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TSL3105 Notes

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS


Difference between listening and spoken language

LISTENING

SPOKEN LANGUAGE

Receptive skill

Productive skill

Active process of perceiving and


understanding words

Meaningful sounds used to convey


massage

Noticing tone of voice, inflexion, volume

Has stress, pauses, intonation etc to


convey different massages

Noticing mood of speaker

Enhances understanding by repeating &


rephrasing ideas

Keeping mind clear of distractions


Noticing nonverbal cues, including body Non-verbal cues e.g. body language,
language, facial expression, distance
gestures enhances message delivery
between people

Listening process
Hearing the speaker
Understanding what the speaker is saying
Making judgment based on the understanding
Conventions of spoken language
dynamic changes according to speakers and situations
often accompanied by non verbal signals e.g.
gestures, tones of voice both speakers must be
present for communication to take place
background knowledge of things talked
provides feedback/ response
Communication process
express/ share our wants feelings, thoughts and opinions
clearly and effectively. listening and understanding what
others communicate to us, observing verbal and non verbal
cues and responding to the message based on the
understanding.
effective communication = receiver interprets and
understands the senders message in the same way the
sender intended it.
Factors affecting listening skills
clustering break down speech into
smaller groups of words redundancy
rephrasing ideas, repetitions
reductions (assimilation, ellision) or contractions
hesitations, pauses, false starts
difference in intonation and stress patterns
English varieties & accents

Factors affecting
speaking skills
grammatical
accuracy
pronunciation
accent
vocabulary
appropriate
response
organisation of
ideas fluency
enthusiasm

Developing listening and speaking

Identifying listening and speaking skills in the syllabus


Integrating listening and speaking skills

Before listening: Plan for the listening task


Set a purpose or decide in advance what to listen for
Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed
Determine whether to enter the text from the top down
(attend to the overall meaning) or from the bottom up
(focus on the words and phrases)

During and after listening: Monitor comprehension


Verify predictions and check for
inaccurate guesses Decide what is
and is not important to understand
Listen/view again to check
comprehension
Ask for help

After listening
: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use
Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area
Evaluate overall progress in listening and in particular types
of listening tasks
Modify strategies if necessary

Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose


and for the task
Techniques for teaching listening and speaking skills

Selection and adaptation of materials


and activities
Principles of selection and adaptation
Take account of the student as a person select materials
that is motivating and within the ability of students (their age,
interest, experience and knowledge)
Reduce anxiety by using from easy to more difficult materials
(a familiar environment, within their experience and
understanding)
Provide a context for ss to listen and to talk about when people
choose to speak, it is always about something. They have
communicative needs and purpose and as teachers, we need
to attend to this. Provide interesting topics.
Maintain a careful balance between fluency and accuracy. First
accuracy, then fluency
Fluency speak smoothly but not necessarily
grammatically
Accuracy control and use the rules of the language
Able to provide a good model for ss to imitate use the
target stress and intonation, correct pronunciation
Provide appropriate stimuli for eliciting speech
Encourage learners to take reasonable risks in English get
them to explore further and willing to take risks in speaking
English.
Create opportunities for ss to interact by using groupwork or
pairwork
Use personalisation of exercises by using the sss
names, hobbies, interests, etc. Plan and respond
creatively during activities.
Provide opportunities for learners to notice the gap
notice the gap describes the sss experience when they
interact in a second / foreign language in the target
language differs from the way the native or proficient
speakers say it.
to make them realise the difference between what they
want to say and what they can say.
Criteria for evaluation of materials
Why use materials?
As a source of language? For
support in learning? As a stimulus
for student production?
As a record of learning
Why do we need to evaluate the materials?
to determine the suitability of specific materials
Some points to consider
(not in order):
Instructions alter/ignore/add
time (especially preparation time and

