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CVE 372

HYDROMECHANICS
FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS
II
Dr. Bertu Akntu
Department of Civil Engineering
Middle East Technical University
Northern Cyprus Campus
CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Overview
2.2 Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits
2.2.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
2.2.4 Moody Chart

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Consider a steady fully developed flow in a prismatic pipe

V1=V2=V
A1=A2=A
1=2=1
1=2=1

Assumptions:
- Fully developed flow (uniform)
- Circular tube (pipe)
- Steady Flow
CVE 372 Hydromechanics

- Incompressible fluid
- Constant diameter
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
(a) Relationship between wall shear stress
and head loss
Continuity Equation

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 = VA = constant

Momentum Equation

0, since 1= 2

p1 A1 p2 A2 + W sin F f = Q( 2V2 1V1 )


where

W sin = AL sin
= A( z1 z 2 )

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

and

F f = w PL
P: wetted perimeter
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Momentum Equation gives

p1 A1 p2 A2 + A( z1 z 2 ) w PL = 0

w LP w L
=
=
z1 + z 2

A
RH
p1

p2

where RH is hydraulic radius

A D 2 4 D R
=
RH = =
P
D 4 2

W sin = AL sin
= A( z1 z 2 )
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P: wetted perimeter
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Momentum Equation gives

wL
z1 + z 2
=

RH
p1

p2

Energy Equation gives

z1 +

p1

z2

p2

= hL

wL
hf =
RH
2 L
hf = w
R

4 w L
hf =
D

Note that the above equation is applicable for both laminar and
turbulent flows and for open channel flows as well.

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
(b) Relationship between wall shear stress
and velocity
Dimensional Analysis

w = F (V , D, , , )
shear stress
w
= f
1 =

2
V
dynamic pressure
VD VD
=
Reynolds Number
2 =

3 = Relative Roughness
D

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1 = ( 2 , 3 )
VD
w
=
,
2
V
D

w = f V 2
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.1.1 Derivation of Darcy-Weisbach Equation
(c) Relationship between head loss and velocity

f=
= function Re,
2
V
D

w = f V 2
V 2L
4 w L 4 f
=
hf =
D
D
let 8f'=f and g=/
L V2

f = function Re,
hf = f
D
D 2g

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Local acceleration is zero. Convective acceleration is zero as


well as a result of fully developed flow

Motion of a cylindrical fluid element within a pipe.

Assumptions:
- Fully developed flow (uniform)
- Circular tube (pipe)
- Steady Flow
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- Incompressible fluid
- Constant diameter
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
Local acceleration is zero. Convective acceleration is zero as well as a
result of fully developed flow

Free-body diagram of a cylinder of fluid

Momentum Equation

p1r 2 ( p1 p )r 2 2rl = 0

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p 2
=
l
r

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Shear stress distribution within the fluid in a pipe


(laminar or turbulent flow) and typical velocity profiles.

2 w r
=
D
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4l w
p =
D

Small shear stress can produce large


pressure difference if l/D is large
(relatively long pipe)

Applicable to both laminar and turbulent flow in pipes11/54

2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
For laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid, the shear stress is
simply proportional to the velocity gradient (Section 1.6)
= (du/dr). For our pipe flow,

p
du
=
r =
2l
dr
The negative sign is included to give > with du/dr < 0 ( the
velocity decreases from the pipe centerline to the pipe wall)

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

p
du
r
=
dr
2 l

p 2
)r + C1
integration yields u ( r ) = (
4 l

We can evaluate the integration constant using the no slip


condition at the pipe wall so that u = 0 at r=D/2 and
C1=(pD2/(16l)). Hence
Centerline (max) velocity

Velocity:

Vc=(pD2/(16l)).

2
2r 2
pD 2 2r
1 = Vc 1
u (r ) =
D
16l D

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
Integration of u(r) over the pipe area gives volume flowrate
R

Q = udA = u (r )2rdr =
0

R 2Vc
2

by definition, the average velocity is the V=Q/A = Q/R2

R 2Vc Vc pD 2
V=
= =

2
2 R
2
32 l

D 4 p
Q=
128l

Above equation is referred to as Poiseuilles Law.


