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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the discussion of the researcher design used,
selected population and sample size, description of the respondents, instrumentation
and procedures.
I.

Research Method
In this study, the general and specific problems centred on factors that influences

the consumers in choosing fast food. The researchers used the Descriptive Research
Method specifically the Survey Method in obtaining facts and information for this study.
Descriptive research is one major category of the descriptive studies. It is
concerned with the analysis development of generalizations, extending its conclusions
beyond the sample observed. This definition led the researchers to use the method
which is the most in-depth of all the different types of activity under the descriptive
studies. The other two major categories which in point of fact do not show researchs
fullness are the assessment and evaluation. Unlike descriptive research, assessment
only describes the status of a phenomenon at a particular time without value judgement,
explanation of reasons or underlying causes, or recommendations for action. Different
also is the evaluation for the fact that it only add to description or social utility and may
only suggest a course of action. Yet still, there are no generalizations after the
evaluation of the situation. (Best 1981; ERIC Digest 2003-2007)
Evaluative research is concerned with the assessment of policies, programs or
institutional frameworks. Evaluative research evaluates: it judges, assesses, or
measures something in relation to outcomes or requirements. If you want to know how
well a policy has worked , or how well a program is performing, or whether a practice is
effective or successful, or what the outcomes of a given policy are, youre doing
Evaluative research
Research questions in Evaluative research ask measurement or performance
questions like How much, how well, or outcome questions pertaining to impact or

results.

Think of this paradigm as a scale or calculator, measuring somethings

characteristics, growth, or performance. (Research Paradigms, Lauren F. Wollman,


Phd)
This type of research design will help to give the nature and extent of
consumers preferences on choosing fast food chain. Through the descriptive research
design, the study will broaden the discussion of the factors that influences consumers
on choosing fast food chain.
The researcher used descriptive-evaluative as a research design. It is focus in a
description of the consumer in terms of the age, gender, marital status as well as to their
income status. The researcher also considered evaluative research because it aimed to
measured the consumer preferences and factors upon choosing a fast food chain.
II.

Population and Sample Size


The target population was the consumers from different selected SM Malls in

Metro Manila. The average population size based on the traffic count of selected SM
malls in Metro Manila are 40,000-50,000 in Southmall, 200,000 in SM Mall of Asia,
70,000-80,000 in SM Makati, 180,000-190,000 in SM Megamall and 240,000 in SM
North Edsa. This study will be using convenience sampling to obtain the sample size
from the population size. The sample size of the study is composed of 400 respondents.
III.

Sampling Technique
The sampling procedures according to Ghauri & Gronhaug (2010) have

categorized the sampling method into two broad types which are probability and nonprobability samples. For our sampling procedures, we have chosen the non-probability
sample because it is not possible to make valid inferences about the population. We
have chosen a convenience sampling in order to save time and cost since we decide to
give the questionnaire randomly in selected SM malls.
IV.

Description of the Respondents

In this research, the respondents were consumers of both gender who


particularly buy and eat in fast food chains located in selected SM Malls in Metro Manila
including SM Mall of Asia, SM Makati, SM North Edsa, SM Megamall and SM
Southmall. These respondents who are students, employed and unemployed of different
age group.
V.

Instrumentation
In determining consumer preferences, the researchers used a survey

questionnaires as their instrument to collect data for their study. With the used of survey
questionnaires comprised of questions about the fast food consumption of the
consumers, factors that influences the consumers preferences of fast food chain, and
demographic profile of the consumers in the sample. Questionnaires determined the
consumers most preferred fast food chain. This survey questionnaire explored the
perceptions of the consumers personally what is the most influential factor that they
consider in choosing fast food chains.
A survey-type of questionnaire will be provided for the convenience of 150 respondents
so that a clear rating result of consumers preferences will be revealed and the type of
survey questionnaire that the researcher used was Likert scale. This will allow for
comparison within and between data sets.
VI.

Data Gathering and Procedures


The data collection methods were introduced to apply for gathering the data for

the study of choosing a fast food chain. The primary and secondary data were preferred
due to the reliability and efficiency of the data evaluation. The primary data were
collected from the survey questionnaire itself while the secondary data were collected
from the books, articles and/or internet.
In this research, relevant data were collected from primary data which is
the survey questionnaires. The survey method is the gathering of data from a
comparatively large number of cases at a particular time. This does not give concern
with the traits of each case but with the generalized result or statistics abstracted from a
number of individual cases. Also, prior to that, it should first have clearly defined

problem and definite objectives. Then, it is one important type of study the researchers
must not be confused with the other data gathering techniques. (Best, 1981; ERIC
Digest 2003-2007)
Moreover, another

data

gathering

were

through

survey questionnaires

comprising of 5 questions which primarily focuses on respondents preferences in


choosing fast food chains. The questionnaires used to determine the most influential
factor for the respondents. After the questionnaires validated by the professor, these
were countered in consumers from selected SM malls in Metro Manila. A good approach
for respondents was first observed. The researchers assured confidentiality of their
survey sheets. The researchers also understood that consumers consciousness may
also affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the
researchers gave the option of being anonymous. As well as the participants gave a
time to respond. Afterwards, the researchers collected the surveys as soon as it was
finished by the respondents. There were no incentives offered for participating in the
research.
The secondary data were collected from books as well as related study and
literature of various local and/or foreign authors which provided different facts that can
be useful for this study. Internet helped the researcher in a way of providing related
information and different thoughts and ideas from random people through the feedbacks
that they are giving.
VII.

