave
xqQkA
pave
dPPkk ekxZ cukukA
wave
ygj] rjaxA
rave
ikxyksa dh rjg
O;ogkj djukA
Case
dj.k] ?kVukA
chase
ihNk djukA
trace
fp= mrkjukA
tame
ikyrwA
blame
nks"k yxkukA
cage
fiatjkA
wage
fookn@yM+kbZ 'kq: djukA
wager
'krZ yxkukA
sage
egkRekA
mate
lkFkhA
fate
fdLer@HkkX;A hate
uQjr djukA
rake
xksyh nkxukA
lake
>hy] ljksojA
haze my>u] ekafld ijskkuh daze
HkkSpDdk djukA
glaze
dkWap yxkukA
face
lkeuk djukA
shade
Nk;kA
plate
IysVA
date
rkjh[kA
made (V2/3) cuk;k@cuk] fy;k@pqdkA
gate
eq[; }kjA
;fn fdlh vaxzth 'kCn ds var esa are feyrk gS rks ,slh 'kCn jpuk
esa a dk mPpkj.k **,v** gksrk gSA
a=**,v**
tSls%
hare(she) [kjxks'kA
pare
de djuk@NkaVukA
fare
fdjk;kA
rare
vuwBk@vklk/kkj.kA
ware
crZuA
spare
vfrfjDrA
care
ijokg djukA
dare
lkgl djukA
share
ckaWVuk@Hkkx@fgLlkA
uk

Rajs Notes of English Language

nks O;atuksa ds chp feyus okys a dk mPpkj.k vDlj


** S ** tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%
cab
?kksM+k &xkM+h
dab
nab
idM+ukA
grab
gag
ewaWg esa diM+k Bwal nsuk rkdh
hag
tknwxjuh] pqM+SyA nag
wag pkjks rjQ fgykukA
pan
van
lsuk dh iafDrA tan
ramp
<kyukA
lap
nap >idh ysuk] mWa?kukA
cash
mash
ikuh esa mckyukA lash
bash oLrq dks rksM+us ds fy;s ekjukA
dash Vdjkuk] VDdj nsukA flap
damp
ue]xhykA
lag
camp
f'kfojA
battle
rattle
[kM+&[kM+ djukA tattle
slack
O;kikj esa eanhA crack
track
ixMaMhA
lack
sack cksjk] etcwr cM+s vkdkj dk FkSykA
fang yEcs rst nkaWr] fo"k nkarA
pang O;Fkk] nnZ] osnukA
fact
tact prqj] O;ogkj dq'kyA tract
sand

jsr] ckywA

band

FkiFkikukA
>iVukA
cksy uk ldsA
NksVk ?kksM+kA
rlyk@d<kbZ
peM+k cukukA
pkVukA
/ku] eqnzk] jksdM+A
pkcqd] dksM+kA
fgykuk] xfr]QM+QM+ukA
fiNM+ tkukA
;q)] yM+kbZ] la?k"kZA
xi yM+kukA
pVdkuk] pVdukA
vkHkko gksuk] deh gksukA

lpA
/kkfeZd ;k jktuhfrd
ekeys ls lEcaf/kr
if=dkA
QhrkA

vaxzsth 'kCn ds var esa] 'kq: esa vkSj chp esa feyus
okys a dk mPpkj.k **v** tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%
pillar
interval
urban
turban
tolerance
servant

LrEHk] [kEHkkA
regular
FkksMs+ le; dk fojkeA
'kgj]uxj ls lEcaf/krA
IkxM+h ;k lkQkA beggar
lgu'khyrkA
tolerant
ukSdj] lsodA
bask

fu;ferA

fHk[kkjhA
lgu'khyA
/kwi rkiukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

task
dfBu dk;ZA
bar
NM+] MaMh lyk[ksaA
lark
fouksn djukA
mark
fu'kkuA
spark
fpuxkjhA
cast
tky Mkyuk]
<kyuk] ukVd ds ik=A
class
d{kkA
glass
Xykl] dkWapA
cart
nks ifg;s okyh ?kksM+k&xkM+hA
raft
ydM+h ds yks dk rS;kj gqvk] xkA
shaft
rhj ;k Hkkyk] dk'k dh fdj.kA
darn
jQw djuk] jQw fd;k x;k LFkkuA
yarn
lwr] /kkxk] dgkuh ;k dFkkA
harm
{kfr] gkfuA
farm
i'kqikyu {ks=]
d`f"k {ks=A
far
nwjA
harsh
:[kkA
marsh
nyny ;k nynyh tehuA
lance Hkkyk ;k cYyeA
stance
[ksy esa fgV ekjrs
le; dh fLFkfrA
trance
vpsr voLFkkA
bath ckFk LukuA
batheckn~ Luku djukA
path ekxZ] jkLrkA
dart >iV] fdlh vksj ,dk&,d rhoz xfr ls >iVuk@c<+ukA
mart
ckt+kj ;k O;kikj dk sanzA
affection vQSD'ku se] vuqjkxA
ago
igysA
agree
lger gksukA
ahead
vkxsA
alive
thforA
alone
vdsykA
amass
laxzg djuk]
<sj yxkukA
assist
lgk;rk djukA appear
dV gksukA
along
fdukjs&fdukjs] ds lkFk&lkFkA
dqN vaxzsth 'kCnksa esa a dk mPpkj.k **vkW vks** tSlk Hkh gksrk
gS%&
tSls%
wad
MkaV] <DduA
wan
lqLr O;fDrA
wander vkokjk /kweuk] ekxZ ls HkVdukA
wanton
euekSthA
squad
lSfudks dk ny ;k
fdlh dk;Z gsrq
O;fDr;ksa dk nyA
cask
mask
char tyus
dark
shark
fast

dkB dk ihikA
eq[kkSVk
ls dkyk gksukA
va/ksjkA
cM+h eNyhA
rstA

Rajs Notes of English Language

fgpfdpkukA
uedA

halt
salt

swat t+ksj&t+ksj ls ekjukA


ball
xsan@xksykA
fall
fxjuk@fxjkukA
mall
LFkkuA
gall
fikA
also
HkhA
always
lnk@gesa'kkA
dwarf
cksuk@NksVkA
water
ikuh] tyA

halter
ckxMksj ;k yxkeA
squadron ?kqM+lokj lSfudksa
dk nyA
all
iwjkA
call
cqykuk@iqdkjukA
tall
yEckA
wall
nhokjA
almost
yxHkxA
alter
cnyukA
bald
xatkA
war
;q)A

E
;fn fdlh vaxsth 'kCn dk var e ij gksrk gS vkSj mlls igys
,d v{kj NksM+dj e feyrk gS rc e dk mPpkj.k **bZ** gksrk gS vkSj
vafre e dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk%&
tSls%

E=**bZ**
concede
intercede
complete
convene
impede

dUlhM Lohdkj djuk] eku ysukA


i{k ysukA
compete fr;ksfxrk djukA
iwjk djukA
incomplete v/kwjk NksM+ukA
yksxks dks lHkk ds fy;s ,d LFkku ij ,df=r djukA
jksduk] ck/kk MkyukA
stampede HkxnM+A

;fn vaxzsth kCnksa ds var esa ere feyrk gS rc r ds


igys feyus okys e dk mPpkj.k **bv** tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%
e=**bv**
mere
fevj flQZ] kq)] iw.kZA
sphere
cohere
fpiduk] feydj jgukA
atmosphere
nks O;atuksa
tSls%
jerk
verb
;fn

xksykA
okrkoj.kA

ds chp feyus okys e dk mPpkj.k **v**gksrk gS%&


e=**v**
/kDdk] >VdkA
herd
ikqvksa dk >q.MA
f;kA
vaxzsth kCnksa ds var esa el, en, ent, er feyrk gS rc e dk

Rajs Notes of English Language

mPpkj.k **v** tSlk gksrk gS%&

e=**v**

tSls%
barrel
rotten
rudder
ladder
muster
mutter
poster
tanker
river
shiver

ihikA
tunnel
lqjaxA
catj] ck>A
rotter ,d csdkj ;k fudEek O;fDrA
irokjA
hover eaMjkuk gok esa ,d gh txg
lh<+h]] ulSuhA
miller
vkaVk pDdhA
fujh{k.k vkfn ds fy;s yksxks dk bdk gksukA
/khjs&/khjs cksyuk] vLi"V cksyukA
iksLVjA
skipper dIrkuA
VsadkjA
timber
bekjrh ydM+hA
unhA
BaM ds dkj.k ;k Mj ds dkj.k didikukA
(shivering- didihA)

nks O;atuks ds ckn feyus okys e dk mPpkj.k **,** tSlk gksrk gS%&

e=**,**

tSls%
bed
led(V2)
fled
leg
yell
sell
well
send
dwell
mend
rend
keg
lend
bet
set
net
yet
dent

fcLrjA
us=Ro fd;kA
HkkxkA
iSjA
ph[kuk] fpYykukA
cspukA
dqaWvkA
HkstukA
jgukA
lq/kkjukA
QkM+ukA
NksVk ihikA
m/kkj nsukA
krZ yxkukA
O;ofLFkr djuk] tekuk]
tky] tkyhA
vfHkA
nkaWrA

red
ykyA
fed
f[kyk;k] MkykA
beg
Hkh[k ekaxukA
bell
?kaVhA
yellow
ihykA
fell
fxjkA
hell
HkkM+] udZA
bend
>qduk] >qdkukA
swell
lwtukA
mendance f>YyhA
render
leiZ.k dj nsukA
send
HkstukA
spend
[kpZ djukA
jet ty ;k xSl dh rst /kkjA
vLr gksukA
pet
ikyrw
wet
xhykA
rent
fdjk;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

went
bent(V2)
tent
pest
best

x;kA
>qdkA
iaMkyA
dhV] egkekjhA
lcls vPNkA

neck
felt

xnZuA
eglwl fd;kA

welfare
pen
ten

dY;k.kA
dyeA
nl 10A

HkstkAHkstuk&Hkstk
m/kkj fn;kA
[kpZ fd;kA
?kkslykA
gkWaFk ls cqykus dk
bkkjk djukA
melt
fi?kyuk] fi?kykukA
weld
/kkrq dks rikdj
ihVukA
held
idM+k] FkkekA
hen
eqxhZA

sent(V2)
lent(V2)
spent
nest
becken

cgqr de kCnksa esa var esa feyus okys e dk mPpkj.k gksrk gS%&
tSls%
finale
recipe
simile
formulae

fQukfy
jsflfi
flfefy
Qksjeqfy

var] lekiuA
[kkuk cukus dk uqL[kkA
miek vyadkjA
,d ls vf/kd lw=A

I
kCn dh kq:vkr esa rFkk nks O;atuksa ds chp feyus
okys i dk mPpkj.k **b** gksrk gS%&
tSls%

i=**b**
in vanjA
ill chekjA
till rdA
mill m|ksxA
drill fMy djukA
shrill t+ksj dh vkokt]
fit LoLFk] yk;dA
wit cqf)A
lit dkfkrA
link lEca/k] dM+hA
sink MqcksukA

if
;fnA
is
gSA
bill fcyA
fill HkjukA
will bPNkA
kill tku ls ekjukA
pill xksyhA
hill igkM+A
frill >kyjA
grill yksgs dh tkyhA
/ofuA
kit fdV~A
nit (louse) yh[kA (louse tqavk])
hit ekjukA
bit FkksM+kA
sit cSBukA
ink nokn@L;kghA
wink iyd >idukA
brink fdukjkA shrink fldqM+ukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

chip VqdM+kA
dip MqcksukA
lip gksaBA
nip dkVuk] fpdksVh Hkjuk] l[krh lsnokukA@kq: esa gh [kRe dj nsukA
tip uqL[kk crkukA
cliff
lh/kh pkuA
sniff ukd ls gok [khapukA
dish
O;atu AHkkstu lEca/khA
fish eNyhA
ripple
NksVh ygj] ygjnkj
gYdh vkoktA
nipple Lrukxz] tgka ls NksVk cPpk viuh ekWa dk nw/k ihrk gSA
nib isu dh uksdA
hilt
ewB] eqfB;kA
tilt >qdkoA
hint
lq>ko] ladsr ;k bkkjkA
tint jax Hksn] vkHkkoA
mint
iqnhukA
flint pded iRFkj ftlls vkx fudyrh gSA
pinch ukspukA
clinch
dhy xkM+ukA
tin fVuA
pin
fiu
din dksykgy] kksjxqyA
gift
rksgQkA
rift njkj] VwVA
wig
flj ds udyh ckyA
big cM+kA
dig
[kksnukA
fig vathjA
sick
chekjA
tick fukku yxkukA
click
fDyd djukA
flick gYdk >Vdk nsuk ;k gkj djukA
slick fpduh] fQlyuhA
lid
<DduA
lidded <DdunkjA
bid
cksyh yxkukA
hid(V2) Nqik;k] fNikA
kid
cPpkA
list lwphA
mist
dksgjk] /kqa/kA
;fn fdlh vaxzsth kCn dk var e ij gksrk gS rFkk
,d v{kj NksM+dj i feyrk gS rks i dk mPpkj.k **vkbZ** gksrk
gS%&
tSls%

i = **vkbZ**
bike ckbd nks ifg;ksa dh xkM+hA like ds tSlkA@ilan djukA
mike ekbks QksuA
hike in ;k=k djukA
bile fikA
tile [kijSyA
wile Ny] pkykdhA
bite ewaWg ls dkVukA
site txgA
kite iraxA
fine menkA
nine(9) ukSA
spine
jh< dh gM~Mh] es:n.M] iqLrd dk og Hkkx tks vkyekjh esa
j[kus ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

dine
pine
bribe
wide
ride
chime
time
dice
nice
life
knife
wipe
swipe

Hkkstu djukA
rM+iuk] cspSu gksukA
?kwl] fjorA
pkSaM+kA

line

ydhjA

fdukjkA
/khjs&/khjs ijarq yxkrkj
vkxs c<+ukA
lokjh djukA
stride yEcs&yEcs dneksa ls pyukA
?kafV;ksa dh /ofuA
crime
tqeZA
le;A
line
ydhj
iklk] xksVhA
mice
pwgsA
vPNkA
rice
pkoyA
thouA
wife
ifRuA
pkdwA
ripe
idk gqvkA
iksaNuk] jxM+dj lkQ djukA
>iVukA
side
slide

;fn vaxzsth 'kCnksa ds var esa ive feyrk gS rc i dk


mPpkj.k v ds lkFk feydj **bo** gksrk gS%&
tSls%

i = **bo**
impulsive vkosxkhy] vkosxA
cursive Vs<s&es<s v{kjA
evasive Vky eVksy djukA
attractive vkd"kZdA
passive fufL;A
primitive vkfndkyhuA
restive gBh] vfM+;yA

vkedA
lk/kkj.kA
dSnhA
Lodk;ZjrA
=qfViw.kZ] nks"khA
mRlo lEcU/khA
laKkkhy] tjk lh
ckr dk cqjk ekuus okykA
;fn vaxzsth 'kCnksa ds var esa ire feyrk gS rc i dk mPpkj.k
**vkb;@vk;** tSlk gksrk gSA
tSls%
i = **vb;@vk;**
dire
Hkuk;dA
mire
nynyA
wire
rkjA
spire
ehukj] pksVhA
desire
rhoz pkgr] vfHkyk"kkA empire
lkezkT;A
expire
var gksukA
aggrassive
assertive
captive
active
defective
festive
sensitive

Rajs Notes of English Language

i = **v**
tSls%
birth
girth
gird
skirt
swish
first

tUeA
?kksM+s ds lkt dh isVhA
ckWa/kuk] yisVukA
LdVZA
cSar ls ekjukA
igykA

mirth

g"kZA

shirt
girl
shirk

kVZA
yM+dhA
dke ls th pqjkukA

dqN kCnksa esa i dk mPpkj.k **bZ** Hkh gksrk gS%&


tSls%
casino
quarantine
regime
submarine
marine

dlhuks
DokjUVhu
jst+he
lCejhu
ejhu

tgkaW tqvk [ksyrs gSaA


lae.k jksxA
kklu dkyA
iuMqCchA
leqnzhA

dqN kCnksa esa i dk mPpkj.k **vkb** Hkh gksrk gS%&


tSls%
hind
behind
blind
child

gkb.M
fiNyk] fgjuhA
ds ihNsA
bind
va/kk] us=ghuA
grind
cPpkA
mild

cka/kukA
ihlukA
e`nq] eUn] kkarA

O
nks O;atuksa ds chp feyus okys o dk mPpkj.k ^^vkW**@**vks**
tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%&
bog
fog
jog
flog
loss
boss
hop

nynyA
dog
dqkkA
dksgjkA
hog
lqvjA
ekewyh lk /kDdk
log
fdlh okgu dh ;k=k]
@/khjs&/khjs nkSM+ukA
nSfud dk;Z&iathA
pkcqd ls ;k M.Ms ls ekjukA
gkuhA
toss
VkSlA
flDds dks mNkydj fd;k tkus okykA
ekfydA
moss
dkbZA
,d iSj ls dwnukA
top
PkksaVh ] fk[kjA

Rajs Notes of English Language

mop QkZ lkQ djus dks iksaNkA


clot te tkuk FkDdk cu tkukA
bolt
cksYV@fpVduhA
dot
fcUnqA
lot
HkkX;] la;ksx] cgqrA
rot
lM+uk] [kjkc gksukA
cock
eqxkZA
sock
ekt+kA
cod
ew[kZ cukuk] csodwQ
cukukA
pock
kjhj ij pspd dk fukkuA
rob
ywVukA
cost
dher gksuk] dher r;
djukA
lost (V2) [kks;kA
hobby
ilanA
soft
ueZA
bond
ca/ku] le>kSrk]
frKki=] ijra=rk A
mob minzoh ;k mksftr HkhM+A
cob
ukVk ?kksM+k VV~VwA
sob fllduk] fgpdh Hkjds jksukA lorry
ykSjhA
sorry
kfeZankA
hobble
yaxM+kdj pyukA
gobble
tYnh&tYnh [kkuk ;k fuxyukA
song
xhrA
long
yEckA
wrong jkSax xyrA
throng
HkhM+A
box
MCckA
fox
ykseM+hA
pomp oSHko] BkV&ckVA
romp
kksjxqy epkrs gq,
[ksyukA
;fn fdlh vaxzsth kCn dk var e ij gksrk gS vkSj ihNs dh vkSj
,d v{kj NksM+dj o feyrk gS rc o dk mPpkj.k **vks** gksrk gSA
tSls%
o= **vks**
bone
gM~MhA
cone
kadqA
throne
flagkluA
hope
vkkkA
mode fdlh dk;Z dks djus dk <axA code fu;ekoyh] fo/kh lafgrkA
pope
iknjhA
rope
jLlhA
slope <kyw tehu] igkM+h fdukjkA bore
cksj djuk] mok nsukA
toy
plot
slot
cot
not
got (V2)
rock
lock
mock

f[kykSukA
tehu dk VqdM+kA
[kkapk] dVko flDdkA
pkjikbZ] [kfV;k] [kkVA
ughaA
ik;kA
pkuA
rkykA
fp<+kukA

U
nks O;atuksa ds chp feyus okys u dk mPpkj.k **v** gksrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

tSls%

U=**v**
gush
osx ls cgukA
lush green gjk HkjkA
lust rhoz ykylk] oy djukA
hush
[kkeksk djuk@gksukA
hurry
tYnhA
mud
dhPkM+A
bud
vadqjA
cud
tqxkyh djukA
scud
fcuk fdlh ;Ru ds rst rFkk lh/ks nkSM+ukA
lump
lwtuA
hump
dwCkM+A
jump
mNyukA
bun
NksVk ehBk dsdA
fun
et+kA
pun
'ys"k vyadkjA
run
nkSM+ukA
sun
lwjtA
burn
tykuk] tyukA
turn
eksM+] eqM+ukA
dust
/kwyA
bust
euq"; ds vk/ks /kM+
dh ewfrZA
just
vHkh] balkQ f; O;fDrA must
vR;kf/kd vfuok;Z]
t:jhA
gust
gok dk rst >ksadkA
buzz
Hku&HkukukA
fuzz
jsr tSlk eghuA
sunk
Mwck gqvkA
flutter vO;ofLFkr djuk] vLr&O;Lr djukA
curl
?kqeko] eksM+A
furl
yisVuk] lesVukA
cut
dkVukA
nut
cknke] lqikjh]
ukfj;y vkfnA
but
ysfduA
hut
>ksiM+hA
shut
can djukA
rug
eksVk uh dkyhuA
mugger vke.kdkjhA
muggy
?kqVunkj fpifpik
ekSleA
hug
lhus ls yxkukA
drug
nok] vkS"k/khA
dub
nwljh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djukA
cub
ksj] jhN] ykseM+h ;k phrs dk cPpkA
rub
jxM+ukA
hub
/kqjk] ifg;s dk dsUnzA
musk
dLrwjhA
tusk
gkaaFkh ds ckgj ds nkWarA
mutter
/khjs&/khjs cksyuk] vLi"V cksyukA
butter
eD[kuA
curse
dkslukA
purse
cVqvkA
tub
Luku djus ds fy;s
cuk;k x;k ik=A
stub
dVs gq, isM+ dk BWaBkA such
bl dkj dk ,slkA
much
T;knkA
suck
pwluk cPps }kjk
Lruiku djukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

uj&fgju] [kjxksk] lkacjA


lwjt dh jkSkuh okykA
elkyksa }kjk lEgkydj j[kk x;k koA
udyh phtA
yummy t+k;dsnkjA
djkguk] vkg HkjukA
jumble
feykuk] f[kpM+h djukA
?kcjkgV ds lkFk fdlh oLrq dks laHkyukA
ohuhr] uezA
mumble cM+cM+kuk] vLi"V
cksyukA
puddle
iks[kjA
huddle
HkhM+ yxkukA
cuddle
fdlh dks xksn esa f[kykukA
rubble
iRFkj ;k bZaV ds NksVs&NksVs VqdM+sA
stubble vukt ds dV tkus ds ckn mldh BWaBhA
ruffle
ikuh vFkok jsr ij gYdh ygj cuukA
shuffle
feykuk] iSjksa dks ?klhV dj pyukA
bumper cM+kA
jumper dwnus okykA
slumber kkafr ls rFkk csfQdjh ls lksukA

buck
sunny
mummy
dummy
rumble
fumble
humble

;fn u ds ckn v{kj l, t, ;k ss feyrk gS rc u dk


mPpkj.k **m** gksrk gSA

u=**m**

tSls%
full Hkjk gqvkA

push

/kDdk nsukA

put j[kukA

pull

[khapukA

;fn fdlh vaxzsth kCn dk var e ij gks vkSj e ls igys ,d v{kj


NksM+dj u feyrk gS rc u dk mPpkj.k **b;w** gksrk gS%&
tSls%

tube Vk;j ds vanj dk V~;wc A


puke mYVh djuk] dS djukA
dupe /kks[kk nsuk] ew[kZ cukukA
nude cL=ghu] uaxkA

tune
mute
fume
assume

vykiA
kkar] pqiA
rst xa/k ls ;qDrA
lp eku ysukA

Y
y ls kq: gksus okys vaxzsth kCnksa esa y dk mPpkj.k **;** gksrk gS%&

Rajs Notes of English Language

y=**;**

tSls%
yes gkWaA
yell ph[kukA

yield
yet

gkj ekuukA
vHkhA

vaxzsth kCnksa ds var esa feyus okys y dk mPpkj.k **b** gksrk gSA
baby
carry
copy
lady lH;
many

cPpkA
ys tkukA
udy djukA
?kjkus dh efgykA
dbZA

belly
every
city
zany

isV dk van:uh HkkxA


R;sdA
kgjA
el[kjk] fonw"kdA

;fn fdlh vaxzsth kCn dk var y ij gksrk gS vkSj mlls igys


dksbZ O;atu feyrk gS rc y dk mPpkj.k **vkbZ**
gksrk gS%&
tSls%
y = **vkbZ**
cry jksukA
try dksfkk djukA
my esjkA
spy tklwlh djukA
reply mkj nsukA

dry
fry
sky
sly
by

lw[kkA
ryukA
vdkkA
/kwrZ] /kks[kscktA
ds }kjk] ls] dh cxy lsA

ai
vaxszth kCn ds var esa feyus okys ai dk mPpkj.k nh?kZ
**,** tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%
ai=**,**
bait tkuoj ;k eNyh idM+us ds fy;s tky MkyukA
trait y{k.k foks"krkA
gain
miyfC/k] vkxs
c< tkukA
main eq[;A
rain
o"kkZ gksuk] o"kkZA
srain eksPk yk nsukA
aid
enn djuk lgk;rk
djukA
maid dqekjh] lsfodk] ukSdjkuhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

raid gokbZ geykA


aim fukkuk yxkukA

braid
maim

claim nkok djukA


jail dkjkxkg] cUnhx`gA
rail jsy dh iVjhA
tail iwWaNA

faith
fail
mail
wait

twM+k] pksVhA
?kk;y djuk] cqjh
rjg pksaV igqWapkukA
kuk
HkjkslkA
vlQy gks tkukA
MkdA
bartkj djukA

ai ds ckn ;fn r feyrk rc ai dk mPpkj.k **,v**tSlk gksrk gS%&

ai=**,v**

tSls%

air
fair
chair
dairy

gokA
esykA
dqlhZA
nqX/kkkykA

airy
hair
fairy

goknkjA
ckyA
ifjA

ysfdu ;fn ai ds ckn n feyrk gS rc ai dk mPpkj.k **v**


gks trk gS%&
tSls%
ai=**v**
fountain >juk] QCckjkA
mountain igkM+A
certain

inkZA

vilain

xn~nkjA

ae dk mPpkj.k *bZ* tSlk gksrk gS&

ae=*bZ*

tSls%

aeon
;qxA
aegis
N=&Nk;k] la{k.kA
aesthetics lksan;Z kkL=A
aerodrome gokbZ vM~MkA

paediatrician ;qxA
aerial
gokbZA
aeroplane
gokbZ tgktA
aerate
gok Hkjuk] gok esa jgukA

AU
au dk mPpkj.k *vkW* tSlk gksrk gS&
tSls%
caution
daunt
dauntless
taunt

lqj{kk dh n`f"V ls lrdZrk] lko/kkuhA


fujkk djuk] MjkukA
fuHkZ;] fuMjA
dauntlessly fuHkZ;rk lsA
rkuk mykgukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

haunt
k;% Qsjh yxkuk] O;ax djukA
cause
dkj.kA
gauze
cgqr gh ckjhd diM+kA
pause
foJke] fojke] BgjkoA laud
lalk djukA
launch kjaHk djukA
stauch
cQknkjA
pauper
daxky] fu/kZu] fHk[kkjhA saucer rrjhA

AW
aw dk mPpkj.k *vkW* tSlk gksrk gS&
tSls%
saw
law
pawn
flaw
draw
sprawl
crawl
lawn ?kkaWl
pawn

ns[kkA
jaw
tcM+kA
fof/k dkuwuA
paw
iatkA
kjat dk I;knkA
claw tkucjksa ;k if{k;ksa dk iatkA
njkj ;k nks"kA
straw
iqvky] HkwalkA
[khapukA
brawl lksj epkdj yM+kbZ djukA
cs<axsiu ls gkaWFk&iSj QSykukA
cgqr /khjs pyukA
dawn
kr% gksuk] lqcg gksukA
dk eSnkuA
spawn
eNyh ;k eSMd ds vaMsA
fxjoh ;k tekurA

AY
a ds ckn ;fn y feyrk gS rc a dk mPpkj.k nh/kZ *,*
gksrk gS&
tSls%&
day
hay
ray
way
clay
slay
dishplay
bray
okay

fnuA
lw[kh ?kkWal
fdj.kA
jkLrkA
l[r fpduh iV~VhA
dRy djukA
nkZu] ltkoVA
x/ks dh vkotA
Bhd gSA

gay
nay ugha]
say
away
flay
delay
betray
decay
tray

lUuA
dsoy bruk gh ughaA
dgukA
nwjA
[kky mrkjukA
nsj djukA
fokokl?kkr djukA
lM+u] {k; gksukA
rkrjhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

EA
vaxzsth kCnksa ds chp esa feyus okys ea dk mPpkj.k *,* ] *,* ]
*bZ*] *bv* ] *,v* vkSj *v* tSlk gksrk gS&

ea=,

tSls%
bread

Mcy jksVhA

dead
weather
peasant
pleasant
steady
health
weapon
deaf

e`rA
ekSleA
fdlkuA
lq[knA
vpy] fLFkjA
LokLF;A
vL=&kL=A
csgjkA

xgjh fpark] mRlqDrk


;k Hk;A
feather ia[kA
heaven
LoxZA
peasantry "kd oxZA
spread
QSykukA
wealth
lEikh] /kuA
ready
rS;kjA
breast
Nkrh efgyk dhA
jealous
bZ";kZyqA

dread

ea = ,
break
steak

rksM+ukA
ekWal dk rqdM+kA

gkWaA

yea

ea = bZ
breach
beak
speak

mYya?kuA
rksM+ukA
cksyukA

reach
bleak
beam

bean
beat
neat
heap
leap
cream
ease
cease
tease

lUu eqnz esaA


ihVukA
lkQA
cgqr lkjkA
dwnukA
heA
lqxerkA
var djuk] lekEr
rax djukA

steam
heat
meat
cheap
clean
dream
lease
gksukA
leaf

igqWapukA
eugwl] mtkM+A
dM+h] lksaV] rjktw
dh MaMhA
HkkiA
xehZA
ekWalA
lLrkA
lkQ] lkQ djukA
liukA
Bsdk ikA
ikhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

sheaf
heal
seal
zeal

xkA
iqjuk] Hkjuk] Bhd
lhy yxkukA
mRlkg] tkslA

deal
gksukA
meal
reveal

O;ogkj djuk] lkSnkA


HkkstuA
nfkZr djuk] fn[kkukA

ea = bv
apear
fear
smear
ideal
dear
beard

dV gksukA
MjukA
iksrukA
vknkZA
f;A
nk<+hA

clear
ear
idea
year
dreary

lkQA
dkuA
rjdhcA
lkyA
mnklA

ea = ,v
bear jhN] lguk] tUe nsukA wear iguukA
tear QkM+ukA

ea = v
dearth
earn
search

deh] vHkkoA
dekukA
[kkstukA

early
learn
yearn

tYnhA
lh[kukA
rjlukA

EE
vaxzsth kCnksa esa feyus okys ee dk mPpkj.k *bZ*]*bv* vkSj *bZ*]
tSlk gksrk gS&
tSls%

ee = bZ

bee
knee
heed
breed

e/kq efD[kA
?kqVukA
/;ku nsukA
iSnk djukA

fee
feed
creed
breeze

kqYd] ifjJfedA
Mkyuk] f[kykukA
/keZ er] iaFkA
khry ean iouA

Rajs Notes of English Language

freeze
feel
green
jeep
seek
reef
cheek
fleet

teuk] cQZ cuukA


eglwl djukA
keel
gjkA
deep
thiA
meek
[kkstukA
beef
mHkjh gqbZ pkuksa dh iafDrA
xkyA
week
fdlh nsk dk tgkth xzwiA

mYVk djukA
xgjkA
uezA
xk;] cSy dk xksrA
lIrkgA

ee = bv
deer
e`x] fgj.kA
career
fodkl] xrh] thfodk]
iskkA
jeer etkd cukuk] galh mM+kukA
queer
fofp= vlk/kkj.kA
steer ,d ;qok cSyA
engineer vfHk;UrkA
sneer
galh mM+kuk] rkuk ekjukA
volunteer LosNk ls dk;Z djus okyk] Lo;a lsodA

beer
cheer

tkS dh kjkcA
kUuA

eu = ;w
euphony
euphonious

lqjhyh vkoktA
e/kqj ehBkA

eucalyptus fuyfxjh dk o`{kA


feud
iqrSuh nqkeuhA

ew = b;w
few
stew
hew

FkksM+kA
mckyus dk ik=A
dkVuk] rqdM+s djukA

curfew

?kjcanhA

new
dew
mew

u;kA
vkslA
fcYyh dh vkokt]
E;w djukA

ew =
cashew
blew (V2)
drew (V2)
chew

dktwA
gok pyhA
[khapkA
pckukA

flew (V2) mM+k@mM+hA


shrew
>xM+yw vkSjrA
threw (V2) QSadkA
eschew
VkyukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

ey = b
donkey
monkey
medley

x/kkA
canjA
feJ.kA

hockey
jersy
trolley

gkWdhA
tflZA
BsykA

ey = nh?kZ , ,
convey
they

igqWapkukA

survey losZ{k.kA

os yksxA

EI

ei = bZ
ceiling
deceit
deceive
perceive
receive
protein
seize

Nr dk Hkhrjh HkkxA
Ny] diVA
/kks[kk nsukA
vuqHko djuk] KkusfUnz;ksa
kIr djuk] ysuk] ikukA
olkA
dcts esa ysukA

conciet
vgadkjA
counterfeit tkyh] udyhA
}kjk Kkr djukA
receipt

jlhnA

ei = ,@,
heifer
friend

"V&iq"VA
nksLr] fe=] ;kjA

reinforce etcwr cukukA

ei = b
surfeit

vfrHkkstuA

forfeit

tqjekukA

ei = vkb
height
deity

mWapkbZA
nsoh&nsorkA

neither nksuk esa ls dksbZ ughaA

IE

ie = bZ
belief
brief

fooklA
laf{kIrA

believe
chief

Hkjklk djukA
eq[;A

Rajs Notes of English Language

field
fiend
grief
relief
shriek
thief
relief pSu]

{ks=] {ks= j{k.k djukA


fikkp] jk{kl] cgqr cqjk O;fDrA
nq%[kA
priest
vkjke] pSuA
shield
Pkh[k ekjuk] Bgkds yxkukA
pksjA
yield
vkjkeA
relieve

iknjh] iqjksfgrA
<kyA
gkj ekuukA
pSu ;k vkjke nsukA

ie = b
talkies

cksyrk flusekA

movie

fQYeA

ie = vbZ
lie
tie
client

ysVuk] >wB cksyukA


cka/kukA
xzkgdA

die ejukA
pie dpkSM+hA
diet vkgkjA

ie = bv
pierce
fierce
frontier

osk djuk] /kqluk] HksnukA


fgald] funZ;hA
lhekar] ljgnA
salient egRoiw.kZ] eq[;A

oa = vks
roach dkkspA
coast leqnz rV] leqn dk fdukjkA
roast HkwuukA
coat dqjrk] ysi] rg] ijrA
gloast larq"V gksukA

boast

ks[khA

toast
goat
coal

lsadukA
cdjhA
dks;ykA

oi= ok
memorirs
reportoire
reservoir

esEoktZ+
jsiVZ~okj
jst+oZokj

vkRedFkkA
[ktkuk] Hk.Mkj] laxzgA
dq.M] gkSt] tykk;A

Rajs Notes of English Language

OO

oo=
bloom
zoom
boon
spoon
food
loop
ooze
too
cool
roof
broom

iw.kZA
room
dejkA
CkM+k djukA
boost
vkxs c<+kuk] lgkjk nsukA
kFkZuk djukA
moon
pkWanA
pEepA
soon
tYnhA
HkkstuA
mood
euksnkk] fetktA
xkWaB] Qank] NYykA stoop
>idhA
nynyA
snooze
>idh ysuk] vylkukA
cgqr] HkhA
woo Lusg kIr djus dk ;kl djukA
BaMkA
fool
csodwQ] ew[kZA
:QA
hoof
?kksM+s] CkSy ;k fgj.k dk [kqjA
>kMwA

oo= m
book
look
nook
good
wood

iqLrdA
ns[kuk] fn[kukA
dejs dk dksukA
vPNkA
ydM+h] taxyA

cook
hook
brook
hood
wool

[kkuk idkukA
d.MA
ukyhA
duVksikA
u] uhA

flood
poor

ck<+A
xjhcA

oo= v
blood [kwuA
boor xWaokjA
kj

exception: door Mksj njoktk] }kj] pkS[kVA

OU
Ou= vkm
bounce
pound
hound
shout
pounce
shroud

dwnuk] mNyuk] fVIik [kkukA


oSHko ;qDr] xkSjo iw.kZA
fkdkjh dqkkA
t+ksj ls fpYykuk] A
>iVuk] ,dne yid dj iats esa tdM+ ysukA
dQuA

Rajs Notes of English Language

stout
clout
count
cloud
house
mount
vouch
grouch
pounch
sour

etcwr fVdkmA
loud
Wapk]k rst vkoktA
flj ij ekjk x;k eqDdkA
fxuukA
cknyA
found(V2) ik;k] feykA
edkuA
flout
fojks/k djukA
ij p<+ukA
fountain >jukA
ftEesnkjh ysukA
discount mYVk fxuukA
fldk;r djukA
mouth
eq[kA
NksVh FkSyhA
south
fnf{k.k fnkkA
[kV~VkA
devour
fuxyukA

ou= vkW *vks*


court
course
source

U;k;ky;] dpgjhA
ikB~; eA
ewy] tM+] vk/kkj] lzksrA

ou= mv
tour

;k=kA

tourist

i;ZVdA

ou= v
harbour cUnjxkg] iksrkJ;]
lqjfNr LFkkuA
candour [kkjkiu] Li"VrkA
behaviour crkZc] pfj=A
colour
jaxA
country nskA
couple
yM+dh vkSj YkM+ds dk tksM+kA
double
nks lkFk&lkFkA
courtesy uezrk] vno] fou;A
famous fl)] ekgwjA
marvellous vpEHkkA
wonderour vn~Hkqr] vkJ;ZtudA
journal nSudh] v[kckj] i=A
journalish i=dkjA
touch
NwukA
young
;qok] tokuA

arbour

yrkx`g] dqatA

ou=
youth

;qokA

group

lewgA

Rajs Notes of English Language

recoup
soup

{kfr&iwrhZ djuk] gkuh vknh ls j{kk djukA


lwiA
routine
thoup;kZ] ?kukeA

ou= vks
boulder
mould
courier

ikFkj dk cM+k rqdM+kA shoulder da/kkA


QQwanh] fpduh fehA soul
vkRekA
HkstukA

OW

ow= vkm
brown
crowd
crown
frown
gown

cknkeh Hkwjk jaxA


HkhM+] etekA
eqdqV] eqdqV igukukA
rsoj fn[kkukA
pksyk tkekA

growl
now
prow

xqjkZukA
how
vc] vHkhA
cow
ty;ku vFkok uko dk vxyk HkkxA

browse
clown
drown
down
howl

?kkl pjukA
tksdj] el[kjkA
ikuh esa Mwcdj ejukA
uhpsA
tksj dh ph[k] nnZ ds
dkj.k djkgukA
dSls\
xk;A

ow= vks
arrow
rhjA
below fcyks uhps
bow
?kuq"kA
crow
dkSvkA

borrow
bellow
brow
grow

m/kkj ysukA
xjtuk] fpYykukA
HkkSagA
cht cksuk]
fodflr gksukA
cguk] cgkukA
ihNk djuk]vuqlj.k
djukA

glow
hollow

peduk] nedukA
iksykA

shadow
tow
blow
mow
slow
low
sorrow

ijNkbZA
jLls }kjk ukSdk dks ikuh esa [khapukA
cguk] QkWadukA
elbow
dksguhA
uk
?kkWal dkVukA
low
uhpsA
/kkjsA
sorrow
nq%[kA
uhpsA
slow
/khjsA
nq%[kA
bow
/kuq"k] >qdukA

flow
follow

Rajs Notes of English Language

OY= vkW;@b
alloy
/kkrqvksa dk feJ.k] feJ /kkrqA
boy
yM+dkA
toy f[kykSukA
employ ukSdjh nsukA
joy [kqkh] vkuUnA

UE

ue=
blue
glue

uhykA
ljslA

clue
sue

bkkjkA
fdlh ij eqdnek dk;e
djukA

ue=;w
construe O;k[;k djukA
revenue
venue
lEesyu] LFkkuA due
subdue thruk] dkcw esa djukA

lsodksa dk nyA
ns;] mfpr] fufpr le;A

ue=] ;w] mb] ;wb


fruit wV QyA

nuisance U;wlUlukd esa


ne djus okykA
cuirse wl tgkt esa b/kj m/kj /kweukA
fluid ywM rjy nzO;A
tuition V~;wku v/;kiuA
bruise czwt+ pksaV ;k jxM+A

Cosonants= O;atu
B=c
babble
bachelor
backbite
bucket

rqrykukA
vfookfgrA
fdlh dh pqxyhA
ckYVhA

babe
back
bad
bud

cPpkA
ihNs dh vksj] ihBA
cqjkA
dyh] dyh yxkukA

C
c=l
c ds ckn ;fn e, i ;k y feyrk gS rc c dk mPpkj.k
*l* tSlk gksrk gS&
tSls%
balance
citizen

rjktwA
ukxfjdA

certain
advice

fufprA
lykgA

Rajs Notes of English Language

price
cycle
circle

dherA
lkbdy
?ksjkA

fancy
policy

dksjh dYiukA
;kstukA

c=d
cable
rkj] jLlkA
carve
ids xksLr ds NksVs rqdM+sA
coffin
rkcwr ftlesa ykk dks j[kdj tehu
colt
cNM+k] vukM+hA
crystal
clean
lkQ djuk] lkQ] LoPNAclear
cart
nks ifg;s okyh ?kksM+k xkM+hA
topic
ppkZ dk fo"k;] fo"k;A
comic
etkdh] gkL;tudA
friction
pact
laf/k] le>kSrkA
plastic IykfLVd] yphyk] <kyus ;ksX;A

esa xkM+k tkrk gSA


jRu] ikjnkhZ iRFkjA
Li"VA

?k"kZ.kA

c=k
;fn cds ckn ie, ia, io ;k ea feyrk gS rc c dk
mPpkj.k *k* tSlk gksrk gS%&
tSls%&
ancient iqjkukA
proficient oh.k] dqkyA
sufficient i;kZIrA
special
[kklA
facial
psgjs dk eq[k dkA
racial
tkrh ;k uLy ls lEcaf/krA
deficiency vkHkko] dfeA
efficient ;ksX;] dkfcyA
gracious d:.kke;A
spacious yEch pkSM+h txg] LFkkuA
precious ewY;oku] dherhA
ocean
leqnzA
optician pek cspus okykA
beautician lqanrkZ dh lekxzh dh nqdku pykus okykA

ch=p
arch
archer
march
charnnel

/kku] nsonwr] /kku /kekZ/;{kA


rhjankt] /kuq/kkZjhA
dne feykdj pyukA
nks lkxjksa dks feykus okyk ty ekxZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

chapter
chairity
preach
bench
drench
attach
munch
punch
inch
pinch
much
torch

v/;k;A
chair
iqU;] lgk;rkA
speech
minsk nsukA
stench
r[rA
fHkxksuk] rj djuk] xhyk djukA
ckWa/kuk] tksM+ukA
detach
k
T;knkA
Nsn djus dk ;a=] ?kwWalkA
k
,d QqV dk ckjokWa HkkxA
fpdksVh Hkjuk nokukA
T;knkA
such
ekkyA
porch

dqlhZA
Hkk"k.kA
nqxZU/kA

dkVuk] vyx djukA

bl rjg dk@dhA
}kje.MiA

ch=d
ache
nnZA
archaic kphuA
chaos
vO;oLFkkA
character pfj=A
chasm
xgjh [kkbZA
chemical jklk;fudA
technical rduhdhA
echo
xwaWt] fr/ofuA
christmas [kzhLr tUevksRloA chronic iqjkuh] yach chekjhA
chronology dykrqeA
chronicle bfrgklA
epoch ;qx] dkyA
orchestra ok|o`nA
scheme ;kstukA
scholar Kkuh] if.MrA
sepulchre edcjk] lek/khA stomach isVA
monarch jktk] lezkVA

ch=k
chagrin
champagne
charade
chef
cliche
machine

ukjktxhA
chauffeur futh MkbojA
,d dkj dh efnjkA
kCn igsyhA
/kku jlksb;kA chiffon iryk tkyhnkj diM+kA
f?klh fiVh ;qfDrA gauche QwgM+] Hkn~nkA
;a=A

Rajs Notes of English Language

*ch* silent words


yacht

;kWV ukSdkA

yachting ;kWfVax ukSdk fcgkjA

CK=d
black
attack
check
flock
pick up
lick
trick
pickle

dkyk] dfj;kA
vke.k djukA
tkapuk] kgA
euq";ksa dk lewgA
mBkukA
pkVukA
rjhdkA
vpkj] eqjCCkkA

back
brick
chicken
clock
sick
tick
sickle
fickle

ihBA
bZaVA
pwtk] cPpkA
nhokj?kM+hA
chekjA
fukkuA
gafl;kA
vfLFkj] vpyA

D= t
procedure i)frA
grandeur kkau] oSHkoA
soldier
lSfudA
graduate LukrdA
individual O;fDrxr] vyx] FkdA

