You are on page 1of 42

MECHANICAL LAB I

(Group-B)
GROUP MEMBERS:
NAMES
Afraz Ahmed
Akhter Hussain
Amin Siddique
Salman Sarwar
Zeeshan Sadiq

ROLL NUMBERS
2102
2104
2118
2131
2151

DISCIPLINE
Electrical
Chemical
Materials
Civil
Electrical

Lab Instructor:
MASOOD ALAM
Lab Coordinator:
DR. Rashid Ali Khosoo

KARACHI INSTITUTE OF POWER ENGINEERIG

Contents
ABSTRACT

Chapter # 01

Introduction to Mechanical Equipment


1. Types of Pump

1.1

Positive Displacement Gear Pump............................................................................4

1.2 Rotor Dynamic Pump

1.2.1 Axial flow Pump........................................................................................................5


1.2.2 Radial Flow Pump (Centrifugal)................................................................................5
1.2.3 Turbine Pump.............................................................................................................6
1.3 Cavitation 6
1.4 Reynolds Number

1.5 Bernoulli's principle 7


CHAPTER # 2 9
EXPERIMENTS

2.1 Experiment no.1

2.1.1 Objective....................................................................................................................9
2.1.2 Procedure...................................................................................................................9
2.1.3 Observations & Calculations....................................................................................11
2.2 Experiment no.2

16

2.2.1 Objective:.................................................................................................................16
2.2.2 Procedure:................................................................................................................16
2.2.3 Observations & calculations:-..................................................................................16
2.3 Experiment no. 3

21

2.3.1 Objective..................................................................................................................21
2.3.2 Procedure: -..............................................................................................................21
2.3.3 Observations & calculations:-..................................................................................21
2.4 Experiment no. 4

26

2.4.1 Objective..................................................................................................................26
2.4.2 Procedure:-...............................................................................................................26
2.4.3 Observations & calculations:-..................................................................................27
2.5 Experiment No. 5

33

2.5.1 Objective..................................................................................................................33
2.5.2 Description...............................................................................................................33
2.5.3 Observation and Calculations..................................................................................33
2.6 to 2.8 Experiments. (35-37)
2

ABSTRACT

Pumps are important mechanical equipments that are used in almost every industry. Besides its
also a part of household equipments for water transportation/storage. Knowledge about their
performance and characteristics is therefore, very important. This experiment is to study the
characteristics of four most widely used pumps; axial flow pump, centrifugal pump, gear pump,
and turbine pump; using arm field multi-pump test rig. Main objective of this experiment is to
develop understanding of characteristics of pumps. Performance parameters are pump head,
flow rate, power input, power output, and efficiency. Gear pumps provide highest head while
axial flow pumps give highest flow.

Chapter # 01
Introduction to Mechanical Equipment
A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into
three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid. Pumps operate by some
mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work
by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation,
electricity, an engine of some type, or wind power.

1. Types of Pump
On the basis of transfer of mechanical energy the pumps can be broadly classified as follows:
Positive displacement pump
Rotor dynamic pumps
o Axial flow pumps
o Radial flow pumps (Centrifugal)
o Mixed flow pumps
Positive Displacement Gear Pump
The positive displacement Gear Pump has a cast casing and two gear-shaped impellers,
rotating with close clearance, enmeshing such that water entering the suction port is trapped in
the spaces between adjacent teeth and carried round to be squeezed out and discharged through
the outlet port. High pressures are achieved with Gear Pumps and a pressure relief valve is
incorporated set to 75m head, to protect the pump and system.
An important advantage of this type of pump is that no valves are required in the suction
or delivery: it is capable of pumping air, gas, or liquid without any detrimental effect and does
not require priming. High pressures are possible, although the flow rates are limited.
The main disadvantage of this type of pump is that very close clearances are required
between the ends of the rotors and the casing.
Advantages
1. The efficiency is high regardless of changes in required head. Efficiencies on the order
of 85% to 95% are common.
2. The efficiency remains high regardless of pump speed, although it tends to decrease
slightly with increasing speed.
3. Reciprocating pumps run at much lower operating speeds than centrifugal pumps and
thus are better suited for handling viscous fluids.
4. For a given speed the flow rate is constant regardless of head. The pump is limited only
by the power of the prime mover and the strength of the pump parts.

