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Lecture Notes - Describing Functions

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You are on page 1of 57

in College Algebra

Fundamentals: Describing Functions

By

Jonathan D. Williams

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Overview

Lesson Objectives

Definition of a Function

Attributes of Functions

Intercepts

Domain & Range

Symmetry

Monotonicity

Classification of Functions

Lesson Objectives

By the end of this presentation, you should be able to:

Formally define a function

Determine whether a relation represents a function

Evaluate the intercepts of a function

Describe the set of inputs and outputs of a function

Describe the symmetry of a function

Analyze the limiting behavior of a function using

asymptotes

Identity

intervals

for

which

a

function

is

increasing/decreasing

Recognize and classify common types of functions

how to interpret their notations and parameters

DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Definition of a Function

Definition

A function is a mathematical relation between two sets of

elementsinputs and outputswhere each element from

the first set (inputs) can only be paired with, at most, one

element in the second set (outputs)

Key Terminology

Input:

a value that is processed by a function (independent variable)

the first member listed in an ordered pair

Output:

a value produced by a function that corresponds to a specific

input (dependent variable)

the second member listed in an ordered pair

Definition of a Function

Definition

Think of a function as a process that takes some raw material

or value (input) and produces some object or value as a

result (output).

Input

Function

Output

Definition of a Function

Definition

The most essential thing to remember about a function is

that each input must have no more than one unique output.

Definition of a Function

Definition

Which of these is least like the other?

f

Input

Output

Input

Output

Input

Output

-2

-4

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1, 1

-2

-4

-6

Definition of a Function

Definition

Which of these is least like the other?

f

Input

Output

Input

Output

Input

Output

-2

-4

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1, 1

-2

-4

-6

If you chose , you are correct. and both represent functions according to the

definition. is the only relation that has two different output values for the same

input value. is a function since you can have the same output value for all input

values (this would be called a constant function).

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Definition of a Function

Notation

A typical function notation is

components. They are as follows:

Function Name

Input Value

Output Value

comprised

The syntax is

"Output" = "Function Name" "Input"

of

three

Definition of a Function

Notation

In mathematics, there are many different notations that are

used to represent a function. However, for the purpose of

simplicity, we will only focus on the most commonly used

form.

=

The components of this notation are as follows:

the independent variable; this is the input value of the

function

the dependent variable; this is the output value of the

function

the function name

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Definition of a Function

Notation

The function notation given by

=

is read as

equals of .

Definition of a Function

Notation

For each function listed in the table below, identify the

independent variable, dependent variable, and the function

name.

Function

= sin

Independent

Variable

Dependent

Variable

Name

= @

Definition of a Function

Notation

For each function listed in the table below, identify the

independent variable, dependent variable, and the function

name.

Function

= sin

= @

Independent

Variable

Dependent

Variable

Name

sin

function according to its attributes

ATTRIBUTES OF A FUNCTION

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Attributes of a Function

Intercepts

The point(s) where the graph of a function intersects

either the -axis or the -axis

Types of Intercepts

-Intercept

The point where the graph of a function intersects the -axis

There can be at most one -intercept

Expressed as a coordinate pair in the form 0, , where is a

real-valued constant, or in function notation, = 0

-Intercept

The point where the graph of a function intersects the x-axis

There can be infinitely many -intercepts or none at all

Expressed as a coordinate pair in the form , 0 , where is a

real-valued constant, or in function notation, 0 =

Also referred to as zeroes

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Attributes of a Function

Intercepts

The matrix below illustrates how to evaluate the intercepts of

function when provide with its graph or equation.

Use this method to evaluate the

When given a(n)

-intercept

-intercept

Graph

graph intersects the -axis

(horizontal)

the graph intersects the axis (vertical)

Equation

(dependent variable) with

zero and solve for the

input

(independent variable)

with zero and solve for the

output

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range

Domain: the set of all possible inputs for which a function

is defined

Range: the set of all possible outputs produced by a

function

Also referred to as the codomain

set notation or interval notation

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range: Set Notation

The table below illustrates the different combinations of

formally expressing the domain and range of a function.

Literal Meaning

Set Notation

D: |

R: |

D: |

R: |

Include all values within an interval, to , and only the lower endpoint

D: | <

R: | <

Include all values within an interval, to , and only the upper endpoint

D: | <

R: | <

D: | < <

R: | < <

D: |

R: |

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range: Interval Notation

The table below illustrates the different combinations used

to concisely represent the domain and range of a function.

Literal Meaning

Interval Notation

Include all values within an interval, to , and only the lower endpoint

, )

Include all values within an interval, to , and only the upper endpoint

Include all values within an interval, to , excluding both endpoints

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

(,

,

, ,

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range

Consider the functions represented by the sets of ordered

pairs below. Express the domain, D, and range, R, for each

function as a set of values.

