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You are on page 1of 54

HYDROMECHANICS

FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

II

Dr. Bertu Akntu

Department of Civil Engineering

Middle East Technical University

Northern Cyprus Campus

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

1/54

Overview

2.2 Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits

2.2.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

2.2.4 Moody Chart

2/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Consider a steady fully developed flow in a prismatic pipe

V1=V2=V

A1=A2=A

1=2=1

1=2=1

Assumptions:

- Fully developed flow (uniform)

- Circular tube (pipe)

- Steady Flow

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

- Incompressible fluid

- Constant diameter

3/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

(a) Relationship between wall shear stress

and head loss

Continuity Equation

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 = VA = constant

Momentum Equation

0, since 1= 2

where

W sin = AL sin

= A( z1 z 2 )

and

F f = w PL

P: wetted perimeter

4/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Momentum Equation gives

p1 A1 p2 A2 + A( z1 z 2 ) w PL = 0

w LP w L

=

=

z1 + z 2

A

RH

p1

p2

A D 2 4 D R

=

RH = =

P

D 4 2

W sin = AL sin

= A( z1 z 2 )

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

P: wetted perimeter

5/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Momentum Equation gives

wL

z1 + z 2

=

RH

p1

p2

z1 +

p1

z2

p2

= hL

wL

hf =

RH

2 L

hf = w

R

4 w L

hf =

D

Note that the above equation is applicable for both laminar and

turbulent flows and for open channel flows as well.

6/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

(b) Relationship between wall shear stress

and velocity

Dimensional Analysis

w = F (V , D, , , )

shear stress

w

= f

1 =

2

V

dynamic pressure

VD VD

=

Reynolds Number

2 =

3 = Relative Roughness

D

1 = ( 2 , 3 )

VD

w

=

,

2

V

D

w = f V 2

7/54

2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation

(c) Relationship between head loss and velocity

f=

= function Re,

2

V

D

w = f V 2

V 2L

4 w L 4 f

=

hf =

D

D

let 8f'=f and g=/

L V2

f = function Re,

hf = f

D

D 2g

8/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

well as a result of fully developed flow

Assumptions:

- Fully developed flow (uniform)

- Circular tube (pipe)

- Steady Flow

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

- Incompressible fluid

- Constant diameter

9/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Local acceleration is zero. Convective acceleration is zero as well as a

result of fully developed flow

Momentum Equation

p1r 2 ( p1 p )r 2 2rl = 0

p 2

=

l

r

10/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

(laminar or turbulent flow) and typical velocity profiles.

2 w r

=

D

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

4l w

p =

D

pressure difference if l/D is large

(relatively long pipe)

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

For laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, the shear stress is

simply proportional to the velocity gradient (Section 1.6)

= (du/dr). For our pipe flow,

p

du

=

r =

2l

dr

The negative sign is included to give > with du/dr < 0 ( the

velocity decreases from the pipe centerline to the pipe wall)

12/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

p

du

r

=

dr

2 l

p 2

)r + C1

integration yields u ( r ) = (

4 l

condition at the pipe wall so that u = 0 at r=D/2 and

C1=(pD2/(16l)). Hence

Centerline (max) velocity

Velocity:

Vc=(pD2/(16l)).

2

2r 2

pD 2 2r

1 = Vc 1

u (r ) =

D

16l D

13/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Integration of u(r) over the pipe area gives volume flowrate

R

Q = udA = u (r )2rdr =

0

R 2Vc

2

R 2Vc Vc pD 2

V=

= =

2

2 R

2

32 l

D 4 p

Q=

128l

Recall that all of these results are restricted to laminar flow in

a horizontal pipe.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

14/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Flowrate:

D 4 p

Q=

128l

Inversely proportional to viscosity

Inversely proportional to the pipe length

Proportional to the pipe diameter to the fourth power

15/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

replacing p by (p-l sin) where is the angle between

the pipe and the horizontal.

p l sin 2

(p l sin ) D 2

(p l sin ) D 4

=

V=

Q=

32 l

128l

l

r

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

16/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Example 3: An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 N.s/m2 and

density = 900 kg/m3 flow in a pipe of diameter D = 0.020 m.

a) What pressure drop, p1-p2, is needed to produce a flowrate of

Q = 2.0 x 10-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal with x1=0 and x2=10 m?

b) How steep a hill, , must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow

through the pipe at the same rate as in part (a), but with p1 = p2?

c) For the conditions of part (b), if p1 = 200 kPa, what is the

pressure at section x3 = 5 m, where x is measures along the pipe?