Recall that all of these results are restricted to laminar flow in
a horizontal pipe.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Flowrate:

D 4 p
Q=
128l

Proportional to the pressure drop


Inversely proportional to viscosity
Inversely proportional to the pipe length
Proportional to the pipe diameter to the fourth power

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes

For Non-horizontal pipe, the adjustment is required by


replacing p by (p-l sin) where is the angle between
the pipe and the horizontal.

Free-body diagram of a fluid cylinder for flow in a nonhorizontal pipe.

p l sin 2
(p l sin ) D 2
(p l sin ) D 4
=
V=
Q=
32 l
128l
l
r
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
Example 3: An oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 N.s/m2 and
density = 900 kg/m3 flow in a pipe of diameter D = 0.020 m.
a) What pressure drop, p1-p2, is needed to produce a flowrate of
Q = 2.0 x 10-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal with x1=0 and x2=10 m?
b) How steep a hill, , must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow
through the pipe at the same rate as in part (a), but with p1 = p2?
c) For the conditions of part (b), if p1 = 200 kPa, what is the
pressure at section x3 = 5 m, where x is measures along the pipe?

Solved in the class room


CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
From dimensional analysis:
Assume that p is a function of

p = f (V , l , D, )
# of variables = 5 and # of dimensions = 3 (M,L,T)
According to the result of dimensional analysis
(CVE 371), this flow can be described in terms of 5-3=2 dimensionless
Group. One such represents
Dp
l

= ( )
V
D

A further assumption: the pressure drop is directly proportional to the


pipe length
4
Dp Cl
p CV

C
pD
(
/
4
)

=
Q = AV =
2
D
V
l
D
l
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
The same functional form as theory implies

( / 4C )pD 4
Q = AV =
l
Recall average velocity was found to be

D 2 p
V =
32l
We can divide both sides by the dynamic pressure
(recall from Chapter 3)

1
V 2
2

l 64 l
32 lV / D 2
=
=
= 64

1
1
VD D Re D
V 2
V 2
2
2
p

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
This is often written as

l V 2
p = f
D 2
where the dimensionless quantity

D 2

f = p
2
l V

Darcy friction factor

For a fully developed laminar flow the friction factor is


Alternate expression as a dimensional wall shear stress
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f =

64
Re

8 w
f =
V 2

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
Energy Consideration
Recall from Chapter 5 (in the absence of energy sources)

p2
V 22
V 21
+ 1
+ z1 =
+ 2
+ z2 + hL
2g
2g

p1

where alpha values (always >=1) compensate for the fact that
velocity profile across the pipe is not uniform (Chapter 5).

1 = 2
1V12 / 2 g = 2V22 / 2 g

For fully developed flow velocity profile is constant

Hence
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p1
p2

+ z1 + z 2 = hL

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Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
Remember

p1r 2 ( p1 p )r 2 2rl = 0
p 2
=
l
r

p1

+ z1 ) (

p2

2l
hL = h f =
r

+ z 2 ) = hL

Using the shear stress at the pipe wall, we have

4l w
hf =
D
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No minor loss

Friction loss is proportional to the shear stress,


which is proportional to viscosity.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
In summary
Velocity:

max. velocity

2
pD 2 2r
1
u (r ) =
16 l D

Vc = umax

2r 2
or u (r ) = Vc 1
D

Average Velocity:

Vc pD
V= =
2
32 l

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1V12 / 2 g = 2V22 / 2 g

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
In summary
Wall Shear Stress:

pD
w =
4l

or

8V
w =
D

Shear Stress:

du
=
dr
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or

2r
=w
D
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Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.2 Laminar Flow in Pipes
In summary
Flow Rate:

D 4 p
Q = VA =
128l

Friction Loss:

4l w
hf =
D
Friction Factor:
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64
f =
Re

32lV
hf =
D 2

f =

l V2
hf = f
D 2g

8 w
V 2

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Example 4: The flow rate Q of corn syrup through the horizontal pipe shown in
the figure is to be monitored by measuring the pressure difference between
sections (1) and (2). The variations of the syrups viscosity and density with
temperature are given in the following table
a) Determine the wall shear stress and
the pressure drop p=p1-p2 for Q=14 lt/s
for T=40C.
b) For the condition of part (a), determine
the net pressure force and the net shear
force on the fluid within the pipe between
the section (1) and (2).