ED= V
advanced mUurA
cursed
JkfirA
equipped (V2 of equip-nsuk)
punished nafMrA
shaped
vkdkj esa <kyk x;kA

cooked
idk gqvkA
drenched Hkhxk gqvkA
experienced vuqHkfoA
fixed
fu;qDrA

ed=M
crowed vf/kd HkhM+ okykA

assorted fofo/k dkj


dk feJ.kA
compicated lathnkA
dedicated lefiZrA
devoted (V2 and V3 of devote)fdlh dke esa viuk
le; vkSj kfDr yxkukA
concerned lEca/k j[kukA
composed cuk;k x;kA
deprived oafpr fd;k x;kA (deprive oafpr djukA)

Rajs Notes of English Language

G
g=t
g ds ckn ;fn e, i, ;k y feyrk gS rc g dk mPpkj.k *t*
tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%
age
bulge
cringe
fringe
deluge
digit
engine
gender

mej] vk;wA
angle
nsonwrA
lwtuA
change
cnykoA
Mj ds dkj.k nqcd tkukA
>kyjA
hinge
njckts vkfn dk dCtkA
ck<] lSykc] ?ku?kksj o"kkZA
vadA
energy
cy]kfDrA
batu] ;a=A
gem
ef.k] cgwewY; inkFkZA
fyaxA
gentleman lTtu iq:"k]

dqyhu euq";A
genuine tSU;wbu okLrfodA
strange vthcA
giant
jk{kl] nSR;A
gist
lkjkakA
ginger
vnjdA
refuge
kj.k] lgkjk] vkJ;A

wager krZ yxkuk] nkok djukA


germ
thok.kqA
gibber
tYnh&tYnh cksyukA
messenger nwrA
passage jkLrk] xfy;kjkA
refugee kj.kkFkhZA

;kn jgs together (,d lkFk) esa g dk mPpkj.k *x* gksrk gSA ,sls
vkSj Hkh kCn gksrs gSa ftlesa g dk mPpkj.k *x* gksrk gS%
tSls%

g= x
begin fcfxu kq: djukA

geyser xht+j ikuh xeZ djus


dk ;a=A
gear xh;j ekhu ds ;a= ls ifg;s dks tsM+s j[kus okyk ;a=A
hunger gaxj Hkw[kA
finger fQaxj WaxyhA
linger fyaxj nsj djukA
gift fxV migkjA
get xsV ikuk] kIr djukA girth xFkZ /kksM+h dh lkt
dh isVhA
give fxo nsukA
target VkjxsV y{k;A

gg= x

Rajs Notes of English Language

beggar
ragged
mugger

fHk[kkjh
QVs oL=A
vke.kdkjhA

sluggish

yM+[kM+kdj pyuk] yM+[kM+kukA

dagger
trigger
shaggy

dVkj] NqjkA
canwd dk ?kksM+kA
Hkn~ns] dM+s] fcuk
ca/ks ckyA

QU
qu= Do
sequence vuqxeA
quarrel
sequester lekt ls vyx jgukA
consequence urhtk] ifj.kkeA
quash
dqpyuk] nokukA
queen
quench vkx@I;kl cq>kukA
quest
quilt
xn~nk] jtkbZA
quip
quiz
tkWap ds fy;s u iwWaNukA
uk
request vkxzg djuk] vkxzgA
squint
HksaxkiuA
squeeze

>xM+k djukA

jkuhA
[kkstA
rkuk] mYykgukA

fupksM+uk jl cukukA

qu= d~
chequered
conquer
exchequer
mosquito

jax&fcjaxk thouA
k=q dks ijkftr djukA
jktdks"k] vFkZfoHkkxA
ePNjA
liquor

efnjkA

qu= d@d~
mosque elftnA
physique kjhj dh cukcVA

oblique
unique

frjNk] <kywA
vius <ax dkA

crease

diM+ks esa cukbZ


xbZ ykbuA

S
s =l
abusive

xkyh xkykSTk ls iwa.kZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

grease

clk] pchZA

curse
eclipse
likes
pipes
talks

dkslukA
vkafkd va/kdkjA
ilan djrk@rh gSA
ikbIlA
ckr djrk@rh gSA

eqDr djuk] NksM+


nsukA
universe czEgk.MA
glimpse >ydA
paradise LoxZ]lq[k dk LFkkuA
suspense jksekapA

release

s =T+k
accuse
alms
feelings
vision

nks"k yxkukA
Hkh[kA
Hkkouk,saA
n`f"V] dYiukA

lens
erase
dregs
bags
busy

pek] dSejk] nwjchu vkfn esa ;ksx


feVkukA
dismal
dwM+k djdVA
prism
FkSysA
brains
O;LrA
choose

advise
criticism
illusion
laurels

lykg nsukA
vyksPkuk] leh>kA
Hk`e] /kksdk] eksgA

gjs pednkj ikh;ksa


ckys ikS/ksA
fd;k tkus okyk dkWapA
nqf[k] mnklA
la{ks=A
fnekxA
pquukA

S =k
compulsion fookrk] etcwjhA

excursion lSj] euksjatu


ds fy;s Hkze.kA

revulsion vkdfLed Hkko ifjorZuA


mansion egy] cgqr ls dejksa okyk edkuA
pension ifjnkuA
tension
sure
iDdkA
ensure
sugar
kDdjA
controversial fooknkLinA
mission
passion HkkoukA
session
omission Hkwy&pwdA

QSykc] f[kpko] rukoA


lqjf{kr djukA
y{k;A
dky [k.MA

Sc
sc ds ckn e, i ;k y gks rc se dk mPpkj.k *l* tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%

sc= l

Rajs Notes of English Language

scene lhu nz;A


scythe lhbn gafl;kA

science lkbUl foKkuA


sciptic LdsfIVd ukfLrd]
/keZ ij fookl uk djus okykA

sc ds ckn ;fn a,o,u feyrk gS vkSj ;fn a,o,u ds ckn dksbZ O;atu
feyrk gS rc sc dk mPpkj.k lkekU;r% *Ld* tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%
sc=Ld
score Ldksj dksb la[;kA
scabbar LdScj ryckj dh E;kuA
scar Ldkj ?kko] ;k nkx dk fukkuA
scare Ldsvj Mjkuk
scare Ldsvj MjkukA
screem Lhe ph[kuk] fpYykukA
screen Lhu inkZA
scroll Lksy yisVk gqvk dkxtA
script fLIV fy[kkoV] gLrfyfiA
scan LdSu lko/kkuh ls v/;;u djukA
sc dk mPpkj.k dqN kCnksa esa *k* Hkh gksrk gS%

tSls%

sc=k

conscious dkSUkl fparkrqjA concience dkSUkl O;fDrRoA


concierge dkSfUkjt }okjiky] }okjikfyuA

T
t ds ckn ;fn ure feyrk gS rc t d mPpkj.k *p* tSlk gksrk
gS%
tSls%
T= Pk
capture dSIPkj dSn djukA
culture dYpj lH;rk] laLfrA
departure fMikpZj LFkku] jokuxhA
expenditure ,@bDLisfUMpj [kpZ] O;;A
feature Qhpj foks"krk] y{k.kA
frature QSzDpj gM~Mh dk VwVukA
furniture QfuZpj
future ;wpj Hkfo";A
gesture tsLPkj kjhj ds fdlh Hkkx dk fgyukA
literature fyV~jspj lkfgR;A

Rajs Notes of English Language

moisture eksbLPkj ufeA


picture fiDpj rLohjA
puncture iaDpkj
signature flXuspj gLrk{kjA
sructure LVDpj <kapkA
torture VkspZj fool djukA
venture osUpj lkgfld dke djuk] tksf[ke mBkukA
century lsUpqfj lrkCnhA

s ds ckn ;fn ion feyrk gS rc Hkh t dk mPpkj.k


*p* tSlk gh gksrk gS%
tSls%
combustion dEcLpu ngu] Toyukhyrk] tyus ds f;kA
congestion dUtsLpu HkhM+&HkkM+A digestion MkbtsLpu ikpuA
question Dolpu uA

;kn jgs fd actual esa Hkh t dk mPpkj.k *p* gh gksrk gSA


actual ,Dpqvy okLrfodA
;fn t ds igys s u gks vkSj t ds ckn ia, ie ;k io
feyrk rc t dk mPpkj.k *k* tSlk gksrk gS%

tSls%
cautious
nutrition
caution
nation
quotient
nuption
partial
martial

t=k
dkWkl
U;wfVkl
dkWku
usku
DokskUV
uIku
ikkZy
ekkZy

pkSdl] lpsrA
iq"IdkjdA
lqj{kk dh nzf"V ls] lrdZrk] lko/kkuhA
jk"VA
HkkxQy] yfC/kA
fookg lEc/khA
v/kwjk] vkafkdA
;q) lEcaf/kA

Th=Fk
author
both
earth
oath
breadth
health

vkWFkj ys[kdA
cksFk nkuksA
vFkZ i`FohA
vksFk dle] lkSxU/kA
cszM~Fk pkSM+kbZA
gsYFk LokLF;A

beneath fcuhFk ds uhpsA


cloth DyksFk diM+kA
growth xzksFk mUurh] fodkkA
path ikFk jkLrk] ekxZA
breath czsFk lkalA
length ysUXFk yEckbZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

wealth
osYFk /kuA
froth QzksFk >kxA
filth
fQYFk dwM+k] eSykA
filthy fQYFkh xank] vlyhyA
lengthy ysYXFkh yEckbZ ds fglkc lsA
lethal
ysFky e`R;qdkjd] k.k ?kkrdA
myth feFk ikSjkf.kd@dfYir dFkkA
mythical fefFkdy dkYifud] vokLrfodA
theme Fkhe fo"k;A
theorem fFkvksje es;A
thing fFkax oLrq] pht] ckrA
thunder FkaMj
thy Fkkb rsjkA
;fn th ds ckn e, feyrk gS rc th dk mPpkj.k
*n* tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%
th= n
another ,d vkSj] nwljkA
brother HkkbZA
father firkA
further vkxsA
leather peM+kA
other nwljkA
rather rqyukRed vFkZ esaA
breathe lkal ysukA
clothe fcuk flys diM+sA
clothes flys gq, diM+sA
thee rq>sA
gathering HkhM+A
;kn jgs fd this vkSj worthy esa Hkh th dk
mPpkj.k n gh gksrk gS%
tSls%
th= n
this fnl ;s@;gA
worthy onhZ ;ksX;] yk;dA

X
x=Dl
axe
tax
excuse
extra
text
toxin ,d

dqYgkM+hA
djA
NekWa djukA
djuk
vfrfjDrA
ewy ikBA
foks"k dkj dk fok tks

relax
vkjke djukA
boxer
eqDdscktA
extent
{ks=] lhekA
next
vxykA
taxic
tgjhykA
ouLifr;ksa ls cuk;k tkrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

x=Xt+
examination
example
exotic

ijh{kkA
mnkgj.kA
;ksx esa ykukA

exertion
exert

;Ru] Je] esgurA


;kl djukA

X mPpj.k *Dk* gksrk gS%

tSls%

x=Dk

anxious
complexion

fparkrqjA
jax&:iA

noxious gkuhdkjdA
obnoxious ?k`f.kr] frjLdkj ;ksX;A

gu ds ckn ;fn dksbZ Loj feyrk gS rc gu dk


mPpkj.k *x* gksrk gS%&

gu=x

tSls%
guard
guest
guile
guilty

igjsnkjA
vfrfFkA
NyA
vijk/khA

guess
guidance
guilt
guy

vanktk yxkukA
ekxZnkZuA
vijk/kA
vkneh] balkuA

Silent letters
h silent words.
heir okfjlA
honour lEekuA

honest bekunkjA
hour ?kaVkA

gh silent words.
though ;|fiA
bough MkyhA
bought [kjhnkA
thought fopkjA
drought MkmV lw[kkA
flight mM+kuA
night jkrA
might kfDrA

although ;|fiA
plough gy pykukA
nought dqN ugha] csdkjA
brought yk;kA
delight
vkuanA
light gYdk] dkkA
right lghA
sight nzf"V] utkjk] utjA

Rajs Notes of English Language

tight dlk gqvkA


fight yM+ukA
eiht vkBA
freight tgkt ij ynk ekyA
haughty vfHkekuh] vgadkjhA naughty uV[kV] kjkjrhA
high WapkA
nigh fudV] ikl dkA
k
sigh vkg HkjukA
thigh tka?kA
neigh us ?kksM+s dk fgufgukukA
weigh os otu djuk] rkSyukA
neighbour iM+kslhA
through Fkzw dh enn ls]
ds ikjA
gh dk mPpkj.k dqN kCnksa esa *Q* tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%
gh=Q
cough dQ [kkalh][kkalukA
uk enough buQ i;kZIrA
tough VQ dfBu] dBksjA rough jQ dPpk] [kqnqZjkA
laugh ykQ galukA
laughter ykVj galhA

d silent words.
d ds ckn ;fn g feyrk gS rc d dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
fcYyk] fdlh ckr dk rhdA
gVkuk] ljdkukA cartridge dkjrwl dk [kksy]
iqyA
nudge
dksguh ls gYdk /kDdk
nsukA
smudge /kCCkk ;k nkxA
edge
fljk cukuk] fdukjh
cukukA
knowledge KkuA
pledge
ca/kd] tekurhA
budget
vk; [kpZ fooj.kA cudgel
MaMk] lksVkA
dodge
,d rjQ f[kldukA

badge
budge
bridge

t silent words.
;fn t ds rqjar ckr ch feyrk gS rc ,sls kCnksa esa
t mPpkj.k ugha gksrk%
tSls% batch
VksyhA
catch
idM+ukA
hatch
vaMs lsukA
latch
pVduh] dq.MhA
match
fr;ksfxrkA
fetch
tkdj ykukA

retch
witch
sketch
scratch
itch
;fn vaxzsth
ugha gksrk%
tSls% bustle
hustle
epistle
castle
wrestle
glisten
hasten
listen
soften

mYVh djukA
tknwxjuh] Mk;uA
js[kkrhA
[kjkSapA
[kkt] [kqtyhA

switch
kitchen
stretch
snatch

CkVuA
jlksbZA
[khapdj cM+k djukA
NhuukA

kCn jpuk esa stle ;k sten feyrk gS rc Hkh t dk mPpkj.k


tYnh vkSj mrkoysiu ls dke
/kDdk nsukA
bristle
/kkfeZd i=A
jostle
egy] fdykA
whistle
dqfLr yM+ukA
fasten
txexkuk] >ydukA
tYnh djukA
lquukA
moisten
uje dj nsukA

djukA
tkuojksa ds dMs+ ckyA
/kDde&/kDdk djukA
lhVh] lhVh ctkukA
cka/kuk] QkalukA

ue djuk]xhyk djukA

cristmas esa Hkh t dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gSA

g silent words.
;fn g ds rqjar ckn m ;k n feyrk gS rc g dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
paradigm iSjkMkbe uequkA
benign n;kyq] gkuh jfgrA
malign cnuke djukA
sign fpUgA
reign jsu lklu] jkT;A
gnash xqLls esa nkWar ihlukA

phlegm yse dQA


design uewukA
resign LrhQk nsukA
feign Qsu cgkuk cukukA
foreign Qksfju fonskhA
gnat ePNj tSlk dhVA

c silent words.
;fn fdlh kCn ds var esa scle feyrk gS rc ,sls kCnksa esa c dk mPpkj.k
ugha gksrk gS%&
tSls%
corpuscle dkWiZly jDr df.kdkA
muscle
ely
ekal iskhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

n silent words.
;fn kCn ds var esa m ds ckn n feyrk gS rc ,slh
kCn jpuk esa n dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
autumn Ikr>M+A
column dkWyeA
hymn
Lrqfr] kFkZukA
damn
fuank djukA
condemn fuank djuk] nks"kh BgjkukA

p silent words.
vaxzsth kCn esa ;fn pn ;k ps feyrk gS rc p dk
mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
pneumonia
psalm
psycology

fueksfu;kA
/kkfeZd Hktu ;k xhrA
euks&foKkuA

h silent words.
;fn r ds ckn h feyrk gS rc h dk mPpkj.k ugha
gksrk%&
tSls% rhyme
dforkA
rhythm
y;A
wh ls kq: gksus okys T;knkrj kCnksa esa vktdy h dk mPpkj.k
ugha gksrk gS%
tSLks%
what
D;k\ tksA
wheat
xsagwaWA
wheel
pdkA
wheeze lkal ysrs le; lqukbZ
nsus okyh vkoktA
when
dc\
where
dkgkWa\
which
dkSu lk@lh\
whim
ekSat] rjax] ygjA
whishper dkukQwlh djuk] /kheh vkokt esa cksyukA
white
lQsnA
why
D;ksa\
who
dkSu\
whole
iwjkA
whom
fdlls \
whose
fdldk\
;fn w ds rqjar ckn r feyrk gS rc Hkh w dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
wrap
yisVukA
wring
fupksM+ukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

wrinkle
wrong

>qjhZA
xyrA

dykbZA

wrist

vkSj dqN ,sls kCn gSa ftlesa w dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls%
answer
two

mkjA
nks 2

sword

ryokjA

k silent words.
;fn k ds rqjar ckn n feyrk gS rc ,sls vaxzsth kCnksa esa k dk
mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%
tSls% knock
[kV[kVkukA
knack
dkSky] n{krkA
knead
vkaVk xwWaFkukA
knee
?kqVukA
knit
cquukA
knot
xkWaBA
know
tkuukA
knoll
Vhyk] NksVh igkM+h] ?kaVh
dh vkoktA
knowledge KkuA

l silent words.
;fn l ds ckn m, k, f, ;k d feyrk gS rc ,sls kCnksa esa l dk mPpkj.k ugha
gksrk gS%
tSls%
balm
calm
yolk
folk
walk
could
palm

eygeA
calf
kkarA
half
tjnhZ (yellow part of an egg)A
yksxA
talk
pyukA
chalk
ldkA
should
gFksyhA
would

cNM+kA
vk/kkA
ckr djukA
pksdA
pkfg;sA
fufpr ghA

b silent words.
;fn m ds rqjar ckn b feyrk gS rc b dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk%
tSls%
bomb

ce] xksykA

tomb

dcz] edcjkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

dumb
climb
numb

xwaxk] ewdA
p<+ukA
lqUu] psruk jfgrA

lamb
limb
thumb

eseuk] Hkksyk O;fDrA


vax] kk[kk] NksjA
vaxwBkA

bu kCnksa esa Hkh b dk mPpkj.k ugha gksrk gS%


tSls%
debt MsV dtZA
debtor MsVj dtZnkjA
doubt MkmV ladkA
subtle lVy lw{eA

ue silent words.
catalogue dSVykSxk lwphi=A
epilogue ,fiykSx ukVd dk milagkjA
dialogue MkbvykSx ckrphr] lacknA
fatigue QVhx FkdkoVA
intrigue bUVhx xqIr "kM;a=] lkftkA
tongue
rax thHkA
vaxzsth kCnksa esa ;fn gui chp esa feyrk gS rc gui dk mPpkj.k *fXo*
tSlk gksrk gS%
tSls%
anguish O;kFkk] osnukA
distinguish QdZ crkukA
extinguish jkskuh ;k vfXu cq>kukA
languid ean]fkfFky] lQwfrZghuA
vaxzsth kCnksa esa gui dk mPpkj.k *x* Hkh gksrk gS%
tSls%
beguile fcxkby /kks[kk nsukA disguise fMLxkbt+ cukoVh
kDyA
contiguity dkWfUVX;wbfV laidZ] lehirk] fudVrkA
roguish jkWfxk /kwrZ] ljkjrh] uV[kVA

geon dk mPpkj.k *tu* gksrk gS%


tSls%
burgeon c`{k esa uohu ikh;ksa dk fudyukA
surgeon kY; fpfdRldA
pigeon
dcwrjA

Rajs Notes of English Language

gion dk mPpkj.k Hkh *tu* gksrk gS%


tSls% legion fokky lsukA
religion /keZA

region nsk {ks=A

geous dk mPpkj.k *tl* gksrk gS%


tSls%
gorgeous HkO;] vfr lqUnjA courageous lkglh] fuMjA

gious dk mPpkj.k Hkh *tl* gksrk gS%


tSls% religious /kkfeZdA

dqN vkSj Hkh dfBu mPpkj.k okys kCn


alcohalvWyDgkWy kjkcA
asthma ,leknek] okl jksxA
bamboo cWEcw ckWalA
business fcfT+ul O;kikjA
contonment dSUVwUeUV NouhA
cupboard dcZM vkyekjhA

bosomcqt+eNkrh]lhuk] fnyA
canal duSy ugjA
cereal flvfjvy vuktA
debut MsC;w Fke nkZu]
Fke ;RuA
elite ,yhV pqfuank yksxA
ennui vksUoh c] mpkViuA
entrepreneur vkWUVuj m|eh] m|edrkZA
exhibition ,fDlfcku nkZuhA
feminine Qsfefuu L=h tSlk] L=hokpdA
genre tkWuj tkrh] dkj] HksnA
ghost ?kksLV HkwrA
impasse bEiSl can xyhA
masculine eSLD;qfyu enkZuk iq:"k tSlkA
massage eWlkt ekfykA
mishap feLgSi nq/kZVukA
pistol fiLVy fiLrSyA
poignant ikWbUkUV n;fonkjdA
preposition fiksft+ku@sift+ku laca/k lwpdA
rapport jWiksj laidZ] ?kfu"BrkA
tiny Vkbuh cgqr NksVkA
ballet cWys u`R; ukV~;A
ricochet fjdks VIik [kkukA
sachet lWks FkSyhA
women oksesu vkSjrA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Words which are difficult to spell.


balloon cywu xqCckjkA
bouquetcqdsQwyksa dk xqYknLrkA
cassette dlsV
etiquette ,fVdsV fk"VkpkjA
bureau C;wjks dk;kZy;A
campaign dWEisu vfHk;kuA
colleague dyhx lgdehZA

battaliancVkfy;ulsuk dknyA

cigarette flxjsV
bungalow caXyks caxykA
calorie dWyfj m"ekadA
chauffeur kksQjfuth MbojA
colonel duZy QkSt dk ,d cM+k
vQljA
commission dfelu nykyhA
committee dfefV lferhA
guarentee xkjaVh vkokluA
polytechnic ikWfyVsfDudcgqfkYiA
connoisseur dkWulj ikj[khA
coupon dwiu
depot Msiks xksnkeA
desiccated MsfldsfVM lw[kkA
despair fMLisvj fujkkkA
dictionary fMDkujhkCndkskA
diesel Mht+y
fantasy QsUVfl dYiukA
gauge xst ekiA
grammar xzkej O;kdj.kA
kerosene dsjkslhu feh dk rsyA lieutenant ysVsuaV lsuk dk ,d
inA
malaria eysfj;k
moustache eLVkk ewWaNA
omelette vkWeysV
parachute isjkkwV
privilege ffofyt foks"k f/kdkjA
queue D;w iafDrA
rhythm fjne y;A
technique VsDuhd rduhdA
vaccuum oWD;we [kkyh txgA
woollen owyu uh diM+sA
receipt fjlhIV jlhnA
diarrhoea Mkbfj;k nLrA
schedule ksM~;wy fu/kkZfjr
dk;ZeA
accomodate vdkWeMsV vkokl LFkku nsukA
entrepreneurvkWUVuj u;k m|ku kq: djus okykA

dqN eRoiw.kZ u vkSj muds mkj


u% okD; D;k gS \
What is a Sentence?
mkj% kCnksa dk ,slk lewg tks fdlh vFkZ dks iw.kZ :i ls Li"V
djrk gS] okD; dgykrk gSA
Such a group of words which makes a complete

Rajs Notes of English Language

sense is a Sentence. (The sun rises in the east.)


u% kCn&leqnk;@okD; [k.M D;k gS\
What is a Phrase?
mkj% kCnksa dk ,slk lewg tks fdlh vFkZ dks Li"V djrk ij iw.kZ
vFkZ dks ugha] oks kCn&leqnk;@okD; [k.M dgykrk gSA
Such a group of words which makes a sense, but not
complete sense is called a Phrase.
( on the table, in the room, and after 6 hours.)
u% uokPkd okD; D;k gS\
What is an Interrogative Sentence?
mkj% ,slk okD; ftls i<us ls gesa fdlh u dk cks/k gksrk gS]
oks okD; uokpd okD; dgykrk gSA
Such a sentence which we read and find it asking a
question is called an Interrogative Sentence.
or
Such a sentence which asks us a question is called an
Interrogative Sentence.
(Did you see that? , What is your name? )
u% okD;kak D;k gS\
What is a Clause?
mkj% okD; dk ,slk Hkkx ftlesa viuk mn~ns; vkSj fo/ks; gks vkSj
tks laKk] fo'ks"k.k] f;k&fo'ks"k.k esa ls fdlh ,d dk dke djs
okD;kak dgykrk gSA
The part of a sentence, with its own subject and
predicate, doing the work of a noun, or an adjective
or an adverb is a Clause.
( He has a watch which is made of gold.)
u% fo/ks; D;k gS\
What is a Predicate?
mkj% okD; dk oks Hkkx tks drkZ ds ckjs esa crkrk gS oks fo/ks;
dgykrk gS\
The part of a sentence which tells what is said about
the subject/doer.
(The earth moves round the sun.)

Exclamatory Sentences
ftu okD;ksa esa vp;Z O;Dr djrs gSa ;k viuh rhcZ bPNk dks

Rajs Notes of English Language

12345678910-

vpkud ls dV djrs gSa] oks Exclamatory Sentences dgykrs


gSaA ,sls okD; dh dYiuk igys ls gh ugha dh tkrh] ,sls okD;
vpkud ls gh drkZ ds eu esa vkrs gSa vkSj oks cksy nsrk gSA ,sls okD;ksa dks
fy[kus ds ckr var esa exclamatory sign/exclamation mark (!)
yxk;k tkrk gSA
Assertive into Exclamatory Sentences
Assertive Sentences
Exclamatory Sentences
lwjt cgqr xeZ gSA
fdruk xeZ gS lwjt!
The sun is very hot.
How hot the sun is!
rqe cgqr ew[kZ gksA
fdrus ew[kZ gks rqe!
You are very stupid/fool.
What a/ How stupid you are!
oks cgqr [kwclwjr fn[k jgh FkhA
fdruh [kwclwjr fn[k jgh Fkh oks!
She was looking very beautiful. How beautiful she was looking!
ijesoj cgqr n;kyw gSA
fdruk n;kyw gS ijesoj!
God is very kind.
How kind God is!
;s ioZr cgqr Wapk gSA
fdruk Wapk gS ;s ioZr!
This mountain is very high.
How high this mountain is!
oks jktk cgqr funZ;h FkkA
fdruk funZ;h Fkk oks jktk!
That king was very cruel.
How cruel that king was!
oks cgqr eklwe gSA
fdruk eklwe gS oks!
He is very innocent.
How innocent he is!
;s vke cgqr Lokfn"V gSA
fdruk Lokfn"V gS ;s vke!
This mango is very sweet.
How sweet this mango is!
rkt cgqr [kwclwjr yxrk gSA
fdruk [kwclwjr yxrk gS rkt!
The Taj looks very beautiful. How beautiful the Taj looks!
oks cgqr cksfjax gSA
fdruk cksfjax gS oks!
He is very boring.
How boring he is!

dqN vkSj okD;


12345-

D;k vkneh gS oks!


What a man he is!
D;k rjdhc gS!
What an idea!
D;k fopkj gS vkids!
What thoughts you have!
D;k ukaprh gS oks!
What a dance she does!
okg] okg!
Marvellous!

Rajs Notes of English Language

6789101011121314161516151715161516-

cgqr cf<+;k!
Excellent!
cM+s nq[k dk lekpkj gS!
How sad!
QVkQV dhft,!
Hurry up, please!
mldh bruh fgEer!
How dare he!
,slk dgus dh rqEgkjh fgEer dSls gqbZ!
How dare you say that!
okg!
Wow!
vks I;kjs!
Oh dear!
fdruk vPNk!
How sweet!
fdrus vPNs gks rqe!
How sweet you are!
Hkxoku dk yk[k&yk[k kq gS!
Thank God!
;s fnu ckj&ckj vk,!
Many happy returns of the day!
vkidk HkkX; vkidk lkFk ns!
Best of luck!
c/kkbZ gks!
Congratulations!
fdruh keZ dh ckr gS!
What a shame!
fdrus nq%[k dh ckr gS!
How tragic!
vc pkgs tks gks!
Come what may!
tjk laHky dj!
Watch out!
fdruk lq[kn vkp;Z!
What a pleasant surprise!
dgha utj uk yxs!
Touch wood!

Rajs Notes of English Language

Direct and Indirect Speech (Narration)


Direct vkSj Indirect Speech (narration) fdlh us D;k dgk ;k
fy[kk mlh ckr dks crkus ds nks vyx&vyx rjhds gSa(
Direct Speech (Narration) esa tks oDrk us dgk ;k fy[kk]
mlds 'kCnksa dks tSlk dk rSlk cksyk ;k fy[kk tkrk gSA
Rajs Notes of English Language

He says, I like coffee.


oks dgrk gS] ^^eq>s dkWQh ilan gSA**
Indirect Speech (Narration) esa tks oDrk us dgk ;k fy[kk]
mls vius 'kCnksa esa dgk ;k fy[kk tkrk gSA
He says that he likes coffee.
oks dgrk fd mls dkWQh ilan gSA
dqN vkSj mnkgj.k(
1.
I say, Leave him now.
( Direct Speech (Narration))
eSa dgrk gwWa] ^^mls vHkh NksM+ksA**
I order you to leave him now.
(Indirect Speech (Narration))
eSa rqEgsa vknsk nsrk gwWa fd mls vHkh NksM+ksA
2.
She says, I get up early in the morning.
( Direct Speech )
oks dgrh gS] ^^eSa lqcg tYnh mBrh gwWaA**
She says that she gets up early in the morning.(Indirect Speech)
oks dgrh gS fd oks lqcg tYnh mBrh gSA
3.
Deeksha says, I am busy.
( Direct Speech )
nh{kk dgrh gS] ^^eSa O;Lr gWawA**
Deeksha says that she is busy.
(Indirect Speech )
nh{kk dgrh gS fd oks O;Lr gSA
4.
He said to me, Come tomorrow.
( Direct Speech )
mlus eq>ls dgk] ^^dy vkukA**
He asked me to come the next day.
(Indirect Speech )
mlus eq>s dy vkus dks dgkA
5.
He said, The earth moves round the sun. (Direct Speech)
mlus dgk] ^^i`Foh lw;Z dk pDdj yxkrh gSA**
He said that the earth moves round the sun. (Indirect Speech )

Rajs Notes of English Language

mlus dgk fd i`Foh lw;Z dk pDdj yxkrh gSA


Direct Speech dks Indirect Speech esa cnyus ds fu;e(
Subject Reporting Verb Object
Rohan says to
his brother,

Reporting Speech
I am going to my office.

Rajs Notes of English Language

1- Direct Speech esa Reporting Verb ds ckn ;fn dksbZ Object gS rc


Object ds ckn comma ( , ) yxk;k tkrk gS vkSj Reporting
Speech dks inverted comma (.) esa j[kk tkrk gSA
He says, I am right.
He says to me, I am right.
2- Indirect Speech esa cnyrs le; comma ( , ) dks gVkdj that
yxk;k tkrk gS vkSj inverted comma (.) dks Hkh gVkdj
okD; ds vuqlkj Pronoun esa ifjorZu fd;k tkrk gSA
He says that he is right.
He tells me that he is right.
3- ;fn Reporting Verb Present Tense esa gks rc Reporting Speech
ds Tense esa fdlh dkj dk dksbZ ifjoZru ugh gksrk] dsoy
Reporting Verb esa ifjorZu gksrk gS ;fn Object feyrk gS rc]
ojuk ughaA
Rohan says, I am going to my office.
Rohan says that he is going to his office.
Rohan says to his brother, I am going to my office.
She tells his brother that he is going to his office.
4- Reporting Speech esa Pronoun esa gksus okys ifjorZu vkids
le>us dh 'kfDr ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
She says, I am right.
(Direct Speech)
oks dgrh gS] ^^eS
^^eSa lgh gwWaA**
She says that she is right.
(Indirect Speech)

Rajs Notes of English Language

oks dgrh gS fd oks lgh gSA


She says to me, You are wrong. (Direct Speech)
oks eq>ls dgrh gS] ^^vki
^^vki xyr gksA**
She says to (tells) me that I am wrong.
(Indirect Speech)
oks eq>ls dgrh gS fd eSa xyr gwWaA
dqN vkSj mnkgj.k(
mnkgj.k(
Direct:

Indirect:

Ravi says, Give me a glass of water.


jfo dgrk gS] ^^eq
^^eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh nksA**

Ravi orders to give him a glass of water.


jfo dgrk gS fd mls ,d Xykl ikuh nksA
Direct:
Ravi says to his servant, Give me a glass of water.
jfo vius ukSdj ls dgrk gS] ^^eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh nksA**
Indirect: Ravi orders his servant to give him a glass of water.
jfo vius ukSdj dks ,d Xykl ikuh nsus dk vknsk nsrk gSA
Direct:
She says, Please, close the door.
oks dgrh gS] ^^njoktk can dj nhft;sA**
Indirect: She requests to close the door.
oks njoktk can djus dk vknsk nsrh gSA
Direct:
She says to me, Please, close the door.
oks eq>ls dgrh gS] ^^njoktk can dj nhft;sA**
Indirect: She requests me to close the door.
oks eq>ls njoktk can djus dk vuqjks/k djrh gSA
Direct:
Rakesh says, I go for a walk every morning.
jkds'k dgrk gS] ^^eSa jkst lqcg lSj ij tkrk gwWaA**
Indirect: Rakesh says that he goes for a walk every morning.
jkds'k dgrk gS fd oks jkst lqcg lSj ij tkrk gSA**
Direct:
Rakesh says to them, I go for a walk every morning.
jkds'k mUkls dgrk gS] ^^eSa jkst lqcg lSj ij tkrk gwWaA**
Indirect: Rakesh tells them that he goes for a walk every morning.
jkds'k mUgsa crkrk gS fd oks jkst lqcg lSj ij tkrk gSA**
Direct:
He says to me, I will kill you.
oks eq>ls dgrk gS] ^^eS
^^eSa rqEgsa ekj MkywWaxkA**
Indirect: He threatens me that he will kill me.
oks eq>s /kEdh nsrk gS fd oks eq>s ekj MkysxkA
;fn okD; u okpd gks rc(
Direct:
She says to me, Do you like tea?
oks eq>ls dgrh gS] ^^D;k vkidks pk; ilan gS\**

Rajs Notes of English Language

Indirect:

She asks me if/whether I like tea.


oks eq>ls iwNrh gS ;fn eq>s pk; ilan gSA
Direct:
Deepak says to Anil, Do you believe me?
nhid vfuy ls dgrk gS]^^D;k rqe eq> ij fookl djrs gks\**
Indirect: Deepak asks Anil if/whether he (Anil) believes him (Deepak).
nhid vfuy ls iwNrk gS fd oks ml ij fookl djrk gS ;k ughA
Direct:
Deepak says to Anil, What do you like?
nhid vfuy ls dgrk gS]^^rqEgsa D;k ilan gS\**
Indirect: Deepak asks Anil what he (Anil) likes.
nhid vfuy ls iwNrk tks mls ilan gSA

4. ;fn Reporting Verb Pat Tense esa gkss rc Reported Speech


esa fuEukuqlkj ifjorZu gksrk gSA
Direct Speech
Present Simple/Indefinite
Present Continuous/Progressive
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite
Past Continuous
Will
Shall
Can
May

Indirect Speech
Past Simple/Indefinite
Past Continuous/Progressive
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Past perfect Continuous
Would
Should/would
Could
Might

'kCnksa esa Hkh ifjorZu gksrk gS(


Direct Speech
Now
Here
Hence
Hither
This
Ago
These
Next week
The day before yesterday
The day after tomorrow
Today
Tonight
Yesterday
Tomorrow

Indirect Speech
Then
There
Thence
Thither
That
before
Those
The following week
Two days before
In two days time
That day
That night
The previous day
The next day/ the following day

Come
Thus

Go
so

dqN mnkgj.k
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:

Ravi said, I go to school.


Ravi said that he went to school.
Rahul said, I went to school.
Rahul said that he had gone to school.
He said to her, I dont like you.
He told her that he did not like her.
She said, I will go there.
She said that she would go there.
I said to her, I shall help you.
I assured her that I would help her.
Avinash said, I am going.
Aninash said that he was going.
Sandeep said, I will come day after tomorrow.
Sandeep said that he would come in two days time.
He said, I am going there today.
He said that he was going there that day.
She said to me, We met last week.
She told me that we had met the previous week.
They said to me, We were working in the field.
They told me that they had been working in the field.
He said to her, Rani came here three days ago.
He told her that Rani had gone there three days before.
I said to them, I will stay here tonight.
I told them that I would stay there that night.
She said to me, I can do this work.
She said to me that she could do that work.

If the reported speech in interrogative then;


Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:

She said to me, Have you eaten your lunch?


She asked me if/whether I had eaten my lunch.
He said to her, Where did you go?
He asked her where she had gone.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Direct:
Indirect:
Direct:
Indirect:

Direct:
Indirect:

He said to him, What was Puja doing?


He asked him what Puja had been doing.
She said to me, Why did you do this?
She asked me why I had done that.
If there is a universal truth then there is no change in reported
speech.
The teacher said to us, The earth moves around the sun.
The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun.

Parts of Speech
1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Adjective
4. Verb
5. Adverb
6. Preposition
7. Conjunction
8. Interjection

laKkA
loZukeA
foks"k.kA
f;kA
f;kfoks"k.kA
laca/kokpd vO;;A
leqPp;cks
/kd vO;;A
p;cks/kd
foLe;kfncks/kd vO;;A

1. Noun-la
laKkA
Noun is a name of a person, place or thing.
fdlh O;fDr ;k oLrq dk uke laKk dgykrk gS&
tSls%
jke (Ram)]]
jk/kk (Radha)]]
flgksjk (Sihora)]]
tcyiqj (Jabalpur)]]
dqlhZ (chair)]]
Vscy (table)
laKk dks pkj :iksa esa ckaVk x;k gStSls%
A. Common noun tkfrokpd laKk
(Common here means shared by all)

Rajs Notes of English Language

A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person


or thing of the same class or king.
tkfrokpd laKk oks uke gS tks fdlh O;fDr ds] oLrw ds
lewg lewg esa gj fdlh dks fn;k tk ldrk gS tks ,d gh
:i ds gksrs gSa&
e.g.
book, pen, table, chair, boy, girl, place etc.
B. Proper Noun
O;fDrokpd laKk
A Proper Noun is the name of some person particular person
or place.
O;fDrokpd laKk oks uke dgykrs gSa tks fdlh O;fDr ;k
LFkku foks"k dks fn;s tkrs gSa&
e.g.
Radha, Ram,
Sonali,
Priyanka, Raziya
Sihora,
Jabalpur, Katni,
Nagpur,
America
C. Collective noun lewgokpd laKk
A Collective Noun is the name of number of persons or
things taken together and spoken of as one whole;
lewgokpd laKk oks uke dgykrs gSa tks ,d gh dkj ds
O;fDr ds lewg dks fn;s tkr gSa&
e.g.
team Vhe,
crowd HkhM+,
Vhe
committee lehrh,
lehrh nation nsk,
k
flock lewg,
army QkSt

party tulewg
D. Abstract noun
Hkkookpd laKk
An Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action,
or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs;
e.g.

Rajs Notes of English Language

beauty lkSan;Z
death e`R;q
kindness n;kyqrk
laughater gWalh
motherhood ekr`Ro
theft pksjh

darkness va/ksjk
freedom Lora=rk
ignorance vKku
life thou
poverty xjhch
thoughat fopkj

THE NOUN: GENDER


fyax dks rhu Hkkxks esa ckaVdj le>k tk ldrk gS%&
1. Masculine gender: iqfYyax
,sls 'kCn ftudk ;ksx iq:"k ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS%
tSls%
Man, brother, uncle, son, father, dog, lion etc.
2. Feminine gender: L=hfyax
,sls 'kCn ftudk ;ksx L=h;ksa ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS%
tSls%
Woman, sister, uncle, daughater, bitch, lioness etc.
3. Neuter gender: uiqald fyax
,sls 'kCn ftudk ;ksx uiaqld fyax ds fy;s fd;k
tkrk gS% tSls%
Book, chair, computer, door, pen, table, mobile etc.

