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Finite Element

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1.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.1. In one dimension, the master element (M = [1, 1]) quadratic

isoparametric shape functions are H(s) = [s(1 + s)/2, 1 s2 , s(1 + s)/2]T , and the mapping from

M to the element [x1 , x3 ] = [2, 6] with interior node x2 = 4 is given by

x=x

(s) = ( 2

6)H

d

x

= (2

ds

J=

(1 + 2s)/2

= 2.

6)

2s

(1 + 2s)/2

The derivative of the shape functions are found from the definition H(

=

1 /dx = (1 + 2s)/4. Utilizing this information we have

(dH/ds)J 1 so that dH

#

2

Z 1"

Z 1

dH1

1 (1 + 2s)2

s2 (1 + s)2

2

2

K11 =

J

+ H1 Jds =

+

2ds.

ds

4

4

4

1

1

Integrating we find K11 = 67/60

2.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.3. The master element for bilinear shape functions on rectangles

is the square M = {(s, t) : 1 s, t 1}. The bilinear master element shape functions are

H(s, t) = [(1 s)(1 t)/4, (1 + s)(1 t)/4, (1 + s)(1 + t)/4, (1 s)(1 + t)/4]T and the isoparametric

transformation from the master element to the rectangle R (physical element) shown in Fig.P6.3

may be written as

x

x

(s, t)

1 3 5 2

=

=

H XH

y

y(s, t)

1 2 4 5

The Jacobian matrix of this transformation is

J=

x

/s y/t

y/s y/t

or

= X ( H/s

1

J=

4

(1 t) (1 s)

1 (1 t) (1 + s)

H/t ) = X

(1 + t)

(1 + s)

4

(1 + t) (1 s)

11 + 3t

2

1 + 3s

12

J

2

=

67 + 3s + 18t

12

2

1 3s

11 + 3t

The matrix of partial derivatives of the shape functions for the physical element with respect to

j (x, y) are related to the master

x, y is given by (Recall that the physical element shape functions H

x(s, t), y(s, t)) = Hj (s, t).)

[

H

H H 1

H

,

]=[

,

]J .

x y

s t

Since all the requisite matrices have been computed, the derivatives may be found by matrix algebra.

i /x and H

i /y for i = 1, 2. These are computed as follows:

The problem requires H

1 /x

H

1 /y

H

H2 /x

2 /y

H

= 2 [(1 t)(1 + 3s)/4 (1 s)(11 + 3t)/4] /(67 + 3s + 18t),

= 2 [3(1 t) (1 + s)/2] /(67 + 3s + 18t),

= 2 [(1 t)(1 + 3s)/4 (1 + s)(11 + 3t)/4] /(67 + 3s + 18t).

One

R approach to the

Pcomputation.

n

possibility is to compute the required integral manually, i.e., M F (s, t) dsdt = i,j=1 F (si , tj )wi wj

where sk , tk , wk k = 1, . . . , n are the Gauss-Legendre points and weights listed in the text, and for

a hand computation n = 2 would be a reasonable choice. An efficient approach, and certainly the

preferred one if more than one stiffness element were to be computed, is to modify the file ex661.m

provided by with the text. An appropriate modification is shown below. (The initial comments

supplied with the file have been deleted to save space.)

function k=prob6_3(xpts, ypts, ngx, ngy)

nnel=4;

ndof=1;

edof=nnel*ndof;

% degrees of freedom per node

% degrees of freedom per element

nglx=ngx; ngly=ngy;

xcoord=xpts;

ycoord=ypts;

% x coordinate values

% y coordinate values

[point2,weight2]=feglqd2(nglx,ngly);

%-------------------------------k=zeros(edof,edof);

for intx=1:nglx

x=point2(intx,1);

wtx=weight2(intx,1);

for inty=1:ngly

y=point2(inty,2);

wty=weight2(inty,2) ;

% initialization to zero

% weight in x-axis

% sampling point in y-axis

% weight in y-axis

% derivatives at sampling point

jacob2=fejacob2(nnel,dhdr,dhds,xcoord,ycoord);

detjacob=det(jacob2);

invjacob=inv(jacob2);

% compute Jacobian

% determinant of Jacobian

% inverse of Jacobian matrix

% physical coordinate

2

%-----------------------------for i=1:edof

for j=1:edof

k(i,j)=k(i,j)+(dhdx(i)*dhdx(j)+dhdy(i)*dhdy(j))*wtx*wty*detjacob;

end

end

end

end

%----------------------------------------------------------------This file produces the entire stiffness matrix as follows:

EDU>> prob6_3([-1,3,5,-2],[-1,-2,4,5],4,4)

ans =

0.8529

-0.3175

-0.3951

-0.1404

-0.3175

0.7163

-0.1092

-0.2896

-0.3951

-0.1092

0.6344

-0.1302

-0.1404

-0.2896

-0.1302

0.5602

3.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.5. The bilinear shape functions, Hi (s, t), i = 1, . . . , 4, on the master

square are given on p.163 of the textbook. The isoparametric map between the master square and

the element shown in Fig. P6.5 is given by

1 2 2.5 1.5

x

=

H = XH

1 1 2

2

y

with H = (H1 , . . . , H4 )T . The Jacobian of the mapping is

(1 t) (1 s)

1 (1 t) (1 + s)

0.5

J = X ( H/s H/t ) = X

=

(1 + t)

(1 + s)

0

4

(1 + t) (1 s)

0.25

0.5

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