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EN 1995-1-1

Design of timber structures

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Storage building in Japan 4 Jh. v. Ch.

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Stave church in Norway 13th century

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Bridge across river Sinne (Switzerland)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Faculty of architecture (Lyon)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

EN1995-1-1 Scope and structure

Section 1:
Section 2:
Section 3:
Section 4:
Section 5:
Section 6:
Section 7:
Section 8:
Section 9:
Section 10:

EN 1995-1-1

General definitions, terminology


Basis of design: Timber specific supplement to EN1990
Material properties to be used for design
Durability concept
Basis of structural analysis
Ultimate limit state design principles
Serviceability limit states
Fasteners
Design of components and assemblies
Workmanship, structural detailing and control

Design of Timber Structures

EN1995-1-1 - Definition of axes

EN1995

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Link of EN 1995-1-1 to EN1990 and EN1991

EN 1990

Structural safety,
safety,
serviceability and
durability

EN 1991

Actions on
structures

EN 1992

EN 1993

EN 1994

EN 1995

EN 1996

EN 1999

EN 1997

EN 1995-1-1

EN 1998

Design and
detailing

Geotechnical
and seismic
design

Design of Timber Structures

National Annex

Contains nationally determined


parameters
These override EN1995-1-1 values
Take account of national conditions,
such as geographical or
workmanship differences
Are yet not published in all countries

How to spot NDPs!

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

National choices overview

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

General concept

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Semi-probalistic safety concept

Ed
Effect of
Actions:
Self-Load
Wind
Snow
Variable loads
Temperature
Fire
....

Rd
Resistance:
Structure
Structural Elements
Materials, EModulus etc.
cross sections,
Area, Moment of
Inertia

12

Safety

frequency

Safety

Ek
E
F d

Effect of action 95% quantile

Rk
Rd
M

5% quantile Load carrying

capacity R

Design situations
Permanent situation
(after erection of the
structure)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design situations
temporary situation
(during erection)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design situations
Accidential situation
(impact, fire)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Limit states
Ultimate limit states
Serviceability limit states
For all design situations the limit states shall
not be exceeded.

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Limit state design

Limit states are functional levels


beyond which the structure no
longer satisfies the performance
criterias.

Ultimate limit state:

Safety level
Concerns safety of people
Integrity of structure

Serviceability limit state

Comfort of building user


No excessive deflection, vibration,
cracks
Negotiable from project to project

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Actions

Characteristic Actions according


to EN 1991
Gk
Qk
Ak

EN 1995-1-1

e.g. self-weight
e.g. wind, snow, traffic
e.g. impact

Design of Timber Structures

Ultimate limit state


Design values of actions
Basic combination:
G,j Gk,j + Q,1 Qk,1 + Q,i 0,i Qk,i
e.g. 1,35 Gk + 1,5 Wk + 1,5 0,5 Sk
simplified:
Most unfavourable variable action:
G,j Gk,j + Q1 Qk,1
1,35 Gk + 1,5 Wk
All unfavourable variable actions:
G,j Gk,j + 1,35 Qk,i 1,35 (Gk + Wk + Sk)
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design values of actions; coefficient for representative


values of actions:
From a statistic point of view its unlikely that all actions/loads act at the same
time with their fully values.
Coefficient for represantative values of actions
(for exact national data see: National Annexes)

0
1
2

combination coefficient (in fundamental design situations)


frequent coefficient (in accidential design situations and servicability
calculations)
quasi-permanent coefficient (in servicability calculations)
Principle rule:

G GK + Q,1 QK ,1 + 0 ,i Q,i QK ,i
i 2

Use of 0 from the second variable action/load.


EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Combination factors

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Combination factors
Action

Domestic residential areas

0,7

0,5

0,3

Congregation areas

0,7

0,7

0,6

Storage areas

1,0

0,9

0,8

Wind

0,6

0,5

0,0

Snow ( 1000 m)

0,5

0,2

0,0

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Partial safety factors for actions


(EN 1990)
Action

permanent

variable

favourable

G = 1,0

Q = 0

unfavourable

G = 1,35

Q = 1,5

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Safety Concept - simplified

Partial Safety Factors F ( G ,Q ) , M

Gk G + Qk Q

kmod Rk / M

(timber: M = 1,3)

Safety factors in case of fire or other accidential


situations: = 1,0

25

Serviceability limit states


Calculation of
deformations
vibrations

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

III.1 Eurocode 5 in basic; loads/actions on structures

. the combination of actions


under consideration
Increase the actions/load by partial safety factors (gamma factors)

Gd = G Gk
Qd = Q Qk
G

favourable effect

1,0

unfavourable effect

1,35

1,5

1,0

1,0

Design situation
Structural design
calculation

Check at servicability
limit state
less safety risks
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Serviceability limit states


Design values of actions
characteristic (rare) combination:
Gk,j + Qk,1 + 0,i Qk,i
Gk + Wk + 0,5 Sk
quasi-permanent combination:
Gk,j + 2,i Qk,i
Gk + 0,0 Wk + 0,0 Sk
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

combinations

Combination factor

Action
Safety factor

timber

Load duration - and


service-class

Safety factor
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Concept of
permissible
stresses

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

Load duration - and


service-class

Safety factor
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

Load duration - and


service-class

Safety factor
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

Load duration - and


service-class

Safety factor
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

=?
(permissible stress)

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

kmod
0,6 permanent,SC 1
Load duration - and
0,9 short, SC 1
service-class
0,5 permanent, SC 3
0,7 short, SC 3
Safety factor

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

=?
(permissible stress)

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

=?
(permissible stress)

?
kmod
(permissible stress)
0,6 permanent,SC 1
Load duration - and
0,9 short, SC 1
service-class
Reduction of 1/6
0,5 permanent, SC 3
(SC 3)
0,7 short, SC 3
Safety factor

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

=?
(permissible stress)

?
kmod
(permissible stress)
0,6 permanent,SC 1
Load duration - and
0,9 short, SC 1
service-class
Reduction of 1/6
0,5 permanent, SC 3
(SC 3)
0,7 short, SC 3
Safety factor

= 1,3 (5%-Quantil)

Comparison of safety concepts


Taking into account

Semi-probalistic
method

Concept of
permissible
stresses

combinations

Combination factor

w+s/2 or s+w/2

Action
Safety factor

timber

= 1,35 (G)
= 1,50 (Q)

=?
(permissible stress)

?
kmod
(permissible stress)
0,6 permanent,SC 1
Load duration - and
0,9 short, SC 1
service-class
Reduction of 1/6
0,5 permanent, SC 3
(SC 3)
0,7 short, SC 3

Safety factor

= 1,3 (5%-Quantil)

=?
(permissible stress)

Materials and service classes

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Steps for the designer

Identify material strength and


stiffness properties in supporting
standard
Establish modification factors
Material
Load
Service class

EN 1995-1-1

Determine material resistance for


calculation

Design of Timber Structures

Design value of material properties


Xd
kmod Xk
Xd =
M
Xk - characteristic value of a strength property
M partial factor for a material property
kmod modification factor, taking into account duration of load and moisture content

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Structural design calculation

frequency

loading

resistance

design values

5%quantiles
x G
Ek
Q

Ed

x kmod
M

fk

d fd
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Characteristic values of material properties


5%-Quantil of strength properties, e.g.
Bending strength
Tension strength
Capacity of a connection

Mean value of stiffness properties, e.g.


Modulus of Elasticity
(exceptions: Theory of second order, buckling)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Partial safety factor M

Recommended material safety factor M = 1,3


EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Mechanical properties in general

E in [N /mm]

Different in growth directions

Modulus of elasticity
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

11 00 370
11000

E E= = 11 000
11000
370
370

10

20

30

40

sin 3
+ co s 3
sin

50

60

70

80

90

in []

Mechanical properties are related to the density

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Timber Structures

Hygroscopisc isotherms for fir timber by W.K. Loughborough, R. Keylwerth

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Timber Structures

Effect of moisture content

The mechanical properties of timber are


moisture dependend!