T (C)

(kg/m3)

(N.s/m2)

15

1067

1.9152

25

1062

0.9097

40

1057

0.1819

50

1051

0.0211

60

1046

0.0044

70

1041

0.0011

2m

10 cm
CVE 372 Hydromechanics

Solved in the class room

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

We slowly increase the flowrate in a long section of a pipe.

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow

u(t): instantaneous velocity in the x-direction


u(t): fluctuating part of u(t)

The time-averaged, , and fluctuating, , description of a parameter for tubular flow.


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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress


We can write the velocity vector as

u = u + u'

Fluctuation (time average of fluctuations is zero)

Average velocity:
Fluctuations are equally
distributed on either side of
the average. However, the
square of fluctuation is
always greater than zero.

1
(u ' ) =
T
2

1
u=
T

t o +T

u ( x, y, z, t )dt

to

t o +T

2
(
u

u
)
dt > 0

to

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Turbulent Shear Stress
The structure and characteristics of turbulence may vary
from one flow situation to another. A measure of turbulence
is called turbulence intensity

(u ' ) 2 T
=
u

u
u
dt
(

)
t

t o +T

As this parameter increases, the fluctuations of the velocity


increases. Well designed wind tunnels have typical values of
0.01 or smaller.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress

The random velocity components result in momentum transfer in


turbulent flow resulting in an additional term in the shear stress
expression:

du
=
u ' v' = lam + turb
dy
If the flow is laminar, then fluctuations vanish and we recover the
viscosity expression for Newtonian fluids. The second term is called the
turbulent shear stress and it is always positive. Hence the shear stress in
turbulent flow is always greater than shear stress in laminar flow.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress


lam is
dominant

turb is
dominant

Structure of turbulent flow in a pipe. (a) Shear stress. (b) Average velocity.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress

Typically turbulent shear stress is 100 to 1000 times


greater than the shear stress in the laminar region, while
the converse is true in the viscous sublayer.
Note that an accurate model of turbulent flow requires the
knowledge of Reynolds stresses which require the
knowledge of velocity fluctuations which can not be solved
for most turbulent flow problems.

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Velocity Profile

Fully developed turbulent flow in a pipe can be broken into


three regions which are characterized by their distances
from the wall:

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

Viscous sublayer: The viscous shear stress is dominant


compared with the turbulent (or Reynolds) stress and the
random (eddying) nature of flow is absent. In this layer fluid
viscosity is important parameter.
Overlap region: Transition region
Outer turbulent layer: The Reynolds stress is dominant, and
there is considerable mixing and randomness of the flow. In
this layer density is important parameter.
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Velocity Profile

In the viscous sublayer:

u
yu
=
*
u

where

y = Rr

w
u =

friction velocity

u = the time av. x component of the velocity


y = s: thickness of the viscous sublayer
R
y
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s =

Law of the wall, valid


very near the smooth wall
for 0 yu / 5

u*
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Velocity Profile

In the overlap region:

yu
u
+ 5.0
= 2.5 ln
*
u

where

y = Rr

R
y

u = the time av. x component of the velocity


w

u =

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

friction velocity

Law of the wall, valid


very near the smooth wall
for 0 yu / 5
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Velocity Profile

In the turbulent region:

R
Vc u
= 2.5 ln
*
u
y
or
1/ n

u r
= 1
Vc R
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Figure 8.17
Exponent, n, for power-law velocity profiles.

Power-Law velocity profile


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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Velocity Profile


Typical laminar flow
and turbulent flow
velocity profiles.

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Example 5: Water at 20C (=998 kg/m3 and =1.004 x 10-6 m3/s) flows
through a horizontal pipe of 0.1 m diameter with a flowrate of Q=4x10-2 m3/s
and a pressure gradient of 2.59 kPa/m.
a) Determine the approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer.
b) Determine the approximate centerline velocity, Vc.
c) Determine the ratio of the turbulent to laminar shear stress, turb/ lam at a
point midway between the centerline and the pipe wall (r=0.025 m).