MASCULINE AND FEMININE GENDER


1. By changing the whole word.
Masculine iqfYyax
Bachelor
Boy
Brother
Buck

dwWaokjk
yM+dk
HkkbZ
iq:"k tkrh;
[kjxksk

Feminine L=h fyax


Maid
Girl
Sister
Doe

dqWaokjh
yM+dh
cgu
eknk [kjxksk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Bull (ox)
Cock
Daddy
Dog
Dark
Drone
Father
Gander
Gentleman
Hart
Horse
Husband
King
Lord
Man
Nephew
Papa
Sir
Stag
Son
Uncle

cSy
eqxkZ
firk
dqkk
uj cr[k
uj e/kqeD[kh
firk
uj dygal
egkuqHkko
e`x@fgju
?kksM+k
ifr
jktk
ekfyd
vkneh
Hkrhtk@Hkkatk
firk
egkk;@lkfgc
fgju
iq=
pkpk@ekEkk

Cow
xk;
Hen
eqxhZ
Mummy ekrk
Bitch
fcYyh
Duck
eknk cr[k
Bee
eknk e/kqeD[kh
Mother ekrk
Goose
eknk dygal
Lady
egkuqHkkfodk
Roe
fgjuh
Mare
?kksM+h
Wife
iRuh
Queen
jkuh
Lady
ekyfdu
women vkSjr
Niece
Hkrhth@Hkkath
Mamma ekWa
Madam egkk;k@lkfgck
Hind
fgjuh
Daughater
iq=h
Aunt
pkph@ekeh

2. By adding ess.
Masculine
Author
Giant
Heir
Host
Jew

Feminine
ys[kd
jk{kl
m=kf/kdkjh
vkfrF; djus
okyk
;gwnh tkfr
dk euq";

Authoress ysf[kdk
Giantess jk{kLuh
Heiress
hostess
vkfrF; djus okyh
Jewess

;gwnh tkfr
dh efgyk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Mayor uxjikfydk/;{k
Manager
cU/kd
Patron
lgk;d
Peer
cjkcj dk
iq:"k
Poet
dfo
Prophet
okpd
Shepherd
xMsfj;k@pjokgk
Steward
tgkT+k ij
;kf=;ksa dk lsod

Mayoress uxjikfydk/;{k
Manageress cU/kd
Patroness lgkf;dk
Peeress cjkcj dh efgyk
Poetess dfo
Prophetess okpd dh ifRu
Shepherdess xMsfju
Stewardess tgkT+k ij
;kf=;ksa dh lsfodk

3. By dropping e, er, or or and adding ess.


Masculine
Actor
Conductor
Duke
Emperor
Founder
Instructor
Murderer
Master
Preceptor
Tiger
Waiter

Feminine
vfHkusrk
jktdqekj
jktkf/kjkt
laLFkkid
fk{kd
[kwuh@gR;kjk
ekfyd
xq:@minskd
ck?k@phrk
ukSdj@lsod

Actress vfHkusf=
Conductress
Duchess jktdqekjh
Empress jktkf/kjkuh
Foundress laLFkkfidk
Instructress fkf{kdk
Murderess [kwuh
Mastress ekyfdu
Preceptress xq:@minskd
Tigress ckf?ku
Waitress ukSdjkuh@lsfodk

4. Some more ways;


Masculine
Fox
Hero
Signor
Sultan

Feminine
uj ykseM+h
uk;d
xk;d
lqyrku

Vixen
Heroine
Signora
Sultana

eknk ykseM+h
ukf;dk
xkf;dk
lqyrkuk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Testator

e`R;qys[k djus Testatrix e`R;qys[k djus


okyk iq:"k
okyh efgyk

5. By placing a word before or after;


Masculine

Feminine

Grandfather nknk th
Great-uncle pkpk th
Landlord
edku ekfyd
Milkman
nw/k okyk
Manservant ukSdj
Peacock
eksj
Salesman
fosrk
Washer man /kksch

Grandmother nknh th
Great-aunt pkph th
Landlady edku ekfYdu
Milk women nw/k okyh
Maidservant ukSdjkuh
Peahen
eksjuh
Saleswoman fof;d
Washer woman /kkscu

E.Numbers& opuA
vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa ek= nks dkj ds gh opu gksrs gS%&
1 ,d opu
2 cgqopu

- Singular number
- Plural number

Okpu
kpu ds ckjs esa igys gh ist -45 ls 50 vkidks fl[kk;k tk
pqdk gS

Nouns from Verbs-f;k ls laKk


al, - age, -ance, iance -ence, -ation,-ion, - -ment, R;; yxkdj cuk,
tkus okys 'kCn&

f;k

(Verb)
arrive
vkuk
remove fudkyuk@gVkuk
break
rksM+uk
marry
fookg djuk
waste
viO;; djuk
miscarry xHkZikr gksuk
accept
Lohdkj djuk

laKk
arrival
removal
breakage
marriage
wastage
miscarriage
acceptance

(Noun)
vkxeu
gVko
rkM+QksM+
fookg@kknh
viO;;
xHkZikr
Lohfr

Rajs Notes of English Language

acquaint ifjfpr djuk


appear
fn[kkbZ iM+uk
assist
lgk;rk djuk
assure
vkoklu nsuk
attend
mifLFkr gksuk
avoid
Vkyuk
disappear yqIr gksuk
insure
chek djkuk
resemble ;kn djuk
repent
IkNrkuk
infer
vuqeku yxkuk
interfere gLr{ksi djuk
remember ;kn djuk
lament
foyki djuk
transform :ikarj.k djuk
compensate {kfriwfrZ djuk
congratulate c/kkbZ nsuk
distribute ckaWVuk
donate
nku djuk
evaluate eY;kadu djuk
oscilate Mksyuk
examine ijh{kk ysuk@tkWapuk
declare ?kks"k.kk djuk
perspire ilhuk vkuk
collide
Vdjkuk
clarify
Li"V djuk
imply
vR;{k lq>ko nsuk
notify
lwfpr djuk
verify
tkWapuk
emit
mRltZu djuk
suspend fuyafcr djuk

acquaintance ifjp;
appearance
nkZu
assistance
lgk;rk
assurance
vkoklu
attendance
mifLFkfr
avoidance
Vky eVksy
disappearance yksi
insurance
chek
resemblance ;kn
repentance
IkNrkok
inference
vuqeku
interference
gLr{ksi
remembrance ;kn
lamentation
foyki
transformation :ikarj.k
compensation {kfriwfrZ
congratulation c/kkbZ
distribution
cVokjk
donation
nku
evaluation
eY;kadu
oscillation
Mksyuk
examination ijh{kk
declaration
?kks"k.kk
perspiration ilhuk
collision
Vdjko
clarification
Li"Vhdj.k
implication
vR;{k lq>ko
notification
lwpuk
puk
verification
tkWap
emission
mRltZu
suspension
fuyacu

Rajs Notes of English Language

ascend
ij p<+uk
expel
ckgj fudkyuk
assume eku ysuk
cancel
jn~n djuk
demolish fo/oal djuk
evolve
fodflr gksuk
renounce R;kx djuk
attract
vkdf"kZr gksuk
imagine dYiuk djuk
imitate
vuqdj.k djuk
inform
tkudkjh nsuk
inspect
fujh{k.k djuk
oppress tqYe djuk
participate Hkkx ysuk
permit
vuqefr nsuk
prepare rS;kj djuk
protect cpkuk
repeat
nksgjkuk
satisfy
larq"V djuk
tempt
yqHkkuk
translate vuqokn djuk
diagnose jkx dk
funku djuk
disclose dV djuk
grieve
nq[k nsuk
sheathe E;ku esa j[kuk
solve
gy djuk
advertise foKkiu djuk
achieve kIr djuk
acknowledge Lohdkj djuk
advance mUurh djuk

ascent
expulsion
assumption
cancellation
demolition
evolution
renunciation
attraction
imagination
imitation
information
inspection
oppression
participation
permission
preparation
protection
repetition
satisfaction
temptation
translation
diagnosis

vkjksg.k
fu"dklu
dYiuk
jn~nhdj.k
fo/oal
fodkl
R;kx
vkd"k.kZ
dYiuk
vuqdj.k
tkudkjh
fujh{k.k
tqYe
lgHkkx
vuqefr
rS;kjh
cpko@j{kk
iqu:fDr
larq"Vh@larks"k
yksHku
vuqokn
jksx dk funku

disclosure
dVhdj.k
grief
nq[k
sheath
E;ku
solution
gy
advertisement foKkiu
achievement Irh@miyfC/k
acknowledgement Lohfr
advancement mUurh

Rajs Notes of English Language

amuse
euksjatu djuk
announce ?kksf"kr djuk
appoint fu;qDr djuk
arrange O;oLFkk djuk
astonish vpfEHkr djuk
confine
dSn djuk
commit opu nsuk
disappoint fujkk djuk
disagree vlger gksuk
discourage vpfEHkr djuk
encourage ksRlkgu nsuk
enjoy
vkuan ysuk
enrol
ukekadu djuk
imprison dSn djuk
improve lq/kkju@lq/kkjuk
invest
fuosk djuk
punish
ltk nsuk
measure ukiuk
require vko;drk gksuk
advise
lykg nsuk
exist
vfLrRo esa gksuk
flatter
[kqkken djuk
injure
pksaV igqWapkuk
insist
vkxzg djuk
laugha
gWalh
mix
feJ.k djuk
prove
lkfcr djuk
respond frf;k djuk
succeed lQy gksuk
approve Lohrh nsuk
bury
nQukuk@xM+kuk

amusement
euksjatu
announcement ?kks"k.kk
appointment
fu;qfDr
arrangement O;oLFkk
astonishment vpEHkk
confinement
dSn
commitment opuc)rk
disappointment fujkkk
disagreement vlgerh
discouragement vpEHkk
encouragement ksRlkgu
enjoyment
vkuan
enrolment
vlgerh
imprisonment dSn
improvement lq/kkj
investment
fuosk
punishment
ltk
measurement uki
requirement
vko;drk
advice
lykg
existence
vfLrRo
flattery
[kqkken
injury
pksaV
insistence
vkxzg
laughater
gWalh
mixture
feJ.k
proof
lcwr@ek.k
response
frf;k
success
lQyrk
approval
Lohrh
burial
nQu

Rajs Notes of English Language

acquit
nks"k eqDr djuk
betray
fookl?kkr djuk
deny
vLohdkj djuk
dismiss cj[k+kLr djuk
rehearse iwokZH;kl djuk
refuse
budkj djuk
revive
iuthZfor djuk
abort
xHkZikr djuk
act
fr djuk
adopt
xksn ysuk
collect
laxzg djuk
connect tksM+uk
correct Bhd djuk
contradict [kaMu djuk
corrupt Hkz"V djuk@gksuk
inject
Hkhrj Mkyuk
interrupt ck/kk Mkyuk@Vksduk
predict Hkfo";ok.kh djuk
reject
vLohdkj djuk
subtract ?kVkuk
suppress neu djuk
accelerate xfr c<+kuk
vibrate daiu djuk
create
iSnk djuk
devastate loZukk djuk
accommodate vkokl
LFkku nsuk
calculate fglkc djuk
circulate lapkj gksuk
complete iwjk djuk
concentrate /;ku dsafnzr djuk

acquittal
nks"k ls eqfDr
betrayal
fookl?kkr
denial
vLohdkj
dismissal
cj[k+kLrxh
rehearsal
iwokZH;kl
refusal
budkj
revival
iquthZou
abortion
xHkZikr
action
fr
adoption
nkd xzg.k
collection
laxzg
connection
laca/k
correction
nq:Lrh
contradiction [kaMu
corruption
Hkz"Vkpkj
injection
var%{ksi.k
interruption
ck/kk
prediction
Hkfo";ok.kh
rejection
vLohfr
subtraction
?kVko
suppression
neu
acceleration
xfro/kZu
vibration
daiu
creation
mRifRr
devastation
loZukk
accommodation vkokl LFkku
calculation
fglkc
circulation
lapkj
completion
iw.kZrk
concentration ,dkxzrk

Rajs Notes of English Language

confiscate T+kIr djuk


educate fk{kk nsuk
eradicate tM+ lghr m[kkM+uk
exaggerate c<+k p<+kdj
dguk
fluctuate p<+uk&mrjuk
investigate rQ+rhk djuk
propagate QSykuk
motivate sfjr djuk
renovate u;k djuk
promote rjDdh nsuk

confiscation
education
eradication
exaggeration

T+kcrh
fk{kk nsuk
mUewyu
vfrk;ksfDr

fluctuation
investigation
propagation
motivation
renovation
promotion

mrkj&p<+ko
rQ+rhk
QSyko
sj.kk
uohuhdj.k
rjDdh

alter
ifjorZu djuk
confirm iqf"V djuk
consider fygkt djuk@ekuuk
consult ijkekZ djuk
recommend flQfjl djuk

alteration
ifjorZu
conformation iqf"V
consideration fygkt
consultation
ijkekZ
recommendation flQkfjl

accuse
examine
compile
declare
invite
starve

nks"k yxkuk
ijh{kk ysuk
ladyu djuk
?kksf"kr djuk
fuea=.k nsuk
Hkw[k ls ejuk

accusation
examination
compilation
declaration
invitation
starvation

nks"kkjksi.k
ijh{kk
ladyu
?kks"k.kk
fuea=.k
Hkq[kejh

conclude
decide
divide
evade
invade
explode

fu"d"kZ fudkyuk
fu.kZ; ysuk
foHkktu djuk
VkyeVksy djuk
vke.k djuk
foLQksV gksuk

conclusion
decision
division
evasion
invasion
explosion

fu"d"kZ
fu.kZ;
foHkktu
VkyeVksy
vke.k
foLQksV

Rajs Notes of English Language

apply
multiply
certify
classify
identify
modify
abolish
admonish
absorb
acclaim
proclaim
add
compete
consume
convert
deceive
define
describe
destroy
expand
oppose
reduce
revolve
behave
compare
complain
conquer
conspire
enquire
close
defend

vkosnu nsuk
xq.kk djuk
ekf.kr djuk
oxhZdj.k djuk
igpkuuk
nq:Lr djuk
lekIr djuk
psrkouh nsuk
lks[kuk@xzg.k djuk
t;?kks"k djuk
?kks
?kks"k.kk djuk
tksM+uk
fr;ksfxrk djuk
miHkksx djuk
:ikarfjr djuk
/kksdk nsuk
ifjHkk"kk nsuk
o.kZu djuk
foukk djuk
foLrkj djuk@QSykuk
fojks/k djuk
de djuk@?kVkuk
ifjek djuk
vkpj.k djuk
rqyuk djuk
fkdk;r djuk
thruk
"kM~;a= jpuk
iwNrkN djuk
can djuk
j{kk djuk

application
multiplication
certification
classification
identification
modification
demolition
admonition
absorption
acclamation
proclamation
addition
competition
consumption
conversion
deception
definition
description
destruction
expansion
opposition
reduction
revolution
behavior
comparison
complaint
conquest
conspiracy
enquiry
closure
defense

vkosnu
xq.ku
ek.khdj.k
oxhZdj.k
igpku
nq:Lrh
lekIrh
psrkouh
vokks"k.k
t;?kks"k
?kks"k.kk
tksM+@;ksx
fr;ksfxrk
miHkksx
:ikarj.k
/kks[kk
ifjHkk"kk
o.kZu
foukk
QSyko
fojks/k
deh@?kVko
deh@?kVko
ifjek
vkpj.k
rqyuk
fkdk;r
thr
"kM~;a=
iwNrkN
lekIrh
j{kk

Rajs Notes of English Language

pretend
enter
fail
free
hate
press
pursue
serve
weigh

<ksax djuk
osk djuk
vlQy gksuk
vktkn@eqDr djuk
uQjr djuk
nokuk
ihNk djuk
lsok nsuk@ijksluk
ot+u djuk

pretence
entry
failure
freedom
hatred
pressure
pursuit
service
weight

<ksax@ukVd
osk
vlQyrk
vktknh
uQjr
noko
ihNk
lsok
oT+ku

Nouns from Adjectives-foks"k.k ls laKk


- ness R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&

fo'ks"k.k
Aimless
Aware
Barren
Dry
Good
Ill
Lawful
Like
Ugly

(Adjective)
y{;ghu
voxj
ckWa>
lw[kk
vPNk
chekj
oS/k
ilan djuk
dq:i

laKk
Aimlessness
Awareness
Barrenness
Dryness
Goodness
Illness
Lawfulness
Likeness
Ugliness

- ity R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Adjective
Noun
Acid
vEy
Acidity
Actual
okLrfod
Actually
Brutal
funZ;h@wj
brutality
Elastic
yphyk
elasticity
Mental
ekufld
mentality

(Noun)
y{;ghurk
tkudkjh
ckWa>iu
lw[kkiu
vPNkbZ
chekjh
oS/krk
lekurk
dq:irk

vEyrk
okLrfoDrk
wjrk
ypd@yphykiu
ekufldrk

Rajs Notes of English Language

National
Real
Regular
Spiritual

jk"Vh;
okLrfod
fu;fer
vk/;kfRed
vk/;kfRed

nationality
reality
regularity
Spirituality

jk"Vh;rk
okLrfodrk
fu;ferrk
vk/kkfRedrk

-e gVkdj -ity R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Adjective
Noun
Agile
QqrhZyk
agility
QqrhZ@QqrhZykiu
Chaste
ifo=
chastity ifo=rk
Fertile
mitk
fertility mitkiu
Insane
ikxy
insanity ikxyiu
Obscene
vyhy
obscenity vyhyrk
Pure
'kq)
purity
'kq)rk
Rare
nqyZHk
rarity
nqyZHkrk
Sensitive
laosnukhy
sensitivity laosnukhyrk
Serene
'kkar@xaHkhj
Serenity xaHkhjrk
Sincere
bZekunkj
sincerity bZekunkjh
-ble gVkdj -bility R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&
Adjective
Noun
Available
miyC/k
availability
miyC/krk
Able
;ksX; @l{ke
ability
;ksX;rk@l{kerk
Capable
leFkZ@;ksX;
capability
lkeF;Z@;ksX;rk
Credible
fooluh;
credibility
fooluh;rk
Desirable
okaNuh;
desirability
okaNuh;rk
Eligible
;ksX;
eligibility
;ksX;rk
Flexible
yphyk
flexibility
yphykiu
Practicable O;kogkfjd
practicability O;kogkfjDrk
Possible
laHko
possibility
laHkkouk
Responsible ftEesnkj
responsibility ftEesnkjh
Stable
fLFkj
stability
fLFkjrk

Rajs Notes of English Language

-ty R;;
Adjective
Anxious
Certain
Cruel
Fault
Frail
Honest
Loyal
Modest
Notorious
Novel
Pious
Safe
dqN 'kCnksa
Adjective
Broad
Brief
Coward
Deep
Gallant
Supreme
Warm

yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Noun
O;kdqy
anxiety O;kdqyrk
fufpr
certainty fufprrk
nq"V@wj
cruelty
nq"Vrk@wjrk
nks"k
faulty
lnks"k
nqcZy
frailty
nqcZyrk
bZekunkj
honesty bZekunkjh
oQ+knkj
loyalty
oQknkjh
fouez
modesty fouezrk
cnuke
notoriety cnukeh
vuwBk
novelty vuwBkiu
/keZijk;.k
piety
/keZijk;.krk
lqjf{kr
safety
lqj{kk
esa iwjh rjg varj djds &
Noun
pkSM+k
breadth pkSM+kbZ
laf{kIr
brevity laf{kIrrk
dk;j
cowardice dk;jrk
xgjk
depth
xgjkbZ
ohj
gallantry ohjrk
lokZsPp
supremacy loksZPprk
xeZ
warmth xehZ

laKk ls laKk
Noun from Noun
Noun
Adult
Archer
Architect
Assistant

Noun
kS<+ O;fDr
Adulthood
rhjankt
Archery
okLrqd fkYih Architecture
lgk;d
Assistance

kS<+koLFkk
rhjankth
okLrqdyk
lgk;rk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Boy
yM+dk
Brother
HkkbZ
Candidate mEehnokj
Captain
dIrku
Child
cPpk
Engineer
vfHk;ark
Father
firk
Friend
fe=
King
jktk
Leader
usrk
Lecturer
O;k[;krk
Man
iq:"k
Martyr
'kghn
Mayor
egkikSj
Member
lnL;
Mother
ekrk
Mountaineer ioZrkjksgd
Owner
Lokeh
Partner
Hkkxhnkj
Robber
Mkdw
Salesman
fosrk
Servant
ukSdj
Slave
xqyke
Sportman f[kykM+h
Thief
pksj
Woman
L=h
Wrongdoer vijk/kh

Boyhood
yM+diu
Brotherhood ca/kqRo
Candidature mEehnokjh
Captainhood dIrkuh
Childhood
cpiu
Engineering
vfHk;af=dh
Fatherhood
fir`Ro
Friendship
fe=rk
Kingdom
jkT;
Leadership
usr`Ro
Lectureship
O;k[;krk
Manhood
iq:"kRo
Martyrdom
'kgknr
Mayoralty
egkikSj in
Membership lnL;rk
Motherhood ekr`Ro
Mountaineering ioZrkjksg.k
Ownership
LokfeRo
Partnership
Hkkxhnkjh
Robbery
MdSrh
Salesmanship fo; dyk
Service
ukSdjh
Slavery
xqykeh
Sportmanship f[kykM+h Hkkouk
Theft
pksjh
Womanhood L=hRo
Wrongdoing vijk/k

Rajs Notes of English Language

2. Pronouns-loZ
loZukeA
A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
loZuke oks 'kCn gksrs gSa tks fdlh O;fDr ;k cLrq ds fy;s
Lrseky fd;s tkrs gSaA
e.g. Question : What does Ravi want?
Answer : He wants a glass of water.
This is a book and it is mine.
Seema is my sister and she reads in 10th class.

The table of Personal Pronoun


Subject
Pronouns
SINGULAR

Object
Pronouns

Possessive
Adjectives

Possessive
Pronouns

Reflexive
Pronouns

I
You
He
She
This
That
It

me
you
him
her
it
it
it

my
your
his
her
its
its
its

mine
yours
hers
-

myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
itself
itself

us
you
them
them
them

our
your
their
their
their

ours
yours
theirs
-

ourselves
yourselves
themselves
themselves
themselves

PLURAL

We
You
They
These
Those

Rajs Notes of English Language

ij nh xbZ rkfydk ls vki vPNh rjg ifjfpr gSa] ysfdu


fQj Hkh ge dqN Pronouns 'kCnksa dk v/;;u djsaxs tks gesa
vaxzsth Hkk"kk dks vkSj vfPN rjg lh[kus esa lgk;d cu lds&
tSls%
12345678910101111121213131414-

oks iwue gS( esjh cguA


She is Poonam; she is my sister.
geus iVhZ esa vkuan fy;kA
We enjoyed ourselves in the party.
lksukyh ;gkWa ugha gS] oks Ldwy esa gSA
Soniya is not here; she is at school.
:ik dkSu gS\ D;k rqe mls tkurs gks\
Who is Roopa? Do you know her?
rqEgkjs gkWaFk esa D;k
D;k gS\
What is in your hand?
ml fcYyh ds ewWa esa D;k gS\
What has that cat got in its mouth?
mls vkbus ds lkeus vius&vkidks ns[kuk ilan gSA
She likes to look at herself in the mirror.
vkx ls er [ksyks( ty tkvksxsA
Dont play with fire; you will burn yourself.
rqEgs ogkWa [kqn tkuk pkfg;sA
You should go there yourself.
D;k eq>s ;s [kqn djuk pkfg;s\
Shall I do this myself?
oks vius vkils cgqr I;kj djrh gSA
She loves herself far too much.
os [kqn vk, FksA
They themselves came.
mlus [knq eq>s crk;k FkkA
He himself told me.
oks vkneh vius vkils ckr dj jgk gSA
That man is talking to himself.

Rajs Notes of English Language

1515- oks vkSjr vius vkidks lkQ dj jgh gSA


That lady/woman is cleaning herself.
1616- eSa [kqn dks le>kus dk ;kl dj jgk gwWaA
I am trying to explain myself.
1717- oks /kku ea=h ls gh feyk FkkA
He had met the Prime Minister himself.
1818- eSus rqEgkjh ekWa ls gh ckr dh FkhA
I talked to your mother herself.

It dk ;ksx&
 le;] rkjh[k] fnu] varj vkSj ekSle dks crkus ds fy;s
;ksx fd;k tkrk gS(
1- vHkh 8 cts gSaA
It is 8 am/pm
2- 8 ctds 5 feuV gqvk gSA
It is 5 (minutes) past 8.
3- lk<+s 8 cts FksA
It was 8 oclock.
4- ikSus X;kjg cts gSaA
It is quarter to 11.
5- rhu ctus esa 4 feuV ckadh gSA
It is 4 (minutes) to 3.
6- vkt 'kqokj gSA
It is Friday today.
7- vkt 23 tuojh gSA
It is 23rd of January today.
8- D;k dy lkseokj Fkk\
Fkk\
Was it Monday yesterday?
9- tcyiqj ;gkWa ls 45 fdfd-eheh- gSA
It is 45 km to Jabalpur from here.
1010- jhok fdruh nwj gS\
How far is it to Riwa?

Rajs Notes of English Language

1111- vkt cgqr BaM gSA


It is very cold today.
1212- dy cgqr xehZ FkhA
It was very hot yesterday.
 ;fn fdlh ,d oLrq dh ckr igyh ckj fdlh okD; esa dh
tk pqdh gks rc nwljs okD; esa Pronoun ds :i esa it dk
;ksx fd;k tkrk gS(
1- ;g iqLrd gS vkSj ;s esjh gSA
This is a book and it is mine.
2- ;s dqlhZ bruh xanh gS fd eSa bl ij cSB ugha
ldrkA
This chair is so dirty that I cannot sit on it.
3- oks dkj gS vkSj mls pyk;k tkrk gSA
That is a car and it is driven.
 ysfdu ;fn oLrq dh la[;k ,d ls vf/kd gks rc it dh txg
Pronoun ds :i they dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gS(
1- ;s iLrdsa gSa vkSj ;s jkdsk dh gSaA
These are books and they are Rakeshs
2- oks isu gSa vkSj os esjs gSaA
Those are pens and they are mine.
 O;fDrokpd (impersonal) drkZ ds :i esa Hkh it dk ;ksx
fd;k tkrk gS(
1- Ckfj'k gks jgh gSA
It is raining.
2- cQZ fxj jgh gSA
It is snowing.
3- vksys fxj jgs FksA
It was hailing.
4- va/ksjk gks jgk FkkA
It was getting dark.
5- cgqr rst ikuh fxj jgk gSA
It is raining very heavily.
6- D;k ogkWa Hkh ckfjk gks jgh gS\
Is it raining there also?

Rajs Notes of English Language

7- D;k vkt lqcg ikuh fxjk Fkk\


Fkk\
Did it rain this morning?
 dbZ ckj tc okD; esa drkZ ughaa feyrk rc it dks drkZ ds
:i esa j[k fn;k tkrk gS(
1- ,slk yxrk gS fd oks Fkdk gqvk gSA
It seems/appears/looks that he is tired.
2- mls ,slk yxrk gS fd oks lcls
lcls vPNk gSA
It seems to him that he is the best.
3- e>s dHkh ,slk ugha ykxk fd oks ,slk dgsxhA
It never seemed to me that she would say so/like this.
4- bl ckr ls eq>s vkp;Z gksrk gS fd mlus bruk vPNk
ekSadk xok fn;kA
It astonishes/ surprises me that he has left such an
opportunity.
5- vPNh rjdhc gSA
It is a good idea./ it sounds good idea.
6- eq>s ,lk dHkh ugha yxk fd ,d fnu eSa ;gkWa
igqWapqaxkA
It never occurred to me that I would come here one
day.
7- nsj gks jgh gSA
It is getting late.
8- va/ksjk gks jgk gSA
It is getting dark.
9- ;gkWa cgqr va/ksjk gSA
It is very/so dark here.
1010- cgqr dfBu ku FkkA
It was a very difficult question.
1111- ;s ckr rqe ij fuHkZj djrh gSA
It depends upon you.
1212- ;s lp gSA
It is true.

Rajs Notes of English Language

1313- ;s >wB gSA


It is false.
1414- ;s laHko gSA
It is possible.
1515- ;s laHko ughaa gSA
It is impossible.
1616- fdlh dks /kks[kk nsuk esjs LokHkko esa ughaaA
It is not in my nature to deceive anybody/anyone.
1717- gesakk >wB cksyuk ;s esjh vknr ughaaA
It is not my habit to tell lies all the time.
1818- D;k ;s laHko gS fd ge ogkWa 2 ?kaVs esa igqWap
ldsa\
Is it possible for us to get/reach there in (inside)
two hours?
1919- ;s esjh ftEesnkjh ughaa gSA
It is not my responsibility.
2020- bl u dk mkj ns ikuk laHko ugha gSA
It is impossible to answer this question.
2121- ,slk dgk tkrk gS fd bl ?kj esa ,d Hkwr jgrk
gSA
It is said that a ghost lives in this house.
2222- [kkuk [kkrs oDr ckr djuk cqjh vknr ekuh tkrh
gSA
It is considered to be bad manners to talk while
eating.
23R;q vkRegR;k FkhA
23- ckn esa ik;k x;k fd mldh e`R;q
It was found later that his heath was a suicide.
2424- mls bl ckjs es tkudkjh nsuk eq>s t:jh yxrk
gSA
I think it necessary to inform him about this/it.
2525- lqcg tYnh mBuk ,d vPNh vknr gSA
It is a good habit to get up early in the morning.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Possessive Adjective

Possessive Pronouns

1- ;s esjk isu gSA


This is my pen.

;s isu esjk gSA


This pen is mine
;s@oks esjk gSA
It is mine.
oks iqLrd rqEgkjh gSA
That book is yours.
;s@oks rqEgkjh gSA
It is yours.
;s ?kj gekjk gSA
This home is ours.
;s@oks gekjk gSA
It is ours.
oks lk;dy mldh gSA
This bicycle is hers.
;s@oks mldh
mldh gSA
It is hers.
oks lk;dy mldh gSA
This shop is theirs.
;s@oks mudh gSA
It is theirs.

2- oks rqEgkjh iqLrd gSA


That is your book.

3- ;s gekjk ?kj gSA


This is our home.

4- oks mldh lk;dy gSA


This is her bicycle.

5- ;s mUkdh nqdku gSA


This is their shop.

Relative Pronouns
Who, whom, whose-tks] ftlls] ftldk
Ekuo ,oa muds leqnk;ksa ds fy;s who dk ;ksx
Pronoun ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gS%
tSls%
1- oks yM+dk tks I;kuks ctk jgk gS esjk HkkbZ gSA
The boy who is playing the piano is my brother.
2- oks yM+dh tks xkuk xk jgh gS esjs lkFk i<+rh gSA
The girl who is singing a song is my classmate.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3- D;k oks tks yky jax dh 'kVZ igus gq, gSa] vkids ikik gSa\
Is the man who is wearing a red shirt your father?
4- oks yM+ds tks eSnku esa [ksy jgs gSa mUgsa esjs ikl ysdj
vkvksA
The boys, who are playing in the ground, bring them here.
5- oks yM+dk tks Fkks
FkksM+h nsj igys ;gkWa [kM+k Fkk] mlh us rqEgkjk
eksckbZy pqjk;k gksxkA
The boy, who was standing here a little before, must have
stolen your mobile.
6- oks vkneh tks bZekunkj gksrk gS ml ij Hkjkslk fd;k tkrk
gSA
The man, who is honest, is trusted.
7- ;s gS oks yM+
yM+dk ftls eSa ilan djrh gwWaA
This is the boy whom I like.
8- ;s ogh vkneh gS ftldh ckbd dy vkWfQl ls pksjh pyh
xbZ FkhA
The is the man whose bike had been stonen from the office
yesterday.

Which-tks
oLrq] i'kq ,oa muds leqnk;ksa ds fy;s which dk
;ksx Pronoun ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gS%
tSls%
1- oks iqLrd tks vkius eq>s dy nh Fkh eSus iwjh i<+ yhA
yhA
The book which you gave me yesterday I have read it all.
2- oks isu tks rqe viuh tsc esa j[k jgs gks esjk gSA
The pen which you are putting into your pocket is mine.
3- oks i= tks mlus eq>s Hkstk Fkk eSus tyk fn;k gSA
The letter which he sent me I have burnt.
4- oks eksckby ftlds ckjs esa vkius mls dy crk;k Fkk mlus
[kjhn fy;k gSA
The mobile about which you told him yesterday he has
boughat.

Rajs Notes of English Language

5- ml iqLrd dk uke D;k gS tks mlus fiNys eghus rqEgsa nh


FkhA
What is the name of the book which he gave you last month?

That-tks
That

dk ;ksx O;fDr vkSj oLrq nksuks ds fy;s fd;k


tk ldrk gS%
1- oks O;fDr tks csbZeku gksrk gS mldh fuank gj dksbZ djrk
gSA
The person that is disloyal is criticized by all.
2- mlus oks eksckby [kks fn;k gS tks rqEkus mls fxV fd;k
FkkA
She has lost the mobile that you gifted her.
3- gj pedus ckyh pht lksuk ugha gksrhA
All that glitters is not gold.
4- bl nqfu;k esa ,slk dksbZ ugha gS ftls ijskkuh uk gqbZ gksA
There is no one that has not suffered.
5- eSa ml Ldwy dks tkurk gwWa ftls jesk us cuk;kA
I know the school that Ramesh built.

What-tks
1- eSa vkidks oks crk jgk gwWa tks dy gqvkA
I am telling you what happened yesterday.
2- vkius eq>s oks rksgQk fn;k gS tks eSa pkgrk FkkA
You have gifted me what I wanted.
3- eSa tks dg jgk gwWa /;ku iwoZd lquksA
Listen attentively to what I am saying/ I say.
4- tks gksrk gS mls cnyk ugha tk ldrkA
What is done cannot be undone.
5- eSa tks dgrk gwWa oks djksA
Do what I say.

As-tSlk
1- eSa tSlk dgrk gwWa oSlk djksA
Do as I say.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2- ;s oSlk gh isu gS tSlk esjk gSA


It is the same pen as mine (is).
3- oks bruk le>nkj ugha gS ftrus rqe gksA
He is not so wise as you are.
4- oks oSlk gh djsxh tSlk eSus fd;k gSA
She will do the same as I have done.

Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns dk ;ksx u iwWaNus ds fy;s fd;k
tkrk gS% What, who,whose, which etc.
What
bl ekhu dk uke D;k gS\
What is the name of this machine?
rqEgs ogkWa D;k feyk\
feyk\
What did you get there?
rqe D;k pkgrs gks\
What do you want?
Who, whose
rqEgs fdlus crk;k\
crk;k\
Who told you?
;s fdlus rksM+k\
Who broke this?
;s fdldk isu gS\
Whose pen is this?
Which
bu iqLrdksa esa ls dkSu lh rqEgkjh iqLrd gS\
Which of these books is yours?
vkids HkkbZ;ksa esa ls dkSu chekj gS\
Which of your brothers is ill?
ml jaxksa esa ls dkSu lk jax ilan gS\
Which of the colours does she like?

Rajs Notes of English Language

3. Adjective-foks
foks"k.kA
[adjective means added to]
A word used with a noun to describe or point out, the person,
animal, places or thing which the noun names, or to tell the
number of quantity, is called an adjective.
oks 'kCn tks O;fDr ;k oLrq ds ckjs esa crkrs gSa] la[;k ;k
ek=k dks crkrs gSa foks"k.k dgykrs gSaA
e.g.

oks ,d vPNk balku gSA


He is a good man.
dkWydkrk ,d cM+h flVh gSA
Kolkata is a large city.
mlus dqN pkoy [kk,A
She ate some rice.
jkds'k dks FkksM+h le>nkjh gSA
Rakesh has little intelligence.
gekjs ikl i;kZIr le; ugha gSA
We dont have enougha time.

Kinds of Adjectives
1.

Adjectives of Quality oks 'kCn tks O;fDr ;k oLrq


oLrq ds dkj dks

crkrk gS%
tSls%
oks ,d bZekunkj O;fDr gSA
He is an honest man.
oks ,d vPNh yM+dh gSA
She is a good girl.
;s cSx Hkkjh gSA
This bag is heavy.
(tks ^fdl rjg dk\
dk\* bl k dk mkj
mkj nsrs)
2. Adjective of Quantity oks 'kCn tks oLrq ;k fdlh pht dh
ek=k dks crkrs gSa%
tSls%
gekjs ikl i;kZIr le; gSA
We have enougha time.

Rajs Notes of English Language

mlus pkoy ugha [kk;kA


He did not eat any rice.
jfo dks bl ckjs esa FkksM+k lk Kku gSA
Ravi has a little knowledge about it/this.
tks ^fdruk\
^fdruk\* bl ku dk mkj ns
3. Adjective of Number ,ls 'kCn tks O;fDr ;k oLrq dh la[;k
dks crkrs gSaA
tSls%
,d gkWaFk esa ikWap mWaxfy;kWa gksrh gSA
A hand has five fingers.
dqN yksx bl ckr ij ;dhu ugha djrsA
Some people dont believe this.
bl Vscy ij iqLrdsa ughaa gSA
There are no books on this table.
tks ^fdrus\* bl ku dk mkj ns
Adjective of Number rhu dkj ds gksrs gSa%
1.
Definite Numeral Adjectives: oks 'kCn tks LFkku dks nkkZrs
gSa la[;k ds vk/kkj ij tSls(
First, second, third, etc bUgsa ge Ordinals Hkh dgrs gSaA
1.
mldk uke lwph esa igyk gSA
You name is first in the list.
2.
oks nkSM+ esa nwljk vk;kA
He came second in the race.
3.
eq>s nwljs uacj okyk nksA
Give the second one.
2.
Indefinite Numeral Adjectives: oks 'kCn tks vfufpr
la[;k dks nkkZrs gSa(
Several, some, few, no, any, all, few, many, certain,
sundry.
3.
Distributive Numeral Adjectives: oks 'kCn tks R;sd dks
nkkZrs gSa(
Each, every, either, neither.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Adjective of Quantity

Adjective of Number

mlus dqN pkoy [kk;kA


She ate some rice.
yM+ds us viuh lkjh iqLrdsa
[kks nhA
The boy lost all his books.
mlus czsM ugha [kkbZA
He did not eat any bread.
mls dksbZ le> ugha gSA
She has no sense.
mlds ikl i;kZIr ikuh gSA
She has enougha water.

dqN yksx vyky gksrk gSaA


Some people are lazy.
lkjs yksxksa dks ,d fnu ejuk gSA
All men must die one day.

4.

D;k jlksbZ esa czM gSa\


Are there breads in the kitchen?
bl iqLrd esa dksbZ fp= ugha gS
gS A
There are no pictures in this book.
gekjs ikl i;kZIr dqflZ;kWa ugha gSA
We dont have enougha chairs.

Demonstrative; oks 'kCn tks ;s crkrs gSa fd fdl O;fDr ;k


oLrq ds ckjs esa(
;s vkneh rqels T;knk rkdroj gSA
This man is stronger than you (are).
oks yM+dh esjh lgsyh gSA
That girl is my friend.
;s vke Lokfn"V gSaA
These mangoes are sweet.
bl rjg dh vkSjrsa [krjukd gksrh gSaA
Such women are dangerous.
oks bl rjg dh phtksa ls uQjr djrk
djrk gSA
He hates such things.

laKk ls foks"k.k
Adjective from noun
Noun
Air
gok
Ambition egRokdka{kk
Amphibian mHk;pj k.kh
Anger
xqLlk

Adjective
Airy
Ambitious
Amphibious
angry

goknkj
egRokdka{kh
mHk;pj
xqLlk djus
okyk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Angel
nsonwr
Arrogance ?keaM
Beast
i'kq
Beauty
lkSan;Z
Agriculture f"k
Ancestor iwoZt
Book
fdrkc
Boy
yM+dk
Brave
cgknqj
Bush
>kM+h
Butter
eD[ku
Child
cPpk
Caution lko/kkuh
Commerce okf.kT;
Compassion n;k Hkko
Competence ;ksX;rk
Departement foHkkx
Development fodkl
Diligence ifjJfe
Drama
ukVd
Emphasis T+kksj
Environment i;kZoj.k
Fame
;k@dhfrZ
Feather ia[k
Fragrance lqxa/k
Friend
fe=
Greed
ykyp
Glory
dhfrZ@ rki
Grade
e
Gold
lksuk /kkrq
Hero
ohj iq:"k

Angelic
nsonwr tSlk
Arrogant
?keaMh
Bestial
i'kqor~
Beautiful
lqanj
Agricultural f"k lacaf/kr
Ancestoral
iqrSuh
Bookish
fdrkch
Boyish
yM+ds tSlk
Bravery
cgknqjh
Bushy
>kfM+nkj
Buttery
eD[kunkj
Childish
cPps tSlk
Cautionary
lko/kkuh dk
Commercial okf.kT; laca/kh
Compassionate n;kyq
Competent
;ksX;
Departmental foHkkxh;
Developmental fodklh;
Diligent
ifjJfe
Dramatic
ukVdh;
Emphatic
T+kksjnkj
Environmental i;kZoj.k
lacaf/kr
Famous
fo[;kr@fl)
Feathery
ia[k tSlk
lqxaf/kr
Fragrant
Friendly
fe= tSlk
Greedy
ykyph
Glorious
dhfrZeku@rkih
Gradual
fed
Golden
lksus dk
Heroic
ohjrk dk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Height
WapkbZ
History bfrgkl
Humour gkL;
Hunger Hkw[k
Ideal
ek;kokn@ vknkZ
Idiom
eqgkojk
Industry m|ksx
Innocent eklwe
Intence rhoz
Intention bjknk
Intricate tfVy@my>kus okyk
Irony
O;ax
Joy
g"kZ
Knot
xkWaB
Law
dkuwu
Lion
'ksj
Logic
rdZ laxfr
Lunatic ikxy
Luster
ped
Magnet pqEcd
Malice
}s"k
Miracle peRdkj
Microscope lw{enkhZ
Mind
efLr"d
Money
/ku@vkFkZ
Muscle ekal&iskh
Mystery jgL;
Name
uke
Nerve
vkst
Nation
jk"V
Nature
fr
Office
dk;kZy;

High
Historical
Humorous
Hungry
Idealistic
Idiomatic
Industrious
innocence
Intensity
Intentional
Intricacy
Ironic(al)
Joyous
Knotty
Legal
Leonine
Logical
Lunacy
Lustrous
Magnetic
Malicious
Miraculous
Microscopic
Mental
Monetary
Muscular
Mysteriou
Nominal
Nervous
National
Natural
Official

Wapk
,sfrgkfld
gkL;tud
Hkw[kk
ek;kokn laca/kh
eqgkojsnkj
vkS|ksfxd
eklwfe;r
rhozrk
bjkns ls
tfVyrk
O;axkRed
gf"kZr
xkWaBnkj@tfVy
dkuwuh
'ksj tSlk
rdZlaxr
ikxyiu
pednkj
pqEcdh;
}s"kiw.kZ
peRdkjh
lw{enkhZ;
ekufld
vkfFkZd
ekal&iskh;
jgL;e;
uke laca/kh
vkstLoh
jk"Vh;
frd
dk;kZy; laca/kh

Rajs Notes of English Language

Peril
[krjk
Person
O;fDr
Profession O;olk;
Race
dqy@oak

Perilous
Personal
Professional
Racial

Ready
rS;kj
Romance
Sensation luluh
Silence
'kkafr
Society lekt
Spring
clar _rq
Star
rkjk
Stone
iRFkj
Sun
lwjt
Surprise vkp;Z
System O;oLFkk
Slave
nkl
Science foKku
Terror
Mj
Tradition ijaijk
Tragedy nq[kn ?kVuk
Urine
ew=
Vice
iki@nk"k
Vigour
mRlkg
Violence fgalk
Winter 'khr _rq
Wise
cqf)eku
Woman vkSjr
Xylograph ydM+h dh udkkh

readiness
Romantic
Sensational
luluh[kst
Silent
'kkar
Social
lkekftd
Varnal
clarh
Stellar
rkjksa dk
Stony
iFkjhyk
Sunny
/kwiokyk@dkkoku
Purprising
vkp;Ztud
Systematic O;ofLFkr <ax ls
Slavish
nkl lacU/kh
Scientific
foKku lacU/kh
Terrible
Mjkouk
Traditional
ijaijkxr
Tragic
nq[kn
Urinary
ew= laca/kh
Vicious
ikih@nq"V
Vigous
mRlkg ls Hkjk
Violent
fgald
Wintry
'khry@BaMk
Wisdom
cqf)
Womanly
L=h ds ;ksX;
Xylographic ydM+h dh
udkkh lacfU/kr
Zonal
{ks=h;
Zoological tUrq&foKku Lacaf/kr

Zone
Zoology

{ks=
tUrq&foKku

[krjukd
O;fDrxr
O;olkf;d
dqy ;k oak
laca/kh
rS;kjh

Rajs Notes of English Language

- y R;;
Noun
Bog
Bone
Cloud
Dew
Fat
Flour
Fog
Hair
Ice
Juice
Knot
Might
Milk
Oil
Risk
Rock
Rubber
Rust
Salt
Sand
Steel
Storm
Sugar
Thirst
Weight

yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Adjective
nyny
Boggy
gM~Mh
Bony
ckny
Cloudy
vksl
Dewy
pjch
Fatty
vkVk
Floury
/kqa/k@ dksgjk
Foggy
cky
Hairy
cQZ
Icey
jl
Juicy
xkaB
Knotty
'kfDr
Mighty
nw/k
Milky
rsy
Oily
tksf[ke@[krjk
Risky
pku
Rocky
jcM+
Rubbery
T+kax
Rusty
ued
Salty
jsr@ckyw
Sandy
bLikr
Steely
rwQku
Stormy
'kDdj
Sugary
I;kl
Thirsty
oT+ku@Hkkj
Weighty

nynyh
gM~fM;ksa dk
cknyksa ls <dk
vksl ls Hkjk
pjchnkj
vkVs ls Hkjk
/kq/kyk@dksgjsnkj
ckyksa okyk
cfQZyk
jlhyk
xkaBnkj
'kfDrkkyh
nwf/k;k@nw/k tSlk
rsy ls Hkjk
tksf[ke ls Hkjk
puks dk
jcM+ tSlk
T+kax ls Hkjk
uedhu
jsrhyk
bLikr dk
rwQkuh
'kDdj ls
ls Hkjk
I;klk
Hkkjh@oT+kunkj

- ly R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Noun
Adjective
Beast
tkuoj
Beastly tkuoj tSlk
Father
firk
Fatherly firk tSlk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Friend
fe=
Friendly fe= tSlk
Ghost
Hkwr
Ghostly Hkwr tSlk
Mother ekWa
Motherly ekWa tSlh
Prince
jktdqekj
Princely jktdqekj tSlk
Queen
jkuh
Queenly jkuh tSlh
Saint
lar@lk/kq
Saintly
lar@lk/kq tSlk
Sister
cgu
Sisterly cgu tSlh
- ic R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&
Noun
Adjective
Alphabet o.kZekyk
Alphabetic(al) o.kZekyk dk
Atom
ijek.kq
Atomic ijek.kq&fo"k;d
Atmosphere ok;qeaMYk
Atmosphericok;q
ok;qeaMy dk
Apathy mnklhurk
Apathetic mnklhu
Aroma
lqxa/k
Aromatic lqxaf/kr
Asthma nek
Asthmatic nekxzLr
Bible
ckbcy
Biblical ckbcy ls fy;k
gqvk
Climate ekSle
Climatic ekSle laca/kh
Cube
?ku
Cubic
?kuh;
Geometry js[kkxf.kr
Geometric(al) js[kkxf.krh;
Symmetry larqyu
Symmetrical larqfyr
Metal
/kkrq
Metallic /kkfRod
Satan
'kSrku
Satanic 'kSrkuh
Volcano Tokykeq[kh
Volcanic Tokykeq[kh;
- ed R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&
Noun
Adjective
Beard
nk<+h
Bearded nk<+hokyk
Principle fl)kar
Principled fl)karoknh
Talent
frHkk
Talented frHkk laiUu
Turban IkxM+h
Turbaned ixM+h/kkjh
Wing
ia[k
Winged ia[kks okyk