execution time) Is it enough or do you


need to add extra stages interesting
and able to motivate your students
tackle the target language
suitable for the students levels, abilities and learning styles
(Mixed level groups
may need different materials, Look for texts with a wide
range of activities targeting multiple learning styles.)
able to motivate the ss to
learn more suit your
learning styles
Provide rooms for ss to practise pronunciation, stress,
intonation or other speaking and listening skills group. An
oral English class should have materials with copious
speaking activities.
material is flexible enough to adapt to multiple levels, as
larger classes tend to hold a broader range of abilities.
available to you. If you require access to internet, DVD
player and projector, make sure these items are available
to you.
Look for materials that facilitate student centered lessons.
An effective English class
is one where the students do the majority of the activity
and the teacher serves as the assistant.
Devise listening and speaking tasks based on selected
learning outcomes
A ctivities
Singin
g
Poem
s
Rhyme
s Role
Play
Drama
Dialog
ue
"A nswering Tips - Devising tasks"
List out activities
Give a sample of rhyme/song
Make sure it is pupil-centered
"A nswering Tips - Enhance
Confidence"
Give examples and describe how it will boost ss confidence
SS aware of their own voice
SS develop cleaner, accurate and confident speech
Taps on imagination
Participate actively
Assessing Listening and Speaking Skills
Issues in assessing listening & speaking
Teaching vs testing

Accuracy vs fluency
Assessment strategies
Giving feedback and support

Planning for Teaching Listening and Speaking


Principles of Lesson Planning
What is a Lesson Plan?
Its the framework of my
lesson. Its the map I
follow during class.
Its the product of my thoughts about the class and what I
hope to achieve
Why Plan ahead?
reduces uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and
clarity.
reminds you to prepare materials beforehand, and
makes it easier for you to organize the time and
activities flow in classes.
For students, evidence of a plan shows them the
teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class.
It is a way to help gain the respect of
your students. It suggests
professionalism and commitment.
ensures that the class you are teaching gets a
balanced mixture of different materials, content and
interaction types.
Planning helps you to develop a personal style.
Categories for Planning a Lesson
Goals
Objective
s
Prerequi
sites
Materials
Lesson
Description
Lesson
Procedure
Assessment/Ev
aluation
What to consider?
Engage: get the students interested in the class and
hopefully enjoying what they are doing.
Study: it is a focus of language, such as grammar or
vocabulary and pronunciation.
It does not have to be NEW
language input.
Activate: the
students do writing and/ or speaking
activities which require them to use not only the language
they are studying that day, but also other language that
they have learnt.
Goals Goals determine:
Purpose of the lesson
How students will engage
We need to think about:

Previous
s of the unit plan or curriculum as well as the goals for
plans and
this unit
activities
Future activities and new knowledge
Broader
Central objective:
What will students be able to do by the end of this
objective
lesson?
Objectives
Focus on what your students will do to acquire further
knowledge and skills
Questions to ask include:
What will students be able to do during this lesson?
Under what conditions will students'
performance be accomplished? How will you
determine if the objectives have been met?
How will students demonstrate that they have learned and
understood the
objectives of the lesson?
What do you want the student to learn as a result of the
lesson
It should be observable and measurable.
Categories of Objectives
Knowledge - involves cognitive functions. Students
categorize, analyze, recall,

synthesize, recite, define.


Skills - concerns performing an action. Students measure,
sing, play.
C r e a t i ng L e a r ni ng
Objectives
Create a stem
Eg. After completing the lesson, the student will be able
to
After you create the stem, add a verb
Eg. analyze, recognize, compare, provide, list, etc
Then, determine the actual product, process, or outcome
Eg. generate ideas and plans for speech by using
(brainstorming, clustering, etc.)
Verbs to Use in Creating Educational Objectives
(Blooms Taxonomy) Knowledge choose,
collect, complete, copy
Comprehension arrange, categorize, change
Application organize, predict,
produce Analysis identify,
illustrate, infer, outline Synthesis
construct, create, deduce
Evaluation explain, interpret,
justify
Prerequisites
Make sure students are ready to meet the lessons
objectives
Check on their prior knowledge
Questions include:
What must students already be able to do before this
lesson?
What concepts have to be mastered in advance to
accomplish the lesson objectives?
M a te r i a l s
Determine necessary:
Preparation time
Resources/materi
als Books,
equipment, etc
Helpful questions to ask are:
What materials will be needed?
What needs to be prepared in advance?
Lesson Procedure
Detailed, step-by-step
description How to achieve
your objectives How to
proceed

Listening process

Hearing the speaker

Understanding what the speaker is saying

Making judgment based on the understanding

Conventions of spoken language

dynamic changes according to speakers and situations

often accompanied by non verbal signals e.g. gestures, tones of voice both
speakers must be present for communication to take place background
knowledge of things talked

provides feedback/ response

Communication process
express/ share our wants feelings, thoughts and opinions clearly and
effectively. listening and understanding what others communicate to us,
observing verbal and non verbal cues and responding to the message
based on the understanding.
effective communication = receiver interprets and understands the senders
message in the same way the sender intended it.
Factors affecting listening skills
clustering break down speech into smaller groups of words redundancy
rephrasing ideas, repetitions
reductions (assimilation, ellision) or contractions
hesitations, pauses, false starts
difference in intonation and stress patterns
English varieties & accents