=

1, 5 , 2,4 , 5, 9 , 3,11

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range

=

Domain:

Range:

1, 5 , 2,4 , 5, 9 , 3,11

Domain:

Range:

{-2, 2, 4, 24}

{4, 6, 10 24}

{-2, 1, 3, 5}

{-9, -5, 4, 11}

Domain:

Range:

{-2, -1, 3, 6}

{6}

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range

Express the domain, D, and range, R, for each function in the

table using words, set notation, and interval notation.

Function

Literal

Meaning

Set

Notation

Interval

Notation

Attributes of a Function

Domain & Range

Express the domain, D, and range, R, for each function in the

table using words, set notation, and interval notation.

Function

Literal

Meaning

D: All real #s

R: All real #s

D: All real #s

R: Nonpositive #s

R: Nonnegative #s

R: Any value except 0

Set

Notation

D: |

R: |

D: |

R: | 0

D: | 1

R: | 0

D: | 2

R: | 0

Interval

Notation

D: ,

R: ,

D: ,

R: (, 0

D: 1, )

R: 0, )

D: , 2 2,

R: , 0 0,

Attributes of a Function

Symmetry

A property of a mathematical object such that the size

remains unchanged under certain transformations.

Types of Symmetry

Even

Odd

Asymmetrical

Attributes of a Function

Symmetry: Even

A function is said to have even symmetry when the output

values () that correspond to any input ( ) and its

additive inverse () are identical for all elements in the

domain

Algebraic Indicator: =

Graphical Indicator: a function has line symmetry about

the -axis

NOTE:

This means that if the graph of a function were folded along the

y-axis, the curve would completely overlap itself

Attributes of a Function

Symmetry: Even

The graphs below are examples of even functions given that each

curve is a mirror image of itself when reflected through the y-axis.

Attributes of a Function

Symmetry: Odd

A function is said to have odd symmetry when the output

values () that correspond to any input ( ) and its

additive inverse ( ) are additive inverses for all

elements in the domain

Algebraic Indicator: =

Graphical Indicator: a function has point symmetry about

the origin

Note:

degrees, the curve would appear identical to its original position

Attributes of a Function

Symmetry: Odd

The graphs below are examples of odd functions given that the

image of each curve remains unchanged when rotated 180 about

the origin.

Attributes of a Function

Asymmetrical

A function is said to be asymmetrical (non-symmetrical) if

neither the criteria for even symmetry nor odd symmetry is

satisfied.

Attributes of a Function

Monotonicity

Describes the behavior of a function on any interval within

its domain

Types of Monotonicity

Monotone Increasing

Monotone Decreasing

Non-Monotonic

Attributes of a Function

Monotone Increasing

This means that as your input increases, the

corresponding output will be greater than or equal to its

predecessors for all values in the domain

Algebraic Indicator

and are arbitrary inputs within the domain, such that

< , and for all inputs

Graphical Indicator

As you follow the path of a curve from left to right, the curve

will move up along the vertical axis

Attributes of a Function

Monotone Decreasing

This means that as your input increases, the

corresponding output will be less than or equal to its

predecessors for all values in the domain

Algebraic Indicator

and are arbitrary inputs within the domain, such that

< , and for all inputs

Graphical Indicator

As you follow the path of a curve from left to right, the curve

will move down along the vertical axis

Attributes of a Function

Non-Monotonic

This means that a function alternates between intervals of

increase and decrease throughout its domain

different types of common functions

CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

The are many categories, or families, of functions that can

be described by the attributes they share with one another.

The following slides in this section illustrate the common

types of functions, the attributes specific to its type, and the

standard graph for its family members.

Classification of Functions

Function Families

Classification of Functions

Polynomial

A polynomial is a mathematical expression that can be

represented by a sum or difference of multiple power

functions with nonnegative, integer exponents and realvalued coefficients.

= + 1 1 + + 2 2 + 1 1 + 0

=

=0

Classification of Functions

Polynomial

General properties of all polynomials include the following:

The leading term is the one with the largest exponent in

the polynomial, regardless of its actual position

The degree of the polynomial is the exponent of the

leading term

The leading coefficient is the coefficient of the leading

term

The maximum, possible, number of x-intercepts for any

polynomial is equal to its degree

The domain of any polynomial spans all real numbers

All polynomials are continuous functions

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Constant Function (Zero-Degree Polynomial)

A polynomial with a degree of zero and a nonzero, realvalued leading coefficient.

= 0

where 0 0

Properties:

Zero-degree polynomial

Graphically represented by a horizontal line with equation

= , where is any real number ( ), with a yintercept at 0,

Also a special type of linear function whose average rate of

change (slope) is zero

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Linear Function (1st-Degree Polynomial)

A polynomial with a degree of one and a nonzero, real-valued

leading coefficient.

