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All Human Behavior Can Be Reduced Into Four Basic Emotions


All human behaviour can be broken down into four basic emotions, according
to research by Glasgow University.
The study has challenged a
commonly-held belief that there are
six basic emotions of happiness,
sadness, fear, anger, surprise and
disgust.
Researchers used a new technique
and software programme, developed
at the university, to examine
expressions.
They said fear and surprise shared
the "signal" of wide open eyes, while
anger and disgust shared a wrinkled
nose.
The team from the Institute of
Neuroscience
and
Psychology
claimed these early signals could
represent more basic danger signals.
Later in the signalling dynamics, facial
expressions transmitted signals that
distinguished all six "classic" facial
expressions of emotion, they said.
In comparison, the facial expression
signals of happiness and sadness
were clearly distinct across time.
'Evolutionary pressures'
Lead researcher Dr Rachael Jack
said: "Our results are consistent with
evolutionary
predictions,
where
signals are designed by both
biological and social evolutionary
pressures to optimise their function.

"What our research shows is that not


all
facial
muscles
appear
simultaneously
during
facial
expressions, but rather develop over
time
supporting
a
hierarchical
biologically-basic to socially-specific
information over time."
In compiling their research, the team
used special techniques and software
to synthesise facial expressions.
The Generative Face Grammar uses
cameras to capture a threedimensional image of people who
have been specially trained to be able
to activate all 42 individual facial
muscles independently.
From this, a computer can then
generate specific or random facial
expressions on a 3D model based on
the activation of different muscles - or
Actions Units as researchers referred
to them - or groups of units.
By asking volunteers to observe the
realistic model as it pulled various
expressions - thereby providing a
four-dimensional experience - and
state which emotion was being
expressed, the researchers were able
to see which specific Action Units
observers associated with particular
emotions.
It was through this method they found
that the signals for fear/surprise and

anger/disgust were confused at the


early stage of transmission and only
became clearer later when other
Action Units were activated.
Dr Jack said: "Our research questions
the notion that human emotion
communication comprises six basic,
psychologically irreducible categories.
Instead we suggest there are four
basic expressions of emotion.
"We
show
that
'basic'
facial
expression signals are perceptually
segmented across time and follow an
evolving hierarchy of signals over time
- from the biologically-rooted basic
signals to more complex sociallyspecific signals."

She added: "Over time, and as


humans migrated across the globe,
socioecological diversity probably
further specialised once-common
facial expressions, altering the
number, variety and form of signals
across cultures."
The researchers intend to develop
their study by looking at facial
expressions of different cultures.
They said East Asian populations
interpreted some of the six classical
emotions differently - placing more
emphasis on eye signals than mouth
movements compared to Westerners.

(Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-26019586)
Vocabulary
a. challenge :
b. commonly-held :
c. happiness :
d. sadness :
e. fear :
f. anger :
g. surprise :
h. disgust :
i. distinct :
j. wrinkled :
k. distinguished :

l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
u.
v.

muscle :
simultaneously :
compile :
thereby :
notion :
comprise :
irreducible :
diversity :
alter :
intend :
emphasis :

w.
x. Use the vocabulary to complete the following sentences. Change the form
(of verbs) if necessary.
1. Mastering the art of....................... management takes work, but the more
you practice, the easier it will get.
2. The trains....................... two power cars, with three first class and four
turista (standard) class trailers, and a bar/buffet vehicle, and accommodate a
total of 325 passengers.
3. Climate change may....................... forest composition by differentially
affecting the responses of faster- and slower-growing tree species to
drought.
4. Most students studying abroad....................... not to return at all or to delay
their return home for work purposes
5. Cities are....................... by increased population, changing demographics,
environmental change and a range of resource crunches.
6. Installing two broadband network routers each with their own Internet
subscription allows you to utilize both connections ......................., but only
on different computers.
7. The Royal Society is committed to promoting....................... in UK science,
technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine by seeking to increase
participation from underrepresented groups.
8. A....................... stereotype is that older people are isolated from their
communities and have diminished interaction with the outside world.
9. If you provide a....................... and high quality product and back it up with
meaningful service, the rest will take care of itself.
10. Being able to stop inappropriate behaviours is important for .......................,
health, and academic success.
y.
z. Speaking
aa.
ab.
T
o
n
y

Hi, Pearl. Have you heard about


Maggie?
ac. Pearl : No, I havent. What happens?
ad. Tony : She has just graduated.
ae.
Pearl : Thats splendid news. I should
congratulate her. She deserves that.
She has been working so hard to earn
her degree.
af.
ag.

ah. Expressing Happiness


o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o

aj.
Great!
Fantastic!
Im very pleased with that.
Thats splendid news.
Im on cloud nine.
Its the best thing Ive ever heard.
I am really delighted to hear about
the promotion.
I cant say how pleased I am.
ak.
al. More expressions:
.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
am.

ai. Expressing Anger


o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o

an.
I can't stand him/her any longer.
That annoys me.
That irritates me.
How irritating!
What a nuisance.
Im fed up with you.
Ive had enough of this problem.
Im very annoyed with what you said.
Are you kidding?
I beg your pardon.
Im extremely displeased with your
test result.
I find your words are extremely
offensive.
ao.
ap. More expressions:
.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
aq.

ar.
as. Practice the dialogue with your friend.
at.
Jack : Hey John, you look so furious. What's going on?
au.
John : Nothing.
av.
Jack : Come on! Maybe, I can give you some advice.
aw.
John : All right. I can't help Mario anymore.
ax.
Jack : What happened?
ay.
John : He is always borrowing my stuff, but never returns it. Firstly, he
borrowed my notebook but didn't return it. When I asked him to return it, he
said that he had given it back to me. Then, he borrowed my shirt, then
shoes, and now my money. I really need it right now.
az.
Jack : Why didn't you ask for the money?
ba.
John : I did, but he said the same thing. I should pay the rent and I have no
money left.
bb.
Jack : Oh I see... I can help if you don't mind.
bc.
John : Of course I don't mind. I really need a help now.
bd.
Jack : Here is some money to pay the rent.
be.
John : That's very kind of you. I'm so glad to have you here. I'll return it
after I get the money from Mario. Thank you, Jack.
bf.
Jack : You're welcome.
bg.
bh. What will you say if...
1. Your parents give you a present that you always want, but your sister breaks
it.
2. Your boss trusts a difficult project to you.
3. There is a man selfishly smoking in the bus and it is still long way to go.

4. You have worked very hard to finish your paper, but your teacher does not
accept it because you misspell your teachers name.
5. You are accepted in a big company.
6. Your favourite team loses in the final match.
7. Your friend always borrows your note book because he always sleeps during
the lecture.
8. Your friend keeps asking for answers on examinations.
9. You are a teacher and your students never complete their homework you
give them.
10. You see your favourite bands concert.
bi.
bj. Writing
bk. Write a dialogue about expressing feeling and perform it. You can use your
own topic or use the following topic:
a. Final Project
b. Graduation
bl.