Factors affecting speaking skills


Grammatical accuracy pronunciation
Accent
Vocabulary
Appropriate
Response
Organization of ideas
Fluency
Enthusiasm

Developing listening and speaking

Identifying listening and speaking skills in the syllabus

Integrating listening and speaking skills

Before listening: Plan for the listening task

Set a purpose or decide in advance what to listen for

Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed

Determine whether to enter the text from the top down (attend to the
overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focus on the words and
phrases)

During and after listening: Monitor comprehension


Verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses
Decide what is and is not important to understand
Listen/view again to check comprehension
Ask for help

After listening: Evaluate comprehension and strategy use


Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area
Evaluate overall progress in listening and in particular types of listening
tasks
Modify strategies if necessary

Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose and for the

task

Techniques for teaching listening and speaking skills

SELECTION AND ADAPTATION OF MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES

Principles of selection and adaptation


o Take account of the student as a person select materials that is
motivating and within the ability of students (their age, interest, experience
and knowledge)
o Reduce anxiety by using from easy to more difficult materials (a familiar
environment, within their experience and understanding)
o Provide a context for students to listen and to talk about when people
choose to speak, it is always about something. They have communicative
needs and purpose and as teachers, we need to attend to this. Provide
interesting topics.
o Maintain a careful balance between fluency and accuracy. First accuracy,
then fluency

Fluency speak smoothly but not necessarily grammatically

Accuracy control and use the rules of the language

o Able to provide a good model for students to imitate use the target stress
and intonation, correct pronunciation
o Provide appropriate stimuli for eliciting speech
o Encourage learners to take reasonable risks in English get them to
explore further and willing to take risks in speaking English.
o Create opportunities for students to interact by using groupwork or pairwork

Use personalization of exercises by using the students names,


hobbies, interests, etc. Plan and respond creatively during activities.

o Provide opportunities for learners to notice the gap

notice the gap describes the students experience when they


interact in a second / foreign language in the target language differs
from the way the native or proficient speakers say it.

to make them realize the difference between what they want to say
and what they can say.

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF MATERIALS


Why use materials?

As a source of language? For support in learning? As a stimulus for student


production?

As a record of learning

Why do we need to evaluate the materials?

to determine the suitability of specific materials

Some points to consider (not in order):

Instructions - alter/ignore/add

time (especially preparation time and execution time) Is it enough or do you


need to add extra stages interesting and able to motivate your students

tackle the target language

suitable for the students levels, abilities and learning styles (Mixed level
groups

may need different materials, Look for texts with a wide range of activities
targeting multiple learning styles.)

able to motivate the ss to learn more suit your learning styles

Provide rooms for ss to practise pronunciation, stress, intonation or other


speaking and listening skills group. An oral English class should have
materials with copious speaking activities.

material is flexible enough to adapt to multiple levels, as larger classes tend


to hold a broader range of abilities.

available to you. If you require access to internet, DVD player and projector,
make sure these items are available to you.

Look for materials that facilitate student centered lessons. An effective


English class

is one where the students do the majority of the activity and the teacher
serves as the assistant.

Devise listening and speaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes

Activities
Singing
Poems
Rhymes
Role
Play
Drama
Dialogue

"Answering Tips - Devising tasks"

List out activities


Give a sample of rhyme/song
Make sure it is pupil-centered

"Answering Tips - Enhance Confidence"

Give examples and describe how it will boost students confidence


Students aware of their own voice
Students develop cleaner, accurate and confident speech
Taps on imagination
Participate actively

Assessing Listening and Speaking Skills

Issues in assessing listening & speaking


o Teaching vs testing
o Accuracy vs fluency

Assessment strategies

Giving feedback and support

PLANNING FOR TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING


Principles of Lesson Planning

What is a Lesson Plan?

Its the framework of my lesson. Its the map I follow during class.

Its the product of my thoughts about the class and what I hope to
achieve

Why Plan ahead?

Reduces uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and clarity.

Reminds you to prepare materials beforehand, and makes it easier for you
to organize the time and activities flow in classes.