= 1 + 0

or

= +

where 1 0 and 0

Properties:

1st-degree polynomial

Graphically represented by an oblique line whose average

rate of change (slope, ) remains constant

The y-intercept is at 0,

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Linear Function

Attributes of Canonical Equation

General Equation:

= +

Canonical Equation:

= ,

where = 1, = 0

Family:

Polynomial

Domain:

,

Range:

,

X-Intercept(s):

0,0

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Odd

Monotonicity:

Strictly Increasing

Classification of Functions

Quadratic Function (2nd-Degree Polynomial)

A polynomial with a degree of two and a nonzero, real-valued

leading coefficient.

= 2 2 + 1 + 0

or

= 2 + +

where 2 0 and 0

Properties:

2nd-degree polynomial

Graphically represented by a parabola

The y-intercept is at 0,

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Quadratic Function

General Equation:

= 2 + +

Canonical Equation:

= 2,

where = 1, = = 0

Family:

Polynomial

Domain:

,

Range:

Nonnegative numbers

0, )

X-Intercept(s):

0,0

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Even

Monotonicity:

Non-Monotonic

Classification of Functions

Cubic Function (3rd-Degree Polynomial)

A polynomial with a degree of three and a nonzero, realvalued leading coefficient.

= 3 3 + 2 2 + 1 + 0

where 3 0

Properties:

3rd-degree polynomial

The y-intercept is at 0, 0

The domain and range each span all real numbers

Classification of Functions

Cubic Function

General Equation:

= 3 + 2 + +

Canonical Equation:

= 3,

where = 1, = = = 0

Family:

Polynomial

Domain:

,

Range:

,

X-Intercept(s):

0,0

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Odd

Monotonicity:

Strictly Increasing

Classification of Functions

Square Root Function

A power function with a rational exponent

1

2

1

of .

2

=

or

=

where 0

Properties:

The domain is restricted such that the base value, , must

be nonnegative; consequently, the range consists solely of

nonnegative values

A continuous function

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Square Root Function

Attributes of Canonical Equation

General Equation:

= +

Canonical Equation:

= ,

where = 1, = = 0

Family:

Power

Domain:

Nonnegative numbers

0, )

Range:

Nonnegative numbers

0, )

X-Intercept(s):

0,0

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Asymmetrical

Monotonicity:

Strictly Increasing

Classification of Functions

Reciprocal Function

A power function with a negative, integer exponent of 1.

= 1

or

1

=

where 0

Properties:

The domain includes all real numbers except zero;

consequently, the range consists solely of nonzero values

A discontinuous function

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Reciprocal Function

General Equation:

Canonical Equation:

1

,

where = 1, = = 0

=

Family:

Power

Domain:

Nonzero numbers

, 0 0,

Range:

Nonzero numbers

, 0 0,

X-Intercept(s):

None

Y-Intercept:

None

Symmetry:

Odd

Monotonicity:

Non-Monotonic

Classification of Functions

Absolute Value Function

A piecewise function that is comprised of two, intersecting

linear functions each with restricted domains.

, 0

=

, < 0

or

=

Properties:

The domain includes all real numbers

The range consists solely of nonnegative values

A continuous function

Copyright 2012, 2013 Jonathan D. Williams

Classification of Functions

Absolute Value Function

General Equation:

= +

Canonical Equation:

= ,

where = 1, = = 0

Family:

Piecewise

Domain:

,

Range:

Nonnegative numbers

0, )

X-Intercept(s):

0,0

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Even

Monotonicity:

Non-Monotonic

Classification of Functions

Exponential Function

A function denoted by a positive, real-valued base, , that is

raised to a variable exponent. However, the base cannot be

equal to one ( 1).

=

where 1 and > 0

Properties:

Base must be a positive value other than 1

The domain includes all real numbers

A continuous function

Classification of Functions

Exponential Function

General Equation:

= +

Canonical Equation:

= ,

where = 1, = , = = 0

Family:

Exponential

Domain:

,

Range:

Positive numbers

0,

X-Intercept(s):

None

Y-Intercept:

0,1

Symmetry:

Asymmetrical

Monotonicity:

Strictly Increasing

Classification of Functions

Logarithmic Function

General Equation:

= log +

Canonical Equation:

= log or = ln ,

where = 1, = , = = 0

Family:

Logarithmic

Domain:

Positive numbers

0,

Range:

,

X-Intercept(s):

1,0

Y-Intercept:

None

Symmetry:

Asymmetrical

Monotonicity:

Strictly Increasing

Classification of Functions

Sine Function

General Equation:

= sin

Canonical Equation:

= sin

where = 1, = = = 0

Family:

Trigonometric

Domain:

,

Range:

1,1

X-Intercept(s):

, 0 , where

Y-Intercept:

0,0

Symmetry:

Odd

Monotonicity:

Non-Monotonic

Classification of Functions

Cosine Function

General Equation:

= cos

Canonical Equation:

= cos

where = 1, = = = 0

Family:

Trigonometric

Domain:

,

Range:

1,1

X-Intercept(s):

21

,0

2

, where

Y-Intercept:

0,1

Symmetry:

Even

Monotonicity:

Non-Monotonic

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