Example
Change of moisture content from
12% to 20%
leads to a significant reduction
68 N/mm
92 N/mm

EN 1995-1-1

= 0,7391

Design of Timber Structures

Moisture dependend strength properties are leading to

Service Classes
Service Class

Average moisture
content um

Environmental conditions

u 12%

20C und 65% rel. humidity

u 20%

20C und 85% rel. humidity

u > 20%

Higher humidity compared to SC 2

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

p [kN/m ]

Actions on a floor

2,0
1,0
0,0

EC 5-1-1

Q
G
0

10

20

30

Design of Timber Structures

40
50
Load duration
[a]

Load duration classes

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Influence of service classes and duration of load

Ultimate limit state: kmod fk

Serviceability
limit state:

EN 1995-1-1

E
1 + kdef

kmod for the action/load with shortest


design situation

separate for each action/load

wel (1+ kdef)

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Strength properties for timber (Tab. F. 5 DIN 1052)


(for exact national data see: National Annexes)
Festigkeitsklasse (Sortierklasse nach DIN 40741)

C16

C24

C30

C35

C40

16

24

30

35

40

Festigkeitskennwerte in N/mm2
Biegung

fm,k

2)

Zug

parallel
rechtwinklig

ft,0,k 2)
ft,90,k

10
0,4

14
0,4

18
0,4

21
0,4

24
0,4

Druck

parallel
rechtwinklig

fc,0,k
fc,90,k

17
2,2

21
2,5

23
2,7

25
2,8

26
2,9

fv,k 3) 6)

2,7

2,7

2,7

2,7

2,7

8000
270

11000
370

12000
400

13000
430

14000
470

500

690

750

810

880

310

350

380

400

420

Schub und Torsion

Steifigkeitskennwerte in N/mm2
Elastizittsmodul

parallel
rechtwinklig

Schubmodul

E0,mean 4)
E90,mean 4)
Gmean

4) 5)

Rohdichtekennwerte in kg/m3
Rohdichte
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

6)

Nur maschinen sortiert


Nadelrundholz geschlt ohne angeschnittene Faser: +20%
Beim Nachweis von Querschnitten die mindestens 1,50 m vom Hirnholz entfernt liegen, darf fv,k um 30 %
erhht werden.
Fr die charakteristischen Steifigkeitskennwerte E0,05, E 90,05 und G05 gelten die Rechenwerte:
E0,05 = 2/3E0,mean
E90,05 = 2/3E90,mean
G05 = 2/3Gmean
Der zur Rollschubbeanspruchung gehrende Schubmodul darf mit GR,mean = 0,10Gmean angenommen
werden.
Als Rechenwert fr die charakteristische Rollschubfestigkeit des Holzes darf fr alle Festigkeitsklassen mit
fR,k = 1,0 N/mm2 angenommen werden.

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Strength properties for glulam (Tab. F. 9 DIN 1052)


(for exact national data see: National Annexes)
Festigkeitsklasse des Brettschichtholzes
h = homogen

c = kombiniert

GL 24

GL 28

GL 32

GL 36

Festigkeitskennwerte in N/mm2
Biegung

fm,y,k

1)

24

24

28

28

32

32

36

36

fm,z,k

2)

28,8

24

33,6

28

38,4

32

43,2

36

Zug

parallel
rechtwinklig

ft,0,k
ft,90,k

16,5
0,5

14
0,5

19,5
0,5

16,5
0,5

22,5
0,5

19,5
0,5

26
0,5

22,5
0,5

Druck

parallel
rechtwinklig

fc,0,k
fc,90,k

24
2,7

21
2,4

26,5
3,0

24
2,7

29
3,3

26,5
3,0

31
3,6

29
3,3

fv,k 3)

3,5

3,5

3,5

3,5

3,5

3,5

3,5

3,5

Schub und Torsion

Steifigkeitskennwerte in N/mm2
Elastizittsmodul
Schubmodul

parallel
E0,mean 4)
rechtwinklig E90,mean 4)
Gmean

4) 5)

11600 11600 12600 12600 13700 13700 14700 14700


390
320
420
390
460
420
490
460
720

590

780

720

850

780

910

850

380

350

410

380

430

410

450

430

Rohdichtekennwerte in kg/m3
Rohdichte
1)

2)
3)

4)
5)