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

17/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

From dimensional analysis:

Assume that p is a function of

p = f (V , l , D, )

# of variables = 5 and # of dimensions = 3 (M,L,T)

According to the result of dimensional analysis

(CVE 371), this flow can be described in terms of 5-3=2 dimensionless

Group. One such represents

Dp

l

= ( )

V

D

pipe length

4

Dp Cl

p CV

C

pD

(

/

4

)

=

Q = AV =

2

D

V

l

D

l

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

18/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

The same functional form as theory implies

( / 4C )pD 4

Q = AV =

l

Recall average velocity was found to be

D 2 p

V =

32l

We can divide both sides by the dynamic pressure

(recall from Chapter 3)

1

V 2

2

l 64 l

32 lV / D 2

=

=

= 64

1

1

VD D Re D

V 2

V 2

2

2

p

19/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

This is often written as

l V 2

p = f

D 2

where the dimensionless quantity

D 2

f = p

2

l V

Alternate expression as a dimensional wall shear stress

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

f =

64

Re

8 w

f =

V 2

20/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Energy Consideration

Recall from Chapter 5 (in the absence of energy sources)

p2

V 22

V 21

+ 1

+ z1 =

+ 2

+ z2 + hL

2g

2g

p1

where alpha values (always >=1) compensate for the fact that

velocity profile across the pipe is not uniform (Chapter 5).

1 = 2

1V12 / 2 g = 2V22 / 2 g

Hence

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

p1

p2

+ z1 + z 2 = hL

21/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Remember

p1r 2 ( p1 p )r 2 2rl = 0

p 2

=

l

r

p1

+ z1 ) (

p2

2l

hL = h f =

r

+ z 2 ) = hL

4l w

hf =

D

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

No minor loss

which is proportional to viscosity.

22/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

In summary

Velocity:

max. velocity

2

pD 2 2r

1

u (r ) =

16 l D

Vc = umax

2r 2

or u (r ) = Vc 1

D

Average Velocity:

Vc pD

V= =

2

32 l

1V12 / 2 g = 2V22 / 2 g

23/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

In summary

Wall Shear Stress:

pD

w =

4l

or

8V

w =

D

Shear Stress:

du

=

dr

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

or

2r

=w

D

24/54

2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

In summary

Flow Rate:

D 4 p

Q = VA =

128l

Friction Loss:

4l w

hf =

D

Friction Factor:

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

64

f =

Re

32lV

hf =

D 2

f =

l V2

hf = f

D 2g

8 w

V 2

25/54

Example 4: The flow rate Q of corn syrup through the horizontal pipe shown in

the figure is to be monitored by measuring the pressure difference between

sections (1) and (2). The variations of the syrups viscosity and density with

temperature are given in the following table

a) Determine the wall shear stress and

the pressure drop p=p1-p2 for Q=14 lt/s

for T=40C.

b) For the condition of part (a), determine

the net pressure force and the net shear

force on the fluid within the pipe between

the section (1) and (2).

T (C)

(kg/m3)

(N.s/m2)

15

1067

1.9152

25

1062

0.9097

40

1057

0.1819

50

1051

0.0211

60

1046

0.0044

70

1041

0.0011

2m

10 cm

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

26/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

27/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

u(t): fluctuating part of u(t)

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

28/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

We can write the velocity vector as

u = u + u'

Average velocity:

Fluctuations are equally

distributed on either side of

the average. However, the

square of fluctuation is

always greater than zero.

1

(u ' ) =

T

2

1

u=

T

t o +T

u ( x, y, z, t )dt

to

t o +T

2

(

u

u

)

dt > 0

to

29/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress

The structure and characteristics of turbulence may vary

from one flow situation to another. A measure of turbulence

is called turbulence intensity

(u ' ) 2 T

=

u

u

u

dt

(

)

t

t o +T

increases. Well designed wind tunnels have typical values of

0.01 or smaller.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

30/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

turbulent flow resulting in an additional term in the shear stress

expression:

du

=

u ' v' = lam + turb

dy

If the flow is laminar, then fluctuations vanish and we recover the

viscosity expression for Newtonian fluids. The second term is called the

turbulent shear stress and it is always positive. Hence the shear stress in

turbulent flow is always greater than shear stress in laminar flow.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

31/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

lam is

dominant

turb is

dominant

Structure of turbulent flow in a pipe. (a) Shear stress. (b) Average velocity.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

32/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

greater than the shear stress in the laminar region, while

the converse is true in the viscous sublayer.

Note that an accurate model of turbulent flow requires the

knowledge of Reynolds stresses which require the

knowledge of velocity fluctuations which can not be solved

for most turbulent flow problems.

33/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

three regions which are characterized by their distances

from the wall:

compared with the turbulent (or Reynolds) stress and the

random (eddying) nature of flow is absent. In this layer fluid

viscosity is important parameter.

Overlap region: Transition region

Outer turbulent layer: The Reynolds stress is dominant, and

there is considerable mixing and randomness of the flow. In

this layer density is important parameter.