Disadvantages
4

1. They have higher maintenance cost and lower availability because pulsating flow and
large number of moving parts.
2. There are poorer at handling liquids containing solids that tend to erode valves and seats.
3. Because of the pulsating flow and pressure drop through the valves they require larger
suction pressures (net positive suction head) at the suction flange to avoid cavitation.
4. They are heavier in weight and require more space.
5. Pulsating flow requires special attention to suction and discharge piping design to avoid
both acoustical and mechanical vibrations disadvantages.
6. Oscillating motion of the plungers creates disturbances (pulsations) that travel at the
speed of sound form the pump cylinder piping system. There pulsations cause the
pressure level of the system to fluctuate with respect to time.

1.2 Rotor Dynamic Pump


Rotor dynamic pump is divided into following types
1.2.1 Axial flow Pump
Axial flow pump has a 50 mm pitch propeller running in a casing with fine clearances
between propeller and asking. Water enters the propeller axially through a ring of fixed inlet
guide vanes. In passing through the propeller, the blades impart a whirl component into the fluid
which the outlet guide vanes remove prior to the fluid entering the discharge pipe.
The Axial Flow Pump is best suited to conditions where a large discharge flow is to be
delivered against a low head. Land drainage, irrigation and sewage pumping are some typical
applications. The pump efficiency is comparable with that of the centrifugal type. However, its
higher relative speed permits smaller and cheaper pumping and driving units to be provided.
1.2.2 Radial Flow Pump (Centrifugal)
The Pedestal type, Centrifugal Pump has a shrouded impeller running on an extension of
the main spindle, supported on double ball bearings. This type of pump is not self-priming but
operates with a flooded suction. As the fluid passes through the impeller, energy is imparted to it
by the curved blade of the impeller resulting in fluid leaving the impeller with an increase of
both pressure and velocity.
Centrifugal pumps are capable of transferring large volumes without any dependence on
valves or fine clearance and can be run against a closed valve without developing a very high
pressure. They can handle a wide range of slurries, or solids in suspension, in addition to liquids
with high viscosities.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Centrifugal Pump over Positive Displacement pump
The centrifugal pump claims the following advantages and disadvantages with respect to
a positive displacement pump.
Advantages
1. They are relatively inexpensive.
2. They have few moving parts and therefore tend to have greater on stream availability and
lower maintenance costs than positive displacement pump.
3. There have relatively small space and weight requirements relative to positive
displacement pump.
4. There are no close clearances in the fluid stream and therefore they can handle liquids
containing dirt, abrasives, large solids, etc.

5. Because there is very little pressure drop and no small clearances between the suction
flange and the impeller, they can operate at low suction pressure.
6. Due to shape of the head capacity curve, centrifugal pumps automatically adjust to
changes in head. Thus capacity can be controlled over a wide range at constant speed
Disadvantages

There are only practical for achieving high pressure when they are large flow rates.
They have low maximum efficiencies when compared to reciprocating pumps

1.2.3 Turbine Pump


The Turbine Pump (also known as a re-generative or peripheral pump) with a straight
bladed impeller in an annular casing, and a drive shaft supported on two grease-packed ball
races. The seal, which is of the rotary mechanical type, is self-lubricating. This pump is not selfpriming and operates from flooded suction. The suction is connected directly to the sump tank.
The turbine pump may therefore be classified as a viscosity pump.

1.3 Cavitation
Cavitation means that cavities or bubbles are forming in the liquid that we're pumping. These
cavities form at the low pressure or suction side of the pump, causing several things to happen
all at once

The cavities or bubbles will collapse when they pass into the higher regions of pressure,
causing noise, vibration, and damage to many of the components.
We experience a loss in capacity.
The pump can no longer build the same head (pressure)
The pump's efficiency drops.

The cavities form for five basic reasons and its common practice to lump all of them into the
general classification of cavitation. This is an error because we'll learn that to correct each of
these conditions; we must understand why they occur and how to fix them. Here they are in no
particular order:

Vaporization
Air ingestion (Not really cavitation, but has similar symptoms)
Internal recirculation
Flow turbulence
The Vane Passing Syndrome

1.4 Reynolds Number


In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a
measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative
importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions.
Reynolds numbers frequently arise when performing dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics
problems, and as such can be used to determine dynamic similitude between different
experimental cases.