Bei Brettschichtholz mit liegenden Lamellen und einer Querschnitthhe H 600 mm darf fm,y,k mit folgendem Faktor
multipliziert werden: (600 / H)0,14 1,1
Brettschichtholz mit mindestens 4 hochkant stehenden Lamellen
Als Rechenwert fr die charakteristische Rollschubfestigkeit des Holzes darf fr alle Festigkeitsklassen fR,k = 1,0
N/mm2 angenommen werden.
Fr die charakteristischen Steifigkeitskennwerte E0,05, E90,05 und G05 gelten die Rechenwerte:
E90,05 = 5/6E90,mean
G05 = 5/6Gmean
E0,05 = 5/6E0,mean
Der zur Rollschubbeanspruchung gehrende Schubmodul darf mit GR,mean = 0,10Gmean angenommen werden.

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

kmod- und kdef-values

Modification value kmod und deformation value kdef


taking into account service class and load duration
kmod

Modification value for ultimate limit state design

kdef

Deformation value for serviceability limit state design

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

kmod- values

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

kdef-values

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Size factors
Size factors taking into account volume effects
kh

is a variable factor in correlation with the reference


depth in bending

Solid timber

EN 1995-1-1

Glulam

Design of Timber Structures

LVL

Strength Classes solid timber

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Strength Classes solid timber


Visual grading:
Criteria: Knots, cracks, discoloration, bark etc.

Reliability ??

Mechanically grading:

Laufrichtung

Bending principe:

w
Measurement of natural
frequency:

Empfnger

Empfnger
Radiation:

Sender

Grading

Strength Classes solid timber (EN 338)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Strength Classes glulam (EN 1194)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Strength Classes glulam (EN 1194)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Strength Classes glulam (DIN 1052)

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Strength Classes glulam (EN 1995-1-1)


Warning Letter !!
Solid timber: fv.k = 2,0 N/mm
Glulam: fv.k = 2,5 N/mm
will be taken into account by a factor kcr

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

kcrack-value

f v ,d =

EN 1995-1-1

kcrack f v ,k k mod

Design of Timber Structures

Wood based panels


Wood based panels covered by EN 1995-1-1
Missing materials:

Cement bonded particle board,


gypsum based panels,
X lam (cross laminated glulam) .

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Plywood (EN 636)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

LVL (EN 14374)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

OSB (EN 300)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

Particleboard (EN 312)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

Fibreboard, hard (EN 622-2)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

Fibreboard medium (EN 622-3)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

Fibreboard MDF (EN 622-5)

EC 5-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Holzbau Grundlagen

Beams and columns


My
y

Mz

z
My
Iy

Mz
y
Iz

(y, z )

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design resistance for cross-sections

y
z

EN 1995-1-1

min
m
6

Vd
+

m
ax
m

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Design value of material properties:


X d = kmod

Ultimate limit state:

Bending strength:

Tensile strength:

fm,d = kmod

EN 1995-1-1

fm,k

ft ,0 ,d = kmod

M
ft ,0 ,k

M
Xd = X m

Servicability limit state:

Modulus of elasticity:

X 05

Ed = E0 ,mean

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Shear
Vd S
fv,d
d =
I b

d
fv,d

Vd = design value of the shear force


S = static moment (section modulus)
= bh2/8 (rectangle cross-section)
I
= second moment of area (moment of inertia)
= bh3/12 (rectangle cross-section)
b = width
fv,d = design shear strength for the actual condition

d =1,5

EN 1995-1-1

Vd
fv,d
A

1,5Vd A
1
fv,d

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Vd A
15
1
fv ,d

Vd
d = 15
fv ,d
A

dimensioning

erf A 15

Vd
fv ,d

d in [N/mm]
Vd in [kN]
A in [cm]
fv,d in [N/mm]

A in [cm ]

with Vd in [ kN ]

fv ,d in [N/mm ]

For sawn timber C 24, service class 2 and medium term action:

A in [cm ]
erf A 9 Vd with

V
in
kN
[ ]
d
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Roof construction
Sparren

rafter

Pfette

purlin

static systems

uniaxial bending

m,d =

Md
fm,d
Wn

Md / Wn
1
fm,d

m,d = design value of bending stress

Md = design value of bending moment


Wn = netto moment of resistance considering the cross section weaks
fm,d = design value of bending strength
EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Ultimate limit state


m,d in [N/mm]

m,d

M / Wn
M
1
= 1000 d fm,d 1000 d
fm,d
Wn

Md in [kNm]
Wn in [cm]
fm,d in [N/mm]

Influence of height of glulam


600 mm

250 mm <
600 mm

h
h<

h 250 mm

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

fm,y,k
0,1

fm,y ,k

600

fm,y,k 1,1

Design and calculation principles

Dimensioning

erf Wn 1000

Md
fm,d

Wn in [cm ]

mit Md in [kNm ]

fm,d in [N/mm ]

For sawn timber C 24, service class 2 and medium term action:

erf Wn 68 Md

EN 1995-1-1

Wn in [cm ]
with

M
in
kNm
[
]
d

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Stability of Members

Fc
w

qz

lef
y

wz

wz

100 mm

4,3 m

100

Fc

=1

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Compression members endangered by buckling

imperfections

additional bending moment

Structural design calculation using compressive stress values and reduced


compressive strength:

c,0,d =

An:
kc:

Fc,0,d
An

kc fc,0,d

Fc,0,d An
kc fc,0,d

local cross section weakenings might be neglected at the stress


verification if they are not situated in the middle third of the buckling length.
local cross section weakenings might be neglected at the calculation
of the buckling coefficient.

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Buckling coefficient
kc =

c
rel,c

1
k+ k

2
rel
,c

2
= 0,5 1 + c ( rel ,c 0,3 ) + rel ,c
= 0,2 for solid timber
0,1 for glued laminated timber and LVL

fc,0 ,k
A ef
fc,0 ,k
=

=
= Relative Slenderness i E0,05 E0,05
A ef
i = Slenderness

Aef

= s = effective lenght

= buckling length coefficient

= I A

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Buckling length coefficient

lef

lef

=2

EN 1995-1-1

lef

lef

=1

=0,7

Design of Timber Structures

=0,5

Design and calculation principles

Compression member with intermediate lateral support:


buckling length = distance of lateral support
different buckling lengths Aef,y and Aef,z :

Scheibe

ho

hu

3
2

1
EN 1995-1-1

z
y

Design of Timber Structures

y
z

Design and calculation principles

Design calculation

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Design calculation

1. determination of buckling lengths Aef for buckling around the principal axis
2. calculation of the slenderness ratio y and z
= A ef i

with

i = 0,289 h resp.

= 0,289 w at rectangular cross sections

3. determination of instability factors kc,y und kc,z

4. verification of buckling resistance

c,0,d in [N/mm]
c,0,d = 10

EN 1995-1-1

Fc,0,d
An

kc fc,0,d

10

Fc ,0 ,d An
kc fc,0 ,d

Design of Timber Structures

Fc,0,d in [kN]
An
in [cm]
fc,0,d in [N/mm]

Design and calculation principles

Design resistance of squared columns C 24 in


Service class 2 for medium action load

for axial compression

mm

mm

2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50

4,00

4,50

5,00

5,50

6,00

6,50

7,00

100

10000

72

50,4

36,4

27,4

21,3

17

13,9

11,5

9,7

8,3

7,2

120

14400

130

97,6

72,5

55,2

43,2

34,6

28,3

23,6

20

17,1

14,8

140

19600

202

164

127

98,7

78

62,9

51,6

43,1

36,6

31,4

27,2

160

25600

284

247

202

161

129

105

86,5

72,5

61,5

52,9

45,9

180

32400

375

340

293

243

199

163

136

114

97,1

83,6

72,7

200

40000

476

444

399

343

288

240

201

170

146

126

109

220

48400

587

557

514

459

397

337

286

244

209

181

158

240

57600

709

679

639

586

522

454

391

336

290

252

221

260

67600

841

812

773

723

660

588

515

448

390

340

299

EN 1995-1-1

Nd, max in kN for a buckling length of lef in m

Design of Timber Structures

Design and calculation principles

Thank you very much


for your attention!

EN 1995-1-1

Design of Timber Structures