Rajs Notes of English Language

v{kjksa dks cnydj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn&


Noun
Adjective
Bee
e/kqeD[kh
Apian
e/kqeD[kh lacaf/kr
Brain
efLr"d
Cerebral efLr"d lacaf/kr
Cheek
xky
Buccal
xky dk
Chest
Nkrh
Pectoral Nkrh dk
Custom fjokT+k
Customary fjokT+kh
Cell
dksfkk
Cellular dksfkdke;
Circle
?ksjk
Circular o`kkdkj
Diet
vkgkj
Dietary vkgkj laca/kh
Discipline vuqkklu
Disciplinary vuqkklukRed
Dog
dqkk
Canine dqks ls lacaf/kr
Eagle
x:.k
aquiline x:.k dk@tSlk
Earth
feV~Vh
Earthen feV~Vh dk
East
iwoZ fnkk
Eastern iwohZ@iwohZ;
Eye
vkWa[k
Ocular
vkWa[k dk@laca/kh
Fish
eNyh
Piscine
eNyh dk
Gland
xzafFk
Glandular xzafFk dk
Heredity vuqoafkdrk
Hereditary vuqoafkd
Gum
elwM+k
Gingival elwM+s dk
Gold
lksuk
Golden lksus dk
Gas
ok;q
Gaseous ok;q dk
Heart
n;
Cardiac n; lacaf/kr
Horse
?kksM+k
Equine ?kksM+s dk
Kidney xqnkZ
Renal
xqnkZ lacaf/kr
Lung
QsQM+k
Pulmonary QsQM+s dk
Liver
;r
Hepatic ;r dk
Moon
panz
Lunar
pkanz
Mars
eaxy x`g
Martian eaxy dk
Mouth
eq[k
Oral
ekSf[kd
Nose
ukd
Nasal
ukd dk
Nerve
raf=dk
Neural
raf=d

Rajs Notes of English Language

Night
jkr
Ox
cSy
Picture fp=
Pig
lqvj
Planet
xzg
Precaution lko/kkuh
Proprietor ekfyd
Problem leL;k
Stomach isV
Silk
jske
Wood
ydM+h
Moment {k.k

Nocturnal jkr laca/kh


Bovine
cSy tSlk
Pictorial lfp=
Porcine lqvj dk
Planetary xzg dk
Prcautionary lko/kkuh dk
Proprietary ekfyd dk
Problematic leL;k dk@dfBu
Gastric isV dk
Silky
jskeh
Wooden ydM+h dk
Momentary {kf.kd

f;k ls foks"k.k
Adjectives from Verbs
- able R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn%
Verb
Adjective
Accept
Lohdkj djuk
Acceptable
Lohdkj djus
;ksX;
Argue
rdZ djuk
Arguable
rdkZLin
Attaind kIr djuk
Attaindable kIr djus ;ksX;
Avoid
Vkyuk
Avoidable
Vkyus ;ksX;
Break
rksM+uk
Breakable
VqVus ;ksX;
Change cnyuk
Changeable
cnyus ;ksX;
Commend kalk djuk
Commendable kaluh;
Compare rqyuk djuk
Comparable rqyuh;
djuk
Eat
[kkuk
Eatable
[kkus ;ksX;
Like
ilan djuk
Likable
ilan vkus yk;d
Obtain
kIr djuk
Obtainable
kIr fd;s tkus
;ksX;
Pardon {kek djuk
Pardonable {kek djus ;ksX;
Punish
ltk @naM nsuk
Punishable
naMuh;

Rajs Notes of English Language

Remove
Separate
Toletate
Venerate
Imitate

gVkuk
vyx djuk
lguk
cgqr vknj djuk
vuqdj.k djuk

Removable
gVkus ;ksX;
Separable vyx djus ;ksX;
Tolerable
lguh;
Venerable
vknj.kh;
Imitable
vuqdj.kh;

- ive R;; yxkdj cuk, t


tkus
kus okys 'kCn%
Verb
Adjective
Describe o.kZu djuk
Descriptive
o.kZukRed
Impress Hkkfor djuk
Impressive
Hkkokkyh
Pervade O;kIr gksuk
Provasive
O;kIr
Protect lqj{kk djuk
Protective
j{kkRed
Congratulate c/kkbZ nsuk
Congratulative c/kkbZ dk
Contribute vaknku djuk
Contibutive
lgk;d
- ible R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn%
Verb
Adjective
Compress nckuk@ BWawluk
Compressible nckus ;ksX;
Convert :ikarfjr djuk
convertible
:ikarj.kh;
- ed R;; yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn%
Verb
Adjective
Abandon R;kx djuk
Abandoned
R;kxk gqvk
Advance xfr djuk
Advanced
xfrkhy
Arm
lkL= djuk
Armed
lkL=
Authorize vf/kdkj nsuk
Authorized
vf/kr
Civilize lH; vkSj
Civilized
lqlar
lqlar djuk
Bore
ckuk
Bored
ck gqvk
Classify oxhZr
Classified
oxhZr
Clog
ck/kk
Clogged
:dk gqvk
Complicate tfVy cukuk
Complicated tfVy

Rajs Notes of English Language

Decorate
Dry
Equip
Fry
Marry
Scatter

ltkuk
lw[kk
lfTtr djuk
ryuk
'kknh djuk
QSykuk

Decorated
Dried
Equiped
Fried
Married
Scattered

lqlfTtr
lw[kk gqvk
lqlfTtr
ryk gqvk
fookfgr
QSyk gqvk

- ing yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn%


Verb
Adjective
Deafen
cgjk dj nsuk
Deafening cgjk dj nsus okyk
Distress rhoz nq%[k nsuk
Distressing rhoz nq%[k nsus okyk
Disturb ijskku djuk
Disturbing ijskku djus okyk
Sparkle peduk
Sparkling
pedhyk
Thrive
le`) gksuk
Thriving
le`)
- ing vkSj -ed yxkdj cuk, tkus okys 'kCn%
Verb
Adjective
Amaze
vkp;Zpfdr djuk Amazing vkp;Ztud
Amazed vkp;Zpfdr
Baffle
pdjk nsuk
Baffling pdjkusokyk
Baffled pdjk;k gqvk
Connect tksM+uk
Connecting tksM+us okyk
Connected tqM+k gqvk
Exhaust Fkdk nsuk
Exhausting Fkdk nsus okyk
Exhausted Fkdk gqvk
Frighten Mjkuk
Frightening Mjkus okyk
Frightened Mjk gqvk
Please
[kqk djuk
Pleasing [kqk djus okyk
Pleased [kqk
Terrify cgqr Mjk gqvk
Terrifying Mjkus okyk
Terrified Mjk gqvk

Rajs Notes of English Language

fo'ks"k.k ls foks"k.k
Adjectives from Adjectives
Adjective
Black
Sick
Whole
White

dkyk
chekj
iwjk
lQsn

Adjective
blackish
Sickly
Wholesomely
Whitish

dkys jax tSlk


jksxhor~
fgrdj <ax ls
lQsn lk

Comparison of Adjectives
(Degree of Comparison)
- r vkSj -st yxkdj cuk, tkus okys%
Positive
Comparative
Able
;ksX;
abler
ls ;ksX;
Brave
cgknqj
braver
Fine
vPNk
finer
Gentle
lTtu
gentler
Large
cM+k
larger
Noble
dqyhu
nobler
True
lp
truer
Wise
cqf)eku wiser

Superlative
ablest lcls ;ksX;
bravest
finest
gentlest
largest
noblest
truest
wisest

- er vkSj -est yxkdj cuk, tkus okys%


Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Bold
cgknqj
bolder
ls cgknqj boldest lcls
cgknqj
Broad
pkSaM+k
broader
broadest
Clever
prqj
cleverer
cleverest
Dark va/ksjk@dkyk darker
darkest
Great fokky@egku greater
greatest
High
Wapk
higher
highest
Kind
n;kyq
kinder
kindest

Rajs Notes of English Language

Long
Loud
Old
Poor
Short
Small
Tall

yack
T+kksj ls
cw<k
xjhc
NksVk@de
NksVk
Wapk

longer
louder
older
poorer
Shorter
Smaller
taller

longest
loudest
oldest
poorest
Shortest
Smallest
tallest

vafre v{kj dks iqu% fy[kdj er vkSj -est yxkdj cuk,


tkus okys%
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Big
cM+k
bigger
ls cM+k
biggest
lcls cM+k
Fat
eksVk@eksVh fatter
fattest
Hot
xeZ
hotter
hottest
Red
yky
redder
reddest
Sad
mnkl
sadder
saddest
Thin
iryk
thinner
thinnest
Wet
xhyk
wetter
wettest
- ier vkSj -iest yxkdj cuk, tkus okys%
Positive
Comparison
Dirty
xank
dirtier
Dry
lw[kk
drier
Easy
ljy
easier
Happy
[kqk
happier
Heavy
Hkkjh
heavier
Lazy
vkYlh
lazier
Lovely
lqanj
lovelier
Lucky
HkkX;oku luckier
Merry
vkuafnr merrier
;fnY
;fn ls igys Vowel gks rc%

Superlative
dirtiest
driest
easiest
happiest
heaviest
laziest
loveliest
luckiest
merriest

Rajs Notes of English Language

Positive
Gay

vkuafnr

Comparison
gayer ls vkuafnr

Grey

Hkwjk

greyer

Superlative
gayest
lcls
vkuafnr
greyest

- more vkSj -most yxkdj cuk, tkus okys%


Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Beautiful
more beautiful
most beautiful
lqanj
ls lqanj
lcls lqanj
Courageous
more courageous
most courageous
ijkeh
Difficult
more difficult
most difficult
dfBu
Harmful
more harmful
most harmful
gkfudkjd
Honest
more honest
most honest
bZeka
ekankj
Important
more important
most important
egRoiw.kZ
Intelligent
more intelligent
most intelligent
cqf)tho
Magnificent
more magnificent
most magnificent
rstLoh@kksHkeku
Painful
more painful
most painful
nq%[knk;h
Splendid
more splendid
most splendid
'kksHkk;eku@mToy
- (irreglular) rhuks :i vyx okys%
Positive
Comparative
Bad
cqjk
worse
ls cqjk
Fore
igys dk former
Good
vPNk
better

Superlative
worst
lcls cqjk
first
best

Rajs Notes of English Language

Late
Little
Many
Much

nsj ls
FkksM+k
dbZ
T;knk

later
less/lesser
more
more

last/latest
least
most
most

- dqN 'kCn gksrs gSa tks Positive esa rks Adverb f;k foks"k.k gksrs
gSa ijarq vkSj esa foks"k.k cu tkrs gSaA
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Adverb
Adjective
Adjective
Far
nwj
farther ls nwj
farthest lcls nwj
Fore
igys
further
furthest
In
vanj
inner
innermost
Out
ckgj
outer/utter
uttermost
Up
ij
upper
uppermost/upmost

okD;ksa esa ;ksx%


1- oks bl dke dks djus ;ksX; gSA
He is able to do this work. (Positive)
oks mruk gh ;ksX; gS ftrus rqeA
He is as able as you are.
as.as ls rqyuk djrs le; Possitive Degree ;ksx fd;k tkrk
gSA
oks mruk ;ksX; ugha gS ftrus rqe gksA
He is not so able as you are.
udkjkRed okD;ksa esa as.as- not so..as esa cny tkrk gSA
oks rqels T;knk ;ksX; gSA
He is abler than you (are).
rqyuk djrs le; Comparative Degree dk ;ksx djrs gSa vkSj
ftl O;fDr ;k oLrq ds lkFk rqyuk dh tkrh gS oks gesakk
than ds ckn vkrk@vkrh gSA
oks rqels T;knk ;ksX; ugha gSA
He is not abler than you (are).

Rajs Notes of English Language

oks lcls T;knk ;ksX; gSA


He is the ablest.
lcls vf/kd bl vFkZ esa Superlative Degree dk ;ksx fd;k
tkrk gS vkSj Superlative Degree ds igys the dk ;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
dksbzZ vkSj O;fDr mruk ;ksX; ugha gS ftruk oks gSA
No other man is abler than he is./
No other man is as able as he is.
oks fdlh Hkh vU; O;fDr ls ;ksX; gSA
He is abler than any other man.
bl vFkZ esa okD; dks cksyr ;k fy[kr le; any other dk
;ksx djuk vfuok;Z gksrk gSA
2- jkts'k cgknqj FkkA
Rajesh was brave.
jkts'k mruk gh cgknqj Fkk ftruk mldk HkkbZA
Rajesh was as brave as his brother (was).
nhid mruk cgknqj ugha Fkk ftruk jktskA
Deepak was not so brave as Rajesh (was).
jktsk nhid ls T;knk cgknqj FkkA
Rajesh was braver than Deepak.
jktsk lcls cgknqj vkneh FkkA
Rajesh was the bravest man.
dksbZ nwljk O;fDr mruk cgknqj ugha Fkk ftruk jktskA
No other man/person was braver than Rajesh.
No other man/person was as brave as Rajesh.
jktsk fdlh Hkh vU; O;fDr ls cgknqj gSA
Rajesh is braver than any other person.

3- ljhrk cqf)eku gSA


Sarita is wise.
ljhrk mruh gh cqf)eku gS ftruh mldh ekWaA
Sarita is as wise as her mother.

Rajs Notes of English Language

xhrk mruh cf)eku ugha gS ftruh lhykA


Geeta is not so wise as Seela.
vkt dy ls T;knk B.M gSA
It is colder than yesterday.
;s lcls xje nsk gSA
This is the hottest state.
dksbZ nwljk nsk bruk xeZ ugha gS ftruk ;sA
No other state is hotter than this one./
No other state is as hot as this one.
;s nsk fdlh Hkh vU; nsk ls xeZ gSA
This state is hotter than any other state.
4- oks rst nkSM+rk gSA
He runs fast.
oks jfo ls rst nkSM+rk gSA
He runs faster than Ravi (does).
mldk HkkbZ mruk vPNk ugha gS ftruk mldk cM+k HkkbZA
His brother is not so good as his brother.
jfo mlls rst ugha fy[krkA
Ravi doesnt write faster than he (does).
lhek lcls rst pyrh gSA
Seema walks the fastest.
dksbZ vkSj yM+dh mruk rst ugha fy[krh ftruk lhekA
No other girl writes faster than Seema./
No other girl writes as fast as Seema.
lhek fdlh Hkh vU; yM+dh ls rst fy[krh
fy[krh gSA
Seema writes faster than any other girl.
5- lksukyh [kqclwjr gSA
Sonali is beautiful.
lksukyh mruh gh [kwclwjr gS ftruh mldh ekWaA
Sonali is as beautiful as her mother.
jk/kk mruh [kwclwjr ugha gS ftruh lksukyhA
Radha is not so beautiful as Sonali.

Rajs Notes of English Language

lksukyh lcls [kwclwjr yM+dh gSA


Sonali is the most beautiful girl.
dksbZ vkSj yM+dh mruh [kwclwjr ugha gS ftruh lksukyhA
No other girl is more beautiful than Sonali./
No other girl is as beautiful as Sonali.
lksukyh fdlh Hkh vU; yM+dh ls lqanj gSA
Sonali is more beautiful than any other girl.
ysfdu ;fn fdlh la[;k ls rqyuk dh tk, rc than dk ugha of
dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
tSls(
1- oks rhuks yM+fd;ksa esa ls lcls Waph gSA
She is the tallest of the three girls.
2- fuysk ikWapks f[kykfM+;ksa esa lcls vPNk gSA
Nilesh is the best of the five players.
Comparative Degree dk ;sx the ds lkFk bl
bl dkj ds
okD;ksa dks Hkh cksyus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1- ftruk ij tkvks mruh BaM gksrh gSA
The higher you go, the colder it is.
2- ftruk T;knk i<+ksxs mruk T;knk lh[kksxsA
The more you read, the more you learn.
3- ftruh nsj ls tkvksxs mruk nsj ls igqWapksxsA
The later you go, the later you will reach.
4- ftruk vPNk cksyksxs mrus vPNs fe= cusaxsA
The better you speak, the better friends you will make.
5- ftruk rst pyksxs mruh tYnh igqWapksxsA
The faster you walk, the sooner you reach.

lgh Lrseky

(CORRECT USAGE)

1- fuEu fyf[kr Comparatives ysfVu (Latin) Hkk"kk ls fy;s x,


gSa ftudk vark -or ij gksrk gS(
senior, superior, junior, jnferior anterior, posterior

Rajs Notes of English Language

buds lkFk Comparative Degree dk ;ksx djus ds ckn


than ds LFkku ij to dk ;ksx fd;k trk gSA
tSlS
lS%
1- vki lHkh eq>ls cM+s gSaA
All of you are senior to me.
2- esjh iqLrd eq>s esjh tku ls I;kjh gSA
My book is superior to my life.
3- oks viuh lkjh lgsfy;ksa ls NksVh gSA
She is junior to all her friends.
4- oks lkyuh ls cqf)ekk esa de gSA
She is inferior to Salini in intelligence.
5- ;s ?kVuk mlds igys dh gSA
This incident is anterior to that.
6- ;g ?kVuk ml ?kVuk ls igys gqbZA
This incident is posterior to that.
2- fuEu fyf[kr Comparatives ftudk var or ij gksrk gS(
Major, minor, interior, exterior, bUkds Positive vkSj
Superlative Degree ugha gksrs gaSA budk ;ksx Positive
Adjectives, the ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gSA
1- mlus tehu dk eq[k fgLlk csp fn;k gSA
He has sold the major portion of his plot.
2- ;s de egRo dk eqn~nk ugha gSA
It is not the subject of minor importance.
3- vej ds ?kj dh vanj dh nhokjsa ekoZy dh cuh gSA
The interior walls of Amars home are made of marbles.
4- ckgj dh nhokjs ydM+h dh gSA
The exterior walls are of wood.
3- Elder, eldest, dk ;ksx dsoy O;fDr ds fy;k gh fd;k tkrk
gS] oLrq vkSj tkuojksa ds fy;s ugha vkSj Elder dk ;ksx ,d gh
ifjokj esa bl vFkZ esa fd;k tkrk gS(

Rajs Notes of English Language

tSls(
1- vkuan esjs cM+s HkkbZ gSaA
Anand is my elder brother.
2- dkk esjk lcls cM+k yM+dk gS
Prakash is my elderest son.
4- older, oldest dk ;ksx O;fDr vkSj oLrq nksuks ds fy;s fd;k
tkrk gS(
tSls%
1- oks vkils cM+k gSA
He is older than you.
2- ;s bl dLcs dk lcls iqjkuk eafnj gSA
This is the oldest temple of this town.
5- later, latest dk ;ksx le; dks nkkZus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk
gS(
tSls%
1- oks gesakk eq>ls nsj ls vkrh gSA
She always comes later than I do.
me cksy ldrs gSa ij xyr ekuk tkrk gS ysfdu esa gSA
2- rkth [kcj D;k gS\
What is the latest news?
5- latter, last dk ;ksx fLFkfr dks nkkZus ds fy;s ds the ckn
fd;k tkrk gS(
tSls%
1- fiNyk ikB eT+ksnkj ugha FkkA
The latter lesson was not interesting.
2- rqEgkjs ijh{kk dh vafre frfFk D;k gS\
What is the last date of your examination?

4- Verb-f;kA
f;kA
f;k Verb%

fdlh Hkh thfor 'kjhj ls gksus okyk ;k fd;k tkus okyk


oks action ftls ek= fd;k tk ldrk gS] Nw ughaa ldrs] ns[k ughaa ldrs] ek=

Rajs Notes of English Language

dj ldrs gSa tSls& lksuk] tkxuk] mBuk] cSBuk ;s f;k ds mnkgj.k gSaA fgUnh
Hkk"kk esa f;k dks cksyrs le; var esa *uk* ;s mPpkj.k gksrk gSA
futhZo oLrq drkZ dHkh ughaa gks ldrh fQj Hkh dHkh&dHkh mUgsa drkZ
ds :i esa ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

A verb is a word that tells something about a person or thing.


vaxszth Hkk"kk esa f;k dks rhu :iksa esa ckVk x;k gS%&
1st form (Present) gksrk gS
g]
2nd form (Past) gksrk gS] vkSj
3rd form (Past Participle/Perfect) gksrk gSA
Example:
V1 f;k dk igyk :i
(Present)
fgUnh vFkZ
8. Go tkuk
9. Come vkuk
10.Speak cksyuk
11.Help enn djuk
12.Switch on pkyw djuk
13.Open [kksyuk
14.Do

djuk

V2 f;k dk nwljk :i
(Past)
fgUnh vFkZ
went x;k
came vk;k
spoke cksyk
helped enn dh
switched on pkyw fd;k
opened [kksyk
did

fd;k

V3 f;k dk rhljk :i
(Past Participle/Perfect)
fgUnh vFkZ
gone pyk x;k@tk pqdk
come vk x;k @vk pqdk
spoken cksy fn;k @cksy
pqdk
helped en~n dj fn;k@
dj pqdk
switched on pkyw dj
fn;k @dj pqdk
opened [kksy fn;k @
[kksy pqdk
done dj fn;k@dj pqdk

The Transitive and Intransitive verbs


1.

Transitive verb: ,slh f;k,sa (verbs) ftudk okD; esa iw.kZ vFkZ
dks crkus ds fy;s object gksrk gS oks Transitive verbs dgykrh
gSa tSls(
1- He drives (verb) a car (object).
oks dkj pykrk gSA
2- The peon rang the bell.
pijklh us ?kaVh ctkbZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3- I teach my students.
eSa vius fo|kFkhZ;ksa dks i<+krk gwWaA
4- He eats bread.
oks jksVh [kkrk gSA
5- She burnt her hand.
mldk gkFk ty x;kA
6- He opened the door.
mlus njoktk [kksykA

2.

Intransitive verb: ,slh f;k,sa (verbs) ftudk okD; esa iw.kZ


vFkZ dks crkus ds fy;s object dks fy[kus dh vo;Drk ugha
gksrh gS oks Intransitive verbs dgykrh gSa(
tSls(
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

The door opened.


(there is no object of the verb in it.)
njoktk [kqykA
The bell rang.
?kaVh cthA
The horse runs.
?kksM+k nkSM+rk gSA
The cow gives milk.
xk; nw/k nsrh gSA
The mirror broke.
vkbuk VwVkA

dqN transitive verbs dk ;ksx intransitive verbs ds


:i esa fd;k tk ldrk gS(
tSls(
1.

2.

Transitive
He eats bananas.
oks dsys [kkrk gSA
Sachin broke the record.
lfpu us fjdkWM rksM+kA

Intransitive
We eat to live.
ge thus ds fy;s
[kkrs gSaA
The glass broke.
Xykl VwVkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.

The earthquake shook the


earth.
HkwdEi us i`Foh dks
fgyk;kA

The earth shook.


i`Foh fgyhA
fgyhA

The Infinitive
bl okD; dks i<+ks(
I want a pen.
e>s ,d isu pkfg;sA
bl okD; esa f;k want drkZ ds lkFk lhfer gS
blfy;s f;k dks finite verb dgsaxsA
vc bl okD; dks i<+ks(
I want to go.
eSa tkuk pkgrk gwWaA
She wants to go.
oks tkuk pkgrh gSA
I wanted to go.
eSa tkuk pkgrk FkkA
bu okD;ksa esa to go flQZ f;k dk uke gS vkSj ;s drkZ
ls lhfer ugh gS vkSj dky ds cny tkus ds dkj.k Hkh bl
to go ij dksbZ Hkko ugh iM+rk blh dkj.k ge ,slh f;kvksa
dks tks eq[; f;k ds ckn to ls tqM+h gksrh gSa Infinitive Verbs
dgrs gSa(
I like to go there.
We go to school to learn something.
They go to play in the evening.

Forms of Infinite-bfUQfufVo ds :i
Active Voice:1. Simple infinitive (to+V1)
1-

eSa ;s ugh djuk pkgrkA


I dont want to do this.

Rajs Notes of English Language

23456789101011111212-

1313141415151616-

eSa vkt vkidks ,d u;h pht fl[kkuk pkgrk gwWaA


I want to teach you a new thing today.
gekjk ?kj <w<uk vklku gSA
It is easy to find our home.
oks ;gkWa ;s i= nsus vk;k FkkA
He came here to give this letter.
fnusk dk fonsk tkus dk bjknk gSA
Dinesh intends to go abroad.
eSa viuk ilZ vius lkFk ykuk Hkwy x;kA
I forgot to bring my purse along with me.
vkykspuk djuk vklku gSA
It is easy to criticize./ To criticize is easy.
oks MkWDVj cuuk pkgrk gSA
He wants to be a doctor.
ekaQ djuk eSaus vkidks uhan ls txk;kA
I am sorry to wake you up.
os mlds vkus dk barT+kkj dj jgs FksA
They were waiting for him to come.
eSaus mldh enn uk djus dk fu.kZ; fy;k gSA
I have decided not to help him/her.
eq>s dy ;s i= iksLV djuk gS ;s ckr lqcg ;kn fnyk
nsukA
ukA
Remind me in the morning to post this letter.
mldk uke ysuk dfBu gSA
It is difficult to pronounce his/her name.
oks ;s [kcj lqudj nq[kh FkkA
He was sad to hear this news.
eSa pkgrk gwWa fd lHkh yksx le; ij igWaqpsaA
I want everyone to reach in time.
mlus gesa lko/kku jgus dh psrkouh nhA
He warned us to stay alert.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2. Continuous Infinitive (to+be+V1+ing)


123-

45-

eSa lksprk gwWa fd oks vk jgk gksxkA


I think him to be coming.
gesa yxrk gS fd oks bl oDr ikS/kks dks ikuh ns jgk gksxkA
kA
We think him to be watering the plants.
tc Hkh ge mlds ?kj tkrs gSa oks dke djus dk ukVd
dj jgk gksrk gSA
When we go to his home, he pretends to be working.
oks tklwlh djrk yx jgk FkkA
He seemed to be spying.
vki esgur djrs jgsa vkils ,slh vis{kk dh tkrh gSA
You are expected to be working hard.

3. Perfect Infinitive (to+have+V3)


12-

34-

5-

eSaus vkidks ijskku fd;k mlds fy;s eq>s ekWaQ djsaA


I am sorry to have disturbed you.
,slh ekWa ikdj eSa vius vkidks cgqr HkX;kkyh ekurk gwWaA
I consider/think myself very fortunate to have got such a
good mother.
oks tSls eq>s Hkwy x;k gks ,slk mlus ukVd fd;kA
He pretended to have forgotten me.
eSa vkidk Nkrk vkils iwNs fcuk ys x;k Fkk bl ckr ds
fy;s eq>s {kek djsaA
I am sorry to have taken you umbrella without your
permission.
oks vius ifjokj ds lkFk dgha pyk x;k gS ,slk yxrk gSA
He seems to have gone somewhere with his family.

4. Perfect Continuous Infinitive


(to+have+been+V1+ing)
1- vki lqcg ls dke djrs yx jgs gksA
You seem to have been working since morning.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2- jktk ,slk yxrk gS fd dkQh fnuks ls gekjh phtsa pqjk jgk


gSA
Raja seems to have been stealing our things for many days.
3- Okks ,slh yxh tSls lqcg ls dejk ltk jgh Fkh A
She seemed to have been decorating the room since morning.
4- oks dkQh nsj ls gekjh ckr lqu jgk Fkk ,slk yxkA
He seemed to have been listening to us for long.
5- oks dkQh fnuksa ls gekjh tklwlh dj jgk Fkk ,slk yxkA
He seems to have been spying on us for many days.

In the form of Passive Voice


1. Simple Infinitive (to be +V3)
1- eSa pkgrk gwWa fd eq>s vdsyk NksM+ fn;k tk,A
I want myself to be left alone.
2- tc Hkh dksbZ dke djuk gksrk gS oks dgha pyk tkrk gSA
Whenever there is a work to be done, he goes somewhere.
3- ge pkgrs gSa fd mls ,d vkSj ekSdk fn;k tk,A
We want him to be given another chance.
4- yksx pkgrs gSa fd ,sls O;fDr dks ltk nh tk,A
People want such (a) person to be punished.
5- bl dejs dks ltkus dh t:jr gSA
This room needs to be decorated.
6- bl thou esa vHkh cgqr ls dke djus ckdh gSA
There are several things to be done in this life.
7- eSas pkgrk gwWa fd ;s dke nks fnu ds vanj fd;k tk,A
I want this work to be done within two days.
8- cPpksa dks ?kj eas vkSj Ldwy esa Hkh fk"Vkpkj fl[kkus dh
t:jr gSA
Children need to be taught manners/etiquette at home
as well as at school.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2. Perfect Infinitive (to have been +V3)


1- mls tku ls ekj fn;s tkus dh laHkkouk gSA
He is likely to have been killed.
2- mls lp crk fn;s tkus dh laHkkouk gSA
She is likely to have been told the fact/truth.
3- mls /kks[kk fn;k x;k gS ,slk yxrk gSA
H seems to have been cheated/deceived.
4- mls ltk nh xbZ gS ,slk yxrk gSA
He seems to have been punished.

The Gerund
1.

2.

Gerund laKk ds leku gh gksrk gS ftldk ;ksx fuEu


fyf[kr rjhds ls fd;k tkr gS(
f;k ds drkZ ds :i esa(
1- lksuk LokLF; ds fy;s t:jh gSA
Sleeping is essential for health.
2- taxyh tkuokjksa dk fkdkj djuk fr ds f[kykQ gSA
Hunting wild animals is against Nature.
3- nwljksa dh fuank djuk vPNh ckr ugha gSA
Criticising others is not a good thing.
4- fdlh Hkh O;fDr ij fookl dj ysuk vPNk ugh gSA
Believing anyone/anybody is not a good thing.
5- nkSM+
M+ LokLF; ds fy;s vPNh dljr gSA
Running is a good exercise for health.
,d transitive verb ds object ds :i esa(
1- eq>s ,sls ksxzke ns[kuk ilan gS tks yksxks dks dqN vPNk
fl[kkus dk ;kl djrs gSaA
I like watching such programmes which try to teach
people something good.
2- uhye dks iqLrd i<+uk ilan gSA
Neelam likes reading books.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3- gesa lrjat [ksyuk vPNk yxrk gSA


We like/love playing chess.
4- fy[kuk can dhft,A
Stop writing.
5- cdokl can djksA
Stop talking nonsense.
3.

,d Preposition ds object ds :i esa(


1- eq>s fdsV [ksyuk ilan gSA
I am fond of playing cricket.
2- gesa >wB cksyus ij ltk nh tkrh gSA
We are punished for telling a lie.
3- eSa dke ls Fkd x;k gwWaA
I am tired of working.
4- mls xhr xkuk ilan gSA
She is fond of singing.
5- mls [kkus dk 'kkSd gSA
He is fond of eating.

4.

,d verb ds complement ds :i esa(


1- ns[kuk gh fookl djuk gSA
Seeing is believing.
2- mls lcls T;knk tks pht ilan gS oks gS [kkuk cukukA
What she most likes, is cooking.

5.

dqN Compound words dk Hkh ;ksx gksrk gS ftls Gerund


dgk tkrk gS(
Walking-stick pyus okyh ydM+hA
Frying-pan
ryus okyh d<+kbZA
Writing-pad fy[kus okyk iSMA

6.

tc fdlh noun ;k pronoun dks gerund ds igys j[kk tkrk


gS rc oks Possessive case esa gh gksuk pkfg,(

Rajs Notes of English Language

1.

7.

I dont like your talking too much.


eq>s rqEgkjk cgqr T;knk ckr djuk ilan ugha gSA
2.
I heard of his winning the gold medal.
eSaus mlds lksus dk rexk thrus ds ckjs esa lquk gSA
3.
She was glad to hear your being quite well.
rqe ,dne Bhd gks lqudj oks cgqr [kqk FkhA
4.
We are glad to hear Sandeeps being quite well.
lanhi fcYdqy Bhd gS ;s tkudj ge cgqr [kqk gSaA
Ysfdu ;fn noun ;k pronoun futhZo gksa rc oks Possessive case
esa ugha fy[ks tkrs of dk ;ksx djrs gSa(
1.
There is a possibility of train arriving (gerund) late.
Vsu ds nsj ls vkus dh laHkkouk gSA
2.
There is no possibility of bus coming (gerund) late.
cl ds nsj ls vkus dh dksbZ laHkkouk ugha gSA
3.
There is no chance of the tree falling (gerund) down.
isM+ ds fxjus dh dksbZ laHkkouk ugh gSA

Subject+Verb and Gerund


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I like playing (to play-infinitive) cricket.


eq>s fdsV [ksyuk ilan gSA
Most children like playing (to play-infinitive) with toys.
cgqr ls cPpksa dks f[kykSuksa ls [ksyuk ilan gSA
We started writing (to write-infinitive).
geus fy[kuk 'kq: fd;kA@ge fy[kus yxsA
She began crying (to cry-infinitive).
mlus jksuk 'kq: fd;kA@oks jksus yxhA
I prefer walking (to walk-infinitive).
eq>s iSny pyuk ilan gSA
They began laughing (to laugh-infinitive).
os galus yxsA
My shirt needs washing.

Rajs Notes of English Language

(to be washed-passive infinitive)


esjh 'kVZ dks /kqyus dh t:jr gSA
8.
My cycle needs repairing.
(to be repaired-passive infinitive).
esjh lk;dy dks ejEer dh t:jr gSA
9.
This room needs cleaning.
(to be cleaned-passive infinitive).
bl dejs dks lkQ djus dh t:jr gSA
10. My bike wants repairing.
(to be repaired-passive infinitive).
esjh ckbd dks ejEer dh t:jr gSA

Gerund after Prepositions


1.
2.
3.

He was greeted on winning the race.


jsl thrus ij mldk lRdkj fd;k x;kA
He was punished for breaking the window.
f[kM+dh rksM+us ds fy;s mls ltk nh xbZA
She is expert in cooking.
oks [kkuk cukus esa ekfgj gSA

Subject +Verb+Preposition and Gerund


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

He is not capable of buying a car.


oks dkj ugh [kjhn ldrkA
I am fond of listening to music.
eq>s xkuk lquuk ilan gSA
She was tired of working.
oks dke djds Fkdh gqbZ FkhA
Ravi was annoyed at missing the bus.
jfo cl NwV tkus dh otg ls fpM+fpM+k;k gqvk FkkA
My mother prevented me from going abroad.
ejh ekaW us eq>s fonsk tkus ls jksdkA
She is always thinking of changing the house.
oks gesakk ?kj cnyus dh lksprh jgrh gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

7.

He succeeded in achieving his goal.


oks vius mn~ns; dks ikus esa dke;kc gqvkA

The Participle
A participle is a word which is partly a verb and adjective.
'kCnksa ds oks :i tks f;k vkSj foks"k.k ds :i esa Lrseky
fd;k tkrk gS participle dgykrs gSaA bls nks Hkkxks esa ckaVk x;k gS(
1.
Present Participle. 2. Past participle.
1.
Present Participle.
f;k ds oks :i tks fdlh v/kwjh f;k dks crkrs gSa
vkSj oks f;k ds :i esa ugha gksrs Present Participle
dgykrs gSa(
1- I heard (verb) a man crying for help.
eSaus ,d vkneh dks enn ds fy;s fpYykrs lqukA
2- We saw (verb) men cutting the trees.
geus vknfe;ksa dks isM+ dkVrs ns[kkA
2.

Past participle.
f;k ds oks :i tks fdlh iw.kZ f;k dks crkrs gSa
vkSj oks f;k ds :i esa ugha gksrs Past Participle dgykrs
gSa(
1.
She was (verb) completely confused.
oks iwjh rjg Hkzfer FkhA
2.
We sat (verb) under a tree laden with fruits.
ge ,d isM+ ds uhps cSBs tks Qyksa ls ynk FkkA
3.
Driven by hunger, he stole (verb) a chapati.
Hkwa[k ds dkj.k] mlus ,d jksVh pqjkbZA

Participle dk ;ksx ge rhu rjhds


rjhds ls dj ldrs gSa(
1.
Attribute adjectives ds :i esa(
A rolling stone gathers no mass.
Time once lost never comes back.
A burnt child dreads the fire.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.

3.

Predicative adjectives ds :i esa(


She seems worried.
I saw him going inside your room.
Absolutive adjective ds :i esa(
Cricket being my hobby, I could not control myself.
fdsV [ksyuk eq>s ilan gS blfy;s eSa [kqn dks jksd ugh
ik;kA
Reading being his hobby, he bought some more books.
i<+uk mldh ilan gS blfy;s mlus dqN vkSj iqLrdsa [kjhnhA
The weather being calm, we went for sail.
ekSle 'kkar Fkk rks ge uko dh lSj ij x,A
He being happy, I asked him a personal question.
oks [kqk Fkk rks eSaus mlls ,d u iwaNkA

Forms of Verbs-f;k ds :i
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

V1(Present)
List of Weak berbs
allow
vkKk nsuk
appear
dV gksuk
bend
>qduk
betray
/kksdk nsuk
bind
ckaW/kuk
bleed
[kwu cguk
breed
tUe nsuk
@iSnk djuk
bring
ykuk
build
cukuk
burn
tyuk
buy
[kjhnuk
borrow m/kkj ysuk
catch
idM+uk
cost dher r; djuk
creep
jSaxuk
dhM+ksa dk

V2 (Past)

V3 (Past Participle)

allowed
appeared
bent
betrayed
bound
bled
bred

allowed
appeared
bent
betrayed
bound
bled
bred

broughat
built
burnt/ burned
boughat
borrowed
caughat
costed
crept

broughat
built
burnt/ burned
boughat
borrowed
caughat
costed
crept

Rajs Notes of English Language

ys tkuk
@<ksuk
17. clean
lkQ djuk
18. climb
Pk<uk
19. close
can djuk
20. cook
[kkuk idkuk
21. care
ijokg djuk
22. complete iwjk djuk
23. cleave
rksM+uk
24. deal
O;ogkj djuk
25. dig
[kksnuk
26. deceive /kks[kk nsuk
27. decorate ltkuk
28. die
ejuk
29. divide
ckaWVuk
30. dwell
jguk
31. dream
lius ns[kuk

16. carry

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

carried

cleaned
climbed
closed
cooked
cared
completed
cleft
dealt
dug
deceived
decorated
died
divided
dwelt
dreamt
/dreamed
earn
dekuk
earned
enter
os'k djuk
entered
feed
Mkyuk@f[kykuk fed
fight
yM+uk
foughat
feel
eglwl djuk
felt
find
ikuk@<waW<uk
found
flee
Hkkx tkuk
fled
finish
lekIr djuk
finished
fear
Mjuk
feared
get
ikuk
got
grind
ihluk
ground
hang
yVdkuk
hung
hang
QkWalh ij yVdkuk hanged
have
ikl esa gksuk
had
@[kkuk@ihuk@ysuk
hear
lquuk
heard
hold
idM+uk@Fkkeuk held

carried
cleaned
climbed
closed
cooked
cared
completed
cleft
dealt
dug
deceived
decorated
died
divided
dwelt
dreamt
/dreamed
earned
entered
fed
foughat
felt
found
fled
finished
feared
got
ground
hung
hanged
had
heard
held

Rajs Notes of English Language

fdjk, ls ysuk
f'kdkj djuk
L=h djuk diM+s
vkeaf=r djuk
dwnuk
j[kuk
?kqVus Vsduk
[kV[kVkuk
ekjuk iSj ls
j[kuk] vaMs nsuk
us=Ro djuk
dwnuk
lh[kuk

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

hire
hunt
iron
invite
jump
keep
kneel
knock
kick
lay
lead
leap
learn

61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.

leave
NksM+uk
leap
dwnuk
leave
NksM+uk
lend
m/kkj nsuk
lie
>wB cksyuk
lose
[kksuk@gkjuk
light
fn;k tykuk
make
cukuk
marry
'kknh djuk
mean
eryc gksuk
meet
feyuk
misunderstand xyr
le>uk
mislead xyr us=Ro djuk
move
fgyuk@fgykuk
mow
?kkWal dkVuk
open
[kksyuk
obey
vkKk dk
ikyu djuk
order
vkns'k djuk
pick
mBkuk@pquuk
pray
kFkZuk djuk

73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.

hired
hunted
ironed
invited
jumped
kept
knelt
knocked
kicked
laid
led
leapt
learnt
/ learned
left
leapt
left
lent
lied
lost
lighted
made
married
meant
met
misunderstood

hired
hunted
ironed
invited
jumped
kept
knelt
knocked
kicked
laid
led
leapt
learnt/learned
/ learned
left
leapt
left
lent
lied
lost
lighted
made
married
meant
met
misunderstood

misled
moved
mowed
opened
obeyed

misled
moved
mowed
opened
obeyed

ordered
picked
prayed

ordered
picked
prayed

Rajs Notes of English Language

81.
82.
83.
84.
85.

pay
prove
pull
push
prepare

86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.

plougha
please
quarrel
rain
reach
refuse
ruin
rend
saw
say
see
seek
sell
send
sew
shine
shoot

103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.

show
sit
slay
sleep
slide
sling
slink
smell
sow
spell
spend
spill

pqdkuk
lkfcr djuk
[khapuk
/kDdk nsuk
rS;kj
@rS;kjh djuk
gy pykuk
[kq'k djuk
>xM+k djuk
o"kkZ gksuk
igqaWpuk
euk djuk
u"V djuk
QkM+uk
vkjh ls dkVuk
dguk
ns[kuk
[kkstuk
cspuk
Hkstuk
flyuk
peduk
xksyh ekjuk
@ohfM;ks cukuk
fn[kkuk
cSBuk
d+Ry djuk
lksuk
fQlyuk
Qsad nsuk
tkukfcuk dgss
lwa?kuk
cksuk cht
Lisfyax djuk
[kpZ djuk
fc[ksjuk

paid
proved
pulled
pushed
prepared

paid
proved
pulled
pushed
prepared

ploughaed
pleased
quarrelled
rained
reached
refused
ruined
rent
sawed
said
saw
soughat
sold
sent
sewed
shined
shot

ploughaed
pleased
quarreled
rained
reached
refused
ruined
rent
sawed
said
seen
soughat
sold
sent
sewed
shined
shot

showed
sat
slayed/ slew
slept
slid
slung
slunk
smelt
sowed
spelt/spelled
spent
spilt

shown
sat
slayed/slain
slept
slid
slung
slunk
smelt
sowed
spelt/spelled
spent
spilt

Rajs Notes of English Language

lwr dkruk
Fkwduk
[kjkc djuk
[kM+s gksuk
xyk nckdj
Ekjuk
120. stick
fpidkuk
121. strike
gkj djuk
122. string
/kkxs esa fijksuk
123. swell
lwtuk
124. swing
>wyuk
125. teach
i<+kuk@fl[kkuk
126. thank
/kU;okn djuk
127. test
ijh{kk ysuk
128. testify
xokgh nsuk
129. tease
ijs'kku djuk
130. tie
ckWa/kuk
131. tell
crkuk
132. threaten /kedh nsuk
133. understand le>uk
134. wait
bartkj djuk
135. work
dke djuk
136. wish
pkguk
@bPNk djuk
137. win
thruk
138. wind
pkch nsuk
139. weep
jksuk
140. weigh
otu djuk
141. wring
fjaxfupksM+uk
142. yield
;hYM gkj ekuuk
143. yoke
tksM+uk

115.
116.
117.
118.
119.

spin
spit
spoil
stand
straggle

List of Strong Verbs


144. arise
mRiUu gksuk
145. be (is/am/are)gksuk
gS@gwWa@gks
146. bear
tUe nsuk

span
spit/spat
spoiled/spoilt
stood
straggled

spun
spit/spat
spoiled/spoilt
stood
straggled

stuck
struck
strung
swelled
swung
taughat
thanked
tested
testified
teased
tied
told
threatened
understood
waited
worked
wished

stuck
struck
strung
swelled/swollen
swung
taughat
thanked
tested
testified
teased
tied
told
threatened
understood
waited
worked
wished

won ou
wound
wept
weighed
wringed fjaXM
yielded
yoked

won ou
wound
wept
weighed
wringed
yielded
yoked

arose
was/were
Fkk@Fks
bore

arisen
been
born

Rajs Notes of English Language

147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.

bear
lguk
beat
ihVuk
become cuukA
begin
'kq: djuk
bite dkVuk eq
eqWag ls
blow
gok cguk
break
rksM+uk
choose
pquuk
do
djuk
draw
fp= mrkjuk
@cukuk
drink
ihuk
drive
xkM+h pykuk
nks ls vf/kd ifg;s dh
eat
[kkuk
fall
fxjuk
fly
mM+uk@mM+kuk
forget
Hkwyuk
forgive
ekQ djuk
freeze
teuk
give
nsuk
go
tkuk
grow
mxuk@c<uk
hide
Nqikuk
know
tkuuk
lie
>wB cksyuk
lie
ysVuk
overcome ekr nsuk
@gjk nsuk
overtake vkxs fudyuk
ride
lckjh djuk
nks ifg, dh@?kksM+s dh
rise
mBuk@tkxuk
run
nkSM+uk
see
ns[kuk
shake
fgykuk
shrink
fldqM+uk

bore
beat
became
began
bit
blew
broke
chose
did
drew

borne
beaten
become
begun
bitten
blown
broken
chosen
done
drown

drank
drove

drunk
driven

ate
fell
flew
forgot
forgave
froze
gave
went
grew
hid
knew
lied
lay
overcame

eaten
fallen
flown
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
given
gone
grown
hidden
known
lied
lain
overcome

overtook
rode

overtake
ridden

rose
ran
saw
shook
shrank

risen
run
seen
shaken
shrunk

Rajs Notes of English Language

xkuk xkuk
xhr&song
180. sink
Mwcuk
181. smite
gkj djuk
182. speak
cksyuk
183. spring
mNyuk
184. steal
pksjh djuk
185. swear
dle [kkuk
186. sweep
>kMw yxkuk
187. swim
rSjuk
188. take
ysuk
189. tear
QkM+uk
190. throw
QSaduk
191. tread
dqpyuk
192. undertake gkaWFk esa ysuk
fdlh dke dks
193. wake (up)tkxuk
194. wake (one)up
fdlh dks txkuk
195. withdraw fudy tkuk
196. write
fy[kuk

179. sing

sang

sung

sank
smote
spoke
sprang
stole
swore
swept
swam
took
tore
threw
trode
undertook

sunk
smitten
spoken
sprung
stolen
sworn
swept
swum
taken
torn
thrown
trodden
undertaken

woke (up)
woken (up)
woke (one) up woken (one) up
withdrew
wrote

withdrawn
written

dqN f;kvksa ds rhuks :i leku gksrs gSa(


197.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.

bet
bid
burst
cut
cast
cost
hit
hurt
knit
let
put
rid
read jhM

'krZ yxkuk
cksyh yxkuk
QVuk@QwVuk
dkVuk
Qsad nsuk
dher gksuk
ekjuk
pksaV igqWapkuk
cqUkuk
vuqefr nsuk
j[kuk
NqVdkjk ikuk
Ik<+uk

bet
bid
burst
cut
cast
cost
hit
hurt
knit
let
put
rid
read jSM

bet
bid
burst
cut
cast
cost
hit
hurt
knit
let
put
rid
read jSM

Rajs Notes of English Language

Verbs from Nouns laKk ls f;k


Nouns
Beauty
laqnjrk
Breath czsFk lkWal
Calf
cNM+k
Danger [krjk
Jeopardy ladV
Length yEckbZ
Pressure ncko
Saliva
ykj
Scrutiny Nkuchu
Slave
xqyke
Strength rkdr@kfDr
Terror
Threat
Throne
Tomb
Urine
Victim

ngkr
/kedh
flagklu
dcz@edcjk
iskkc
cyh

Verbs
beautify lqanj cukuk
breathe czhn lkWal ysuk
calve
cN+Ms dks tUe nsuk
endanger [krjs esa Mkyuk
jeopardize ladV esa Mkyuk
lengthen yack djuk
pressurize ncko Mkyuk
salivate ykj Viduk
scrutinize Nkuchu djuk
enslave xqykeh
strengthen rkdroj cukuk@
kfDrkkyh cukuk
terrorize ngkr QSykuk
threaten /kedh nsuk
enthrone flagklu ij cSBkuk
entomb dcz esa nQ+ukuk
urinate iskkc djuk
victimize cyh cukuk

Verbs from Adjectives laKk ls f;k


Adjectives
Able
;ksX;
Black
dkyk
Bright
rstLoh
Central dasfnz;
Deep
xgjk
Fat
eksVk
Feeble
nqcZy
Final
vafre

Verbs
enable
blacken
broad
centralize
deepen
fatten
enfeeble
finalize

;ksX; cukuk@gksuk
dkyk jaxuk@gksuk
rstLoh cukuk@gksuk
dasfnz; djuk
xgjk djuk@gksuk
eksVk djuk@gksuk
nqcZy djuk
vafre :i nsuk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Fresh
Glad
Hard
Intense
Large
Less
Loose
Modern
Popular
Pure
Red
Rich
Ripe
Sad
Secular
Short
Simple
Straight
Sweet

rkT+kk
[kqk
dfBu
rhcz
cM+k
de
<hyk
vk/kqfud
ykdf;
'kq)
yky
le`)
idk gqvk
mnkl
/keZfujis{k
NksVk
ljy
lh/kk
ehBk

freshen rkT+kk djuk@gksuk


gladden [kqk djuk
harden dfBu djuk@gksuk
intensify rhcz djuk@gksuk
enlarge cM+k djuk@gksuk
lessen
de djuk@gksuk
loosen
<hyk djuk@gksuk
modernizevk/kq
vk/kqfud cukuk
popularize yksdf; cukuk
purify
'kq) djuk
redden
yky djuk@gksuk
enrich
le`) cukuk
ripen
iduk@idkuk
sadden
mnkl djuk
secularize /keZfujis{k cukuk
shorten NksVk djuk gksuk
simplify ljy djuk
straighten lh/kk djuk gksuk
sweeten ehBk djuk gksuk

5- Adverb-f;kfoks
f;kfoks"k.kA
f;kfoks"k.k oks dgykrs gSa tks f;k]foks"k.k] ;k fdlh
vU; f;kfoks"k.k ds vFkZ dks Li"V djrk gSA
An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a
verb, an adjective or another adverb.