For students, evidence of a plan shows them the teacher has devoted time
to thinking about the class.

It is a way to help gain the respect of your students. It suggests


professionalism and commitment.

Ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different
materials, content and interaction types.

Planning helps you to develop a personal style.

Categories for Planning a Lesson

Goals

Objectives

Prerequisites

Materials

Lesson Description

Lesson Procedure

Assessment/Evaluation

What to consider?

Engage: get the students interested in the class and hopefully enjoying
what they are doing.

Study: it is a focus of language, such as grammar or vocabulary and


pronunciation.

It does not have to be NEW language input.

Activate: the students do writing and/ or speaking activities which require


them to use not only the language they are studying that day, but also
other language that they have learnt.

Goals
o Goals determine:

Purpose of the lesson

How students will engage

o We need to think about:

Previous plans and activities

Broader objectives of the unit plan or curriculum as well as the goals for
this unit

Future activities and new knowledge

o Central objective:

What will students be able to do by the end of this lesson?

Objectives
o Focus on what your students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills
Questions to ask include:

o What will students be able to do during this lesson?


o Under what conditions will students' performance be accomplished? How
will you determine if the objectives have been met?
o How will students demonstrate that they have learned and understood the
o objectives of the lesson?
o What do you want the student to learn as a result of the lesson
It should be observable and measurable.

Categories of Objectives
o Knowledge - involves cognitive functions. Students categorize, analyze,
recall, synthesize, recite, and define.
o Skills - concerns performing an action. Students measure, sing, play.
Creating Learning Objectives
o Create a stem

E.g. After completing the lesson, the student will be able to

o After you create the stem, add a verb

E.g. analyze, recognize, compare, provide, list, etc

o Then, determine the actual product, process, or outcome

E.g. generate ideas and plans for speech by using (brainstorming,


clustering, etc.)

Verbs to Use in Creating Educational Objectives (Blooms Taxonomy)


o Knowledge choose, collect, complete, copy
o Comprehension arrange, categorize, change
o Application organize, predict, produce Analysis identify, illustrate, infer,
outline Synthesis construct, create, deduce
o Evaluation explain, interpret, justify
Prerequisites
o Make sure students are ready to meet the lessons objectives
o Check on their prior knowledge
o Questions include:

What must students already be able to do before this lesson?


What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the

lesson objectives?
Materials
o Determine necessary:
Preparation time
Resources/materials
Books, equipment, etc.
o Helpful questions to ask are:

What materials will be needed?


What needs to be prepared in advance?

Lesson Procedure
o Detailed, step-by-step description
o How to achieve your objectives
o How to proceed
Lesson Plan Format
Class :
Subject :
Time :
Date :
Enrolment :
Focal skills :
Other skill :
Previous knowledge :

Year 1 Amanah
English language
8.00 a.m. 9.30 a.m.
23rd of July 2012 (Monday)
34 students
Listening and speaking
Reading
Students have learnt to ask simple questions and

Learning outcomes :

making polite requests


By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
o Sing song with guidance.
o Use polite requests appropriately
o Respond to requests.

Stage/Time
Set Induction
Presentation
Practice

Content

Teaching/Learning
Activities

Notes/Resources

Production
Closure

Pedagogical principles

PLANNING REMEDIAL AND ENRICHMENT A CTIVITIES


o Designing remedial and enrichment activities

Phonological Awareness

Consonant Clusters

Minimal Pairs

Diphthongs

o Drama, storytelling, elocution


State 2 suitable activities for teaching learning and speaking in a primary
classroom
Songs
Jazz chants
Rhymes
Oral drills
Dramatizations
Questions
Dialogues
Problem solving
Story telling
Role play
Simulation
Group discussion

2 advantages of integrating L&S skills in a lesson:


Speaking and listening are the main components among the four skills because it
is important to listen first than speaking it.
If only one skill stand-alone... Mostly students would just listen but not listening it
throughout.
As in just a matter of listening, not taking the content into account. They listen but
leaving out the meaning of the content.
Speaking comes after the listening, where when a teacher integrated listening,
students listen to the contents thus they can comprehend with the meaning
therefore, their minds can make up the answer to the questions.
When speaking and listening are integrated in a lesson, it will contribute to writing
skill where students would be able to listen while taking down notes and at the
same time, listening to the content thus comprehends the meaning.
Speaking is where the students give out opinion on the content that they have
listened to. Therefore, these skills are being integrated thus enhancing another
skill.