They are also used to characterize different flow regimes, such as laminar or turbulent
flow: laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces are dominant, and is
characterized by smooth, constant fluid motion; turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers
and is dominated by inertial forces, which tend to produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other
flow instabilities.
Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is in
relative motion to a surface. These definitions generally include the fluid properties of density
and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic dimension. This
dimension is a matter of convention for example a radius or diameter is equally valid for
spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For aircraft or ships, the length or width can
be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used
today

Where:

is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s)
is a characteristic linear dimension, (travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic
diameter when dealing with river systems) (m)
is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m or kg/(ms))
is the kinematic viscosity (
is the density of the fluid (kg/m).

) (m/s)

1.5 Bernoulli's principle


In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that for an in viscid, an increase in the
speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in
the fluid's potential energy.
Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is
loosely denoted as Bernoulli's equation. In fact, there are different forms of the Bernoulli
equation for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid
for incompressible flows (e.g. most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e.g. gases)
moving at low Mach numbers. More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to
compressible flows at higher Mach numbers.
Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This
states that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along
a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic
energy and potential energy remain constant. Thus an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs
proportionately with an increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy, and a decrease
in its static pressure and potential energy. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir, the sum of all
forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit volume
(the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere.
Bernoulli's principle can also be derived directly from Newton's 2nd law. If a small
volume of fluid is flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of low
pressure, then there is more pressure behind than in front. This gives a net force on the volume,
accelerating it along the streamline.

In most flows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, the density of a fluid parcel
can be considered to be constant, regardless of pressure variations in the flow. Therefore, the
fluid can be considered to be incompressible and these flows are called incompressible flow.
Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids, so his equation in its original form is valid only
for incompressible flow. A common form of Bernoulli's equation, valid at any arbitrary point
along a streamline, is:

CHAPTER # 2
EXPERIMENTS
2.1 Experiment no.1
2.1.1 Objective
To investigate the characteristics of Turbine Pump.
2.1.2 Procedure
a) Calibration of torque balance:

Open access door at the front of the test rig to remove the toothed drive belt. Release
the dynamometer clamping knob and swing the dynamometer assembly to the right
or left in order to release the toothed belt from its pulleys.

With the belt freed from the dynamometer, close the front access door.

Set the motor speed control to zero, and switch on the motor.

Using the motor speed control set the motor speed the 1000 rev/min. to allow the
bearings etc. to attain running conditions.

Unscrew the lower sliding weight on the torque measurement beam and set the
captive weight to the zero datum on the upper scale.

Adjust the position of the counterbalance weight to set the beam horizontal, so that
the engraved line on the beam is coincident with the notch in the end plate.

Switch off Motor.

Open access door and re-fit the toothed drive belt between the dynamometer pulley
and the pulley of the pump to be tested.

Close the access door.

b) Measurement of Flow:Volumetric Tank Method

This technique is usually used when testing the gear pump, centrifugal pump and turbine pump.

Open the dump valve (item 19). Pull the knob upwards and rotate it to retain the
valve open.

Having followed the pump operating Instructions selected the appropriate running
speed or operating pressure setting; run passing through the channel and into the
volumetric tank.

The volume of water in the tank is measured directly on the sight glass scale. It will
be noted that there are two scales. The lower scale, which is calibrated from 0 to 6
liters, is used when measuring low rates of flow, scale, which is calibrated from 0 to
40 liters, is used when the rates of flow are high.

Prepare the stopwatch set to zero.

Twist and lower the dump valve knob.

The water will now start to fill the volumetric tank. When it reaches the zero mark
appropriate sight glass scale, start the stopwatch.

Observe the sight glass scale and when a measured volume of water has entered the
volumetric tank, stop the stopwatch and note the elapsed time.

Volume in liters
Flow Rate in liters per second
=
____________________
Time
If required, the dump valve may now be opened and the measurement repeated.
Averaging of a number of readings will improve the accuracy of determination of
rate of flow.

c) Test Rig Operating Instructions:

Connect the toothed drive belt between the DC motor pulley and the turbine pump.