KINDS OF ADVERBS

f;kfoks"k.k ds dkj
I.

Simple Adverbs
1. Adverb of Place: (showing where) tks txg dks crkrs gSa(

Rajs Notes of English Language

oks ogkWa [ksy jgs FksA


They were playing there.
eSa vkt iwjs fnu ckgj FkkA
I was out the whole day.
;gkWa vkvksA
Come here.
Hkxoku gj txg gSA
God is everywhere.
mUgksus ikl esa gh ,d nqdku [kksyh gSA
He has set up a shop nearby.
oks ogkWa jgk djrh FkhA
She lived there.
2. Adverb of time: (showing when) tks le; dks crkrs gSa
oks jkst ;gkWa vkrk gSA
He comes here daily.
ml fnu eSa nsj ls vk;k FkkA
I came late that day.
vc oks rqEgkjh enn ugha djsxhA
She will not help you now.
eSa tYn gh okil vkWaxkA
I will come back soon.
mlus dHkh eq>ls bl fo"k; ij ckr ugha dhA
He never discussed this with me.
lqcg tYnh mBuk vPNh vknr gSA
It is good to rise early in the morning.
vkt ikuh cgqr rst fxj jgk gSA
It is raining very heavily today.
3. Adverb of Manner: (showing how or in what manner) tks
fdl rjg f;k dh tkrh gS@dh xbZ dks crkrs gSa(
oks rqjar nkSM+kA
He ran quickly.
eSa dy jkr vkjke ls lks;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

I slept soundly last night.


mlus ew[kZrkiw.kZ O;ogkj fd;kA
He behaved foolishly.
;s deZpkjh dfBu esgur djrs gSaA
These labours work hard.
mUgksus cgknqjh ls yM+kbZ dhA
They foughat bravely.
;s cPpk cgqr cqjh rjg ls jksrk gSA
This child weeps/cries very bitterly.
oks lkQ&lkQ i<+rh gSA
She reads clearly.
bl dgkuh dks cgqr vPNh rjg ls fy[kk x;k gSA
This story is well written.
4. Adverbs of numbers or Frequency: (showing how often) tks
fdruh ckj bl vFkZ dks Li"V djrs gSa(
rqe geskk nsj ls vkrs gksA
You always come late.
eSa ;s ewoh rhu ckj ns[k pqdk gwWaA
I have seen this movie thrice.
tks xjtrs gSa] oks cjlrs ughaaA
Barking dogs seldom bite.
rqe ;gh xyrh nks ckj dj pqds gksA
You have done the same mistake twice.
oks 'kk;n gh dHkh ;gkWa vkrh gSA
She rarely comes here.
D;k vki ;s ykbu fQj ls i<+ksxs\
Would you read this again?
,d ckj ,d jktk FkkA
Once there lived a king.
5. Adverbs of Degree or Quantity: (showing how much or in
what degree) tks fdru ;k fdl rjg bl vFkZ dks Li"V
djrs gSa(

Rajs Notes of English Language

eSa iwjh rjg ls rS;kj ugha FkkA


I was not fully ready.
oks bl ckr ij iwjh rjg ls xyr gSA
He is quite wrong in this matter.
oks cgqr [kqk FkhA
She was so happy.
jfo iwjh rjg ls xyr FkkA
Ravi was altogether mistaken.
pk; cgqr xje FkhA
The tea was very hot.
oks iwjh rjg ls va/kk gSA
He is entirely blind.
eSa cgqr O;Lr gwWaA
I am very busy.
6. Adverbs of Reason: (showing for what cause) tks fdl
dkj.k ls bl vFkZ dks Li"V djrs gSa(
vkSj blfy;s eSaus mls euk dj fn;kA
And therefore I refused her.
vkSj blfy;s mls ukSdjh ls fudky fn;k x;kA
He was therefore expelled from his job.
blh fy;s oks chekj gSA
She is hence ill
7. Adverbs of Affirmation and Negative:
Affirmation
Negative
eSa iDdk vkWaxkA
oks 'kk;n vk,xhA
kA
Surely I will come.
Probably she will come.
,slk fufpr gh gksxkA
vf[kjdkj oks ugha vk;kA
It will certainly happen.
He didnt come after all.
II.

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS
dk ;ksx u
u iwWaNus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS%

Rajs Notes of English Language

1- Interrogative Adverbs of Number.


How many boys did not come yesterday?
How many sons do you have?
How often did she have this experience?
How often did he visit you?
2- Interrogative Adverbs of Quantity or Degree.
How far is the information true?
How much did she buy?
3- Interrogative Adverb of Reason.
Why are you late?
Why is she sad today?
For what did she cry?
4- Interrogative Adverbs of Quality or Manner.
How did you do this?
(fdl
fdl rjg ls)
How is your father now?
(fdl
fdl fLFkfr esa)
5- Interrogative Adverbs of Place.
Where do you live?
Where is he going?
From where are you?
6- Interrogative Adverbs of Time.
When will you come back?
How long shall I wait?
For how long has she been ill?

Adverbs from Adjectives laKk ls f;kfoks


f;kfoks"k.k
-ly yxkdj
Adjectives
Able
;ksX;
Accurate
lgh
Active
lf;
Adequate
i;kZIr
Affectionate
Lusgh

Adverbs
ably
accurately
actively
adequately
affectionately

;ksX;rk ls
lgh <ax ls
lfrk ls
i;kZIrrk ls
Lusg iwoZd

Rajs Notes of English Language

Attractive
vkd"kZd
Artificial
f=e
Baseless
fujk/kkj
Busy
O;Lr
Casual
vukSipkfjd
Ceaseless
fujarj
Certain
fufpr
Chief
eq[;
Coincidental la;ksx dk
Comparative rqyukRed

attractively vkd"kZd rjhd ls


artificially
f=erk ls
baselessly
fcuk vk/kkj ds
busily
O;Lrrk ls
casually vukSipkfjd rjhds ls
ceaselessly
fujarjrk ls
certainly
fufprrk ls
chiefly
eq[;rk ls
coincidentally la;ksx ls
comparatively rqyukRed
rjhds ls
Confident fookliw.kZ confidently
fookl ls
Constant
vfopj
constantly
lrr
Collective
lkewfgd collectively lkeqfgd :i ls
Convenient lqfo/kk tud conveniently lqfo/kk tud
<ax ls
Comfortable vkjkenk;d comfortably
vkjke ls
Comparable rqyuh; comparably
rqyukRed
n`f"V ls
Curious
ftKklq
curiously
ftKklk ls
Dangerous
[krjukd dangerously [krjukd <ax ls
Delicate
uktqd
delicately
uT+kdr ls
Different
vyx
differently
vyx rjg ls
Efficient
dk;Zdqky efficiently
dk;Zdqkyrk ls
Emotional
Hkkoqd
emotionally
Hkkoqdrk ls
Endless
varghu
endlessly
cxSj var ds
Figurative
vayadkfjd figuratively
vyadkfjdrk ls
Final
vafre
finally
varr%
Forcible
cy iwoZd forcibly
cy iwoZd
fd;k gqvk
Fortunate lkSHkkX;kkyh fortunately
lkSHkkX; ls
Full
iwjk
fully
iwjh rjg ls

Rajs Notes of English Language

gladly
[kqkh ls
grammatically O;kdj.k dh dk
n`f"V ls
Hasty
tYnckT+kh hastily
tYnckth
okyk
Humble
fouez
humbly
fouezrk ls
Ideal
vknkZ
ideally
vknkZ rkSj ij
Immediate
rkRdkfyd immediately rRdky
Impressive
Hkkoh
impressively Hkkoh rjhds ls
Inevitable
vfuok;Z inevitably
vfuok;Z :i ls
Legal
dkuwuh
legally
dkuwuh rkSj ij
Legible
lqokP;
legibly
lqokP; rjhds ls
Lucky
HkkX;kkyh
luckily
lkSHkX; ls
Magical
tknqbZ
magically
tknw ls
Main
eq[;
mainly
eq[;r%
Obvious
Li"V
obviously
Li"V :i ls
Oral
ekSf[kd
orally
ekSf[kd :i ls
Ordinary
lk/kkj.k ordinarily
lk/kkj.kr%
Permanent
LFkk;h
permanently LFkk;h :i ls
Perfect
ifjiw.kZ
perfectly
iw.kZr%
Previous
igys dk previously
igys rks
Recent
gky dk recently
gky gh esa
Regular
fu;fer regularly
fu;fer
Remote
nwj dk
remotely
nwj ls
Responsible
fT+kEesnkj responsibly
fT+kEesnkjh ls
Similar
leku
similarly
mlh leku
Speedy
rsTk
speedily
rsth ls
Special
foks"k
specially
[kkl rkSj ij
Successful
lQy
successfully
lQyrk ls
Ultimate
vafre
ultimately
var esa
Wonderful vkp;Ztud wonderfully
vkp;Ztud
rjhds ls
Glad
Grammatical

[kqk
O;kdj.k

Rajs Notes of English Language

-ic gVkdj
Adjectives
Automatic
Basic
Dramatic
Emphatic
Energetic
/
Enthusiastic
Specific
Synthetic
Systematic

vkSj cally yxkdj


Adverbs
lokpfyr automatically vius vki
cqfu;kfn basically
ewyr%
ukVdh; dramatically ukVdh;rk ls
T+kksjnkj
emphatically T+kksjnkj rjhds ls
mRlkgh
energetically mRlkg ls
mRlkgh
fofk"V
f=e
O;ofLFkr

enthusiastically mRlkg ls
specifically
foks"k :i ls
synthetically f=e rjhds ls
systematically O;ofLFkr <ax
ls

Some important Adjectives and their


Usages in Sentences
dqN egRoiw.kZ f;kfoks"k.k
dk okD;ksa esa ;ksx
Afterwards
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I will see you afterwards.


eSa vkils cknesa feywaxkA
She will come afterwards.
oks cknesa vk,xhA
I will come afterwards if you are busy now.
;fn vki vHkh O;Lr gSa rks eSa ckn eSa vkrk gwWaA
They will try once again afterwards.
oks cknesa ,d ckj fQj ls ;kl djsaxsA
I will call you afterwards.
eSa vkidk ckn esa cqyk yqWaxkA
We reached and soon afterwards they reached.
ge igqWaps vkSj gekjs rqjar ckn os igqWapsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Again
1. Do come again.
fQj t:j vkukA
2. Will you please read that line once again?
D;k vki oks ykbu ,d ckj fQj ls i<+sxs\
3. Will you do this again?
D;k rqe ;s fQj ls djksxs\
4. She has told me not to do this time and again.
mlus dbZ ckj eq>s ,slk uk djus dks dgk gSA
5. Would you read the letter over again?
D;k vki i= ,d ckj fQj ls i<+sxh@i<+sxs\

Ago
1. I came just a minute ago.
eSa ,d feuV igys gh vk;kA
2. She had met me three years ago.
oks eq>ls rhu lky igys fefy FkhA
3. I dont remember what happened 50 years ago.
eq>s ;kn ugha tks ipkl lky igys gqvkA
4. He lost his mobile three days ago.
mlus viuk eksckby rhu fnu igys [kks fn;kA

Ahead
1. Go ahead.
vkxs c<ksA
2. Look ahead.
vkxs ns[kksA
3. They reached an hour ahead of time.
os le; ls ,d ?kaVk igys igqWaqpsA
4. You go ahead, I will come a little later.
rqe igys pys tkvks] eSa FkksM+k nsj ls vkWaxkA
5. Dangerous turn ahead.
vkxs [krjukd eksM+ gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

already
1. I am already late.
eq>s igys gh nsj gks xbZ gSA
2. She is already here.
oks igys ls gh ;gkWa gSA
3. I have already told her all about it.
eSus igys gh mls bl ckjs esa lc crk fn;k gSA
4. Do you already know this?
D;k rqe igys ls gh ;s tkurs gks\
5. It is already 9:40.
9:40 rks oSls gh gks x, gSaA
6. Ramesh has already gone.
jess'k igys gh tk pqdk gS@pyk x;k gSA

away
1. Panagar is 20 kilometers away from here.
Ikukxj ;gkWa ls 20 fdykehVj nwj gSA
2. Go away.
pys tkvksA
3. Stay away from these wires.
bu rkjks ls nwj jgksA
4. Never go away from me.
e>ls nwj dHkh er tkukA
5. Always stay away from such boys.
ges'kk
'kk bl rjg ds yM+dksa ls nwj jgukA
6. He went away.
oks pyk x;kA
7. She has passed away.
mldk fu/ku gks x;k gSA

down
1. Look down.
uhps ns[kksA
2. Put your guns down.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.
4.
5.
6.

viuh canwdsa uhps j[kksA


Put the bag down.
cSx uhps j[kksA
Get down off the tree.
isM+ ls uhps mrjksA
Get down off my bed.
esjs fcLrj ls uhps mrjksA
He kept the bag down.
mlus cSx uhps j[kkA

early
1. He came early today.
oks vkt tYnh vk;kA
2. She gets up early in the morning.
oks lqcg tYnh mBrh gSA
3. I dont get so early in the morning.
eSa lqcg cgqr tYnh ugha mBrkA
4. I dont sleep early at night.
eSa jkr dks tYnh ugha lksrkA
5. Did you get up early this morning?
D;k rqe vkt lqcg tYnh mBs\

else
1. What else do you want?
vkSj D;k pkgrs gks rqe\
2. What else can I do for you?
vkSj D;k dj ldrk gwWa eSa vkids fy;s\
3. Everything else is fine.
lHkh dqN Bhd gSA
4. I want nothing else.
eq>s vkSj dqN ugha pkfg;sA
5. What else could I have done?
vkSj D;k dj ldrk Fkk eSa\
6. She wants to know nothing else.
oks vkSj dqN ugha tkuuk pkgrhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

7. He wants something else.


mls dqN vkSj gh pkfg;sA
8. She came for money- why else would she come?
oks iSlks ds fy;s vkbZ Fkh& vkSj Hkyk D;ksa vk,sxh\
h\
9. I think you are wearing someone elses shirt.
eq>s yxrk gS fd vkius fdlh vkSj dh 'kVZ iguh gSA
10. I think he is riding someone elses bike.
eq>s yxrk gS fd oks fdlh vkSj dh Ckkbd pyk jgk gSA

enougha
1. You are not fit enougha.
vki iwjh rjg ;ksX; ughaa gSaA
2. I have heard enougha.
eSa cgqr lqu pqdk gwWaA
3. We are not working hard enougha.
ge i;kZIr esgur ugha dj jgs gSaA
4. This room doesnt get light enougha.
bl dejs esa T;knk jkskuh ugha vkrhA
5. I have caused him enougha trouble already.
geus igys gh mls cgqr d"V fn;k gSA
6. This knife is not sharp enougha.
;s pkdw i;kZIr rst ugha gSA
7. This rope is not strong enougha.
;s jLlh i;kZIr etcwr ugha gSA

even
1. Even I dont believe you.
eq>s Hkh rqEk ij Hkjkslk ugha gSA
2. Even if you request me, I wont go to his home.
;fn rqe eq>ls vuqjks/k Hkh djks rc Hkh eSa mlds ?kj
ugha tkWaxkA
3. Even my grandfather didnt help me.
esjs nknk th us Hkh esjh enn ugha dhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4. Everyone said yes even Ravi who never agrees with


me.
lHkh us ^gkWa* dgk& jfo us Hkh tks dHkh eq>ls lger
ugha gksrkA
rkA
5. Even my father does not like me.
esjs ikik Hkh eq>s ilan ugha djrsA
6. Today is colder than yesterday.
vkt dy ls T;knk BaM gSA
7. He never went to school but even then he is a successful
person in his life.
oks dHkh Ldwy ugha x;k fQj Hkh oks vius thou esa
lQy O;fDr gSA
8. Even she will not come.
oks Hkh ugha vk,xhA

ever
1. Have you ever seen the Taj Mahal?
D;k vkius dHkh rkt egy ns[kk gS\
2. Do you ever watch Comedy Nights with Kapil?
D;k rqe dHkh Comedy Nights with Kapil ns[krs gks\
3. We never ever forget our childhood.
ge viuk cpiuk dHkh Hkh ugha HkwyrsA
4. This is the best book I have ever read.
eSaus vkt rd ftruh Hkh iqLrds i<+h gSa muesa ;s lcls
vPNh gSA
5. He has lost his Sim card- ever since he is disturbed.
mlus viuk fle dkMZ [kks fn;k gS& rc ls oks ijskku
gSA
xqLlk O;Dr djrs gq,(
1. Whatever are you doing in my room?
dj D;k jgs gks rqe esjs dejs esa\
2. Whatever for?
Hkyk fdl fy;s\
3. Why ever not?
Hkyk D;ksa ugha\

Rajs Notes of English Language

Fairly/rather
Fairly dk

;ksd ldkjkRed
ldkjkRed vFkZ dks O;Dr djus ds fy;s

fd;k tkrk gS tcfd rather dk ;ksx udkjkReDrk dks O;Dr


djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1. This tea is fairly hot.
;s pk; xeZ gSA
ftruh gksuh pkfg;s
2. This room is fairly clean.
;s dejk lkQ gSA
3. She is fairly a good girl.
oks ,d vPNh yM+dh gSA
4. The shirt is fairly clean.
;s deht lkQ gSA
5. I am fairly free today.
vkt esa h gwWaA

rather
1. I am rather busy today.
eSa vkt cgqr O;Lr gwWaA cgqr gh T;knk
T;knk
2. This tea is rather hot.
;s pk; cgqr gh T;knk xeZ gSA
3. This room is rather dirty.
;s dejk cgqr gh T;knk xank gSA
4. That man is rather proud/ arrogant.
oks vkneh cgqr gh T;knk ?keaMh gSA
5. That shirt was rather dirty so I did not wear it.
oks dehT+k cgqr gh T;knk xafn Fkh blh fy;s eSaus mls
ugha igukA

far
1. That place is very far from here.
oks txg ;gkWa ls cgqr nwj gSA
2. She lives very far away.

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

oks cgqr nwj jgrh gSA


How far can one see?
dksbZ O;fDr fdruh nwj ns[k ldrk gS\
So far, I havent seen this film./ I havent seen this film so
far.
eSaus vfHkrd ;s fQYe ugha ns[kh gSA
He smokes far too much.
oks cgqr T;knk /kweziku djrk gSA
Sonali drives far too fast.
lksukyh cgqr rst xkM+h pykrh gSA
As/so far as I am concerned, I will not help such a man.
tgkWa rd esjk loky gS eSa ,sls balku dh enn ugha
d:WaxkA

few/little
few dk

;ksx ^udkjkRed*
udkjkRed* vFkZ dks O;Dr djus ds fy;s
x.kuh; oLrqvksa ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
9. Few women can keep a secret.
dqN vkSjrsa gh fdlh jkT+k dks jkT+k j[k ikrh gSaA
eryc uk ds cjkcj vkSjrsa
10. Few persons reach the age of a/one hundred years.
dqN yksx gh 100 lky dh mez rd igqWap ikrs gSaA
11. Few people help the poor.
dqN yksx gh xjhcksa dh enn djrs gSaA

a few
A few dk
fy;s
1.

2.
3.

;ksx ^dqN rks* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr djus ds


fd;k tkrk gS(
A few students work hard.
dqN fo|kFkhZ rks esgur djrs gSaA
dels de dqN rks
A few men help the poor.
dqN yksx rks xjhcksa dh enn djrs gSaA
A few men and women live a pious life.
dqN vkneh vkSj vkSjrsa rks /keZikjk;.k thou thrs gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

the few
The few dk

;ksx ^ftruk Hkh oks lc*


lc* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr
djus ds fy;s x.kuh; oLrqvksa ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
1. The few friends I have are all poor.
esjs lHkh fe= xjhc gSaA
2. I gave him the few coins I had in my pocket.
eSaus mls oks lkjs flDds ns fn;s tks esjh tsc esa FksA
3. She had given me the few books she had.
mlus eq>s viuh lkjh iqLrdsa ns nhA

little
Little dk

;ksx ^udkjkRed*
udkjkRed* vFkZ dks O;Dr djus ds fy;s
vx.kuh; inkFkksZ ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
1. She has little knowledge about it.
oks bl ckjs esa FkksM+k tkurh gSA
uk ds cjkcj
cjkcj
2. He expressed little mercy on the beggar.
mlus fHk[kkjh ij FkksM+h n;k dhA

a little
A little dk
djus
1.

2.
3.
4.

;ksx ^de ls de FkksM+k rks* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr


ds fy;s vx.kuh; inkFkksZ ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
She has a little knowledge about it.
mls bl ckjs esa FkksM+k lk Kku gSA
de ls de dqN rks
I gave her a little water.
eSaus mls FkksM+k ikuh fn;kA
Mather gave me a little money.
ekWa us eq>s dqN iSls fn;sA
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
FkksM+k Kku ladV dk dkj.k gksrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

the little
The little dk

;ksx ^ftruk Hkh lc*


lc* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr
djus ds fy;s vx.kuh; inkFkksZ ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS(
1.
She gave her brother the little money she had.
mlds ikl tks Hkh FkksM+ iSlk Fkk mlus vius HkkbZ dks ns
fn;kA
2.
He spent all the money he had.
mlds ikl ftruk Hkh iSlk Fkk mlus [kpZ dj fn;kA
3.
They gave the little water to the soldier they had.
muds ikl ftruk Hkh ikuh Fkk mUgksus lSfud dks ns
fn;kA

hard/hardly
Hard dk

;ksx ^dfBu*
dfBu* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr djus ds fy;s
fd;k tkrk gS(
1.
He works hard.
oks dfBu esgur djrk gSA
2.
He tries hard.
oks dfBu@iwjk ;kl djrk gSA
3.
I tried hard./ I tried my best.
eSaus dfBu@ iwjk ;kl fd;kA

hardly
Hardy dk

;ksx ^kk;n gh dHkh&dHkkj*


dHkh&dHkkj* bl vFkZ dks O;Dr
djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1.
They hardly come here.
os 'kk;n gh dHkh ;gkWa vkrs gSaA
kk;n gh dHkh
dHkh
2.
He hardly works.
oks 'kk;n gh dHkh dke djrk gSA
3.
We could hardly hear his voice.
gesa eqfLdy ls mldh vkokT+k lqukbZ ns jgh FkhA
yxHk ugha gh lqukbZ ns jgh Fkh@
Fkh@le> esa dqN ugha vk jgk Fkk
Fkk

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.
5.

He hardly gets any free time these days.


vktdy mls 'kk;n gh h le; feyrk gSA
There were hardly 9 students in the class.
d{kk esa eqfdy ls 9 fo|kFkhZ FksA

hardly..when
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

We had hardly reached the station when the train came.


ge jsyos LVsku igqWaps gh Fks fd jsyxkM+h vk xbZA
The meeting had hardly begun when there was a power
cut.
lHkk 'kq: gh gqbZ Fkh fd ykbV pyh xbZA
She had hardly left the home when it started raining.
oks ?kj ls fudyh gh Fkh fd o"kkZ gksus yxhA
Naresh had hardly come when she went.
ujs'k vk;k gh Fkk fd oks pyh
pyh xbZA
I had hardly sat to eat my food when the phone rang.
eSa [kkuk [kkus cSBk gh Fkk fd Qksu ctkA

just
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Just coming.
cl vHkh vk;k@vk gh jgk gwWaA pyu
pyu esa gS
I am just coming.
eSa vHkh vk jgk gwWaA
I was just thinking of you.
eSa rqEgkjs ckjs esa gh lksp jgk FkkA
He will just come in 10 minutes.
oks 10 feuV esa vk tk;sxkA
The train has just left.
Vsu vHkh gh xbZ@NwVh gSA
The bus has just left.
cl vHkh gh xbZ@NwVh gSA
Both the sisters look just like each other.
nksuksa cgusa fcYdqy ,d tSlh gh fn[krh gS
gSa A

Rajs Notes of English Language

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

She is cooking just now.


oks bl oDr [kkuk cuk jgh gSA
This is just a beginning.
;s rks flQZ 'kq:vkr gSA
I am just seventeen years old.
eSas flQZ l=g lky dk gwWaA
Dont just stand there like that.
ogkWa ,sls er [kM+s jgksA
Dont just stand having your hands in your pockets.
tsc esa gkWaFk Mkyds [kMs cl er jgksA
;gkWa eryc gS fd flQZ [kM+s er jgks dqN djks
We were just talking about you.
ge cl vkids ckjs esa gh ckr dj jgs FksA
Would you just open the door?
D;k vki njoktk [kksysaxs\
But the fact is just different.
ysfdu lp ,dne vyx gSA
Just as he was about to go, I reached there.
oks cl tkus gh okyk Fkk vkSj eSa ogkWa igqWapkA
We reached the station just as the train was leaving.
Vsu tk gh jgh Fkh fd ge ogkWa igqWapsA
I just cant do this.
eSa ;s dj gh ugha ldrkA

never
1.
2.
3.
4.

He never cares for me.


oks esjh ijokg dHkh ugha djrkA
I never said so/this/it/like this.
eSaus ,slk dHkh ugha dgkA
She will never come here.
oks ;gkWa dHkh ugha vk,xhA
I have never seen a man like you.
eSaus dHkh vkids tSlk balku ugha ns[kkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.
6.

She has never talked to me.


mlus eq>ls dHkh ckr ugha dhA
He has asked me never to do so.
mlus eq>s ,slk dHkh uk djus dks dgk gSA

often
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I often read such books.


eSa vDlj ,slh iqLrdsa i<+rk gwWaA
She often comes here to meet her friend, Anita.
oks vDlj ;gkWa viuh lgsyh vuhrk ls feyus vkrh gSA
I often wonder why people do like this.
eSa vDlj lksprk gwWa fd yksx ,slk D;ksa djrs gSaA
It is not good to go often to someones house.
fdlh ds ;gkWa vDlj tkuk vPNk ugha gSA
How often did you have this experience?
vkidks ,slk vuqHko fdruh ckj gqvk\
k\

once
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I had met her once.


eSa mlls ,d ckj feyk FkkA
I told him to leave at once.
eSaus mls rqjar tkus dks dgkA
I thoughat once again.
eSaus ,d ckj fQj ls lkspkA
He does visit his village once in a week.
oks grs esa ,d fnu vius xkWao T+k:j tkrk gSA
Ram comes here every once in a while.
jke chp chp eas ;gkWa vkrk jgrk gSA
She had come here once.
oks ;gkWa ,d ckj vk pqfd gSA
They all shouted at once.
mUgksus rqjar fpYyk;kA
You must go there once again.
vkidks ogkWa ,d ckj fQj ls tkuk gh pkfg;sA

Rajs Notes of English Language

only
1.

I have only problem that I dont have money.


esjh ,d ek= leL;k ;s gS fd esjs ikl iSls
ugha gSA
2.
He came only yesterday.
oks dy gh vk;k FkkA
3.
She is only 20 now.
oks vHkh flQZ 20 lky dh gSA
4.
Only a fool can take such a risk.
dksbZ ew[kZ gh ,slk tksf[ke mBk ldrk gSA
5.
Only you can do this.
flQZ rqe ;s dj ldrs gksA dks
dksbZ nljk vkSj ugha
6.
She only gave me this box and went away.
mlus flQZ eq>s ;s ckWDl fn;k vkSj pyh xbZA
7.
Only she gave me a gift.
flQZ mlus gh eq>s rksgQk fn;kA
vkSj fdlh vkSj us ugha
8.
You can use only this pen on the board.
ckWMZ esa vki dsoy ;s isu gh Lrseku dj ldrs gSaA
dksbZ nwljk ugha
9.
I will forgive you only when you promise that you
would not do the same (such mistake) again.
eSa flQZ rHkh vkidks ekWaQ d:Waxh tc vki ;s oknk
djsa fd vki ,slh xyrh nwckjk ughaa djsaxsA
10. You will learn to speak in English only when you
try speak.
vki rHkh
rHkh vaxzth esa ckr djuk lh[ksaxs tc vki cksyus
dk ;kl djsaA

out
1.

Get out.
ckgj fudyksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Hear me out.
esjh ckr vPNh rjg lquksA
She will eat out today with me.
oks vkt esjs lkFk ckgj [kk,xhA
tSls( fdlh gkWVsy esa
I will not go out today.
vkt eSa ckgj ugha tkWaxkA
Throw this rubbish out off the window.
;s dpjk f[kM+dh ls ckgj Qsd nksA
My book will be out in a month.
esjh iqLrd ,d ekag esa dkfkr gks tk,xhA

quite
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

I am quite well.
eSa iwjh rjg Bhd gwWaA
He is quite a good singer- but there are even better singers
in the world.
oks ,d vPNk xk;d gS] ysfdu nqfu;k esa mlls Hkh vPNs
xk;d gSaA
His shirt quite matches my shirt but not quite.
mldh dehT+k esjh dEkhT+k ls dkQh feyrh gS] ij iwjh
rjg ls ughaA
I dont quite remember/know his address.
eq>s mldk irk vPNh rjg ls ;kn ugha gSA@
eSa mldk irk vPNh rjg ls ugha tkurkA
I did not quite understand what she wanted to say.
oks D;k dguk pkgrh Fkh eq>s Bhd ls le> esa ugha
vk;kA

scarcely..when
1.

She had scarcely come when there was a power cut.


/Scarcely had she come when there was a power cut.
oks vkbZ gh Fkh fd ykbV pyh xbZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.

We had scarcely reached home when it stopped raining./


Scarcely had we reached home when it stopped raining.
ge ?kj igqWaps gh Fks
Fks fd o"kkZ can gks xbZA

seldom
1.
2.
3.
4.

I seldom go there.
eSa eqfdy ls ogkWa tkrk gwWaA dHkh&dHkkj
She seldom comes here.
oks 'kk;n gh ;gkWa vkrh gSA
We seldom meat each other these days.
ge vktdy 'kk;n gh ,d nwljs ls fey ikrs gSaA
He has got a job last week, now he seldom gets any time to
play cricket.

so
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

You are so/very patient.


vki cgqr /kS;ZokuA
Is it so?
D;k ,slk gS\
I am so very happy to hear this news.
eSa ;s [kcj lqudj cgqr [kqk gwWaA
He is so busy that he cant listen to us now.
oks bruk O;Lr gS fd gels ugha fey ldrkA
She is so weak in Mathematics.
oks xf.kr esa cgqr deT+kksj gSA
I am so/very much thankful to you.
eSa vkidk cgqr vkHkkjh gwWaA
Why are you doing so?
rqe ,slk D;ksa dj jgs gks\
Do you think so?
D;k vki ,slk lksprs gSa\
Sandeep is ill, so I am taking him to the doctor.
jfo chekj gS rks eSa mls MkWDVj ds ikl ys tk jgk
gwWaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

10. Her eyes are so beautiful. (~So they are.)


mldh vkWa[ksa cgqr laqnj gSaA gkWa gSa rks lgh

still
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

I am still doing the same work.


vHkh Hkh eSa ogh dke dj jgk gwWaA
Do you still go there?
D; rqe vHkh Hkh ogkWa tkrs gks\
Do they still live there?
D;k os vc Hkh ogkWa jgrs gSa\
She is still weeping.
oks vHkh Hkh jks jgh gSA
She tried hard, but she still did not succeed.
mlus dfBu ;kl fd;k ij oks lQy ugha gqbZA
There are still many more examples of this king.
bl ds vkSj Hkh dbZ mnkgj.k gSaA
He still believes that Sonali will come in my life.
mls vHkh Hkh fookl gS fd lksukyh mlds thou esa
v,sxhA
Lets do it tomorrow or better still let us do it right now.
pyks ;s dy djrs gSa& ;k csgrj gksxk dh blh OkDr djsaA

then
1.
2.

3.
4.

I was in my room then.


eSa rc vius dejs esa FkkA
If that pen is not there on the table, then look into the
drawer.
;fn oks isu Vcy ij ugha gS rks fQj MkWvj esa ns[kksA
Take some rest, then you will feel fresh.
dqN vjke dj yks fQj vPNk yxsxk
She will finish her work first, then she will come.
oks igys viuk dke [kRe djsxh fQj vk,xhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.
6.

Then it is no use talking to him.


fQj rks mlls ckr djus dk dksbZ eryc gh ughaA
Then it is no using going there.
fQj rks ogkWa tkus ls dksbZ ykHk gh ugha@eryc gh ughaA

together
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

We live together.
ge ,d lkFk jgrs gSaA
We eat together.
ge ,d lkFk [kkrs gSaA
They go to school together.
os ,d lkFk Ldwy tkrs gSaA
Did they separately or together?
os vyx&vyx x, ;k ,d lkFk\
lkFk\
It is impossible to do these two things together.
;s nks phtsa ,d lkFk djuk vlaHko gSA

too
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I am too excited about this/it.


eSa bl ckjs esa cgqr mRlqd gwWaA
Keep quiet, you too.
'kkar jgks] rqe HkhA
Take this too.
;s Hkh yksA
Bring a notebook and a pen too.
,d uksVcqd vkSj ,d isu Hkh ykvksA
She wants to come too.
oks Hkh vkuk pkgrh gSA
She was too ill to walk.
oks bruh chekj Fkh fd py ughaa ldrh FkhA
Man is too helpless to do anything against natural
disasters.
euq"; bruk vlgk; gS fd oks kfrd vkink ds fo:)
dqN ugha dj ldrkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

very
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

I am very tired.
eSa cgqr Fkdk gqvk gwWaA
They were standing at the very end of the queue.
os ykbu ds ,dne var esa [kM+s FksA
She was very angry.
oks cgqr ukjkTk@ksf/kr FkhA
I am very much thankful to you.
eSa vkidk cgqr vkHkkjh gwWaA
I am very sorry about what happened yesterday.
tks dy gqvk] eSa mlds fy;s cgqr 'kfeZUnk gwWaA
This is the very best car for him to present.
mls migkj esa nsus ds fy;s ;s lcls vPNh dkj gSA
I have my very own car now.
vc esjs ikl esjh [kqn dh dkj gSA
This is the very place where we had men first.
;s ogh txg gS tgkWa ge igyh ckj feys FksA
She was born on this very day.
blh fnu mldk tUe gqvk FkkA

yet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I have not eaten yet.


eSaus vHkh [kkuk ugha [kk;k gSA
She hasnt come yet.
oks vHkh ugha vkbZ gSA
They have not met me yet.
oks vHkh eq>ls ugha feys gSaA
The result is yet to come.
ifj.kke vHkh vkuk gSA
I am yet to do this.
eq>s vHkh ;s djuk gSA
As yet, I havent seen any progress.
vHkh rd eq>s dksbZ xrh ugha fn[kkbZ nhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

6. Preposition laca/kokpd vO;;A


A Preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or
pronoun. It shows relationship that noun or pronoun has with
some other word or phrase.
laca/kokpd vO;; oks gksrs gSa ftudks f;k ;k foks"k.k ds
igys yxk;k tkrk gSA tks laKk ;k foks"k.k dk laca/k] 'kCn
;k 'kCn&leqnk; ls crkrs gSaA
laca/k lwpd 'kCnksa dk nks Hkkxks esa ckWaVk tk ldrk gS(
1. Preposition of Time and 2. Preposition of Place.
1. Preposition of Time : oks tks le; ds lkFk laca/k dks
fnykrs gS(
After his marriage
&mldh 'kknh ds ckn
At nine oclock
&ukS ctsA

During the war for many years, &;q) ds le;


From 6th April,
&NS% ,fy
,fy ls
In the afternoon,
&nksigj esaA
Late into the night
&nsj jkr esaA
On Monday
&lkseokj dksA
2. Preposition of Place : oks tks txg ds lkFk laca/k dks
fnykrs gS(

About the room


Across the road
Among the boys
At home
Around the market
Before the post office
Behind the curtain
Between the two trees

&dejs esa b/kj&m/kjA


&jksM ds ikjA
chpAA
&yM+dks ds chp
ijAA
&?kj ij
&cktkj esa pkjks vkSjA
&ikWLV vkWfQl ds lkeusA
&ijns ds ihNsA
&nks isM+ksa ds chpA
chpA

From Katni
In the sky
Into the well
Near our house
On the table
Througha the forest
To their house
Towards me
Under the tree
Up the hill
Upon the table

&dVuh lsA
&vkleku esaA
&dqWa,s esaA
&gekjs ?kj ds iklA
iklA
ijAA
&Vscy ij
&taxy ls gksrs gq,A
&muds ?kjA
?kjA
&esjh vksjA
&isM+ ds uhpsA
&igkM+ ijA
ijA
ijAA
&Vscy ij

vc ge Prepositions dks foLrkj ls i<+sxs(

about
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Dont worry about it.


bl ckjs esa fpark er djksA
Dont worry about Seema, she can worry about herself.
lhek ds ckjs esa fpark er djks] oks viuh fpark [kqn dj
ldrh gSA
She is about 20 years old.
oks yxHkx 20 lky dh gSA
They reached there about 11 o clock.
os ogkWa yxHkx 11 cts igqWapsA
We were not talking about you.
ge vkids ckjs esa ckr ugha dj jgs FksA
What were you talking about?
rqe fdl ckjs esa ckr dj jgs Fks\
I will be there at about 5pm.
eSa ogkWa yxHkx 'kke dks 5 cts jgWawxkA
She is worried about her sons health.
oks vius csVs ds LokLF; dks ysdj fpafrr gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

10. We are worried about our result.


ge vius ifj.kke dks ysdj fpafrr gSaA
11. What are you thinking about?
rqe D;k lksp jgs gksA

above
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There is a fan above us.


gekjs ij ,d ia[kk gSA
Your name is above mine in the list.
lwph esa vkidk uke esjs uke ds ij gSA
We live above them.
ge muds ij jgrs gSaA ?kj ds ij okys ?kj esa
There is picture above the almirah.
vkyekjh ds ij ,d rLohj gSA
I value my family above everything else.
eSa vius ifjokj dks lHkh phT+kksa ls ij j[krk gwWaA
The temperature is above  C.
rkieku  ls- ds ij gSA

across
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

His office is across the road.


mldk vkWfQl jksM ds ikj gSA
There is a small town across this river.
unh ds fdukjs ,d NksVk lk xkWao gSA
Can you swim across this river?
D;k vki bl unh dks rSjdj ikj dj ldrs gSa\
A new bridge is being built across the river.
unh ij ,d u;k iqy cuk;k tk jgk gSA
Go across the forest and you will reach that village.
taxy ds ikj tkvks vkSj fQj rqe ml xkWao esa igqWap
tkvksxsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

against
1.

I am not against you.


eSa vkids f[kykQ gwWaA
2.
She is against this decision.
oks bl fu;e ds f[kykQ gSA
3.
It is against law to drive without licence.
fcuk ykblsal ds xkM+h pykuk dkuwu ds f[kykQ gSA
4.
Stand your cycle against the wall.
viuh lk;dy nhokj ls fVdkdj [kM+h djksA
5.
She always warned me against my enemies.
mlus geskk eq>s esjs 'k=qvksa ds f[kykQ psrkouh nh gSA
6.
The doctor has warned me against working too hard.
MkWDVj us eq>s vf/kd dke djus ls euk fd;k gSA
7.
Are you with me or against me?
rqe esjs lkFk gks ;k esjs f[kykQ\
f[kykQ\
8.
He acted against the rules.
mlus fu;eksa ds f[kykQ@fo:) dke fd;kA
9.
He has filed a case against you.
mlus vkids f[kykQ ,d eqdnek dk;e fd;k gSA
10. I can never go against him.
eSa mlds f[kykQ dHkh ugha tk ldrkA

along/alongside
1.
2.
3.
4.

A road goes along the forest.


taxy ds fdukus ls ,d jkLrk tkrk gSA
We were sitting along/alongside the river.
ge unh ds fdukjs cSBs FksA
Are you coming along?
D;k rqe Hkh vk jgs gks\
Have you broughat your laptop along?
D;k rqe viuk ySIVkWi ysdj vk, gks\

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.

There were some people standing along/alongside the


road.
lM+d ds fdukjs dqN yksx [kM+s FksA

among/amongst
bl laca/k lwpd 'kCn dk ;ksx nks ls vf/kd O;fDr ;k
oLrq ds chp esa ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1.
She is the shortest girl among her friends.
oks vius fe=ks esa dn esa lcls NksVh gSA
2.
He was standing among the crowd.
oks HkhM+ ds chp [kM+k FkkA
3.
Sweets were distributed among the children.
cPpksa esa feBkbZ ckWaVh xbZA
4.
Who is the most honest person among us?
gekjs chp lcls bZekunkj O;fDr dkSu gS\
5.
The property was divided among the four sons.
lEikh dks pkj yM+dks ds chp ckWaVk x;kA

around
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He lives here around here.


oks ;gha dgh jgrk gSA
She took me around the city.
mlus eq>s 'kgj ?kqek;kA
He came here (at) around 7:30.
oks ;gkWa yxHkx 7%30 cts vk;kA
Rakesh goes to his office around the river.
jkds'k unh ls ?kwedj vkWfQl tkrk gSA
Come here around the table.
Vscy ls ?kwedj ;gkWa vkvksA

at
1.

