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# ME471 Assignment 6 Solutions

1.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.1. In one dimension, the master element (M = [1, 1]) quadratic
isoparametric shape functions are H(s) = [s(1 + s)/2, 1 s2 , s(1 + s)/2]T , and the mapping from
M to the element [x1 , x3 ] = [2, 6] with interior node x2 = 4 is given by
x=x
(s) = ( 2

6)H

d
x
= (2
ds

J=

(1 + 2s)/2
= 2.
6)
2s
(1 + 2s)/2

## x) = H(s), i.e., dH/dx

The derivative of the shape functions are found from the definition H(
=
1 /dx = (1 + 2s)/4. Utilizing this information we have
(dH/ds)J 1 so that dH
#

2

Z 1"
Z 1
dH1
1 (1 + 2s)2
s2 (1 + s)2
2
2
K11 =
J
+ H1 Jds =
+
2ds.
ds
4
4
4
1
1
Integrating we find K11 = 67/60
2.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.3. The master element for bilinear shape functions on rectangles
is the square M = {(s, t) : 1 s, t 1}. The bilinear master element shape functions are
H(s, t) = [(1 s)(1 t)/4, (1 + s)(1 t)/4, (1 + s)(1 + t)/4, (1 s)(1 + t)/4]T and the isoparametric
transformation from the master element to the rectangle R (physical element) shown in Fig.P6.3
may be written as
  
 

x
x
(s, t)
1 3 5 2
=
=
H XH
y
y(s, t)
1 2 4 5
The Jacobian matrix of this transformation is

J=

x
/s y/t
y/s y/t

or

= X ( H/s

1
J=
4

(1 t) (1 s)
1 (1 t) (1 + s)
H/t ) = X

(1 + t)
(1 + s)
4
(1 + t) (1 s)

11 + 3t
2

1 + 3s
12

## The inverse of this matrix is

J

2
=
67 + 3s + 18t

12
2

1 3s
11 + 3t

The matrix of partial derivatives of the shape functions for the physical element with respect to
j (x, y) are related to the master
x, y is given by (Recall that the physical element shape functions H

## element shape functions by Hj (

x(s, t), y(s, t)) = Hj (s, t).)
[

H
H H 1
H
,
]=[
,
]J .
x y
s t

Since all the requisite matrices have been computed, the derivatives may be found by matrix algebra.
i /x and H
i /y for i = 1, 2. These are computed as follows:
The problem requires H
1 /x
H
1 /y
H

H2 /x
2 /y
H

## = 2 [3(1 t) (1 s)/2] /(67 + 3s + 18t),

= 2 [(1 t)(1 + 3s)/4 (1 s)(11 + 3t)/4] /(67 + 3s + 18t),
= 2 [3(1 t) (1 + s)/2] /(67 + 3s + 18t),
= 2 [(1 t)(1 + 3s)/4 (1 + s)(11 + 3t)/4] /(67 + 3s + 18t).

## It is clear that numerical integration of the element K12 is the best

One
R approach to the
Pcomputation.
n
possibility is to compute the required integral manually, i.e., M F (s, t) dsdt = i,j=1 F (si , tj )wi wj
where sk , tk , wk k = 1, . . . , n are the Gauss-Legendre points and weights listed in the text, and for
a hand computation n = 2 would be a reasonable choice. An efficient approach, and certainly the
preferred one if more than one stiffness element were to be computed, is to modify the file ex661.m
provided by with the text. An appropriate modification is shown below. (The initial comments
supplied with the file have been deleted to save space.)
function k=prob6_3(xpts, ypts, ngx, ngy)
nnel=4;
ndof=1;
edof=nnel*ndof;

## % number of nodes per element

% degrees of freedom per node
% degrees of freedom per element

nglx=ngx; ngly=ngy;

## % use ngx x ngy integration rule

xcoord=xpts;
ycoord=ypts;

% x coordinate values
% y coordinate values

[point2,weight2]=feglqd2(nglx,ngly);

## %-------------------------------% numerical integration

%-------------------------------k=zeros(edof,edof);
for intx=1:nglx
x=point2(intx,1);
wtx=weight2(intx,1);
for inty=1:ngly
y=point2(inty,2);
wty=weight2(inty,2) ;

% initialization to zero

## % sampling point in x-axis

% weight in x-axis
% sampling point in y-axis
% weight in y-axis

## [shape,dhdr,dhds]=feisoq4(x,y); % compute shape functions and

% derivatives at sampling point
jacob2=fejacob2(nnel,dhdr,dhds,xcoord,ycoord);
detjacob=det(jacob2);
invjacob=inv(jacob2);

% compute Jacobian

% determinant of Jacobian
% inverse of Jacobian matrix

## [dhdx,dhdy]=federiv2(nnel,dhdr,dhds,invjacob); % derivatives w.r.t.

% physical coordinate
2

## %-----------------------------% element matrix loop

%-----------------------------for i=1:edof
for j=1:edof
k(i,j)=k(i,j)+(dhdx(i)*dhdx(j)+dhdy(i)*dhdy(j))*wtx*wty*detjacob;
end
end
end
end
%----------------------------------------------------------------This file produces the entire stiffness matrix as follows:
EDU>> prob6_3([-1,3,5,-2],[-1,-2,4,5],4,4)
ans =
0.8529
-0.3175
-0.3951
-0.1404

-0.3175
0.7163
-0.1092
-0.2896

-0.3951
-0.1092
0.6344
-0.1302

-0.1404
-0.2896
-0.1302
0.5602

## From which we read that K12 = 0.3175

3.) Textbook p.195, problem 6.5. The bilinear shape functions, Hi (s, t), i = 1, . . . , 4, on the master
square are given on p.163 of the textbook. The isoparametric map between the master square and
the element shown in Fig. P6.5 is given by

  
1 2 2.5 1.5
x

=
H = XH
1 1 2
2
y
with H = (H1 , . . . , H4 )T . The Jacobian of the mapping is

(1 t) (1 s)

1 (1 t) (1 + s)
0.5
J = X ( H/s H/t ) = X
=
(1 + t)
(1 + s)
0
4
(1 + t) (1 s)

0.25
0.5