Open dump valve in volumetric tank.

Ensure that rubber plug to axial flow pump inlet at bottom of volumetric tank is in
position.

Close flow control valve.

Set motor speed to zero.

Switch ON motor and rotate the motor speed controller clockwise to give required
revolutions per minute.

Open turbine pump isolating and selection valve no. 4.

Open flow control valve and set it, and suction regulating valve to give the required
rate of flow.

Pressures reading for turbine pump are taken from pressure gauge no. 1.
10

Shutting down procedure for turbine pump is carried out by simply reversing the
above sequence of operations.

2.1.3 Observations & Calculations


Pump is a fluid motive device i.e. it is used to transport the fluid from one point to the other.
For centrifugal and turbine pump, the following relationship relates to Flow rate, Input power,
Hydraulic power, Efficiency etc.

Flow rate =

Volume Pumped
Time Taken

Input Power =

2 N T
60

Hydraulic Power = gQH x 10-3

Efficiency =

Hydraulic Power
Input Power

x 100

gQH x 10 -3 x 100
2 NT
=
60

gQH x 10 -3 x 60 x 100
2 N T

3 gQH
NT

Pump Speed (N) =

Where,
N = Pump speed in rpm
11

T = Torque in N-m
H = Pressure head in meter of H2O

= Density of water in Kg/m3


g = 9.8m/s2
Q = Flow rate

Flow calculations for axial flow pump:


Q=

Cd

2g

Following is the table which gives us observations obtained from the operation of the turbine
pump which operated at 1400 and 1500 rpm.
a) Case 1:

Motor Speed=1400rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

16
14
12
10
8
6

0
0
0
0
0
0

16
14
12
10
8
6

5
5
5
5
5
5

53.08
38.3
20.14
17
14
12.7

0.094
0.131
0.248
0.294
0.357
0.394

2.13
1.96
1.85
1.75
1.67
1.57

312.1
287.2
271.1
256.4
244.7
230.1

14.79
17.93
29.23
28.85
28.03
23.17

4.74
6.24
10.78
11.25
11.45
10.07

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

12

13

(b) Case 2:

Motor Speed=1500rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

18
16
14
12
10
8

0
0
0
0
0
0

18
16
14
12
10
8

5
5
5
5
5
5

47.64
30.47
22.96
18.28
15.26
13.5

0.105
0.164
0.218
0.274
0.328
0.370

2.25
2.13
2.03
1.9
1.81
1.75

353.3
334.4
318.7
298.3
284.2
274.8

18.53
25.76
29.91
32.20
32.14
29.07

5.25
7.70
9.38
10.79
11.31
10.58

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1500 rpm:

14

15

2.2 Experiment no.2


2.2.1 Objective:
To investigate the characteristics of Centrifugal Pump .
2.2.2 Procedure:
a) Test Rig Operating Instructions:

Connect the toothed drive belt between the DC motor pulley and the centrifugal
pump.

Open dump valve in volumetric tank.

Ensure that rubber plug to axial flow pump inlet at bottom of volumetric tank is in
position.

Close flow control valve.

Open suction regulating valve.

Set motor speed to zero.

16

Switch ON motor and rotate the motor speed controller clockwise to give required
revolutions per minute.

Open centrifugal pump isolating and selection valve no. 1.

2.2.3 Observations & calculations:Following is the table which gives us observations obtained from the operation of the centrifugal
pump which operated at 1400 and 1500 rpm:
a) Case 1:

Motor Speed=1400rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

3.5
3.25
3
2.75
2.5
2.25

0
0
0
0
0
0

3.5
3.25
3
2.75
2.5
2.25

5
5
5
5
5
5

43.75
24.7
13.1
9.9
8.63
7.52

0.114
0.202
0.382
0.505
0.579
0.665

0.37
0.39
0.455
0.5
0.54
0.57

54.2
57.1
66.7
73.3
79.1
83.5

3.92
6.45
11.23
13.63
14.21
14.68

7.24
11.29
16.85
18.60
17.96
17.57

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

17

18

b) Case 2:

Motor Speed=1500rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

4
3.75
3.5
3.25
3
2.75

0
0
0
0
0
0

4
3.75
3.5
3.25
3
2.75

5
5
5
5
5
5

49.89
22.78
13.97
10.68
8.68
8.21

0.100
0.219
0.358
0.468
0.576
0.609

0.42
0.43
0.495
0.52
0.57
0.6

65.9
67.5
77.7
81.6
89.5
94.2

3.93
8.07
12.29
14.93
16.95
16.43

5.96
11.96
15.81
18.28
18.94
17.44

19

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1500 rpm:

20

21

2.3 Experiment no. 3


2.3.1 Objective
To investigate the characteristics of Gear Pump .
2.3.2 Procedure: a) Test Rig Operating Instructions:

Connect the toothed drive belt between the DC motor pulley and the gear pump.

Open dump valve in volumetric tank.

Ensure that rubber plug to axial flow pump inlet at bottom of volumetric tank is in
position.

Open gear pump isolating selection valve.

Open flow control valve. Set motor speed to zero.

Switch ON motor and rotate the motor speed controller clockwise to give required
revolutions per minute.

Pressures reading for gear pump are taken from pressure gauge no 3.

Vacuum readings for the gear pump are obtained by opening vacuum selector valve
no. 3

2.3.3 Observations & calculations:Following is the table which gives us observations obtained from the operation of the gear pump
which operated at 700 and 800 rpm:
a) Case 1:

Motor Speed=700

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

8
7
6
5
4
3

0
0
0
0
0
0

8
7
6
5
4
3

2
2
2
2
2
2

270
91
43
30
22
18

0.007
0.022
0.047
0.067
0.091
0.111

1.35
1.3
1.25
1.22
1.17
1.12

98.9
95.2
91.6
89.4
85.7
82.1

0.58
1.51
2.74
3.27
3.57
3.27

0.59
1.58
2.99
3.66
4.16
3.98

22

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

23

b) Case 2:

Motor Speed=800rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Volume

Time

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

liters

sec

liters/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

10
8
6
4
3
2

0
0
0
0
0
0

10
8
6
4
3
2

2
2
2
2
2
2

138
52
29
19
15
12

0.014
0.038
0.069
0.105
0.133
0.167

1.54
1.44
1.35
1.26
1.17
1.11

128.9
120.6
113.0
105.5
98.0
92.9

1.42
3.02
4.06
4.13
3.92
3.27

1.10
2.50
3.59
3.92
4.01
3.52

24

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

25

26

2.4 Experiment no. 4


2.4.1 Objective
To investigate the characteristics of Axial flow Pump.
2.4.2 Procedure:a) Test Rig Operating Instructions

Close dump valve in volumetric tank.

Fill the tank with water by using gear pump.

Connect the toothed drive belt between the DC motor pulley and the axial flow
pump.

Ensure that rubber plug to axial flow pump inlet at bottom of volumetric tank is in
position.

Open flow control valve. Set motor speed to zero.

Switch ON motor and rotate the motor speed controller clockwise to give required
revolutions per minute.

Pressures reading for axial flow pump are taken from pressure gauge no 4.

Vacuum readings for the axial flow pump are obtained by opening vacuum selector
valve no. 4

b) Measurement of Flow: The Hook and Point Gauge Method

This technique is usually used when testing the axial flow pump.

Gauge meter is placed over the delivery tank side.

Set the meter reading to zero.

Now switch ON the motor and adjust it to required speed.

Adjust the pressure head by adjusting the axial flow control valve.

Adjust the meter knob so that it just touches the upper level of the water.

Read the height from the gauge meter.

27

2.4.3 Observations & calculations:Following is the table which gives us observations obtained from the operation of the axial flow
pump which operated at 1400 and 1500 rpm:
a) Case 1:

Motor Speed=1400rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Width
(B)

Height
(H)

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

mm

mm

m3/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

0
0
0
0
0
0

1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6

50
50
50
50
50
50

13
22
31
38
43
50

0.000131
0.000289
0.000484
0.000656
0.000790
0.000990

1.54
1.44
1.35
1.26
1.17
1.11

225.7
211.0
197.8
184.6
171.4
162.7

1.42
2.84
4.27
5.15
5.42
5.83

0.63
1.34
2.16
2.79
3.16
3.58

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

28

29

b) Case 2:

Motor Speed=1500rpm

Pressure

Vacuum

Pump
Head

Width
(B)

Height
(H)

Flow

Torque

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

m.H2O

m.H2O

m.H2O

mm

mm

m3/sec

Nm

Watt

Watts

1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7

0
0
0
0
0
0

1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7

50
50
50
50
50
50

14
22
28
35
42
47

0.000147
0.000289
0.000415
0.000580
0.000763
0.000903

0.49
0.44
0.41
0.41
0.4
0.37

76.9
69.1
64.4
64.4
62.8
58.1

1.73
3.12
4.07
5.12
5.98
6.20

2.25
4.52
6.33
7.96
9.53
10.67

Graphs:

Following are the plots that describe the pump characteristics at 1400 rpm:

30

31

2.5 Experiment No. 5


2.5.1 Objective
To demonstrate the appearance and sound of cavitations in a hydraulic system.
To demonstrate the conditions for cavitations to occur (liquid at its vapor pressure)
To show how cavitations can be prevented by raising the static pressure of a liquid above
its vapor pressure.
2.5.2 Description
The apparatus consists of a rectangular venturi section with a window allowing full
visualization. The venture section is contained between two end fittings, the one on the upstream
side incorporating a flow regulating valve. The complete assembly is mounted on a backboard
arranged for wall mounting and requires the services of an Armfield Hydraulics Bench (F1-10)
or laboratory water supply, flow measurement and drainage system. Pressure tappings are
provided at the throat and inlet of the venturi and each is connected to a gauge mounted on the
backboard.
2.5.3 Observation and Calculations
Sr

P1
bar

P1(abs)
bar

P2
bar

P2 (Abs.)
bar

P3
bar

Volume
liter

Time
S

Flow Rate
m3/s

1
2
3
4
5
6

1.8
1.5
1.2
0.9
0.6
0.3

2.8
2.5
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.3

-0.505
-0.499
-0.48
-0.45
-0.399
-0.22

0.495
0.501
0.52
0.55
0.601
0.78

0
0
0
0
0
0

5
5
5
5
5
5

17.67
17.47
18.72
21.00
25.43
35.82

0.0002820
0.0002862
0.0002670
0.0002380
0.0001960
0.0001390

Fig 2.34: Cavitations: Flow Rate vs. Throat Pressure

32

2.6 Experiment # 06
Objective: To calculate the Reynoldss number of the fluid in case of Laminar,
Transition and Turbulent flow
Equipments: Hydraulic Bench, Reynoldss Apparatus, Volumetric cylinder, Stop watch
Procedure
a. First of all we set the Reynoldss apparatus and switched on the motor.
b. The Head tank in Reynoldss apparatus was filled to the required level.
c. The ink drop from the upper cylinder was allowed to fall into the water tank and the tank
valve was opened.
d. The flow behavior (laminar, transition and turbulent) of ink water was visualized by
increasing the flow rate slowly and corresponding flow rate was determined by dividing
the volume observed in the cylinder by the time noted.
Q = Av
e. The Reynolds Number is calculated for each case as shown in the observations and
calculations.
Re=
Observations and Calculations

Diameter of test pipe, d= 0.01m


Density of water,

= 1000 kg / m3

Dynamic viscosity, = 1.002 10-3 Ns/m2


Area of test pipe, A = 7.85 10-5 m2
For Laminar Flow

1)

V
30ml

2.46ml / sec 2.46 10 6 m 3 / sec


t
12.19 sec

Q 2.46 10 6 m 3 / sec

0.0313m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

Dv 0.01 0.0313 1000

312.88

1.002 10 3
V
50ml
Q
2.22ml / sec 2.22 10 6 m 3 / sec
t
22.45 sec
Re

2)

Q 2.22 10 6 m 3 / sec

0.0283m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

33

Dv
0.01 0.0283 1000

283.14

1.002 10 3
V
40ml
Q

1.96ml / sec 1.96 10 6 m 3 / sec


t
20.38ec
Re

3)

Q 1.96 10 6 m 3 / sec

0.0250m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

Re

Dv 0.01 0.0250 1000

249.5

1.002 10 3

For Turbulent Flow


1)