I live at Sihora.
eSa flgksjk esa jgrk gwWaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

NksVh txg ;k dLos ds uke ds igys

at yxrk

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

gSA
Rohan lives in Jabalpur at Ranjhi.
jksgu tcyiqj esa jkWa>h esa jgrk gSA
Amit lives at Darshni (a village name).
vfer nkZuh esa jgrk gSA
Look at me.
eq>s ns[kksA
Look at here.(incorrect)
look here (correct)
;gkWa ns[kksA
Look at there.(incorrect)
look there (correct)
ogkWa ns[kksA
Look at that building.
ml bekjr dks ns[kksA
Mr. Sharma is at home today.
'kekZ th vkt ?kj ij gSaA
Why are you looking at me like this?
rqe eq>s ,sls D;ksa ns[k jgs gks\
The chief guest will come at 12 pm.
eq[; vfrFkh 12 cts vk,saxsA
They will reach here at 9:30 sharp.
os ;gkWa Bhd 9%30 cts vk,saxsA
We cannot do these two things at a time.
ge ;s nks phtsa ,d oDr esa ugha dj ldrsA
I will try at best./ I will try my best.
eSa iwjh dksfkk d:WaxkA
At first, everything was ok, but things changed later.
'kq:vkr esa rks lc Bhd Fkk ij ckn esa phtsa cny xbZA
eryc lc xyr gks x;kA
At last, we had some sweets.
var esa geus dqN feBkb;kWa [kkbZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

14. He asked me a very foolish question at last.


var esa mlus eq>ls ,d cM+k ew[kksZa tSlk u iwWaNk@fd;kA
15. Anand, you should take bath at least once a week.
vkuan] rqEgsa grs esa de ls de ,d ckj ugk ysuk
pkfg,A
16. We go to play cricket at times.
ge dHkh&dHkh fdsV [ksyus tkrs gSaA
17. I did not have any money to give you at that time.
ml le; eq>s rqEgs nsus ds fy;s iSls ugha FksA
18. At that time, I was in 10th classes when I fell in love with
Sonali. (fall in love-I;kj
I;kj gksukA)
kA
ml le; eSa d{k 10oh esa Fkk tc eq>s lksukyh ls I;kj
gqvkA
19. She was just fifteen years old at that time.
oks ml le; oks dsoy@flQZ 15 lky dh FkhA
20. Im not free at this time.
bl oDr eSa h ugha
ugha gwWaA
21. He will call you at night.
oks rqEgsa jkr esa Qksu djsxkA
22. I was at home at noon.
eSa nksigj esa ?kj ij FkkA
23. Who are you talking to at midnight?
rqe vk/kh jkr dks fdlls ckr dj jgs@jgh gks\
24. The children are at school now.
cPps vHkh Ldwy esa gSaA
25. Her name was at the top in the list.
lwph esa mldk uke lcls ij gSA
26. Who is knocking at the door?
njokts dkSu [kV[kVk jgk gS\
27. I met her for the very first time at a party.
eSa mlls igyh ckj ,d ikVhZ esa feyk FkkA
28. He is at his friends house/home.
oks vius nksLr ds edku@?kj ij gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

before
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Think before you speak. / Think before speaking.


lksp le>dj cksyksA
I think we have met before.
eq>s yxrk gS fd ge igys fey pqds gSaA
Have we met before?
D;k ge igys fey pqds gSa\
He used to come here before.
oks igys ;gkWa vk;k djrk FkkA
Before marriage, he was irresponsible.
'kknh ls igys oks xSj&ftEesnkj FkkA

behind
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dont speak anything, she is standing behind you.


dqN er dgks] oks rqEgkjs ihNs gh [kM+h gSA
Our house is behind the Jwalamukhi Temple.
gekjk ?kj Tokykeq[kh eafnj ds ihNs gSA
Who is behind your success?
vkidh lQyrk ds ihNs dkSu gS\
Rani is standing behind Pooja in the picture.
rLohj esa jkuh iwtk ds ihNs [kM+h gSA

below
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

They live below us.


os gekjs uhps jgrs gSaA eryc gekjs ?kj ds uhps
My name is below yours in the list.
esjk uke lwph esa rqEgkjs uke ds uhps gSA
The temperature is below  C today
vkt rkieku  ls- ls uhps gSA
A sub inspector is below an inspector.
,d mifujh{kd fujh{kd ds uhps gksrk gSA
Talking to him is below my dignity.
mlls ckr djuk esjh 'kku ds f[kykQ gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

beneath
1.
2.
3.
4.

He sleeps with his book beneath his pillow.


oks viuh iqLrd vius rfd;s ds uhps j[kdj lksrk gSA
I found this purse beneath your desk.
eq>s ;s cVqvk vkidh esat ds uhps feykA
This action is certainly beneath him.
;s gjdr mls fufpr gh lksHkk ugha nsrhA
She had hid the letter beneath the cover sheet.
mlus i= pknj ds uhps fNik fn;k FkkA

beside
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He lives beside the post office.


oks iksLV vkWfQl ds cxy esa jgrk gSA
He came and sat beside her.
oks vk;k vkSj mldh cxy esa cSBkA
Came and sit beside me.
vkvks esjh cxy esa cSBksA
Your English is poor beside him.
vkidh vaxzsth mlds lkeus deT+kksj gSA
Put the chair beside the table.
dqlhZ dks Vsoy ds cktw ls j[kksA

besides
1.
2.
3.

I play football besides cricket.


eSa fdsV ds vykok QqVckWy Hkh [ksyrk gwWaA
Everyone came in time besides Rameh.
jes'k ds vykok vkSj lHkh yksx Hkh le; ij vk;sA
There are many (a) good batsmen in the team besides
Sachin Tendulkar.
Vhe esa lfpu rsanqydj ds vykok vkSj Hkh vPNs cYysckt
gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.

5.

You can come to meet me besides Sundays.


vki jfookj ds vykok vkSj fdlh Hkh fnu eq>ls feyus
vk ldrs gSaA
jfookj dks Hkh vk gh ldrs gSa
She likes tea very much besides coffee.
mls
mls dkWQh ds vykok pk; Hkh cgqr ilan gSA

between
bl laca/k lwpd 'kCn dk ;ksx nks O;fDr ;k
oLrq ds chp esa ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS(
1.
Rekha is standing between Sonali and Sanjna.
js[kk lksukyh vkSj latuk ds chp [kM+h gSA
2.
There is nothing now between you and me.
vc esjs vkSj rqEgkjs chp dqN ugha jg x;kA
3.
You will have to choose between your career and your
girlfriend.
rqEgs viuh sfedk vkSj vius Hkfo"; esa ls fdlh ,d
dks pqUkuk iM+sxkA
4.
If I have to choose between you and my mother, I will
choose my mother.
;fn eq>s rqEgs ;k esjh ekWa dks pquuk gks rks eSa viuh ekWa
dks pquqWaxkA
5.
Panagar lies between Sihora and Jabalpur.
iukxj flgksjk vkSj tcyiqj ds chp esa gSA

beyond
1.

2.
3.

The number you are trying to reach is beyond the reach


now, please try after some time.
ftl uacj ls
ls vki lEidZ djuk pkgrs gSa oks vHkh igWaqp
ds ckgj gS] ik dj FkksM+h nsj ckn ;kl djsaA
There is a small river beyond this mountain.
bl igkM+ ds ikj ,d NksVh lh unh gSA
Doing this task is beyond my reach.
;s dke djuk esjs cl dh ckr ugha gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.

He has got nothing beyond this house.


mlds ikl bl ?kj ds vykok vkSj dqN ugha gSA

by
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

I go to school by bus.
eSa cl ls Ldwy tkrk gwWaA
She goes to her office by the 10:40 train.
oks vius nrj 10%40 dh Vsu ls tkrh gSA
We prefer travelling by train.
gesa jsyxkM+h ls ;k=k djuk vPNk yxrk gSA
They are coming by car.
os dkj ls vk jgs gSaA
We can improve our English by reading an English news
paper.
(the news paper on which the news is written in English.)
ge vaxzth v[kckj i<+dj vaxzth lq/kkj ldrs
ldrs gSaA
The work was completed by Raja.
dke jktk ds }kjk iwjk fd;k x;kA
I know him by face not by name.
eSa mls psgjs ls tkurk gwWa uke ls ughaA
Stand by me.
esjh cxy ls [kM+s gks tkvksA
Dont stand by the brook.
ukyh ds fdukjs er [kM+s gksvks@gksukA
We shall reach home by 5:30pm.
ge 5%30 cts rd ?kj igqWap tk,saxsA
She is a teacher by profession.
oks isls ls ,d fk{kd gSA
Multiply 20 by 10.
20 dks 10 ls xq.kk djksA
Divide 400 by 10.
400 dks 10 ls Hkkx nksA
Get this work done by Rakhi.
;s dke jk[kh ls djk yksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

during
1.
2.
3.
4.

She was dozing during the class.


oks d{kk ds nkSjku Wa?k jgh FkhA
They were in the class during the rain.
os o"kkZ ds nkSjku d{kk esa FksA
She pays full attention during the practical.
sfDVdy ds nkSjku oks iwjk /;ku yxkrh gSA
They were in abroad during the war.
os ;q) ds nkSjku fonsk esa FksA

except
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

We go to school every day except Sundays.


jfookj ds fnuksa dk NksM+dj ge jkst Ldwy tkrs gSaA
eryc jfookj ds fnu Ldwy ugha tkrsA
Everyone played very well except one or two.
,d ;k nks f[kykfM+;ksa dks vxj NksM+ fn;k tk, rks ckadh
lkjs f[kykM+h vPNk [ksysA
We can do nothing except wait till Monday.
lkseokj rd barT+kkj djus ds vykok ge dqN ugha dj
ldrsA
He can do anything except theft.
oks dqN Hkh dj ldrk gS ij pksjh ugha dj ldrkA
I can give you anything you ask me except this watch,
because it was gifted me by my father.
eSa rqEgsa dqN Hkh ns ldrk gwWa tks rqe ekWaxks ij ;s ?kM+h
ugha D;ksafd ;s esjs firk us eq>s rksgQs esa nh FkhA
Everyone passed except Ashok.
v'kksd dks NksM+dj ckadh lHkh ikl gks x,A
Everyone accepted this decision except Shweta.
'osrk dks NksM+dj ckadh lHkh us ;s fu.kZ; Lohdkj fd;kA

for
1.

What can I do for you?


eSa vkids fy;s D;k dj ldrk gwWa\

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.

You can buy this dress for Rs. 1800.


vki ;s ikslkd 1800 :i; esa [kjhn ldrs gSaA
3.
I boughat this book for 150 rupees.
eSaus ;s iqLrd 150 :i; esa [kjhnhA
4.
They stayed in Agra for three weeks.
(for is used for period of time.)
oks rhu grs vkxjk esa :dsA
5.
A for apple.
Apple ds fy;s A A
6.
I have broughat this gift for you, my dear.
eSaus ;s fxV vkids fy;s [kjhnk gS] f;sA
7.
I taughat in Mispa Mission School for 4 years.
eSaus pkj lky feLik feku Ldwy esa i<+k;k gSA
8.
Take this exercise for a week and you will feel better.
;s dljr ,d grs djks
djks vkSj vkidks vPNk yxus
yxsxkA
9.
Are these mangoes for sale?
D;k ;s vke fch ds fy;s gSa\
10. I have been teaching English for the last 10 years.
eSa yxHkx 10 lky ls vaxzsth i<+k jgk gwWaA

from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

He is from Gujraat.
oks xqtjkr ls gSA
He came from there yesterday.
oks ogkWa ls dy vk;k FkkA
The boy was absent from school.
yM+dk Ldwy ls vuqifLFkr FkkA
I got no answer from him.
eq>s mlls dksbZ mkj ugha feykA
What do you expect from me?
vki eq>ls D;k vkkk djrs gSaA
Bring a pinch of salt from the kitchen/from morther.
jlksbZ ls@ekWa ls ,d pqVdh ued ys vkvks@ysrs vkukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

7.

I am feeling very strange from within.


eq>s vanj ls cM+k vthc yx jgk gSA
8.
Subtract 45 from 1000.
100 esa ls 45 dks ?kVkvkA
9.
I couldnt bring anything from the market today.
vkt eSa ckT+kkj ls dqN ugha yk ldkA
10. We must abstain/refrain from smoking.
gesa /kweziku ls cpuk pkfg,A
11. I have just come back from my coaching centre/center.
eSa dkWfpax lsaVj ls vHkh okil vk;k gwWaA
12. My mother prevents me from going there.
esjh ekWa eq>s ogkWa tkus ls jkdrh gSA

in
1.

I am in bed. (at rest)


eSa fcLrj esa gwWaA igys ls gh gwWa tks ugha jgk gwWaA
2.
She is in her room.
oks vius dejs esa gSA
3.
Reema lives in Jabalpur. (a big city)
Deeksha lives at Khitaula. (a small street)
jhek tcyiqj esa jgrh gSA nh{kk f[krkSyk esa jgrh gSA
4.
I like to study in a very quiet room.
eq>s ,d cgqr 'kkar dejs esa i<+uk vPNk yxrk gSA
5.
She is always in a hurry.
oks gesakk tYnh esa gh jgrh gSA
6.
Ramgopal is doing an MA in English.
jkexksiky vaxsth esa ,e,e-,- dj jgk gSA
7.
I completed my schooling in 2005.
eSaus vius Ldwy dh i<+kbZ 2005 esa iwjh dhA
8.
The stars are twinkling in the sky.
rkjs vkleku esa pedrs gSaA
9.
Anuradha works in a hospital.
vuqjk/kk ,d vLirky esa dke djrh gSA
10. We were sitting in the garden.
ge xkMZu esa cSBs FksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

11. There are some trees in a garden.


,d xkMZu esa dqN isM+ gksr gSaA
12. The children are playing cricket in the street.
cPps xyh esa fdsV [ksy jgs gSaA
13. A read this news in a newspaper.
eSus ;s [kcj ,d v[kckj esa i<+hA
14. How much money do you have in your pocket?
vkidh Tksc esa fdruk iSlk gS\
15. Come in.
vanj vkvksA

in/within
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

I will do this in 5 days.


eSa ;s ikWap fnuksa esa dj nwWaxkA
eryc 5 fnuksa dk gh le; yxsxk
k
I will do this within 5 days.
eSa ;s ikWap fnuksa ds vanj&vanj dj nwWaxkA
kA
eryc ikWap fnuksa ls de le; yxsxk
k
They can reach there in 40 minutes.
os ogkWa 40 feuV esa igqWap ldrs gSaA
They can reach there within 40 minutes.
os ogkWa 40 feuV ds vanj&vanj igqWap ldrs gSaA
She will come back in an hour.
oks ,d ?kaVs esa okil vk tk,sxhA
She will come back within an hour.
oks ,d ?kaVs ds vanj vanj okil vk tk,sxhA
hA

inside
1.
2.
3.

The ice will melt inside an hour.


cQZ ,d ?kaVs esa fi?ky tk,xhA
What is inside this box?
bl fMCCks esa D;k gS\
Did you have a look inside the room?
D;k rqeus dejs esa ns[kk\
kk\

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.

We reached Mumbai inside 3 days.


ge rhu fnuksa ds vanj eqEcbZ igqWapsA

into
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I am going into my room. (in motion)


eSa vius dejs esa tk jgk gwWaA
He jumped into the river.
oks unh esa dwnkA
The teacher is coming into the room.
f'k{kd dejs esa vk jgs gSaA
She poured some tea in my cup.
mlus esjs I;kys esa dqN pk; MkyhA
They put the books into their bags.
mUgksus iqLrdksa dks vius cLrs esa j[kkA
Translate the sentences from English into Hindi.
okD;ksa dks vaxzsth ls fgUnh esa vuqokn dkjksA
Tear the page into two.
Ikst dks nks Hkkxks esa QkM+ksA

near
1.
2.
3.
4.

Come and sit near me.


vkvks vkSj esjs ikl cSBksA
Dont go near that beast.
ml tkuoj ds ikl er tkvksA
Dont go near the fire.
vkx ds ikl er tkvksA
Is there any hotel near the railway station?
D;k jsyos LVsku ds ikl dksbZ gkWVy gSA

of
1.

Delhi is to the north of Agra.


fnYyh vkxjk ds mkj esa gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.

I am fond of mangoes.
eq>s vke cgqr ilan gSA
3.
Its a matter of great honour for me.
;s esjs fy;s cM+s lEeku dh ckr gSA
4.
Give me a full glass of water.
eq>s ,d ikuh ls Hkjk iwjk Xykl nksA
@eq>s Qqy Xykl ikuh nksA
5.
She boughat a kilo of potatoes.
mlus ,d fdyks vkyw [kjhnkA
6.
She is fully aware of her weakness.
oks viuh deT+kksjh ls iwjh rjg voxr gSA
7.
She reminds me of her mother.
mls ns[kdj eq>s mldh ekWa dh ;kn vkrh gSA
8.
Pour two litre of petrol into my bike.
esjh xkM+h esa nks yhVj iSVksy MkyksA
9.
Thousands of people gathered/got together there.
gtkjks yksx ogkWa tek gq,@bdV~Bs gq,A
10. It was the second of October when Gandhji was born.
vkWDVqcj dh nks rkjh[k dks xka/khth dk tUe gqvk FkkA
11. He was sure of his success.
mls viuh lQyrk dk iwjk ;dhu FkkA

off
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Keep off the wires.


rkj ls nwj jgksA
The TV is off.
VhOkhVhOkh- can gSA
Turn the tap off.
uy can dj nks@nsukA
She had fallen off the bed last night.
oks dy fcLrj ls fxj xbZ FkhA
Take your foot off my chair.
esjh dqlhZ ls viuk iSj vyx djksA
They jumped off the train.
os Vsu ls dwn x,A

Rajs Notes of English Language

7.

I am about to take a week off.


eSa ,d grs dh Nqh ysus okyk gwWaA

on
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.

Turn the tap on.


uy pkyw dj nksA
There is a picture on the wall.
nhokj ij ,d rLohj gSA
There are some eggs on the plate.
IysV esa dqN vaMs gSaA
I met her on the way.
eSa mlls jkLrs esa feykA
There is white colour on the ceiling.
lhfyax ij lQsn jax gSA
His criticism is not based on facts.
mldh vkykspuk rF;ksa ij vk/kkfjr ugha gSA
Is this the on switch?
D;k pkyw djus okyk cVu ;gh gS\
Excuse me! You are sitting on my seat.
ekaQ dhft;s! vki esjh lhV ij cSBs gSaA
They will come on Sunday.
oks jfookj dks vk,saxsA
Are you free on Sunday?
D;k rqe jfookj dks h gks\
Why are you bent on ruining my future?
rqe esjk Hkfo"; cokZn djus ij D;ksa rqys gks\
We do not go to office on Sundays.
(on Sundays means any Sunday)
ge jfookj dks vkWfQl ugha tkrsA
She came here on Sunday morning.
oks ;gkWa jfookj dh lqcg vkbZ FkhA
We have party on New Years Day.
u;s lky esa ,d ikVhZ gSA
We cannot rely on that man./ we cannot trust that man.
ge ml vkneh ij
ij Hkjkslk ugha dj ldrsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

16. Have reliance/faith on me./ Trust me.


eq> ij Hkjkslk j[kks@djksA
17. The light is on.
ykbV pkyw gSA
18. Some animals live on grass.
dqN tkuoj ?kkal [kkds ftank jgrs gSaA

onto
1.
2.

3.

Put the book onto the table.


iqLrd dks Vscy ij j[kksA
He jumped onto his horse and rode away.
oks vius ?kksM+s ij dwnk vkSj pyk x;kA
?kksM+s ij cSBdj
Dont jump onto the bed.
fcLrj ij er dwnksA

opposite
1.
2.
3.
4.

Put a right mark  opposite the correct answer.


lgh mkj ds lkeus lgh dk fukku yxkvksA
She was sitting opposite me.
oks esjs lkeus cSBh FkhA
My home is opposite the Hanuman Temple.
esjk ?kj guqeku eafnj ds lkeus gSA
What is the opposite word for accept?
Lohdkj
Lohdkj djuk* ds fy;s fojks)h 'kCn D;k gS\

out of
1.
2.
3.
4.

Vishakha got 93 out of 100.


fo'kk[kk dks 100 esa ls 93 feykA
Prakash is out of India for 3 years.
dkk rhu lkyksa ds fy;s Hkkjr ls ckgj gSA
I never went out of India.
eSa dHkh Hkkjr ds ckgj ugha x;kA
Help us out of humanity.
ekuork ds ukrs gekjh enn dhft;sA

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.

I can give you two out of these eight.


eSa bu vkB esa ls nks rqEgs ns ldrk gwWaA

outside
1.
2.

3.
4.

Who is standing outside the room?


dejs ds ckgj dkSu [kM+k gS\
Your father is waiting for you outside the classroom, go
and meet him.
vkids ikik th d{kk ds ckgj vkidk barT+kkj dj jgs gSa
tkvks vkSj muls fey yksA
We have met each other outside the country.
ge ,d nwljs ls nsk ds ckgj fey pqds gSaA
Come outside and have a look at what your son has done.
ckgj vkvks vkSj ns[kks vkids csVs us D;k fd;k gSA

over
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

The bridge is over the river.


iqy unh ds ij gSA
I spoke to him about this over the phone.
eSus mlls bl ckjs es Qksu ij ckr dhA
We heard this news over the radio.
geus ;s [kcj jsfM;ks ij lquhA
Ice/snow was scattered over the road.
lM+d ij cQZ QSyh FkhA
The thief jumped over the wall and ran away.
pksj nhokj ls dwnk vkSj Hkkx x;kA
I was over 18 when I thoughat to write this book.
eSa 18 lky ls T;knk dh mez dk Fkk tc eSaus ;s iqLrd
fy[kus dh lksphA
Come over here. Stand over here.
;gkWa vkvksA ;gkWa [kM+s gks tkvksA
You may have to pay over 10,000 rupees.
vkidks 10]000 ls T;knk Hkh pqdkuk iM+ ldrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

9.

We have had a discussion over this matter.


geus bl fo"k; ij ppkZ dj yh gSA
10. There is no use crying over spilt milk.
chrh ckrksa ij iPNrkus ls dksbZ ykHk ugha gSA
11. I want to travel all over the world.
eSa iwjs foo dh ;k=k djuk pkgrk gwWaA
12. Hand in your answer sheets children, the time is over.
cPpks viuh mkj iqfLrdk ns nks] le; lekIr gks x;k
gSA

regarding/concerning
1.

2.

3.

Do you have any eye witness regarding/concerning to the


case?
D;k vkids ikl eqdnes esa ls lacaf/kr dksbZ penhn
xokg gS\
May I ask you a question regarding/concerning to your
personal life?
D;k eSa vkids O;fDrxr thou ls lacaf/kr ,d u iwWaN
ldrk gwWaA
We cannot discuss anything personal regarding
/concerning to the case in public.
ge yksxks ds chp bl eqdnesa ls lacaf/kr dqN Hkh
O;fDrxr ckr ugha dj ldrsA

since
1.
2.
3.
4.

I have been waiting for you for two hours.


eSa nks ?kaVks ls vkidk barT+kkj dj jgk gwWaA
I havent seen him since last Monday.
eSa fiNys lkseokj ls mlls ugha feyk gwWaA
We have known each other since our childhood.
ge ,d nwljs dks cpiu ls tkurs gSaA
It has been a month since she came here.
mls ;gkWa vk, gq, ,d ekg gks x;k gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.

6.

Since you dont have a degree, you cant get this job.
D;ksafd vkids ikl fMxzh ugha gS blfy;s vkidks ;s
ukSdjh ugha fey ldrhA
It has been a long time since my father has given up
smoking.
esjs ikikth dks /kweziku NksM+s cgqr yack le; gks x;k gSA

than
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

She is taller than her sister.


oks viuh cgu ls yach gSA
The price of the car was more than I expected.
dkj dh dher ftruk eSus lkspk Fkk mlls vf/kd FkhA
More than five girls complained against him.
ikWap ls Hkh vf/kd yM+fd;ksa us mldh fkdk;r dhA
I cannot give you more than a hundred rupees for this.
eSa vkidks blds fy;s 100 :i; ls T;knk ugha ns
ldrkA
Roshni has more experience than he.
(We can use objective pronouns instead of subjective
pronouns, but they are wrong. However it is in use. So if
you speak objective pronouns while speaking, it is ok.)
jks'kuh dks mlls T;knk vuqHko gSA
The train came earlier than usual.
(not before the time given to the train to reach.)
jsyxkM+h geskk ls tYnh vkbZA

through
1.
2.
3.

We all are through the nature, so we are its children.


ge lc rh ls gSa] rks ge lc mlds cPps gSaA
Are you through with the newspaper?
D;k vkius v[kckj i<+ fy;k gS\
A path goes through the forest/ jungle.
taxy ls ,d jkLrk tkrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.
5.

Have you read this book all through?


D;k vkius ;s iqLrd iwjh i<+ yh gS\
I answered him througha my experience.
eSus mls vius vuqHko ls mkj fn;kA

throughout
1.
2.
3.
4.

She kept on weeping throughout the night.


oks lkjh jkr jksrh jghA
I couldnt sleep throughout the night.
eSa iwjh jkr lks ugha ik;kA
People were talking throughout his speech.
mlds Hkka"k.k ds nkSjku yksx ckr dj jgs FksA
We were driving throughout the day.
ge iwjs fnu xkM+h pyk jgs FksA

till
1.

2.
3.

She waited for you till 3 oclock and then sent away.
mlus rhu cts rd rqEgkjk barT+kj fd;k vkSj fQj pyh
xbZA
We may be able to finish this work till evening.
ge 'kke rd ;s dke [kRe dj ldsaxsA
I will come back till tomorrow.
eSa dy rd okil vk tkWaxkA

to
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I will have to talk to the Principal.


eq>s kpk;Z ls ckr djuh iM+sxhA
I am going to America next year.
eSa vxys lky veSfjdk tk jgk gwWaA
We have to finish all this today.
gesa ;s lc vkt gh [kRe djuk gSA
He had come to my home yesterday.
oks dy esjs ?kj vk;k FkkA
This road goes to Amarpatan.
;s jkLrk vejikVu tkrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Throw the ball to him.


Xksan mldh rjQ QsdksA
Could you tell me the way to the railway station?
D;k vki eq>s jsyos LVsku dk jkLrk crk,saxsA
She wrote to me.
mlus eq>s i= fy[kkA
I answered to her letter.
eSaus mlds i= dk mkj fn;kA
It is 5 (minutes) to 7.
7 ctus esa 5 feuV ckadh gSA
It is quarter to 9.
ikSus 9 cts gSaA
There are 80 to 100 students in my coaching centre.
esjs dksfpax lsaVj esa 80 ls 100 fo|kFkhZ gSaA
Give this pen to me./ Give me this pen.
;s isUk eq>s nksA
Send this message to the boss./ Send the boss this message.
ckWl dks ;s lUnsk igqWapk nksA

towards
6.

I am going towards the bus-stand.


eSa cl&LVSaM dh vksj tk jgk gwWaA
7.
Do you have any anger towards me?
D;k vkidks esjs fr ks/k gS\
8.
They ran towards each other to beat.
os ,d nwljs dh vksj nkSM+sA
9.
What is your duty towards your family?
vkidk vids ifjokj ds fr D;k drZO; gS\
10. I have saved some money towards buying a gift for my
mother.
eSaus viuh ekWa ds fy;s rksgQk [kjhnus ds fy;s dqN iSls
cpk, gSaA
11. Go towards the line and then turn around.
ykbu dh rjQ tkvks vkSj fQj ?kwe tkukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

under
4.

We were sitting under a tree.


ge ,d isM+ ds uhps cSBs FksA
5.
He was hidden under the table.
oks Vscy ds uhps fNik gqvk FkkA
6.
The situation is under control now.
vc LFkhfr dkcw esa gSA
7.
The river is flowing under the bridge.
ikuh unh ds uhps ls cg jgk gSA
8.
She works under me.
oks esjs vk/khu dke djrh gSA
9.
He scored under 90 runs.
mlus 90 ls FkksM+ de ju cuk,A
10. Under the new rules, you cant do this now.
u, fu;eksa ds vk?kkj ij rqe vc ,slk ugha dj ldrsA

underneath
1.
2.

He found evidence underneath the bed.


mls fcLrj ds uhps lcwr feykA
What is underneath that?
mlds uhps D;k gS\

up
1.
2.
3.
4.

Come up.
ij vkvksA
Throw the ball up.
xsan dks ij HkstksA
What is up? /Whats up?
D;k py jgk gS\
Our time is up and now we are going.
gekjk le; lekIr gks x;k gS vkSj vc ge tk jgs gSaA

up to
1.

Up to 40 students can sit in my class.


esjh d{kk esa 40 fo|kFkh rd cSB ldrs gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.
3.

4.

She said, I can give you up to 20 books.


mlus dgk] ^^eSa rqEgsa 200 rd iqLrd ns ldrh gwWaA**
It is up to you whether to refuse or accept.
Lohdkj djuk ;k euk djuk vkids ij fuHkZj djrk
gSA
She was perfectly all right up to yesterday evening.
dy 'kke rd oks ,dne Bhd FkhA

upon
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Once upon a time.


,d ckj dh ckr gSA
It depends upon me.
;s eq> ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
It depends upon you.
;s vki ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
There were some books and notebooks upon the table.
Vscy ij dqN iqLrdsa vkSj uksVcqDl FkhaA
I went there upon her request.
eSa mlds fourh ij ogkWa x;kA

via
1.
2.
3.
4.

This bus goes to Majhagwan via Pratapur.


;s cl rkiiqj ls gksrs gq, e>xokWa tkrh gSA
He gave me this song via Bluetooth.
mlus CywVwFk ls eq>s ;s xhr fn;kA
Such diseases spread via physical contents.
bl rjg dh chekfj;kWa 'kkjhfjd lEidZ ls QSyrh gSaA
I came to know this via Priyanka.
eq>s ;s ckr f;adk ls irk pyhA

with
1.
2.

Are you with me?


D;k vki esjs lkFk gSaA
We are with him.
ge mlds lkFk gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.

She is quarrelling with me all the time.


oks gesakk eq>ls >xM+rh jgrh gSA
4.
I like tea with sugar.
eq>s 'kDdj okyh pk; ilan gSA
5.
He writes with his left hand.
oks vius ckWa, gkWaFk ls fy[krk gSA
6.
We can see with our eyes.
ge viuh vkWa[kks ls ns[k ldrs gSaA
7.
Fill the can with water.
dSu esa ikuh HkjksA
8.
I wanted to set up my home with her.
eSa mlds lkFk viuk ?kj clkuk pkgrk FkkA
9.
He was punished with a stick.
mls NM+h ls ltk nh xbZA
10. You can never succeed with such negative thoughats in
mind.
vki ,sls udkjkRed fopkjksa ds lkFk dHkh lQy ugha gks
ldrsA
11. The hunter shot the deer with a pistol.
f'kdkjh us fgj.k dks canwd ls ekjkA

without
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

She has to drink tea without sugar.


mls fcuk 'kDdj dh pk; ihuh iM+rh gSA
I could never have done this without your help.
eSa vkidh enn ds fcuk ;s dHkh ugha dj ldrk FkkA
It is illegal to travel without ticket.
fVdV ds fcuk ;k=k djuk dkuwu ds f[kykQ gSA
We cant go without food.
ge fcuk Hkkstu ds thfor ugha jg ldrsA
We can go with this much food for two days.
brus Hkkstu ls ge nks fnuksa rd dke pyk ldrs gSaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

6.

There are a number of people who have to sleep without


food for sometimes.
cgqr ls ,sls Hkh yksx gSa ftUgsa dbZ ckj jkr dks Hkw[kk
lksuk iM+rk gSA
7.
I cannot live without you.
eSa rqEgkjs fcuk ugha jg ldrkA
8.
She doesnt want to live without you.
oks rqEgkjs fcuk jguk ugha pkgrhA
9.
Without a doubt, man needs God.
fu%lansg] ekuo dks Hkxoku dh T+k:jr gSA
10. It is impossible to run this engine without diesel.
fcuk MhT+ky ds ;s ekhu pykuk vlaHko gSA

Phrase Prepositions
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

8.

I was about to go.


eSa tkus okyk FkkA
She is about to come.
oks vkus okyh gSA
We should sacrifice everything for the sake of our
country.
gesa vius nsk ds fy;s lcdqN dqckZu dj nsuk pkfg,A
What should we do in favour of our friends?
gesa vius fe=ks dh HkykbZ ds fy;s D;k djuk pkfg,A
Man has to work in order to live.
vkneh
vkneh dks thus ds fy;s dke djuk gh iM+rk gSA
She came to attend my birthday party inspite of being
very ill.
cgqr chekj gksus ds ckoT+kwn oks esjs tUefnu dh ikVhZ esa
vkbZ FkhA
Can you give me another bag in exchange for this one?
D;k vki eq>s bl cSx ds cnys ,d nwljk cSx ns ldrs
gSaA
What can you give me in exchange for my old car?
esjh iqjkuh dkj ds cnys vki eq>s D;k ns ldrs gSa\

Rajs Notes of English Language

9.

I had to give up studies for want of money.


eq>s iSlks dh otg ls i<+kbZ NksM+uh iM+hA

7. Conjunction leqPp;cks/kd vO;;A


A conjunction is a word, which is used to join sentences or
other words together.
Conjunction oks 'kCn dgykrs gSa tks okD;ksa vkSj 'kCnksa dks ,d
lkFk tksM+rs gSaA

Examples of Conjunctions
although
1. Although he is poor, he is hones.
Hkys gh oks xjhc gS ij bZekunkj gSA
2. He didnt come although I invited him.
Hkys gh eSus mls vkeaf=r fd;k Fkk ij oks ugha vk;kA
3. Although he drinks, he is a good man at heat.
Hkys gh oks nk: ihrk gS ij fny ls ,d vPNk vkneh
gSA
4. Although you dont invite me to your marriage, I will
come.
Hkys gh rqe eq>s viuh 'kknh esa vkea
vkeaf=r uk djks ij eSa
rks vkWaxkA

and
1.

2.

He ate some bread, drank some water and went to his


school.
mlus dqN czsM [kkbZ] ikuh fi;k vkSj Ldwy pyk x;kA
;fn okD; esa drkZ ,d gh gks rc drkZ dks ckj&ckj
ugha nksgjk;k tkrkA
He called me, gave me this letter and went away.
mlus eq>s cqyk;k] ;s i= fn;k vkSj pyk x;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.

4.
5.

I drank tea and she drank coffee.


eSaus pk; ih vkSj mlus dkWQh ihA
;gkWa drkZ vyx&vyx gSaA
One and one make two.
,d vkSj ,d nks gksrk gSA
He and his brother look like each other.
oks vkSj mldk HkkbZ ,d tSls fn[krs gSaA

as
1.
2.
3.
4.

Do as I do, not as I say.


tSlk eSa djrk gwWa oSlk djks] tSlk dgrk gwWa oSlk ughaA
He did as I said.
mlus oSlk gh fd;k tSlk eSus mls dgkA
Everything is as I wanted to be.
lc dqN oSlk gh gS tSlk dh eSa pkgrk FkkA
As you wish./ As you please.
tSlh vkidh eT+khZA@tSlk vki pkgsaA

as yet
1.
2.

I havent seen any progress as yet.


eq>s vHkh rd dksbZ lq/kkj ugha fn[kkA
She hasnt submitted her form as yet.
mlus vHkh rd viuk QkWe tek ugha fd;k gSA

as far as
1.

2.

As far as I remember, she never used to go to library.


tgkWa rd eq>s ;kn gS] oks dHkh iqLrdky; ugha tk;k
djrh FkhA
This bus goes as far as Bhopal.
;s cl Hkksiky rd tkrh gSA

as well
1.

She knows Panjabi as well.


mls iatkch Hkk"kk Hkh vkrh gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

2.

I need your help as well.


eq>s vidh enn Hkh pkfg,A

such as
1.

2.
3.

A man such as this should never be relied on.


bl rjg ds vkneh dk dHkh Hkjkslk ugha fd;k
tkuk pkfg,A
Boys such as these are very intelligent.
bl rjg ds yM+ds cgqr cqf)eku gksrs gSaA
Girls such as these make their parents feel proud.
bl rjg dh yM+fd;kWa vius ekWark&firk dks
xkSjokufor djrh gSaA

as/so long as
1.

2.

As long as she is here, she shouldnt have any problem


here.
tc rd oks ;gkWa gS] mls ;gkWa fdlh Hkh dkj dh
leL;k ugha gksuh pkfg,A
We need not worry as/so long as we are going very well.
tc rd ge vPNk dj jgs gSa] gesa fpark djus dh
vo;Drk ugha gSA

as soon as
1.
2.

As soon as she saw me, she smiled.


tSls gh mlus eq>s ns[kk oks eqLdqjkbZA
As soon as he said, Yes, everyone became happy.
tSls gh mlus ^^gkWa** dgk] lc [kqk gks x,A

no sooner ..than
1.
2.

No sooner did we reach the bus-stand than the bus came.


tSls gh ge cl vM~Mk igqWaps cl vk xbZA
No sooner did she hear this news than she became sad.
tSls gh mlus ;s [kcj lquh oks mnkl gks xbZA

Rajs Notes of English Language

as well as
1.
2.
3.

She is deaf as well as blind.


oks cgjh Hkh gS vkSj va/kh HkhA
You are my friend as well as my student.
vki esjs fe= Hkh gSa vkSj fo|kFkhZ HkhA
Ravi as well as his brother is not at home.
/Ravi and his brother are not at home.
jfo vkSj mldk HkkbZ ?kj ij ugha gSA

because/as/since
because
1.

2.

3.

I cant come (to) school today because I am ill.


/I am ill, so I cannot come (to) school today.
eSa Ldwy ugha vk ldrk D;ksafd eSa chekj gwWa
She is crying because her mother has punished her today.
/Her mother has punished her today, so she is crying.
oks jks jgh gS D;ksafd mldh ekWa us mls ltk nh gSA
He came here because he wanted to meet you.
/He wanted to meet you, so he came here.
oks ;gkWa vk;k D;ksfd oks rqels feyuk pkgrk FkkA

as/since
1.

2.
3.

As/since she wanted to eat samosas, I boughat some.


D;ksafd oks lekslk [kkuk pkgrh Fkh blfy;s eSus
[kjhnsA
/She wanted to eat samosas, so I boughat some.
@oks dqN lekslk [kkuk pkgrh Fkh blfy;s eSus [kjhnsA
As/since you are busy now, I will come later.
D;ksafd vki vHkh O;Lr gSa rks eSa ckn esa vkWaxkA
As/since I wanted to read this book, I boughat it.
D;ksafd eSa ;s iqLrd i<+uk pkgrk Fkk blfy;s eSaus bls
[kjhnkA
/I wanted to read this book, so I boughat it.
eSa ;s iqLrd i<+uk pkgrk Fkk] rks eSus bls [kjhnkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.

I am going alone as/since he is not going today.


eSa vdsyk tk jgk gwWa D;ksafd oks vkt ugha tk jgk gSA
/ He is not going today, so I am going alone.
oks vkt ugha tk jgk gS blfy;s eSa vdsyk tk jgk gwWaA

after
1.

2.
3.
4.

I had reached home after my father came back from


office.
ikikth ds ?kj okil vkus ls igys eSa ?kj igqWap x;k FkkA
After he broke his leg, he never played football.
mldk iSj VwVus ds ckn mlus dHkh QqVckWy ugha [ksykA
She came after he had come.
mlds vkus ds ckn oks vkbZA
I will come to you after I finish my work./
After I finish my work I will come to you.
viuk dke [kRe djds eSa vkids ikl vk tkWaxkA@eS
kA@eSa
vkids
vkids ikl vk tkWaxk] viuk dke [kRe djds
djdsA

before
1.

2.

3.

4.

Before you cross the road, look both sides/ways.


/Look both sides/ways before you cross the road.
jksM ikj djus ls igys nksuks vksj ns[kk djksA
I had come before you came.
/Before you came, I had come.
rqEgkjs vkus ls igys eSa vk x;k FkkA
They had reach/got home before it was dark.
/Before it was dark, they reached/got home.
va/ksjk gksus ls igys os ?kj igqWap x, Fks
He had gone from there before I reached there.
/Before I reached, he had gone from there.
esjs ogkWa igqWapus ls igys oks ogkWa ls tk pqdk FkkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

but
1.

The teacher call Nisha but she didnt come.


f'k{kd us fukk dks cqyk;k ij oks ugha vkbZA
2.
They went to market but didnt buy anything.
os ckT+kkj x, Fks ij mUgksus dqN ugha [kjhnkA
3.
Not one but two persons have killed him.
,d ugha nks yksxks us mls tku ls ekjk gSA
4.
You explain to him but he wont listen to.
vki mls lEk>k,saxs ij oks ugha lqusxkA
5.
I come but will not stay there tonight.
eSa vkWaxk ij jkr dks ogkWa ugha :dwWaxkA
6.
He does nothing but complaint.
oks fkdk;r ds vykok dqN ugha djrkA
7.
It seems strange but it is true.
;s vthc yxrk gS ij lp gSA
8.
I also want to go for a picnic but I cant go.
eSa Hkh fifDud ij tkuk pkgrk gwWa ij tk ugha ldrkA
9.
Sonali came but did not talk to me.
lksukyh vkbZ ij mlus eq>ls ckr ugha dhA
10. Rupa wants to come but she cant come.
:ik vkuk pkgrh gS ij vk ugha ldrhA

not only.but also


1.
2.
3.
4.

I am not only your friend but also your well-wisher.


eSa vkidk nksLr gh ugha cfYd vkidk 'kqHk fpard Hkh gwWaA
We speak not only Hindi but also English.
ge uk flQZ fgUnh cfYd vaxzsth Hkh cksyrs gSaA
He is not only lazy but also useless.
oks uk flQZ vyky gS cfYd fdlh dke dk gh ugha gSA
Not only my friends but also their relatives came to attend
my birthday party.
uk flQZ esjsjs fe= cfYd mUkds fjrsnkj Hkh esjs tUefnu
dh ikVhZ esa vk, FksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

5.

Not only is she angry but also ready to punish you.


/She is not only angry but ready to punish you.
oks uk flQZ ukjkt gS cfYd rqEgs ltk nsus dks Hkh rS;kj
gSA

either.or
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I can drink either tea or coffee.


eSa pk; ;k dkWQh nksuks esa ls dqN Hkh ih ldrk gwWaA
She will be either in the office or in the office garden.
oks ;k rks vius vkWfQl esa gksxh ;k vkWfQl ds cxhps
esaA
He is either in army or in police.
oks ;k rks QkSt esa gS ;k iqfyl esaA
Either you or I am wrong.
;k fQj vki ;k eSa xyr gwWaA nks
,d
nks esa ls ,d
Either I or you are wrong.
;k fQj eSa ;k vki xyr gSaA
You can do it either way.
rqe ;s fdlh Hkh rjhds ls dj ldrs gksA
Either you or your brother has done this.
;k rqe ;k fQj rqEgkjs HkkbZ us ;s fd;k gSA

neither.nor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I am neither deaf nor blind.


eSa uk gh csgjk gwWa vkSj uk gh va/kkA
She is neither a doctor nor a teacher.
oks uk gh MkWDVj gS vkSj uk gh VhpjA
He neither ate nor drank anything.
mlus uk gh [kk;k vkSj uk gh fi;kA
He neither came nor called me.
oks uk gh vk;k vkSj uk gh eq>s Qksu fd;kA
I have neither met you before nor heard about you.
eSa uk gh vils igys dHkh feyk vkSj uk gh igys dHkh
vkids ckjs esa lqukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

6.

Neither man came.


nksuksa esa ls dksbZ ugh vk;kA

however
1.
2.

3.

4.

I did not explain to her, however she did it very well.


eSaus mls ugha le>k;k fQj Hkh mlus cgqr csgrj fd;kA
She did not ask for any money, however I gave her so that
she might use it if she needs.
mlus iSls ugha ekaxs ysfdu fQj Hkh eSaus mls ns fn;s
rkfd oks mudk Lrseky dj lds ;fn mls t:jr iM+s
rksA
You are right, however you should at least listen to your
son.
vki lgh gSa ysfdu fQj Hkh de ls de vkidks vius
csVs dh ckr rks lqu ysuk pkfg,A
She treated me so badly, however I forgave her.
mlus esjs lkFk cgqr cqjk crkZo fd;k ysfdu fQj Hkh eSaus
mls ekWaQ dj fn;kA

if
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

If you want to come, then get ready.