Solved in the class room


CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Most turbulent pipe flow analyses are based on


experimental data and semi-empirical formulas which are
expressed in dimensionless forms.
We need to determine the head loss. For convenience,
we will consider two types of energy losses; minor (local)
and major (friction) losses

hL = hLmajor + hLminor
Note that major and minor losses do not necessarily reflect the magnitude
of the energy losses

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Consider the pipe flow again. Pressure drop is
a function of a number of physical and
geometrical parameters:

p = F (V , D, l , , , )

This time we included a parameter which is


a measure of the roughness of the pipe
wall (unit is length)

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
There are seven parameters and three
reference dimensions.

p
~ VD l
= (
, , )
2
1 / 2 V
D D
Reynolds number
Dynamic pressure

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Lets assume that pressure drop is proportional to the length of the pipe:

l
= (Re, )
2
1 / 2 V
D
D
Recall that

f =

pD
is
the
friction
factor.
Then
we
have
f
=

(Re,
)
2
D
lV / 2

The energy equation for steady, incompressible flow is given by

p1

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

1V 21
2g

+ z1 =

p2

2V 2 2
2g

+ z 2 + hL
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
For constant diameter, horizontal pipe with fully
developed flow (alphas are equal)

hLmajor

l V2
= f
D 2g

This is called Darcy-Weisbach equation

For nonhorizontal pipes

p1 p2 = ( z1 z 2 ) + hLmajor
CVE 372 Hydromechanics

l V2
= ( z1 z 2 ) + f
D 2g
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed


Conduits
2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
The Moody Chart.

For laminar flow:


f=64/Re

For turbulent flow:


/ D
1
2.51
= 2 log
+
3.7 Re f
f

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

for large values, f is independent of 45/54


Re

2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


2.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Smooth Pipe and Hydraulically Smooth Flow

2.51
1
= 2 log
Re f
f

Colebrook White Transition Flow

/ D
1
2.51

= 2 log
+

f
3.7 Re f

Rough Pipe Hydraulically Rough Flow

1
/ D
= 2 log

f
3. 7
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed


Conduits
2.2.4 Moody Diagram

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed


Conduits
2.2.4 Moody Diagram

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in


Closed Conduits
2.2.4 Moody Diagram
Loss coefficient for a sudden expansion.

Conservation of mass

A1V1 = A3V3
Conservation of momentum

p1 A3 p3 A3 = A3V3 (V3 V1 )
Note that:
Conservation of energy

V 21 p3 V 2 3
+
=
+
+ hL
2g
2g

p1

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K L = hL /(V1 / 2 g )

A1 2
K L = (1 )
A2
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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Example 6:
A soft drink with the properties of 10C water is
sucked through a 4 mm diameter, 0.25 m long
straw at a rate of 4 cm3/s. Is the flow at the outlet
of the straw laminar? Is it fully developed?

Solved in the class room

CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Example 7:
0.5 m

D=10 mm

Entrance K=0.5
Given Q=3.6 lt/min

L=2 m

a) Determine the state of the flow and velocity in the pipe.


b) Draw E.G.L. and H.G.L. and determine the kinematics viscosity.

Solved in the class room


CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Exercise 1:
Water at 20C flows in a 15 cm diameter pipe with a
flowrate of 60 lt/s.
a) Determine the centerline velocity. (Ans: 4.06 m/s)
b) What is the approximate velocity at a distance 5 cm
away from the wall? (Ans: 3.86 m/s)

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Exercise 2:
For a smooth pipe of diameter 75 mm, the head
loss for a distance of 150 m is 21 m. When the
flowrate is 8.5 lt/s. Is the flow laminar or
turbulent? (Ans: laminar)

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2. FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Fully Developed Flow in Closed Conduits


Exercise 3:
The pressure heads measured in a 2 cm diameter circular pipe are
p1/ = 22 m and p2/ = 21.5 m. The distance between two measuring
points is 1500 m. Taking =9810 N/m3, = 1000 kg/m3, =1x10-6 m2/s
determine:
a) State of the flow
b) The equation of velocity and shear stress profiles
c) Maximum velocity
d) Velocity and shear stress at r=5 mm and y=4 mm.
e) Discharge
ANS: (a) laminar, (b) u=0.0816-816r2, =1.635r, (c)=0.0816 m/s,
(d) u(r=5mm)=0.0612 m/s, (r=5mm)=0.008175 N/m2
u(y=4mm)=0.0522 m/s, (y=4mm)=0.00981 N/m2,
(e) 1.282 x 10-5 m3/s
CVE 372 Hydromechanics

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