V
100ml

24.57 ml / sec 24.57 10 6 m 3 / sec


t
4.07 sec

Q 24.57 10 6 m 3 / sec

0.313m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

Re

2)

Dv 0.01 0.313 1000

3123.69

1.002 10 3

V
150ml

14.6ml / sec 14.6 10 6 m 3 / sec


t
10.27 sec

Q 14.6 10 6 m 3 / sec

0.816m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

Dv 0.01 0.816 1000

8143.7

1.002 10 3
V
50ml
Q
27.47ml / sec 27.47 10 6 m 3 / sec
t
1.84 sec
Re

3)

Q 27.47 10 6 m 3 / sec
v
0.349m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2
Re

Dv 0.01 0.349 1000

3492.69

1.002 10 3

For Transition Flow

34

V 140ml

16.86ml / sec 1.6 10 5 m 3 / sec


t
8.3 sec

Q 1.6 10 5 m 3 / sec

0.203m / sec
A
7.85 10 5 m 2

Re

Dv 0.01 0.203 1000

2025

1.002 10 3

..

2.7. Experiment # 07

35

2.7 Objective:
To determine the head/ flow-rate characteristics of a centrifugal pump for a number of
different configuration.
2.7.1. Method:
By measurement of pressure at pump inlet and outlet and discharge flow-rate .
2.7.2 Equipment:
In order to complete the demonstration, we need a number of pieces of equipment
The Hydraulic Benches, which provides one of the two pumps used during this
experiment and allows the volume flow rate to be measured by time volume collection.
The F1-26 Test Accessory
A stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow-rate of water (not supplied).
2.7.3. Technical Data
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with
your measurement.
Head Correction Values:
Datum to manifold gauge:
hd = 0.96m
Datum to F1-26 outlet gauge:
hd = 0.170m
Datum to F1-26 inlet gauge:
hd = 0.020m
Datum to Bench pump inlet:
hd = 0.240m

2.7.1. Observation for Single Pump Operation:


Vacuum(m)
0
0
0
-1
-2
-2

Discharge
head(m)
20
18
16
15
14
12

Volume(liter)

Time(sec)

flow(liter/sec)

1
1
1
1
1
1

18.65
8.26
6.73
3.38
3.55
2.55

0.05361930
0.121065375
0.148588414
0.261096191
0.281690141
0.24

2.7.1.1. Characteristic Curve:

36

2.7.2. Observation for Parallel Pump Operation:


Vacuum(m)
0
0
0
0
0

Discharge
head(m)
20
18
16
14
12

Volume(ltr)

Time(sec)

Flow rate(ltr/sec)

1
3
4
5
5

4.85
5.53
5.52
5
4.5

0.206185567
0542495479
0.724637661
1
1.111111111

2.7.2.1. Characteristic Curves:

37

2.7.3.1. Observation for Series Pump Operation:


Discharge(m)
30
25
20
15
10

Volume(ltr)
5
5
5
5
5

Time(sec)
4.94
3.95
3.71
3.03
2.71

Flow rate(liter/sec)
1.01214574
1.265822785
1.347708895
1.650165017
1.84501845

2.7.3.2. Characteristic Curves:

2.8. Experiment # 08

38

8.1. Objective:
To investigate the validity of Bernoulli Equation when applied to steady flow of water in
tapered duct.
8.1.1. Method:
To measure flow-rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent
tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow-rates.
8.1.2. Equipment:
In order to complete the demonstration of the Bernoulli Equation, we need a number of
pieces of equipment.
The F1-10 Hydraulic Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume
collection.
The F1-15 Bernoulli Apparatus Test Equipment
A stopwatch for timing the flow measurement
8.1.3. Technical Data:
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with
your own measurement
The dimensions of tube are detailed below:
Tapping Position
Manometer Legend
Diameter
A
h1
25.0
B
h2
13.9
C
h3
11.8
D
h4
10.7
E
h5
10.0
F
h6
25.0

8.2. Observation Column:

39

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

Volume(ltr)