;fn rqe vkuk pkgrs gks rks fQj rS;kj gks tkvksA
If he comes, let me know.
;fn oks vk, rks eq>s crk nsukA
Let me know if he comes.
eq>s crk nsuk ;fn oks vk, rksA
If she tries, she will succeed.

If she will try, she will succeed.

;fn oks dksfkk djsxh rks oks lQy gks tk,xhA


You can speak in English if you try.
vki vaxzsth esa ckr dj ldrs gSa ;fn vki dksfkk djsa
rksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

6.

You can speak in English only when you try.


vki rHkh vaxzsth esa ckr dj ldrs gSa tc vki dksfkk
djsaxsA
7.
If I had known, I would have told you.
;fn eq>s irk gksrk rks eSa rqEgs crk nsrkA
8.
If she had invited you, you should have gone.
;fn mlus rqEgsa vaef=r fd;k Fkk rks rqEgs tkuk pkfg,
FkkA
9.
If I had known about this, I could have helped you.
;fn eSa bc ckjs esa tkurk rks rqEgkjh enn dj ldrk
FkkA
10. I could have helped you if I had known about this.
eSa rq
rqEgkjh enn dj ldrk Fkk ;fn eq>s bl ckjs esa irk
gksrkA

lest
1.
2.

Walk cautiously lest you should fall.


lko/kkuh ls pyks dgha ,slk uk gks dh rqe fxj tkvksA
Keep it in the locker lest you should forget it here only.
bls frtksjh esa j[k nks dgha ,slk uk gks fd rqe bls ;gha
uk Hkwy tkvksA

nor
1.
2.

3.

I will not go nor shall I let you go.


EkSa ugha tkWaxk vkSj uk gh rqEgs tkus nwWaxkA
She will not live happily nor will she let anybody live
happily.
oks uk gh [kqkh ls jgsxh vkSj uk gh fdlh dks jgus
nsxhA
Live and let live.
ftvks vkSj thus nksA
He cannot do so nor can he let anybody do so.
uk gh oks ,slk dj ldrk gS vkSj uk gh fdlh dks ,slk
djus ns ldrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

or
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Hurry up! or you will get late.


tYnh djks ugha rks rqEgs nsj gks tk,xhA
Give me a pen or a pencil.
eq>s ,d isu ;k ,d isfUly nksA
They will come by car or by train.
oks dkj ls vk,saxs ;k Vsu lsA
Are you joking or what?
rqe eT+kkd dj jgs gks ;k fQj dqN vkSjA
Write down this number or you will forget it.
;s uEcj fy[k yks ojuk Hkwy tkvks
tkvksxsA
Ripe mangoes are usually red or yellow.
ids gq,s vke lekU;r% yky ;k ihys gksrs gSaA

otherwise
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

Do it now otherwise I will punish you.


;s vHkh djks ojuk eSa rqEgsa ltk nwxkA
Yes, he always comes late, but otherwise he is a good
teacher.
gkWa oks geskk nsj ls vkrk gS] ysfdu fQj Hkh oks ,d
vPNk fk{kd gSA
I should leave now otherwise I will be late.
eq>s vHkh tkuk pkfg, ojuk eq>s nsj gks tk,xhA
Dont worry I will tell him about this, by phone or
otherwise.
fpark er djks eSa mls Qksu ls ;k fdlh uk fdlh rjhds
ls ;s ckr crk nWawxkA
She is always talking about something or otherwise.
oks gesakk gh fdlh uk fdlh ckjs esa ckr djrh gh jgrh
gSA
Never be unfaithful to me otherwise I will abandon you.
eq>ls dHkh csoQkbZ er djuk ojuk eSa rqEgkjk ifjR;kx
dj nwaxk@nawxh gesakk ds fy;s NksM+ nwaxk@nwaxhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

provided that/ providing that


1.
2.
3.

I will help him provided/providing that he comes here.


eSa mldh enn d:Waxk oks ;gkWa vk, rks lghA
She will go there provide/providing that her father
permits me.
oks ogkWa tk,xh ysfdu mlds ikik mls bT+kkT+kr nsa rksA

so
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He abused me, so I punished him.


mlus eq>s xkyh nh blfy;s eSaus mls ltk nhA
He called me Patlu, so I called him Montu.
mlus eq>s iryw cqyk;k blfy;s eSaus mls eksaVw cqyk;kA
So thats why you did so.
rks blfy;s rqEkus ,slk fd;kA
So thats why you are late.
rks bl fy;s rqEgs nsj gqbZA
So grant me leave for one day.
blfy;s eq>s ,d fnu dh Nqh ns nksA

that
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

He said that he was busy.


mlus dgk fd rqe O;Lr gksA
She said that she would not go there.
mlus dgk dh oks ogkWa ugha tk,sxhA
That he is from America is true.
;s dh oks veSfjdk ls gS] lp gSA
That you are credulous is a fact.
;s fd rqe 'kh?kz fooklh gks lp gSA
I dont want to say that you are a fool, but you are.
eSa ugha dguk pkgrk fd rqe ew[kZ gks ij rqe gksA
She told me that you had gone.
mlus eq>s crk;k fd rqe tk pqds FksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

though
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

Though she was junior to us, she was elected to be the


manager.
;|fi oks gels tqfuvj Fkh ysfdu fQj Hkh mls eSustj
ds fy;s pquk x;kA
Though she didnt come, she did her duty well.
;|fi oks ugha vkbZ fQj Hkh mlus viuk drZO; vPNh
rjg fuHkk;kA
Though it seems to be strange, it is true.
;|fi ;g vtho yxrk gS] ij lp gSA
Though am busy, I will help my son to complete his
homework.
;|fi eSa O;Lr gwWa] eSa vius csVs dk x`gdk;Z djkus esa
mldh enn d:WaxkA
Though he was inexperienced, he got that job.
;|fi oks vuqHkoghu Fkk ysfdu fQj Hkh mls oks ukSdjh
fey xbZA

Unless
1.

2.

3.

4.

Unless you try, you cannot speak in English.


tc rd vki ;kl ughaa djsaxs vki vaxzsth esa ckr ugha
dj ldrsA
You cannot speak in English unless you try.
vki vaxzsth esa ckr ugha dj ldrs tc rd vki ;kl
ugha djrsA
He waited for her unless she came back.
mlus mldk rc rd barT+kkj fd;k tc rd oks okil
ughaa vk xbZA
Dreams dont come true unless you get up and go to work.
lius rc rd iwjs ugha gksrs tc rd vki tkxdj dke
ij ugha tkrsA

Rajs Notes of English Language

until
1.

2.

Dont go anywhere until I come back.


tc rd eSa okil uk vk tkWa dgha er tkukA
until ds ckn okD;k esa not ugha yxrkA
You cant speak in English until you try.
tc rd vki ;kl ugha djrs vki vaxzth esa ckr ugha
dj ldrsA

when
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

She came to my home when I was bathing/taking bath in


the bathroom.
oks esjs ?kj vkbZ tc eSa ckFk:e esa ugk jgk FkkA
When I was a child, I used to sleep with my grandfather.
tc eSa cPpk Fkk rc eSa vius nknkth ds lkFk lksrk FkkA
He goes when she comes.
oks tkrk gS tc oks vkrh gSA
He did not tell me anything as to when we are to start.
mlus eq>s dqN ugha crk;k fd dc gesa 'kq: djuk gSA
I will come to you when I complete the work.
eSa vkids ikl vkWaxk tc eSa dke [kre dj ywWaxkA

whether
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Whether she comes or not, it does not make any


difference.
oks vkrh gS ;k ugha bl ckr ls dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+rkA
We cant say anything whether we shall win or lose.
ge dqN dg ugha ldrs ge thrsaxs ;k gkjsaxsA
Do you know whether he will comes (not)?
D;k vkidks irk gS oks vk,sxk ;k ugha\
I cant say whether it is true or not.
eSa dg ugha ldrk ;s lp gS ;k ughaA
Do tell me whether you have a problem.
eq>s t:j crkuk ;fn rqEgsa dksbZ ijskkuh gS rksA

Rajs Notes of English Language

while
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

You should not read your book while walking on the way.
You may meet an accident.
vkidks jkLrs esa pyrs le; iqLrd ugha i<+uh pkfg;sA
vkids lkFk nq?kZVuk Hkh gks ldrh gSA
She was hiccupping while speaking.
oks ckyrs le; fgpfd;kWa ys jgh FkhA
She sprained his hand while she was playing racket.
jSdsV [ksyrs le; mlds gkWaFk esa eksap vk xbZA
My father used to be a rikshawala while I was in 6th class.
tc eSa 6oh d{kk esa Fkk rc esjsjs ikikth fjDkkokyk gqvk
djrs FksA
I love her while she hates me.
eSa mls se djrk gwWa tcfd oks eq>ls uQjr djrh gSA

whereas
1.

2.

3.

I earn 20, 000 per month whereas he earns 30,000.


eSa 20]000 frekg dekrk gwWa tcfd oks 30]000
frekg dekrk gSA
She was 19 years old whereas her husband was 32 years
old when she got married.
oks 19 lky dh vkSj mldk ifr 32 lky dk Fkk tc
mlus 'kknh dhA
I waited for her all my life whereas she never came.

why
1.
2.
3.

There is no point why I should go there.


okgkWa tkus dk dksbZ eryc ugha rks
rks eSa ogkWa D;ksa tkWaA
I dont know why he did so.
eq>s irk ugha mlus ,slk D;ksa dgkA
Do you know why he was angry?
D;k rqEgs irk gS oks ukjkt D;ksa Fkk\
Fkk\

Rajs Notes of English Language

4.

5.

I cant understand why this foolish/stupid machine is not


working.
eq>s le> ugha vkrk ;s csodwQ ekhu dke D;ksa ugha
dj jgh gSA
I cant understand why people do so.
eq>s le> ugha vkrk yksx ,slk D;ksa djrs gSaA

8. Interjection foLe;kfncks/kd vO;;A


vO;;A
Usage in Sentences okD;ksa esa ;ksxA
(Exclamation)
1. Ah! I have hurt myself!
vg! eq>s pksaV yx xbZ!

2. Beautiful!
vfr lqanjA

3. Beware!
[kcjnkj!

4. Beware of dogs!
dqkks ls lko/kku!

5. Bye!
VkVk!

6. By Gods grace!
Hkxoku dh ik ls!

7. Come what may!


vc pkgs dqN Hkh gks!

8. Congratulations!
c/kkbZ gks!

9. Cheers!
vkidh [kqkh ds fy;s!

10. Excellent!
Ckgqr cf<+;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

11. Hey!
vjs!

12. Hello!Listen!
lqfu;s!

13. Hurrah! We have won the match!


okg ! ge eSap thr x,!

14. Hurry up!


tYnh dkjks!

15. Oh dear!
vjs f;!

16. Oh God!
gs Hkxoku!

17. Really!
lpeqPk!

18. Same to you!


vkidks Hkh!

19. How absurd!


cM+h fQtwy dh ckr gS!

20. How dare he!


mldh bruh fgEer!

21. How disgraceful!


fdrus vieku dh ckr gS!

22. How disgustion!


Nh Nh!

23. How lovely!


fdruk lqanj!

24. How sweet!


fdruk vPNk!

25. Marvelous!
okg okg!

26. Many happy returns of the day!


;s fnu ckj ckj vk,!

Rajs Notes of English Language

27. Thanks!
/kU;okn!

28. Thank you!


vkidk /kU;okn!

29. Touch wood!


dgha uT+kj uk yxs!

30. Welcome sir!


vkidk Lokxr gS lj!

31. What an idea!


fdruh vPNh rjdhc gS!

32. What a bother!


D;k ijskkuh gS!

33. What nonsense!


D;k cdokl gS!

34. What a pleasant surprise!


fdruk lq[kn vkkpZ!

35. Watch out!


laHky dj!

36. Well done!


cgqr cf<+;k!

37. Wow!
Okg!
oks okD; ftls vkp;Z ds lkFk cksyk tkrk gS ml okD;k ds var esa

Exclamation mark (!)

yxk;k tkrk gSA

Proverbs/Sayings dgkorsa
dgkorksa dks ;kn djuk gh iM+rk gS] mUgsa oSlk gh cksyk
tkrk gS tSls oks gksrs gSa D;ksafd dgkorsa Hkwrdky dh fdlh
?kVuk ls sfjr gksdj cuh gksrh gSa(

Rajs Notes of English Language

1. A bad man is better than a bad name.


cn vPNk cnuke cqjkA
2. All that glitters is not gold.
gj pedus oky phT+k] lksuk ughaa gksrhA
3. As you sow so will you reap.
TkSlh djuh oSlh HkjuhA
4. A thing is valued where it belongs.
taxy esa eksrh dh dnj ughaa gksrhA
5. A bad carpenter quarrels with his tools.
ukp uk tkus vkWaxu Vs<+kA
6. A burnt child dreads the fire.
nw/k dk tyk NkN dks Hkh Qwad&Qwad dj ihrk gSA
7. An empty vessel makes much noise.
v/kty x?kjh Nydr tk,A
8. A man is slave to his stomach.
vkneh isV dk nkl gSA
9. A honey tongue, a heart of gall.
eq[k esa jke] cxy esa NqjhA
10. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
vk/kk Kku ladV ds lkekuA
11. A leopard cant change its spots.
dqks dh iwWaN Vs<h dh Vs<hA
12. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
fe= ogh tks eqlhcr esa dke vk,A
13. A word to wise is sufficient.
le>nkj dks blkjk dkQh gSA
14. Barking dogs seldom bite.
tks xjtrs gSa oks cjlrs ughaA
15. Beggars cant be choosers.
nku eas feyh cfN;k ds nkWar ugha ns[ks tkrsA
16. Birds of a feather flock together.
pksj pksj ekSlsjs HkkbZA
17. Blood is thinker than water.
viuk viuk gksrk gS] ijk;k ijk;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

18. Fools praise fools.


x/ks dks x/kk [kqtykrk gSA
19. Give loan, enemy own.
m/kkj nhts] nqeu dhtsA
20. It is no use building castles in the air.
gokbZ fdys cukus ls dksbZ ykHk ughaA
21. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
chrh ckrksa ij jksus ls dksbZ vFkZ ughaA
22. It takes all sorts to make the world.
bl lalkj esa gj rjg ds yksx gSaA
23. It takes two to make a quarrel.
rkyh nksuks gkFkksa ls ctrh gSA
24. It takes a thief to catch a thief./ it takes a thief to catch a
thief.
dkWaVs ls dkWaVk fudyrk gSA
25. The more haste, the worse speed.
vkxs nkSM+] ihNs NksM+A
26. The wearer knows where the shoe pinches.
ftlds ij chrrh gS mlh dks le> esa vkrk gSA
27. To the good the world appears good.
vki Hkyk rks tx HkykA
28. Once bitten twice shy.
nw/k dk tyk NkN dks Hkh Qwd Qwd dj ihrk gSA
29. Prevention is better than cure.
mipkj ls frca/k vPNkA
30. Rom wasnt built in a day.
jkse ,d fnu esa ugha cuk FkkA
31. Shallow water makes much noise.
v/kty x?kjh Nydr tk,A
32. Silence means half consent.
pqi ekuks vk/kh ethZA
33. Society moulds man.
[kjcwts dks ns[kdj [kjcwtk jax cnyrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

34. Two of a trade seldom agree.


,d E;ku esa nks ryokjsa ugha jg ldrhA
35. Take care of the pennies and the pounds will take care
of themselves.
cwWan&cwWan ls lkxj Hkjrk gSA
36. There is no smoke without fire.
fcuk vkx ds /kqWavk ugha fudyrkA
37. Those who the God will destroy, they first make made.
fouk'kdkys foijhr cqf)A
38. Walls have ears.
nhokjksa ds dku gksrs gSaA
39. When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out of the
window.
tc xjhch njokts ls vanj vkrh gS rks I;kj f[kM+dh ls
fudy tkrk gSA
40. Where there is a will, there is a way.
tgkWa pkg gS ogkWa jkg gSA

WORDS WHICH CONFUSE


1. Admit
Usage:

Confess Usage:
2. Among Usage:
Between Usage:

lR; ds :i esa Lohdkj djukA


I admit that I am wrong.
eSa ;s ckr lR; ds :i esa Lohdkj djrk gwWa fd eSa
xyr gwWaA
xyrh Lohdkj djukA
He confessed his gilt.
mlus viuh xyrh lq/kkjhA
nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ;k oLrqvksa ds chpA
Rama is standing among her friends.
jke vius nksLrksa ds chp [kM+k gSA
nks O;fDr;ksa ;k oLrqvksa ds chpA
Dinesh is standing between Anil and Vikas.
fnus'k vfuy vkSj fodkl ds chp [kM+k gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3. Amount
Usage:
NumberUsage:

4. Anxious
Usage:
EagerUsage:

ek=k ftls ,d ,d djds fxuk ugh tk ldrkA


ldrkA
A large amount of rice was bought for marriage.
fookg ds fy;s cgqr lkjk pkaoy [kjhnk x;kA
ftls ,d ,d djds fxuk ugh tk ldrkA
ldrkA
A large number of bags of rice were bought for
marriage
fookg ds fy;s pkaoy dh cgqr lh cksfj;ka [kjhnh
xbZA
fpafrr] fpURkkrqjA
We are anxious about our result.
ge lc vius ifj.kke dks ysdj fpafrr gSaA
mRLkqdA
We all were eager to know the result.
ge lc vius ifj.kke dks tkuus ds fy;s mRlqd gSaA

5. AptUsage:

LiableUsage:
6. ArtisanUsage:
ArtistUsage:
7. AsUsage:
LikeUsage:

o``frA
She is apt to tell lies.
oks >wB cksyus dh o`fr dk gSA
@mls >wB cksyus dh vknr gSA
ftEesnkjA
Only you are liable to all this.
dsoy vki gh bu lc ds fy;s ftEesankj gSaA
nLrdkjA
This carpenter is a good artisan.
;s c<+bZ ,d vPNk nLrdkj gSA
dykdkjA
She is a good artist.
oks ,d vPNh dykdkj gSA
tSlkA
Do as I say.
tSlk eSa dgrk gwWa oSlk djksA
tSlkA
He looks like his brother.
oks vius HkkbZ dh rjg fn[krk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

8. AudienceUsage:
ExpectatorsUsage:

9. BetterUsage:
WellUsage:
10. BothUsage:
EachUsage:
11. BringUsage:
TakeUsage:

12. ClimateUsage:

Jksrkvksa dk lewgA
They who listen to one are audience.
oks tks fdlh O;fDr dks lqurs gSa Jksrk dgykrs gSaA
nkZdksa dk lewgA
Sehwag played some very good shots that pleased
the expectators.
lsgokx us dqN vPNs 'kksV~l [ksys vkSj nkZdksa dks
[kqk dj fn;kA
ls dqN vPNkA
vPNkA
She is feeling better than before now.
oks vc igys ls vPNk esglwl dj jgh gSA
iwjh rjg LoLFkA
I am feeling well now.
vc eq>s vPNk yx jgk gSA
nksuksA
Both the brothers are doctors.
nksuks HkkbZ MkWDVj gSaA
R;sdA
Each Indian has right to information.
gj Hkkjrh; dks tkudkjh dk vf/kdkj gSA
ykukA
Bring me a glass of water.
eq>s ,d Xykl ikuh ykvksA
ys tkukA
Take your lunch box with you when you go to the
office.
viuk yap ckWDl vius lkFk ys tkuk tc vkWfQl
tkuk
tkuk rc@tkrs oDrA
,d vkSlr ekSle tks fd lkyksa ls ,d fufPkr
le; esa jgrk gksA
I like the climate of Kashmir.
eq>s dehj dk ekSle ilan gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

ekSleA
The weather was very cool there.
ogkWa ekSale cgqr BaMk FkkA
CoupletksM+k iq:"k vkSj efgyk
Usage:
A couple is in the garden.
,d tksM+k cxhps esa gSA
PairtksM+k ,d lh oLrq dk
dk
Usage:
My father has brought me a new pairs of shoes.
esjs ikik th us eq>s ,d u;s tksM+h twrs [kjhns gSaA
Despise?k`.kk djukA
Usage:
We should not despise anybody.
gesa fdlh ls ?k`.kk ugh djuh pkfg,A
Detestilan uk djuk@ukila
djuk@ukilan djukA
djukA
Usage:
She detests tea.
mls pk; ukilan gSA
Each other,d nwljs ls nks O;fDr;ksa esa
Usage:
Radha and Seema dont talk to each other.
jk/kk vkSj lhek ,d nwljs ls ckr djuk ilan
ugha djrhaA
One another- ,d nwljs ls nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ls
Usage:
They were talking to one another.
os ,d nwljs ls ckr dj jgs FksA
Former- nks esa ls igykA
Usage:
I liked the former part of the film Tere Naam.
eq>s fQYe dk igyk Hkkx vPNk yxkA
Latter
nks esa ls nwljkA
Usage:
The latter half of the story was dull.
dgkuh dk nwljk Hkkx uhjl FkkA
HabitvknrA
Usage:
Criticising others is a habit with her.
nwljksa dh fuank djuk mldh vknr gSA
Custom- FkkA
Usage:
It is a custom among Hindus to cremate the dead.
WeatherUsage:

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Rajs Notes of English Language

fgUnqvksa esa e`r O;fDr dks tykuk ,d Fkk gSA


;fnA
Usage:
If he abuses me, I would slap him.
;fn oks e>s xkyh nsxk rks eSa mls FkIiM+ ekj nwWaxkA
Whether- gkWa ;k ughaA
Usage:
It doesnt matter whether he comes or not.
oks vk, ;k uk vk, bl ckr ls dksbZ QdZ ugh
iM+rkA
If it was- ;fn ,slk FkkA
Usage:
If it was so, you should have told me.
;fn ,slk Fkk rks rqEgsa eq>s crkuk pkfg, FkkA
If it were- ;fn ,slk gksrkA
Usage:
If it were so, I would have told you.
;fn ,slk gksrk rks eSa rqEgsa crkrkA
Inigys ls gh vanjA
Usage:
Mr. Sharma is working in his room.
'kekZ th vius dejs esa dke dj jgs gSaA
Intockgj ls vanj dh vksjA
Usage:
She is coming into the room.
oks dejs esa vk jgh gSA
Learnlh[kukA
Usage:
She goes to Ccit to learn computer.
oks lhlh-lhlh- vkbZ Vh dEI;wVj lh[kus tkrh gSA
TeachIk<+kuk@fl[kkukA
Usage:
He teaches English.
Okks vaxzsth i<+krk gSA
LeaveNksM+ukA
Usage:
Leave the bag on the table.
cSx dks Vscy ij NksM+ nksA
Leave the child with me.
cPps dks esjs ikl NksM+ nksA

19. If -

20.

21.

22.

23.

Rajs Notes of English Language

fdlh f;k dks djus dh vuqefr nsukA


Usage:
Let me go and check.
eq>s tkus nks vkSj Pksd djus nksA
Legible- vklkuh ls i<+k tk ldus okykA
Usage:
Vikashs hand-writing is not legible.
fodkl dh gSaM jkbfVax vklkuh ls i<+us ;ksX; ugha
gSA
Readable- i<+us ;ksX;A
Usage:
This story is really readable.
;s dgkuh lp esa i<+us ;ksX; gSA
ManydbZA
Usage:
There are many people who read stories.
cgqr ls yksx gSa tks dgkfu;kaW i<+rs gSaA
MuchT;knkA
Usage:
I dont have much knowledge about it.
eq>s bl ckjs esa T;knk Kku ugha gSA
People- yksxA
Usage:
The people of India worship the Cow.
Hkkjrh; yksx xk; dh iwtk djrs gSaA
Persons- O;fDrA
Usage:
There were 22 persons sitting in the hall.
gkWy esa 22 O;fDr cSBs FksA
Recruitment- HkrhZA
Usage:
We are going for recruitment.
ge HkrhZ ds fy;s tk jgs gSaA
Employment- ukSdjhA
Usage:
She has been in search of employment for long.
oks dkQh le; ls ukSdjh dh rykk esa gSA
RobywVukA
Usage:
They robbed us at night.
mUgksus gesa jkr dks ywV fy;kA
Let-

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

Rajs Notes of English Language

StealUsage:
29. StateUsage:
SayUsage:
30. StayUsage:
StopUsage:

31. TenderUsage:

Give
Usage:
32. TestimonyUsage:
EvidenceUsage:

pqjkukA
How dare you steal!
rqEgkjh pksjh djus dh fgEer dSls gqbZA
?kks"k.kk djuk] crkukA
I want to state that I have been ill for three days.
eSa crkuk pkgrk gwWa fd eSa rhu fnuksa ls chekj gwWaA
lekU; :i ls dgukA
He never says, Yes.
oks dHkh gkWa ugha dgrkA
BgjukA
I stayed at my uncles last night.
eSa dy jkr vius pkpk th ds ;gkWa :dk FkkA
jksdukA
They stopped working and went into the meeting
room.
mUgkasus dke djuk can fd;k vkSj lHkk d{k esa x,A
vkSipkfjd :i ls Lrqr djukA
Because of his fathers fear, he tendered an apology
for his misbehaviour.
vius firk ds Mj ls mlus vius nqoZO;ogkj ds
fy;s {keka ekaxhA
nsukA
The Nature has given us all the natural things.
fr us gesa lkjh kfrd phtsa nh gSaA
dsoy ekSf[kd rkSj ij nh xbZ lwpuk]ek.k
uk]ek.kA
]ek.kA
He gave testimony before the jury.
mlus U;k; lHkk ds lkeus ek.k fn;kA
fyf[kr ;k ekSf[kd :i ls fn;k x;k lcwrA
Do you have any evidence to prove what you have
said?
D;k vkids ikl dksbZ lcwr gS] oks lkfcr djus ds
fy;s tks vkius dgk gS\

Rajs Notes of English Language

thrukA
Usage:
We will try our best to win the match.
ge eSap thrus dk iwjk ;kl djsaxsA
BeatgjkukA
Usage:
No one here can beat him while playing chess.
;gkWa dksbZ ,slk ugha gS tks mls lrjat esa gjk ldsA

33. Win-

Some other words


1. AcceptUsage:

ExceptUsage:
2. AccessUsage:
ExcessUsage:
3. AdaptUsage:

AdoptUsage:

AdeptUsage:

Lohdkj djukA
I am sorry, I cant accept this gift.
eq>s ekaQ dhft;sxk eSa ;s migkj Lohdkj ughaa dj
ldrkA
dks Nks
NksM+djA
Except one or two, everyone came on time.
,d ;k nks dks NksM+dj lHkh yksx le; ij vk,A
igqapA
I dont have any access to the higher authorities.
cM+s vf/kdkfj;ksa rd esjh igqWap ugha gSA
vf/kDrkA
Excess of anything is bad.
fdlh Hkh phT+k dh vf/kdrk cqjh gksrh gSA
vuqdwy cukuk@cuukA
Some animals adapt themselves to the
circumstances.
dqN tkuoj vius vkidks ifjfLFkrh ds vuqdwy
cuk ysrs gSaA
xksn ysuk@viukukA
They did not have any baby for a long time, so they
adopted a child from the orphanage.
dkQh le; ls mudk dksbZ cPpk ughaa Fkk blfy;s
mUgksus vukFkky; ls ,d cPpk xksn fy;kA
dqkyA
She is an adept teacher.
oks ,d dqky fkf{kdk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

4. AdditionUsage:
EditionUsage:
5. AdverseUsage:

AverseUsage:
6. AffectUsage:
Effect-HkkoA
HkkoA
Usage:
7. All readyUsage:
AlreadyUsage:
8. All togetherUsage:
AltogetherUsage:

Ck<+kskjhA
There will be some more addition in this book.
bl iqLrd esa vkSj c<+kskjh gksxhA
iqLrd dk laLdj.kA
This is the first edition of his book.
;s bl iqLrd dk igyk laLdj.k gSA
nqHkkZX;iw.kZ] cqjhA
hA
We can never leave you in your adverse conditions.
ge vkidh nqHkkZX;iw.kZ fLFkrh esa vkidks dHkh ugha
NksM+ ldrsA
fdlh dk;Z dks djus esa vfuPNqdA
Some of the people are averse to hard work.
dqN yksx dfBu Je djus ls cprs gSaA
Hkkfor djukA
His speech could not affect anybody.
mldk Hkk"k.k fdlh dks Hkkfor uk dj ldkA
We found no effect on him.
gesa mlesa dksbZ Hkko ughaa fn[kkA
lHkh yksx rS;kjA
We are all ready to help you.
ge lc vkidh enn djus dks rS;kj gSaA
igys ls ghA
She had already told me about this.
mlus igys gh eq>s bl ckjs esa crk fn;k FkkA
lHkh ykssx feydjA
We pushed the truck all together.
ge lcus feydj Vd dks /kDdk fn;kA
iwjh rjg lsA
It is different matter altogether.
;s iwjh rjg ls vyx ckr gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

lHkh rjg lsA


It is all ways right.
;s iwjh rjg ls lgh gSA
AlwayslnkA
Usage:
He always tries to do his best.
oks gesakk viuk lcls vPNk djus dk ;kl
djrk gSA
10. Altariwtk dh osnhA
Usage:
We kneel before the altar and pray to God.
ge kFkZuk djus ds fy;s iwtk dh osnh ds lkeus
?kqVus Vsdrs gSaA
AltercnyukA
Usage:
We cant alter our plan at this stage now.
bl fLFkrh esa vc ge viuh ;kstuk ugha cny ldrsA
11. Amendlq/kkj djukA
Usage:
You have to amend ourselves to be a good man in
your life.
rqEgsa thou esa ,d vPNk balku cuus ds fy;s
vius vkidks cnyuk gSA
Emendlaiknu djukA
Usage:
We have to emend the first part of the book before
bublication.
gesa iqLrd ds dkku ls igys] igys Hkkx dks
lEikfnr djuk
djuk gSA
12. Alternate,d fnu NksM+djA
Usage:
He comes here every alternate day.
oks gj nwljs fnu ;gkWa vkrk gSA
AlternativefodYiA
Usage:
We have to follow him as we have no alternative.
gesa mldh ckr ekuuh gS D;ksafd gekjs ikl
nwljk fodYi ughaa gSA
13. BazaarckT+kkjA
Usage:
We go to bazaar on Mondays.
9.

All waysUsage:

Rajs Notes of English Language

BizarreUsage:
14. BatchUsage:
BadgeUsage:
15. BerthUsage:

BirthUsage:
16. BesideUsage:
BesidesUsage:
17. BoarUsage:
BoreUsage:

ge lkseokj ds fnu ckT+kkj tkrs gSaA


Hkn~nk ]fofp=A
Rekha always dresses in bizarre manner.
js[kk gesakk fofp= diM+s igurh gSA
Vksyh@CkSpA
She comes in the morning batch.
oks lqcg ds CkSp esa vkrh gSA
rexkA
Put on your badge.
viuk rexk yxk yksA
Vsu esa lksus dh txgA
I finally got a berth to sleep in the train when it
reached Bhopal.
tc Vsu Hkksiky igqWaph rks vkf[kjdkj eq>s lksus ds
fy;s txg fey gh xbZA
tUeA
What is her date of birth?
mldh tUe frFkh D;k gS\
dh cxy esa@lsA
The child came and sat beside me.
cPpk vk;k vkSj esjh cxy esa cSBkA
ds vykok@dks feykdjA
I play chess besides cricket.
eSa fdsV ds vykok lrjat Hkh [ksyrk gwWaA
taxyh lqvjA
They hunted a wild boar.
mUgksus ,d taxyh lqvj dk fkdkj fd;kA
Nsn djuk@mckukA
We bore a hole in the soil to take out oil.
rsy fudkyus ds fy;s ge tehu esa Nsn djrs gSaA
She talked far too much and bored me.
mlus cgqr lkjh ckr dh vkSj eq>s mck cksjdj
fn;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

18. BornUsage:
BorneUsage:
19. BreatheUsage:
BreathUsage:
20. BreadthUsage:
CanvasUsage:

CanvassUsage:
21. CeaseUsage:
SeizeUsage:

22. CentUsage:

mRiUu gqvkA
Mahatma Gandhiji was born on seconds October.
egRek xka/kh th dk tUe nks vkWDVwcj dks gqvkA
mkj
mkjnkf;Ro mBkukA
We have borne our burden very well.
geus viuk mkjnkf;Ro vPNh rjg fuHkk;k gSA
lkal ysukA
We breathe to stay alive.
thus ds fy;s ge lkal ysrs gSaA
lkalA
Take a deep breath before you dive into the river.
ufn esa dwnus ls igys ,d xgjh lkal yksA
pkSM+kbZA
What is the breadth of this room?
bl dejs dh pkSaM+kbZ D;k gS\
eksVk diM+kA
Canvas bags last more than any other bags.
eksVs diM+ks ds cSx vU; fdlh Hkh cSx ls vf/kd
pyrs gSaA
oksV ekWaxukA
The people are canvassing for their parties.
yksx vius nyksa ds fy;s oksV ekax jgs gSaA
can djuk ;k jksdukA
They ceased the war at last.
mUgksaus var esa ;q) dks jksd fn;kA
cjken gksuk idM+ukA
The policeman seized the stolen articles from his
home.
iqfyl us mlds ?kj ls pksjh dk lkeku cjken
fd;kA
vesfjdk dk ,d flDdkA
A cent is a coin of the USA.
lsaV veSfjdk dk ,d flDdk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

lqxaf/krA
He spread some scent on his clothes before he went
out.
mlus vius diM+s esa dqN b= Mkyk vkSj ckgj pyk
x;kA
ChildishcPpks tSlh@tSlk] cpdkukA
Usage:
Vinod has childish habits therefore we cant trust
him for this task.
fouksn dh gjdrsa cpdkuh gS blfy;s ge bl dke
ds fy;s mlij ;dhu ughaa dj ldrsA
ChildlikeHkksyk&HkkykA
Usage:
I like her childlike habits.
eq>s mldk Hkksyk&Hkykiu ilan gSA
ChoosepquukA
Usage:
You can choose any one of these four.
rqe bu pkjksa esa ls dksbZ ,d pqu ldrs gksA
Chose(V2)-pq
pqukA
Usage:
He was chose teaching for a career.
mlus vius isls ds fy;s i<+kuk pqukA
Citen`"VkUr nsukA
Usage:
My grandfather cited from the Mahabharat.
esjs nknkth egkHkkjr ls n`"VkUr fn;k djrs FksA
Sightn`;A
Usage:
What a sight it was!
D;k n`; Fkk!
SitetxgA
Usage:
She is looking for a site for her new office.
oks vius u, vkWfQl ds fy;s ,d txg <wa< jgh gSA
Comicetkfd;kA
Usage:
We put some comic scenes in that drama.
geus ml Mkesa esa dqN etkfd;k n`; j[ksA
ScentUsage:

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

Rajs Notes of English Language

Hkn~nk] QwgM+A
He was looking very comical in that red shirt.
oks ml yky deht esa cgqr Hkn~nk fn[k jgk FkkA
29. Complement- iwjdA
Usage:
This is the complement of the sentence.
;s okD; dk iwjd gSA tks okD; dks iwjk djrk gS
Compliment- kalk djukA
Usage:
He paid his wife a compliment.
mlus viuh iRuh dh kalk@rkjhQ dhA
Pay my compliments to your father.
vius ikikth ls esjk ueLdkj dgukA
30. ConscienceT+kehj A
Usage:
My conscience doesnt permit me to this.
esjk T+kehj eq>s bl ckr dh bTkkT+kr ugha nsrkA
Cautiouslko/kkuA
Usage:
Be cautious, lest you should fall.
lko/kku] dgha fxj uk tkvksA
ConsciouslpsrA
Usage:
You should be conscious that they are looking for
you.
rqEgsa lpsr jguk pkfg;s] oks rqEgsa <aw< jgs gSaA
31. Consistently- n`<+rkiwoZdA
Usage:
He does do his duty consistently.
oks fufpr gh n`<+rkiwoZd viuk drZO; djrk gSA
ConstantlyfujarjA
Usage:
Raksha did the same mistake constantly.
js[kk us fujarj ogh xyrh dhA
32. ContinualFkksM+k :ddj ij ckj ckjA
Usage:
The teacher gave the class continual warning.
f'k{kd us d{kk dks ckj&ckj
ckj&ckj psrkouh nhA
Continuous- yxkrkjA
Usage:
We had continuous rain for hours last night.
dy gekjs ;gka jkr ?kaVksa rd yxkrkj c"kkZ gksrh
28. ComicalUsage:

Rajs Notes of English Language

33. CourseUsage:
CoarseUsage:
34. CredibleUsage:
35. CreditableUsage:

CredulousUsage:

36. DeceaseUsage:
DiseaseUsage:
37. DeferenceUsage:
DifferenceUsage:
38. Desert-

jghA
ikB~;eA
What is the course of your studies?
vkidh i<+kbZ dk ikB~;e D;k gS\
?kfV;kA
No doubt, this machine is very coarse.
bl ckr ij dksbZ lansg ugha fd ;s ekhu ?kfV;k gSA
fookl
fookl ds ;ksX;A
This story doesnt seem to be credible.
;s dgkuh fookl ds ;ksX; ughaa yxrhA
kalk ds ;ksX;A
His hard work because of which it could be
possible, is really creditable.
mldk dfBu ifjJe ftlfd otg ls ;s laHko
gqvk lpeqp kalk ds ;ksX; gSA
'kh?kz fooklhA
fooklhA
He is a credulous man. He would believe anything
you tell him.
oks ,d 'kh?kz fooklh O;fDr gSA vki dqN Hkh mls
crkb;s oks fookl dj ysxkA
e`R;qA
This is not the real fact of his decease.
mldh e`R;q dk ;s lgh lp ughaa gSA
chekjhA
Such diseases spread via physical contacts.
bl rjg dh chekfj;kWa 'kkjhfjd laidZ ls QSyrh gSaA
lEeku esaA
We stand up in deference of our teachers.
ge vius fk{kd ds lEeku esa [kM+s gksrs gSaA
varjA
There is a difference between these two things.
bu nksuksa phtksa esa ,d varj gSA
e:LFkyA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Usage:

It is very hard to stay in desert.