34/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

u

yu

=

*

u

where

y = Rr

w

u =

friction velocity

y = s: thickness of the viscous sublayer

R

y

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

s =

very near the smooth wall

for 0 yu / 5

u*

35/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

yu

u

+ 5.0

= 2.5 ln

*

u

where

y = Rr

R

y

w

u =

friction velocity

very near the smooth wall

for 0 yu / 5

36/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

R

Vc u

= 2.5 ln

*

u

y

or

1/ n

u r

= 1

Vc R

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

Figure 8.17

Exponent, n, for power-law velocity profiles.

37/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Typical laminar flow

and turbulent flow

velocity profiles.

38/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Example 5: Water at 20C (=998 kg/m3 and =1.004 x 10-6 m3/s) flows

through a horizontal pipe of 0.1 m diameter with a flowrate of Q=4x10-2 m3/s

and a pressure gradient of 2.59 kPa/m.

a) Determine the approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer.

b) Determine the approximate centerline velocity, Vc.

c) Determine the ratio of the turbulent to laminar shear stress, turb/ lam at a

point midway between the centerline and the pipe wall (r=0.025 m).

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

39/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

experimental data and semi-empirical formulas which are

expressed in dimensionless forms.

We need to determine the head loss. For convenience,

we will consider two types of energy losses; minor (local)

and major (friction) losses

hL = hLmajor + hLminor

Note that major and minor losses do not necessarily reflect the magnitude

of the energy losses

40/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Consider the pipe flow again. Pressure drop is

a function of a number of physical and

geometrical parameters:

p = F (V , D, l , , , )

a measure of the roughness of the pipe

wall (unit is length)

41/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

There are seven parameters and three

reference dimensions.

p

~ VD l

= (

, , )

2

1 / 2 V

D D

Reynolds number

Dynamic pressure

42/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Lets assume that pressure drop is proportional to the length of the pipe:

l

= (Re, )

2

1 / 2 V

D

D

Recall that

f =

pD

is

the

friction

factor.

Then

we

have

f

=

(Re,

)

2

D

lV / 2

p1

1V 21

2g

+ z1 =

p2

2V 2 2

2g

+ z 2 + hL

43/54

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

For constant diameter, horizontal pipe with fully

developed flow (alphas are equal)

hLmajor

l V2

= f

D 2g

p1 p2 = ( z1 z 2 ) + hLmajor

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

l V2

= ( z1 z 2 ) + f

D 2g

44/54

Conduits

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

The Moody Chart.

f=64/Re

/ D

1

2.51

= 2 log

+

3.7 Re f

f

Re

2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Smooth Pipe and Hydraulically Smooth Flow

2.51

1

= 2 log

Re f

f

/ D

1

2.51

= 2 log

+

f

3.7 Re f

1

/ D

= 2 log

f

3. 7

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

46/54

Conduits

2.2.4 Moody Diagram

47/54

Conduits

2.2.4 Moody Diagram

48/54

Closed Conduits

2.2.4 Moody Diagram

Loss coefficient for a sudden expansion.

Conservation of mass

A1V1 = A3V3

Conservation of momentum

p1 A3 p3 A3 = A3V3 (V3 V1 )

Note that:

Conservation of energy

V 21 p3 V 2 3

+

=

+

+ hL

2g

2g

p1

K L = hL /(V1 / 2 g )

A1 2

K L = (1 )

A2

49/54

Example 6:

A soft drink with the properties of 10C water is

sucked through a 4 mm diameter, 0.25 m long

straw at a rate of 4 cm3/s. Is the flow at the outlet

of the straw laminar? Is it fully developed?

50/54

Example 7:

0.5 m

D=10 mm

Entrance K=0.5

Given Q=3.6 lt/min

L=2 m

b) Draw E.G.L. and H.G.L. and determine the kinematics viscosity.

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

51/54

Exercise 1:

Water at 20C flows in a 15 cm diameter pipe with a

flowrate of 60 lt/s.

a) Determine the centerline velocity. (Ans: 4.06 m/s)

b) What is the approximate velocity at a distance 5 cm

away from the wall? (Ans: 3.86 m/s)

52/54

Exercise 2:

For a smooth pipe of diameter 75 mm, the head

loss for a distance of 150 m is 21 m. When the

flowrate is 8.5 lt/s. Is the flow laminar or

turbulent? (Ans: laminar)

53/54

Exercise 3:

The pressure heads measured in a 2 cm diameter circular pipe are

p1/ = 22 m and p2/ = 21.5 m. The distance between two measuring

points is 1500 m. Taking =9810 N/m3, = 1000 kg/m3, =1x10-6 m2/s

determine:

a) State of the flow

b) The equation of velocity and shear stress profiles

c) Maximum velocity

d) Velocity and shear stress at r=5 mm and y=4 mm.

e) Discharge

ANS: (a) laminar, (b) u=0.0816-816r2, =1.635r, (c)=0.0816 m/s,

(d) u(r=5mm)=0.0612 m/s, (r=5mm)=0.008175 N/m2

u(y=4mm)=0.0522 m/s, (y=4mm)=0.00981 N/m2,

(e) 1.282 x 10-5 m3/s

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

54/54

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