Time

180
170
160
150
190
200
210
220

163
160
155
149
170
170
180
185

145
145
150
147
145
145
140
140

125
125
140
145
120
110
105
100

105
125
135
144
100
80
65
55

135
135
140
144
130
125
120
120

135
140
145
135
130
130
130
125

180
140
170
140
170
200
250
220

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

13.06
16.04
22.25
70.44
10.8
11.43
8.9
8.4

Flow
(ltr/sec)
0.0765675
0.0623456
0.0449456
0.0141967
0.0925967
0.0874834
0.112359
0.119047

Bernoullis proof
Flow
Rate
(m^3/s)

Diameter
(mm)

Area
(m^2)

Velocity
(m/s)

Dynamic
Head (m)

Static
Head (m)

Total Head
(m)

Percentage Error
Exp(head=0.21)

0.000112
0.000112
0.000112
0.000112
0.000112
0.000112

25
13.9
11.8
10.7
10
25

0.000491
0.000152
0.000109
8.99E-05
7.85E-05
0.000491

0.228897
0.740441
1.027439
1.249547
1.430606
0.228897

0.00267043
0.027943579
0.05380383
0.079580399
0.10431367
0.00267043

0.18
0.14
0.105
0.065
0.12
0.13

0.18267043
0.16794358
0.15880383
0.1445804
0.2243136
0.13267043

13.01408098
20.02686733
24.37912838
31.15219
-6.81603323
36.82360479

Results and Discussion


40

Experiment # 1 ~ 4

The conversion of mechanical energy into fluid energy by machines is of major


concern in many applications. The types of hydraulic machines available for this
conversion vary considerably in principle and design. The selection of correct pump
for a particular application is essential for efficient, satisfactory operation.

In this experiment the multi-pump rig is used to measure the characteristics of the
following pumps.
1. turbine pump
2. centrifugal pump
3.

gear pump

4. axial flow pump

Graphs were plotted for pump head, input power, and efficiency (ordinate) versus
flow rate (abscissa) and compared with typical curves. It has been found that graphs
of all pumps (plotted for pump head, input power and efficiency) showed the trends
typical of pump performance curves.

Centrifugal and Turbine pumps:

Pumps action and performance of a pump are defined in terms of their characteristics
curves. These curves correlate the capacity of pump in unit time versus discharge or
differential pressures. These curves usually supplied by pump manufacturers are for
water only. These curves usually shows the following relationships ( for centrifugal
pump). A plot of capacity versus differential head. The differential head is the
difference in pressure between the suction and discharge.

The pump efficiency as a percentage versus capacity.

The net positive head required by pump versus capacity. The required NPSH for
pump is a characteristic determined by manufacturer. Centrifugal pumps are usually
rated on the basis of head and capacity at the point of maximum efficiency.

Gear pump:

The typical characteristics curves of gear pump are drawn for three different speeds
of 700, 800 and 900 rpm. As obvious from the curves the pump has the efficiency
increases with increasing head to a certain point then start decreasing with increasing
the rpm.
41

It is observed that by increasing the rpm, torque increases due to which input power
and efficiency increases.

In gear pump, the time for measurement of flow is much higher than centrifugal and
turbine pump, which shows the lesser flow rate.

Higher heads characterized by gear pumps allow comparison with centrifugal and
turbine pumps even though the rpm of gear pump are nearly the half of both
described pumps. The flow of gear pumps is lower than the turbine and centrifugal
pumps. Thus lower hydraulic power and hence lower efficiencies but at higher head
the efficiencies are comparable to that turbine pumps. Efficiencies of gear pumps are
increasing with increasing rpm, but still over all lesser than turbine and centrifugal
pumps.

Axial flow pump:

Axial flow pumps are best suited for application requiring high flow rate but the head
they develop is low. This makes them unsuitable for applications requiring both high
and relatively higher head.

Sources of Error:The mechanical equipments have some limitations due to which the error in the observations
may arise. In the current system the following are the major source of error

Voltage fluctuation may change the RPM of the motor due to which the torque
changes.

More power loss if the motor become hot.

If the density of the fluid changes during the experiments also affect the efficiency
and observations of the system.

Experiment # 5
Cavitation occurs when the suction pressure is below the saturation pressure at a given
temperature. From the above mentioned results, it is evident that the suction pressure is well
above the saturation pressure at room temperature except at the last pressure value (0.3 bar) so
cavitation has occurred at 0.3 bar.

42