Ek:LFky esa jguk dfBu gS@gksrk gSA
DessertNksM+ukA
Usage:
You should not dessert your wife.
rqEgsa viuh iRuh dks ughaa NksM+uk pkfg,A
Dessert[kkus ds ckn ijkslk x;k ehBkA
Usage:
What is there for dessert?
[kkus ds ckn ehBs esa D;k gS\
39. Disinterested- LokFkZ jfgrA
Usage:
The judge must be a disinterested party in any trial.
U;k;drkZ dks fdlh Hkh fookn esa LokFkZ jfgr gksuk
pkfg,A
Uninterested- :fpghuA
Usage:
She is uninterest in studies.
oks i<+kbZ esa :fpghu gS :fp ugha j[krhA
40. DualnksxykA
Usage:
You are a dual person, you say something and do
orherwise.
vki ,d nksxys balku gSa] vki dgrs dqN gSa vkSj
djrs dqN vkSj gh gSaA
Duelnks O;fDr;ksa dk }U} ;q)A
Usage:
They ran towards each other to fight a dual.
os }U} ;q) djus ds fy;s ,d nwljs dh vksj nkSM+sA
41. Eligiblepquk tkus ;ksX;A
Usage:
Only a graduate is eligible for this job.
flQZ ,d Lukrd gh bl ukSdjh ds fy;s pquk
tkus ;ksX; gSA
IllegiblevLi"V] ftls i<+k uk tk ldsA
Usage:
His hand-writing is illegible.
mldh gSaM&jkbfVax vLi"V gSA
42. ExpandQSykuk]
kuk] c<kukA
c<kukA
Usage:
As the number of the students is increasing day by

Rajs Notes of English Language

ExpendUsage:

43. FairUsage:

FareUsage:

44. FartherUsage:
FurtherUsage:
45. Feel goodUsage:

Feel wellUsage:

day, we will have to expand our school.


tSlk dh fo|kFkhZ;ksa dh la[;k c< jgh gS] gesa viuk
Ldwy QSykuk@c<kuk gksxkA
[kpZ djukA
We shouldnt expend beyond our limits.
gesa viuh lhekavksa ls vf/kd [kpZ ughaa djuk
pkfg,A
esyk] mfpr]lkQA
Many people attended the Satdhara fair.
cgqr ls yksx lR/kkjk ds esys esa x,A
It is not fair.
;s mfpr ugha gSA
Her complexion is fair./ She is fair-complexioned.
mldk jax lkQ gSA@oks lkQ jax dh gSA
fdjk;k] xfr djukA
What is the bus fare from Jabalpur to Bhopal?
tcyiqj ls Hkksiky dh cl dk fdjk;k D;k gS\
How did she fare in her board examination?
mlus cksMZ ijh{kk esa dSlh xfr dh gS\
ls nwjA
Raisen is farther than Bhopal.
jk;lsu Hkksiky ls nwj gSA
vkxsA
I went further and saw.
eSa vkxs x;k vkSj ns[kkA
[kqk eglwl djukA
Let me speak her heart out, she will feel good after
it.
mls vius fny dh ckr dgus nks] mls blds ckn
vPNk eglwl gksxkA
vPNk eglwl djukA
I am feeling well today.
vkt eSa vPNk eglwl dj jgk gwWaA

Rajs Notes of English Language

46. FloorUsage:
FlourUsage:
47. FormallyUsage:
FormerlyUsage:
48. ForthUsage:
FourthUsage:
49. HairUsage:
HeirUsage:
HareUsage:
50. HangedUsage:
HungUsage:

QlZA
Dont spread water on the floor.
QlZ esa ikuh er QSykvksA
vkVkA
We make chapaties of flour.
ge vkVs ls jksVh cukrs gSaA
vkSipkfjd :i lsA
He was formally informed by me.
mls vkSipkfjd :i ls esjs }kjk tkudkjh nh xbZA
HkwriwoZ] igysA
He was formerly a racer.
oks igys ,d /kkod FkkA
vkxsA
They went forth and destroyed their army.
oks vkxs c<s vkSj mudh lsuk dks rckg dj fn;kA
pkSaFkkA
She got fourth rank in the class.
mls d{kk esa pkSaFkk LFkku feykA
ckyA
Her hair is silky.
mlds cky jskeh gSaA
mkjkf/kdkjhA
Who is the heir of this kingdom?
bl jkT; dk mkjkf/kdkjh dkSu gS\
[kjxkskA
The hare runs very fast.
[kjxksk rst nkSM+rs gSaA
yVdk;k x;kA
He was hanged for his sins.
mls mlds ikiksa ds fy;s Qkalh ij yVdk;k x;kA
fdlh oLrq dks yVdk;kA
I hung the shirt on the hanger.
eSaus 'kVZ dks gSaxj ij yVdk;kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

51. HolyUsage:
WhollyUsage:
52. HoweverUsage:

How everUsage:

53. ItsUsage:
Its (it is)
Usage:
54. LastUsage:
LatestUsage:
55. LeastUsage:
Less-

ifo=A
The Ganga is a holy river of India.
xaxk Hkkjr dh ifo= unh gSA
iwjk] ijh rjg lsA
I wholly agree with you.
eSa iwjh rjg ls vkils lger gwWaA
fQj HkhA
I am not free for two days, however I will try to
come.
eSa nks fnu h ugha gwWa ysfdu fQj Hkh vkus dk
;kl d:WaxkA
dSls HkhA
I am sure how ever he does it, only he would make
it the best.
eq>s iwjk ;dhu gS fd oks tSls Hkh bl dke dks
djs] ysfdu flQZ oks gh bls lcls vPNk cuk
ldrk gSA
bldk@mldkA
This is a pen and its colour is blue.
;g ,d dye gS vkSj bldk jax uhyk gSA
;g gSA
Its (it is) a different matter.
;s ,d vyx ckr gSA
vafreA
What is the last digit of your number?
vkids uEcj dk vafre vad D;k gS\
vk/kqfud ;qx dkA
This is a latest design.
;s ,d vk/kqfud ;qx dk uewuk fMT+kkbu gSA
lcls de@NksVh ek=kA
He ate the least food.
mlus lcls de Hkkstu [kk;kA
nks esa ls NksVk ;k deA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Usage:
56. LighteningUsage:
LightningUsage:
LightingUsage:
57. LoanUsage:
LendUsage:
58. MoralUsage:

MoraleUsage:

59. MostUsage:
AlmostUsage:

Coffee is less desirable than tea for me.


eq>s dkWQh ls T;knk pk; ilan gSA
gYdk djukA
You are lightening my burden.
rqe esjk cks> gYdk dj jgs gksA
fctyh pedukA
The clouds are lightning.
fctyh ped jgh gSA
dkk O;OkLFkkA
Do some good lighting arrangement.
dqN vPNs dkk dh O;oLFkk djksA
m/kkjA
Can you give me a loan of 1000 rupees.
D;k vki eq>s 1000 :i;s dk m/kkj ns ldrs gSa\
m/kkj nsukA
Can you lend 1000 rupees?
D;k vki eq>s 100 :i;s m/kkj ns ldrs gSaA
vkpkj O;ogkjA
We teach students some moral stories here.
ge ;gkWa cPpksa dks dqN vkpkj O;ogkj ls lacaf/kr
dgkfu;kWa fl[kkrs gSaA
eukscyA
If one wants to do something good, we should try to
increase his morale.
;fn dksbZ vPNk djuk pkgrk gS rks gesa mlds
euksoy dks c<+kuk pkfg,A
vR;kf/kdA
He is the most intelligent boy of his class.
oks viuh d{kk dk lcls cqf)eku ckyd gSA
yxHkxA
He was almost dead when he was brought to the
hospital.
tc mls vLirky yk;k x;k oks yxHkx ej gh

Rajs Notes of English Language

60. NotableUsage:
NotoriousUsage:
61. OnceUsage:
OnesUsage:

62. OrdinanceUsage:

OrdnanceUsage:

63. PassedUsage:
PastUsage:
64. PeaceUsage:
PieceUsage:

pqdk FkkA
mYys[kuh;A
This day will be notable in the history of India.
Hkkjr ds bfrgkl esa ;s fnu mYys[kuh; jgsxkA
dq[;krA
Pappu is notorious for gambling.
iIiq tqqavk [ksyus ds fy;s dq[;kr@cnuke gSA
,d ckjA
Once there lived a king.
,d ckj ,d jktk jgrk FkkA
fdlh ,d O;fDr dkA
One should do ones (his/her) duty very well.
O;fDr dks viuk drZO; vPNh rjg djuk fuHkkuk
pkfg,A
foks"k vknskA
An ordinance would be passed to stop this violence.
bl fgalk dks jksdus ds fy;s ,d foks"k vknsk
tkjh fd;k tk,xkA
;q) lkexzhA
Rahul has been employed in the ordnance
department.
jkgqy dks ;q) lkexzh foHkkx esa ukSdjh nh xbZA
O;rhr gqvkA
This time passed very heavily.
;s le; cM+h eqfLdy ls O;rhr gqvk@chrkA
fiNykA
The passed week was very unlucky for me.
fiNyk grk esjs fy;s cM+k nqHkkZX;iw.kZ jgkA
'kkarhA
I want some peace now.
vc eq>s FkksM+k 'kkarh pkfg,A
VqdM+kA
Give me a piece of paper and a pen to write this

Rajs Notes of English Language

65. PersecuteUsage:

ProsecuteUsage:

66. PersonalUsage:

PersonnelUsage:
67. PhysicUsage:
PhysiqueUsage:
68. PoreUsage:
PourUsage:
69. PortableUsage:

number.
;s uEcj fy[kus ds fy;s eq>s dkxt dk ,d
VqdM+k vkSj ,d dye nksA
vuqfpr :i ls rax djukA
Your son persecute the other students in the class.
vkidk ckyd vuqfpr :i ls nwljs fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
rax djrk gSA
vfHk;ksx pykukA
You will be prosecuted if you do a crime.
;fn vki dksbZ tqeZ djrs gSa rks vki ij vfHk;ksx
pyk;k tk,xkA
O;fDrxrA
You cant ask me any personal question.
vki eq>ls dksbZ Hkh O;fDrxr u ugha iwWaN
ldrsA
deZpkjh oxZ A
Mr. Pathak called the personnel for a meeting.
IkkBd th us deZpkjh oxZ dks lHkk ds fy;s cqyk;kA
nokA
This physic will cure you.
;s nok vkidks Bhd dj nsxhA
'kjhj dh cukoVA
He has got a good physique.
mlus cgqr vPNs 'kjhj dh cukoV ikbZ gSA
fNnzA
Sweat comes out of the pores of the skin.
ilhuk Ropk ds fNnzksa ls ckgj vkrk gSA
MkyukA
Pour some more tea into my cup.
esjs I;kys esa FkksM+h pk; vkSj MkyksA
gkFk
gkFk ls mBkdj ys tkus ;ksX;A
Laptops are portable.
ySiVkWi dks vklkuh ls mBkdj ys tk;k tk ldrk gSA

Rajs Notes of English Language

PotableUsage:
70. PresidentUsage:
PrecedentUsage:
71. PriceUsage:
PrizeUsage:
72. PrincipalUsage:
PrincipleUsage:
73. ProposeUsage:

PurposeUsage:
74. RainUsage:
Reign-

ihus ;ksX;A
This water is not potable.
;s ikuh ihus ;ksX; ugha gSA
jk"VifrA
Who was the first President of India?
Hkkjr ds igys jk"Vifr dkSu Fks\
iwoZ ?kVuk ;k mnkgj.kA
He has set a very good precedent for us to follow.
mlus gekjs fy;s ,d vPNk mnkgj.k j[kk gSA
dher@nkeA
What is the price of this coat?
bl dksV dh dher D;k gS\
bZukeA
He was given prize for winning the race.
mls nkSM+ esa thrus ds fy;s buke fn;k x;kA
/kkukpk;ZA
The Principal is very strict here.
;gkWa /kkukpk;Z cgqr l[r gSaA
fl)karA
He is a man principle.
oks fl)karoknh O;fDr gSA
Lrkfor djukA
I proposed my students the topic for their next
class.
eSaus vius fo|kFkhZ;ksa dks vxys fnu dh d{kk dk
eqn~nk Lrkfor fd;kA
bjknkA
He went there with a purpose to fight with him.
oks mlls >xM+k djus ds mn~ns; ls ogkWa x;kA
o"kkZ gksukA
It rains.
Ok"kkZ gksrh gSA
'kklu djukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

Usage:

ReinUsage:
75. RecollectUsage:
RememberUsage:
76. RespectableUsage:
RespectfulUsage:
77. RespectiveUsage:
78. RootUsage:
79. RouteUsage:
80. SoleUsage:
SoulUsage:

The king reigned very well and his objects were


happy very happy with him.
jktk us cgqr vPNh rjg ls 'kklu fd;k vkSj
mldh tk mlls cgqr kUu FkhA
yxkeA
He pulled the rein tightly to stop the horse.
mlus ?kksM+s dks jksdus ds fy;s T+kksj ls yxke [khaphA
fdlh Hkwyh ckr dks ;kn djukA
I always recollect my childhood.
eSa gesakk viuk cpiu ;kn djrk gwWaA
;kn djukA
I will remember this day all my life.
eSa ;s fnu viuh iwjh fT+kUnxh ;kn j[kWawxkA
frf"BrA
frf"BrA
My father is a respectable man.
esjs ikik th ,d frf"Br O;fDr gSaA
lEekUkiw.kZA
We should be respectful to our seniors.
gesa vius cM+ksa ds fr lEekuiw.kZ gksuk pkfg,A
viuh&viuhA
Please, go to your respective classes.
viuh&viuh d{kkvksa esa tkb;sA
tM+A
You are the root of this dispute.
bl >xM+s dh otg vki gksA
;k=k dk jkLrkA
This route goes to my home.
;s jkLrk esjs ?kj tkrk gSA
rYyk@ryokA
The sole of my shoes pricks me.
esjs twrs dk rYyk eq>s pqHkrk gSA
vkRekA
There is a soul in all living being.

Rajs Notes of English Language

81. StationaryUsage:
StationeryUsage:
82. TastefulUsage:

TastyUsage:
83. ToUsage:

TwoUsage:
Too-Hkh
Hkh ]
Usage:
84. ValuableUsage:
InvaluableUsage:
85. WhoseUsage:

gj thfor k.kh esa ,d vkRek gSA


fLFkj] Bgjk gqvkA
The sun is stationary.
lw;Z ,d txg ij fLFkj gSA
i<+us fy[kus dh oLrq,saA
We are going to buy some stationery.
ge dqN i<+us fy[kus dh phtsa [kjhnus tk jgs gSaA
e/kqj] :fpiw.kZA
I feel tasteful whenever I listen to this song.
tcdHkh eSa bl xkus dks lqurk gwWa eSa e/kqj eglwl
djrk gwWaA
Lokfn"VA
The Food was really very tasty.
[kkuk lpeqp cgqr Lokfn"V FkkA
dks] dh vksjA
Give this to your mom./Give your mom this.
;s viuh ekWa dks ns nksA
Throw the ball to me.
xksys dks esjh vksj QsdksA
nksA
She bought two books from the stationery.
mlus LVskujh ls nks iqLrdsa [kjhnhA
bruk vf/kdA
He is too stupid to understand this.
oks bruk ew[kZ gS fd oks ;s ugha le> ldrkA
cgqewY;A
That was a very valuable sphere.
oks cgqr cgqewY; xksyk FkkA
vewY;A
Knowledge is an invaluable thing.
Kku vewY; gSA
fdldk\
fdldk\
Whose bicycle is this?

Rajs Notes of English Language

86. WhosUsage:

;s fdldh lk;dy gS\


dkSu gS\
Whos (who is) behind your success?
vkidh lQyrk ds ihNs dkSu gS\

le; ds vuqlkj cksys tkus okys dqN egRoiw.kZ okD;


lqcg ds le;@oDr
1234568910121415-

16-

lqHkHkkr@ueLdkj!
Good morning!
mB tkvksA lwjt fudy x;k gSA
Get up. The sun has risen./It is morning now.
vkSj fdruh nsj lksvksxs \
How long will sleep/be in the bed.
ekWa] esjs fy, ,d di pk; cuk nksA
Mom, make me a cup of tea./Make a cup of
tea for me.
viuk ewWa /kqy yksA
Wash your face.
nkaWr lkQ dj yksA
Brush up your teeth.
tYnh djks!rqEgs nsj gks jgh gSA
Hurry up! You are getting late./ You are being late.
Ldwy ds fy, rS;kj gks tkvksA
Get ready for school.
lke dks TkYnh vk tkukA
Come soon in the evening.
eSus lqcg dk ukLrk cuk fn;k gSA fudky nwWa D;k \
I have prepared the breakfast. Shall/should I
serve it?
gkWaA@ugha eq>s nsj gks jgh gS] ckgj gh [kk ywWaxkA
Yes./ No, I am getting late, I will eat out.
gesa dqN Hkh [kkus ls igys gkWaFk /kks ysuk pkfg,A
We ought to/should wash our hands before we eat
anything.
or We should wash our hands before eating
anything.
vkidk fnu vPNk gks!
Have a good/nice day!

Rajs Notes of English Language

nksigj ds le;
1234-

5-

ueLrs!
Good afternoon!
yap djus dk le; gks x;k gSA
It is time to lunch now.
pyks vc yap djrs gSaA
Lets eat/have lunch now./ Lets do lunch.
vHkh yap [kRe gksus esa 10 feUkV~l gSA pyks pk; ih dj
vkrs gSaA
It is 10 munites for the lunch to be over. Lets go to
have some tea and come back.
vyfonk!
Good bye!

kke ds le;

1-

ueLrs!
Good evening!
2eSa nksLrksa ds lkFk FkksM+ oDr fcrkus tk jgk gwWaA
I am going to spend some time with my friends.
3fdruh nsj rd ykSVdj vkvksxs \
When will you come back?
4tYn gh vk tkWaxk] esjk jkrk dk Hkkstu rS;kj j[kukA
I will come soon, keep my dinner ready.
5eq>s I;kl yxh gS] ,d Xykl ikuh nksA
I am thirsty, give me a glass of water.
6dqN BaMk ihus dk eu dj jgk gSA
I am feeling like having/drinking something cold.
7lqHk jk=hA
Good night.
kke ds le; ;fn yxrk gS fd vkt vc gekjh eqykdkr ugha
gksxh rks Good night dg ldrs gSaA

jkr ds le;
123-

esjk [kkuk fudky nksA@eq>s [kkuk ns nksA


Serve me my food/dinner.
esjk fcLrj yxk nks] eq>s cgqr uhan vk jgh gSA
Make my bed, I am feeling (very) sleepy.
eq>s lqcg tYnh mBk nsukA
Wake me up early in the morning.

Rajs Notes of English Language

456-

eq>s lqcg tYnh er mBkuk D;ksafd dy jfookj gSA


Dont wake me up early in the morning, because it is
Sunday tomorrow.
eq>s ijskku er djks] eq>s lksus nksA
Dont disturb me, let me sleep.
lHkh dks kqHk jkf=!
Good night everyone/everybody!

dqN fgUnh dh okD;kSyh


1- vki D;k ysaxs BaM ;k xje\
xje\
What would you have, cold or hot?
2- dkWQh cukvksA
Make coffee.
3- esjk ,d di pk; ihus dk eu dj jgk gSA
I feel like having a cup of tea.
4- FkksM+k vkSj pk; Mkfy;sA
Pour out some more tea.
5- pk; esa ikh de gSA
The tea is weak.
6- pk; esa ikh T;knk gSA
The tea is strong.
7- cQZ Mkfy;sA
Put ice.
8- cQZ er Mkfy;sA
Dont put ice.
9- eq>s flQZ lknk ikuh pkfg,A
I just want plane water.
10- D;k vki /kweziku djrs gSa\
Do you smoke?
11- oks yxkrkj /kweziku djus okyk gSA
He is a chain-smoker.
12- eq>s dqN tykus dks nksA
Give me something tight.

LokLF;
LokLF; vkSj chekfj;kWa
1- eSa cqYdqy Bhd gwWaA
I am quite well./ I am perfectly alright.

Rajs Notes of English Language

2- vkkk djrk gwWa vki LoLFk gSaA


I hope you are keeping fit.
3- oks vc LOkLFk gSA
He is in good health now./ He is fine now.
4- og cw<+k vHkh Hkh Hkyk paxk gSA
That old man is still hale and hearty.
5- eq>s cq[kkj gSA
I have fever/temperature.
6- MkWDVj us D; crk;k gS\
What has the doctor diagnosed ?
7- lhek dks rst cq[kkj gSA
Seema has high fever.
8- mls dCt dh fldk;r jgrh gSA
He suffers from constipation.
9- eSa eysfj;k ls ihfM+r gwWaA
I am suffering from malaria.
1010- cPps dh ukd cg jgh gSA
The childs nose is running.
1111- mls nLr gks jgs gSaA
He has loose motion.
1212- mls tq[kke gSA
I have cold.
1313- nknkth dks [kkalh gSA
Grandfather has cough.
1414- esjs xys esa nnZ gSA
I have a sore throat.
1515- mlds fkj esa nnZ gSA
He has a headache.
1616- ?kko ls vc Hkh eokn fudy jgk gSA
The wound is still discharging pus.

;k=k vkSj le;


1- eSa cl ls vkWaxkA
I will come by bus.
2- os Vsu ls vk,saxsA
They will come by train.
3- Vsu le; ij vk jgh gSA
The train is in time.

Rajs Notes of English Language

4- Vsu 1%30 nsj ls gSA


The train is late by 1:30.
5- tjk esj leku ij utj jf[k;sxkA
Please, keep an eye on my luggage.
6- vxys LVsku ij ikuh Hkj ysukA
Take water from the next station.
7- tYnh djks geas nsj gks jgh gSA
Hurry up! We are getting late.
8- cukjl ds fy;s nks fVdV nhft;sA
Please, give to tickets to Banaras.
9- ge le; ij igqWap x,A
We reached in/on time.
1010- D;k vki eq>s jsYos LVsku dk jkLrk crk,saxs\
Could you tell me the way to the railway station.
1111- lh/ks tkb;s fQj nkfgus vksj eqM+ tkb;sxk] ogha gSA
Go straight and then take a right turn, its there.
1212- vkidh ?kM+h esa fdruk ctk gSA
What is the time by your watch?
1313- pkj cts gSaA
It is four oclock.
1414- lkr ctds ckjg feuV gq, gSaA
It is 12 (minutes) past 7.
1515- lk<s ukS cts gSaA
It is 9:30./ It is half past nine.
1616- lok ukS cts gSaA
It is quarter past nine.
1717- ikSus X;kjg cts gSaA
It is quarter to eleven.
1818- lkr ctus esa 5 feuV ckadh gSA
It is 5 (minutes) to 7.
1919- oks le; ij vk;kA
He came in time.
2020- le; gh /ku gSA
Time is money.

dqN egRoiw.kZ kCn vkSj muds Antonyms/opposites


1.
2.

Above
Accept

ijA
Lohdkj djukA

below
reject

uhpsA
vLohdkj djukA

Rajs Notes of English Language

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

lR; ds :i esa
Lohdkj djukA
Agree
lger gksukA
Allow
vkKk nsukA
Always geskkA
Appear dV gksukA
Arrival vkxeuA
Attack
vke.k djukA
Bad
cqjkA
Barren ckWa>A
Beautiful lqUnjA
Beginning kq:vkrA
Bitter
dM+okA
Blessing vkkhZoknA
Blunt
dqUnA
Bold
fuMjA
Bottom lcls uhpsA@tM+A
Bright
rstLohA
Broad
pkSM+kA
Buy
[kjhnukA
Cheap
lLrkA
Cheerful kUuA
Clean
lkQA
Clever
gksfk;kjA
Cold
BaMkA
Comedy lq[kkUr ukVdA
Common lkekU;A@lk/kkj.kA
Confess xyrh Lohdkj djukA
Create
iSnk djukA@cukukA
Cruel
funZ;hA
Death
e`R;wA
Deep
xgjkA
Difficult dfBuA
Dry
lw[kkA
Early
TkYnhA
Empty
[kkyhA

Admit

deny

budkj djukA

disagree vlger gksukA


disallow vkKk uk nsukA
never
dHkh ughaA
disappear xk;c gks tkukA
departure fonkbZA
defend
j{kk djukA
good
vPNkA
fertile
mitkA
ugly
xankA cn~lwjrA
end
varA
sweet
ehBkA
curse
Jki@cn~nqvkA
sharp
rstA
timid
dk;jA
top
lcls ijA
dull
dqUnA
narrow ldjkA
sell
cspukA
costly
egxkA
cheerless fujkkA
dirty
xankA
stupid
ew[kZA
hot
xjeA
tragedy nq%[kkUr ukVdA
rare
vuqBkA@vlk/kkj.kA
deny budkj djukA
destroy u"V djukA
kind
n;kywA
life
thouA
shallow mFkykA
easy
ljyA
wet
xhykA
late
nsj lsA
full
Hkjk gqvkA

Rajs Notes of English Language

38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.

Entrance oskA
Evil
cqjkA
Exclude ckgj fudkyukA
Exterior ckgj dkA
Failure vlQyrk@ukdke;kchA
Fair
mfpr@lkQA
Faithful Hkjksls ds yk;dA
Fall
fxjukA
False
>wBkA
Familiar ifjfprA
Famous fl)A
Far
nwjA
Fast
rstA
Fat
eksVkA
Foolish csodwQ@ew[kZA
Freedom Lora=rkA
Fresh
rktkA
Friend
nksLr@fe=A
Great
cM+kA
Hard
dM+kA
Heaven LoxZA
Hope
vkkkA
Hot
xeZA
Heavy
HkkjhA
High
WapkA
Honest
bZekunkjA
Honour lEekuA
Import vk;kr djukA
Important egRoiw.kZA

67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.

Increase c<kukA
Inferior ?kfV;kA
Innocent eklweA
Interesting :fpdj jkspdA
Joy g"kZ@[kqkhA
Junior
NksVkA

exit
fudkkA@fuxZeA
good
vPNkA
include feykukA
interior vanj dkA
success lQyrkA
unfair
vuqfprA
unfaithful csoQkA
rise
mBukA
true
LkPpkA
stranger vifjfprA
notorious cnukeA
near
iklA
slow
/khekA
thin
irykA
wise
cqf)ekuA
slavery xqykehA
stale
cklkA
enemy
nqeuA
small
NksVkA
soft
eqyk;eA
hell
udZA
despair fujkkkA
cold
BaMkA
light
gYdkA
low
uhpkA
dishonest csbZekuA
shame
yTtkA
export
fu;kZr djukA
unimportant tks egRoiw.kZ
uk gksA
decrease /kVkukA
superior cf<+;kA
guilty
vijk/khA
dull
fujklA
sorrow
nq%[k
senior
cM+kA

Rajs Notes of English Language

73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.

Justice
U;k;A
Lend
m/kkj nsukA
Light
dkfkrA
Literate i<+k&fy[kk] fkf{krA
Living
thforA
Long
yackA
Loyal
bZekunkjA
Modern u, ;qx dkA
Natural kd`frd
Negative udkjkRedA
Obey vkKk dk ikyu djukA

84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.

Old
Oral
Peace
Pleasure
Polite
Profit
Public
Punish

92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.

Pure
kq)A
Real
vlyhA
Regular fu;ferA
Remember ;kn j[kukA
Rich
vehjA
Rough
[kqjnqjkA
Safe
lqjf{krA
Sweet
ehBkA
Victory fot;A
Virtue
ln~xq.k
Warm
xeZA
Wide
pkSaM+kA
Win
thrukA

cw<+kA
ekSf[kdA
kkafrA
g"kZA
lH;A
Qk;nkA
lkoZtfudA
ltk nsukA

vU;k;A
m/kkj ysukA
va/ksjkA
vui<+]vfkf{krA
ejk gqvkA
NksVkA
csbZekuA
iqjkukA
cukoVhA
ldkjkRedA
vkKk dk ikyu
uk djukA
young
;qokA
written fyf[krA
war
;q)A
pain
nnZA
impolite vlH;A
loss
uqdlkuA
private O;fDrxrA
reward fdlh vPNs
dke dk Qy nsukA
impure vkq)A
imaginary dkYifudA
irregular vfu;ferA
forget
Hkwy tkukA
poor
xjhcA
smooth fpdukA
unsafe
vlqjf{krA
sour
[kkA
defeat
ijkt;A
vice
nqxqZ.kA
cool
BaMkA
narrow ldjkA
lose
gkjukA

injustice
borrow
dark
illiterate
dead
short
disloyal
ancient
artificial
positive
disobey

Parts of the body


vukfedk

ring finger

Rajs Notes of English Language

vaxqyh gkFk dh
finger
vxqyh iSj dh
toe
vaxwBk
thumb
vaxwBk iSj dk
big toe
vkWar
intestine
vksaB
lip
,sM+h
heel
da/kk
shoulder
duiVh
temple
dej
waste
dykbZ
wrist
dku
ear
dka[k
armpit
dksguh
elbow
[kwu@ygq jDr
blood
[kksiM+h
skull
xnZu
neck
xHkkZk;
womb
xyk
throat
xqnk
anus
xqnkZ
kidney
xksn
lap
?kqVuk
knee
xky
cheek
peM+k
skin
pqpqd
nipple
tgkWa ls cPpk viuh ekWa dk nw/k ihrk gSA
psgjk
face
Nkrh iq:"k dh
chest
dh
Nkrh L=h dh
breast
tcM+k
jaw
tka?k
thigh

thHk
ftxj
tksM+
BqM~Mh
ryok
nk<+h
nkaWr
fnekx@efLr"d
/keuh
uk[kwu
ul
ukfHk
ukd
uFkquk
iyd
iyd ds cky
iqryh
ihB
isV ckgjh
isV Hkhrjh
iSj
iskh
QsQM+k
ckWag
cky
HkkSag
elwM+k
eq[k
ewaN
eqh
ekFkk
ykj

tongue
liver
joint
chin
sole
beard
tooth
brain
artery
nail
vein
navel
nose
nostril
eyelid
eyelash
eyeball
back
belly
stomach
leg/foot
muscle
lung
arm
hair
eyebrow
gum
mouth
moustache
fist
forehead
saliva

Rajs Notes of English Language

gh
n;
gFksyh@xfn;k
gkFk
galqyh dh gh

bone
heart
palm
hand
collar-bone

Body Conditions and ailments


va/kk
dkuk
dks<+
[kkalh
dCt
[kqtyh
[kwu dh deh
[kwu dk cguk
fxYVh
?kko
PkDdj vkuk
pksaV
Nhaduk
tEgkbZ ysuk
tq[kke
nek
nnZ fkj dk
nnZ isV dk
nLr
nkn
iFkjh
ilhuk
ikxy

blind
one-eyed
leprosy
cough
constipation
itch
anaemia
bleeding
glant
wound
giddiness
hurt
sneeze
yawn (v)
coryza /cold
asthma
headache
stomachache
loose motion
ringworm/ring
stone
sweat
mad/crazy

ihi
I;kl
QksM+k
ckcklhj
e/kqesg
egkekjh
eksrh>jk
Ykw yxuk
'khr Toj
'khryk
lwtu
fgPkdh
gStk

pus
thirst
boil
piles
diabetes
epidemic
typhoid
sunstroke (v)
influenza
small pox
swelling
hiccup
cholera

foks"kK
Cardiologist
Dentist
Dermatologist
Diagnostician
Geriatrician
Gynecologist
Nephrologists
Obstetrician
Ophthalmologist
Urologist
Orthopaedist
Paediatrician
Pathologist
Physician
Psychiatrist
Veterinarian

g`n; jksx foks"kK


nar jksx foks"kK
Ropkjksx foks"kK
funku foks"kK
o`)kjksx foks"kK
L=h jksx foks"kK
ew=fiaM fok"kK
lwfr foks"kK
us= jksx foks"kK
ew= jksx foks"kK
gM~Mh jksx foks"kK
cky jksx foks"kK
jkxfunku foks"kK
fpfdRld
euksjksx fpfdRld
i'kqjksx foks"kK

RELATIONS- fjrs
pkpk

uncle

pkph
lyk
lyh@uun@nsojkuh
nknk
nknh
nkd iq=
nkd iq=h
nkekn
ukuk
ukuh
ifr
iRuh
iq=
iq= o/kq@cgq
iq=h
firk
cgu
cgUkksbZ
Hkrhtk@Hkkatk
Hkrhth@Hkkath
HkkbZ
ekeh
ekek
eqofDy
ekSlh
okfjl
llqj
lkl
lkSrsyh ekWa
lkSrsyk firk
lkSrsyk HkkbZ
lkSrsyh cgu

aunt
brother-in-law
sister-in-law
grandfather
grandmother
adopted son
adopted daughter
son in-law
maternal grandfather
maternal grandmother
husband
wife
son
daughter-in-law
daughter
father
sister
brother-in-law
nephew
niece
brother
maternal aunt
maternal uncle
client
mothers sister
heir
father-in-law
mother-in-law
step-mother
step-father
step-brother
step-sister

Rajs Notes of English Language

OCCUPATIONS- islk
v/;kid
vfHk;Urk
nw/kokyk@Xokfyu
vkS"k/kh cukus okyk
miU;kldkj
djhxj
dlkbZ
fdlku
dqEgkj
dqyh
fdrkc cspus okyk
[ktkaph
xU/kh@b= cspus okyk
xzUFkdkj
fp=dkj
pkSdhnkj
tehnkj
tehnkfju
ftYnlkt@iqLrd
cka/kus okyk
tqykgk@cqudj
tkSgjh
tknwxj
Bsdsnkj
Mkfd;k
MkWDVj
rsyh
nthZ
nyky
nqdkunkj

teacher
engineer
milkman/milkmaid
compounder
novelist
artist
butcher
farmer
potter
coolie
bookseller
treasurer
perfumer
author
painter
watchman
landlord
landlady
book binder
weaver
jeweller
magician
contractor
postman
doctor
oilman
tailor
broker
shopkeeper

Rajs Notes of English Language

nkbZ
nok nok cspus okyk
nkWar dk MkWDVj
/kksch
/kksfcu
/kk;
u`rd
ukVddkj
fufj{kd
dkkd
iqjksfgr
ca/kd
Qsjh okyk
QksVksxzkQj
c<+bZ
cl esa
fVdV nsus okyk
eNqvkjk
eYykg
eka>h
ekyh
feL=h
equhe
eqnzd
fyfid
>kMw yxkus okyk
eksph
jlksb;k
jksdfM+;k
jktuhfrK
ys[kd
yksgkj

midwife
chemist
dentist
washer man
washer woman
nurse
dancer
dramatist
inspector
publisher
priest
manager
hawker
photographer
carpenter
conductor
fisherman
boatman
sailor
gardener
mechanic
agent
printer
clerk
sweeper
cobbler
cook
cashier
politician
writer
blacksmith

Rajs Notes of English Language

odhy
oS|
laxhrdkj
lEiknd
lqukj

advocate
physician
musician
editor
goldsmith

KINDS OF PERSONS

O;fDr;ksa ds dkj
conservative
egotist
escapist
fatalist
feminist
fundamentalist
hypocrite
idolater
jingoist
misogamist
monotheist
narcissist
opportunist
optimist
pacifist
pantheist
pessimist
philanthropist
polytheist
racist
radical
realist

:f<+oknhA
vgadkjhA
Hkkx tkus okykA
HkkX;oknh A
L=hiq:"k lekurkoknhA
ewyrRooknhA
ik[kaMh@<ksaxhA
ewfrZ dh iwjk djus okykA
nsk HkDr tks ;q) ij fookk j[krk gSA

fookg dk }s"k djus okykA


,d bZoj ij fookk djus okykA
vkRe iqtdA
voljoknhA
vkkkoknh O;fDrA
'kkafroknhA
lHkh Hkxokuks dks euus okyk O;fDrA
fujkkkoknhA
ekuo ls se j[kus okykA
vusd bZoj ij fookk j[kus okykA
tkfroknhA
lq/kkjkoknhA
;FkkFkZoknhA

Rajs Notes of English Language

/keZfujis{koknhA

secularist

Animals- i'kq
WaV
dLrwjh fgju
daxk:
dqkk
dqfr;k
[kPpj
[kjxksk @[kjgk
x/kk
xk;
fxygjh
xSaMk
?kksM+k
?kksM+h
nfj;kbZ ?kksM+k
phrk
pwgk
NNawnj
taxyh lwvj
tsczk
ftjkQ
VV~Vw
rsanqvk
usoyk
fiYyk
cdjk
cdjh
cdjh dk cPpk
cNM+k xk; dk

camel
musk-deer
kangaroo
dog
bitch
mule
rabbit/ hare
ass
cow
squirrel
rhinoceros
horse
mare
hippopotamus
panther
mouse/rat
mole
boar
zebra
giraffe
pony
leopard
mongoose
puppy
he-goat
she-goat
kid
calf

Rajs Notes of English Language

cfN;k
fcYyh
fcYyh dk cPpk
cUnj
ouekuq"k
ck?k
ckjg flaxk
ckjgflaxh
cSy
Hkkyw
HksfM+;k
HkSal
HksM+
HksM+h
HksM+ dk cPpk
yaxwj
ykseM+h
ydM+cX?kk
fkdkjh dqkk
lwvj
lkaM
fl;kj
lkgh
fgju
fgju dk cPpk
gkFkh

heifer
cat
kitten
monkey
chimpanzee
tiger
stag
hind
ox/bullock
bear
wolf
buffalo
sheep
ewe
lamb
ape
fox
hyena
hound
pig
bull
jackal
porcupine
deer
elephant
fawn

Young ones of Animals, Birds and Reptiles-

i'kqvksa] if{k;ks
if{k;ksa rFkk tho tUrqvksa ds cPps
Animals
Ass
x/kk

Young ones
foal
x/ks dk cPpk

Rajs Notes of English Language

Animals
Bear
Cat
Cow
Dog
Deer
Duck
Fox
Frog
Goat
Hare
Hen
Lion
Mare
Ewe
Swan
Tigress
Wolf

Hkkyw
fcYyh
xk;
dqkk
fgju
Ckk[k
ykeM+h
esa<d
cdjh
[kjxksk
eqxhZ
'ksj
?kksM+h
HksM+h
gal
'ksjuh
HksM+h;k

Young ones
cub
Hkkyw dk cPpk
kitten
calf
puppy
fawn
duckling
cub
tadpole
kid
leveret
chicken
cub
colt, filly
lamb
cygnet
cub
cub

REPTILES, WORNS AND INSECTS

jsaxus okys tho tUrq vkSj dhM+s edksM+s


vtxj
dNqvk
daspqvk
dsdM+k
dkyk lkai
[kVey
fxjfxV
xkscjhyk
?kksa?kk
fNidyh
tqxuw

python
tortoise
earthworm
crab
cobra
bug
chameleon
beetle
snail
lizard
glow-worm

Rajs Notes of English Language

twa
tksad
>haxqj
fVM~Mk
fVM~Mh
rrS;k
frryh
nhed
fiLlw
fcPNw
eD[kh
edM+h
exjePN
esa<d
esa<d dk cPpk
ePNj
eNyh
e/kqeD[kh
jskeh dhM+k
'kkdZ
lhi
lkai

louse
leech
cricket
grasshopper
locust
wasp
butterfly
termite
flea
scorpion
fly
spider
crocodile
frog
tadpole
mosquito
fish
bee
silkworm
shark
oyster
snake

BIRDS

i{kh
vokchy
mYyw
dBQksM+ok
diksr@dcwrj
dkSok
fx)
xkSjS;k

swallow
owl
woodpecker
pigeon
crow
vulture
sparrow

Rajs Notes of English Language

pexknM+
phy
rhrj
iUMqCch
cn[k
ck[kh
ck[k dk cPpk
cVsj
cqycqy
ckt
eksj
eqxkZ
eqxhZ
eqxhZ dk cPpk
eksjuh
'kqrqjeqxZ
lkjl
cxqyk
rksrk
gal
dks;y
x:M+
uhydaB
yok

bat
kite
partridge
dove
drake
duck
duckling
quail
nightingale
hawk
peacock
cock
hen
chicken
peahen
ostrich
crane
stork
parrot
swan
cuckoo
eagle
magpie
lark

FLOWERS, FRUITS, AND VEGETABLES

Qwy] Qy vkSj lfCt;ksa ds uke


v[kjksV
ve:n
vkyw
vke

chestnut
guava
potato
mango

Rajs Notes of English Language

vul
vukj
vaxwj
beyh
dVgy
dey
ddM+h
dsyk
dqeqfnuh
dklhQy
dktw
[kwckuh
[kjcwtk
xUuk
xktj
xqykc
xsank
xqycgkj
?kkl
pEik
pesyh
tkequ
rjcwtk
uhcw
ukjaxh@larjk
ukkikrh
ukfj;y
ujfxl
iku
I;kt
QwyxksHkh
canxksHkh

pine-apple
pomegranate
grapes
tamarind
jack-fruit
lotus
cucumber
banana
lily
pumpkin
cashew nut
apricot
musk melon
sugarcane
carrot
rose
marigold
daisy
grass
magnolia
jasmine
black berry
watermelon
lemon
orange
pear
coconut
narcissus
betel
onion
cauliflower
cabbage

Rajs Notes of English Language

caSxu@HkVk
cknke
fHk.Mh
ewyh
esagnh
eawxQyh
fepZ
equDdk
lso
lse
vnjd

brinjal
almond
ladys finger
radish
myrtle
groundnut
chilli
raisin
apple
bean
ginger

CEREALS AND EATABLES

vUu vkSj [kkus ;sX; inkFkksaZ ds uke


vpkj
pickle
vukt
grain
vkVk
flour
vjgj
pigeon pea
byk;ph nkuk
comfit
d<+h
curry
dgok
coffee
dqyQh
ice cream
xsgWa
wheat
ekWal
meat
ekWal cdjs dk
mutton
ekWal lqvj dk
pork
ekWal xk; dk
beef
(You are requested never to kill a cow for its beef as it is
very useful animal)
feJh
sugar candy
feBkbZ
sweet (meat)

Rajs Notes of English Language

eqjCck
eqjeqjk
jkbZ
jksVh
'kcZr
'khjk
lwth
?kh
pVuh
puk
pk;
pkoy
phuh
pksdj
NSuh iuhj
Tokj&cktjk
tyiku
tkS
twl
rjdkjh
fry
rsy
nfy;k
ngh
nky
nw/k
/kku
cQZ
fcLdqV
Hkqk eDdk
eD[ku
eVj

jam
puffed rice
mustard
bread/chapati
syrup
treacle
semolina
ghee
sauce
gram
tea
rice
sugar
bran
cheese
millet
snacks
barley
juice
vegetables
sesamum
oil
gruel
curd
pulse
milk
paddy
ice
biscuit
maize
butter
pea

Rajs Notes of English Language

ek
eykbZ
elwj

whey
cream
lentil

Names of Domestic Articles

?kj dh oLrqvksa ds uke


vyekjh
da?kh daxh
djNqyh
[kkus dk rsy
fxykl
pdyk
pVkbZ
pEep
pyuh
fpeVk
NUuh
pk;nkuh
pwYgk
Vks
Vksdjh
<Ddu
rjktw
frtksjh
>kMw
ckYVh
cksry
cksjk
eFkkuh
ekseckh
ckh
flaxkjnku
lqjkgh

almirah
comb
ladle
sweet oil
glass
pastry-board
mat
spoon
sieve
tongs
tea-trainer
tea-pot
stove/hearth
basket
lid
balance
safe/locker
broom/broomstick
pail/bucket
bottle
sack
churner
candle
wick
casket
flagon/jug

Rajs Notes of English Language

lMkWalh
dM+kgh
dEcy
duLrj
dqlhZ
dkaVk
erZcku
pknj
pkHkh
pkjikbZ
fpeuh
NM+h
Nkrk
NksVk cDlk
tkyk
>wyk
Vs
fMCck
Mksaxk
rfd;k
rfd;s dk fxykQ
rrjh
rkyk
rUnwj
Fkkyh
niZ.k
nhokj dh vkyekjh
vks[kyh
bL=h
bZ/ku
uy
Qwynku

pincers
pan
blanket
canister
chair
fork (for eating)
jar
bed-sheet
key
cot
chimney
stick
umbrella
attache
cobweb (that a spider makes)
swing
tray
box
bowl
pillow
pillow-cover
saucer
lock
oven
plate
mirror
cupboard
mortar
iron
fuel
tap
flower vase/pot

Rajs Notes of English Language

crZu
cVu
cQZ dk lanwd
czk
feh dk rsy
jdkch
jT+kkbZ
jLlk
jLlh
jk[k
ySEi
'khkk
ljkSrk
lkcqu
lkcqunkuh
lqbZ
nUr eatu
/kkxk
iyax
iydh
ik;nku
I;kyk

utensils
button
ice -box
brush
kerosene oil
dish
quilt
rope
string
ash
lamp
phial
nut cracker
soap
soap case
needle
tooth power
thread
bed
palanquin
cup
cup

Sounds- vkotsa
Beat of drum
Banging of a door
Booming of a gun
Buzz of telephone
Call of a bugle
Clanking of chains
Creaking of shoes
Clattering of hoofs

<ksy dh vkoktA
njokts dh [kV[kVkgVA
rksi ;k canwd dh vkoktA
VsfyQksu dh lulukgVA
fcxqy dh vkoktA
pSu dh vkoktA
twrksa dh vkokt
?kksM+ksa ds Vkiks dh vkokt

Rajs Notes of English Language

Clapping of hands
Crack of a whip
Pattering of rain or hail
Report of a rifle
Rumbling of a train
Rustling of leaves
Shriek of a whistle
Tinkling of bells
Ticking of a clock
or watch
Zooming of an aeroplane

rkfy;ksa dh vkokt
dksM+s dh lulukgV
o"kkZ ;k vksyksa ds fxjus dh vkokt
canwd dh vkokt
jsyxkM+h dh vkokt
ikh;ksa dh ljljkgV
'khVh dh vkokt
?kaVh dh vkokt
?kM+h dh fVdfVdh
ok;q;ku dh vkokt

Sounds made by animals, birds


and some other things-

tUrqvksa rFkk i{kh;ksa dh vkoktsa


1. Asses bray.
2. Bears growl.
3. Bees hum.
4. Birds chirp.
5. Camels grunt.
6. Cats mew.
7. Cattle low.
8. Cocks crow.
9. Crows caw.
10. Dogs bark.
11. Doves coo.
12. Ducks quack.
13. Elephants trumpet.
14. Flies buzz.
15. Frogs croak.
16. Geese cackle.
17. Hawks scream.

x/ks jSadrs gSaA


Hkkyw ?k?kjkrs gSaA
e/kqefD[k;kWa fHkufHkukrh gSaA
i{kh pgpgkrs gSaA
WaV xqM+xqM+krsa gSaA
fcYyh;ka E;ka&E;k djrh gSA
tkuoj jSadrs gSaA
eqxsZ dqDMqdw djrs gSaA
dkS
dkS;s dkSa dkSa djrs gSaA
dqks HkSadrs gSaA
c[rk dwa&dwa djrk gSA
ck[k dSa dSa djrh gSA
gkaFkh fpa?kkM+rs gSaA
efD[k;kWa fHkufHkukrh gSaA
esa<d VjkZrs gSaA
gal dqM+dqMkrs gSaA
ckt pha[kr gSaA

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

Hens cluck.
Horses neigh.
Jackals howl.
Kittens mew.
Lambs bleat.
Lions roar.
Mice squeak.
Monkeys chatter.
Nightingales sing.
Owls hoot.
Oxen low.
Parrots talk.
Pigeons coo.
Pigs grunt.
Puppies yelp.
Sheep bleat.
Snakes hiss.
Sparrows chirp.
Swallows twitter.
Swans cry.
Tigers roar.
Vultures scream.
Wolves yell.

eqfxZ;kWa dqM+dqMkrh gSaA


?kksM+s fgufgukrs gSaA
xhnM+ jksrs gSaA
fcYyh ds cPps E;kWa E;kWa djrs gSaA
eseus cka&cka djrs gSaA
'ksj ngkM+rs gSaA
pwgs pwa&pwa djrs gSaA
canj xqjkZrs gSaA
cqycqysa xkrh gSaA
mYyw gw&gw djrs gSaA
cSy Mdkjrs gSaA
rksrs Vka;&Vka; djrs gSaA
dcwrj xqVjxwa djrs gSaA
lwvkj ?kqj?kqjkrs gSaA
dqks ds fiYys Hkwadrs gSaA
HksM+sa fee;krh gSaA
lkai Qqdkjrs gSaA
fpfM+;ka pgpgkrh gSaA
Vckchy pgpgkrh gSaA
cr[ksa dwtrh gSaA
ck?k nkgkM+rs gSaA
fx) ph[krs gSaA
HksfM+;s ph[krs gSaA

NUMERALS
Roman
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

in words
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven

Arabic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Orderly
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh

Rajs Notes of English Language

VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
XXV
XXIX
XXX
XXXV
XL
XLV
L
LV
LX
LXV
LXX
LXXV
LXX X
LXXXV
XC

eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty
twenty one
twenty two
twenty three
twenty four
twenty five
twenty nine
thirty
thirty five
forty
forty five
fifty
fifty five
sixty
sixty five
seventy
seventy five
eighty
eighty five
ninety

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
29
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth
eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth
twenty first
twenty second
twenty third
twenty fourth
twenty fifth
twenty ninth
thirtieth
thirty fifth
fortieth
forty fifth
fiftieth
fifty fifth
sixtieth
sixtieth
seventieth
seventy fifth
eightieth
eighty fifth
ninetieth

Rajs Notes of English Language

LXXXV
C
CC
CCC
CD
D
DC
DCC
DCCC
CM
M
MC

ninety five
95
hundred
100
two hundred 200
three hundred 300
four hundred 400
five hundred 500
six hundred
600
seven hundred 700
eight hundred 800
nine hundred 900
one thousand 1000
one thousand 1100
and one hundred

Million
Ten Million
Hundred Million
Thousand Million
Billion

ninety fifth
hundredth
two hundredth
three hundredth
four hundredth
five hundredth
six hundredth
seven hundredth
eight hundredth
nine hundredth

10,00,000
1,00,00,000
10,00,00,000
1,00,00,00,000
10,00,00,00,000

SHAPE AND SIZE

:i
:i vkSj vkdkj
Circle
Circular
Circumference
Cone
Cube
Cubic
Conical
Diameter
Ellipse
Hexagon

o`k
o`kkdkj
ifjf/k
'kadq
?ku
?kuh;
'kaDokdkj
O;kl
nh?kZ o`k
"kV~dks.k

Oblong
Octagon
Oval
Pentagon
Radius
Rectangle
Rectangular
Semi-circle
Sphere
Spherical
Square
Triangle
Triangular
Quadrangle

vk;r
v"Vdks.k
vaMkdkj
iapdks.k
f=T;k
vk;r
vk;rkdkj
v/kZo`k
xksyk
xksykdkj
PkkSdksj
f=Hkqt
f=Hkqtkdkj@f=dks.kh
prqHkZqt

Part-2 is to come very soon.


I have tried my best to teach you very good English. I have been
writing some story books also in English language and I think that
they would help you to imporove your English.
Wish you a very good luck for your bright future.
Ashish Raj Bansal

Rajs Notes
of
English

Language

Special Thanks to my parent


and all my
students.