Statistical Treatment of Data


1. Percentage. This is used to determine and describe the demographic profile
of the consumer-respondents of selected SM Malls in Metro Manila as well as
their fast food consumption. Moreover, this is used to obtain the top answers
in the preferred fast food chain, company as well as the most influential factor.
The formula is:
f
P= x 100
n
Where:

P = Percentage
f = frequency
n = number of respondents

2. Ranking. This is used to determine the ranking of the different indicators and
domains considered.

CHAPTER 4
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

This chapter presents the

different tables and

graphs, analysis and

interpretations of the organized data collected from the consumer-respondents in


selected SM smalls. Each set of data was analyzed and interpreted in the context of the
study that aimed to evaluate the factors that influences the consumers in choosing fast
food chain. The corresponding tables were presented in sequence to give further clarity
on data presentation and analysis. The questionnaire is attached as Appendix A.
The demographic profile of the consumer-respondents, according to:
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Age;
Gender;
Civil Status, and;
Occupational Status
Table 1
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Age
Category

Frequency

Percentage

Adolescence

123

30.75

Young Adult

240

60.00

Middle Adult

33

8.25

Senior Citizen

1.00

400

100.00

Total

Table 1 presented the profile of the respondents in terms of age. Data showed
that majority (about 60.00%) are young adult consumers. There were about 30.75%
who are adolescence, 8.25% who were middle adult and 1.00% who were senior
citizen. Moreover, it implied that the consumers comprising the population sample of this
study fits the rationality of the consumers.
Table 2
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Gender
Category
Female
Male
Total

Frequency
214
186
400

Percentage
53.50
46.50
100.00

Shown in Table 2 is the profile of respondents in terms of gender. There are


about 53.25% of male consumers that comprised the population sample while the
remaining 46.75% are females. Further, it shows that there are more males than
females who responded in this study.
Table 3
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Civil Status
Category
Single
Married
Separated
Widowed
Total

Frequency
296
89
12
3
400

Percentage
74.00
22.25
3.00
0.75
100.00

Table 3 displayed the profile of respondents in terms of civil status. Majority of the
respondents were about 74.00% who were single while there were 22.25% who were
married, 3.00% who were separated and 0.75% who were widowed. Moreover, there
are more single than the others who involved in the population sample who answered in
this study.

Table 4
Profile of Respondents According to the Category of Occupational Status
Category
Employed
Unemployed
Student
Total

Frequency
188
50
162
400

Percentage
47.00
12.50
40.50
100.00

Showed in Table 4 is the profile of the respondents in terms of their occupational


status. There were about 47.00% consumers were employed that comprised the
population sample while the remaining 12.50% and 40.50% where unemployed and
student, respectively. Further, it showed that there are more employed than unemployed
and student who responded in this study.

1. How often do you eat on a fast food chain store?


Figure 1
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Age
160
140
120
100
Once a Week

80

2-3 times a week


Everyday

60
40
20
0
Adolescence

Young Adult

Middle Adult

Senior

Exhibited in Figure 1 is the manifestation of the frequency of the consumers in


fast food consumption in terms of age. Majority of the respondents in every age bracket
tend to eat in a fast food chain once a week. There are about 61.79% (76 out of 123) of
adolescents, 60.42% (145 out of 240) of young adult, 63.64% (21 out of 33) of middle
adult and all the seniors replied once a week.
Figure 2
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Gender

160
140
120
100
Once a Week

80

2-3 times a week


Everyday

60
40
20
0
Male

Female

Exhibited in Figure 2 showed the Males dont usually eat on a fast food because
57.53% (107 out of 186) of the male respondents answered once a week as well as the
majority of the female respondents which is 64.95% (139 out of 214).

Figure 3
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Gender

200
180
160
140
120

Once a Week

100

2-3 times a week

80

Everyday

60
40
20
0
Single

Married

Separated

Widowed

Figure 3 presents the fast food consumption according to their civil status. There
are the majority of 58.11% (172 out of 296) of singles, 69.67% (62 out of 89) of married,
75.00% (9 out of 12) of separated and 100% (3 out of 3) of widowed.
Figure 4
Frequency of Fast Food Consumption According to Occupational Status
120
100
80
Once a Week

60

2-3 times a week


Everyday

40
20
0
Employed

Unemployed

Student

Presented in Figure 4 is the profile of the respondents according to their


occupational status. Most of the respondents tend to eat once a week wherein 61.02%
(108 out of 177) of employed, 74.00% (37 out of 50) of unemployed and 64.33% of
students replied.
2. Which meal are you most likely to eat on a fast food store?

Figure 5
200
180
160
140

Series 1

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Breakfast

Lunch

Snack

Dinner

Based on the data gathered from the survey questionnaires, 46% (184 of 400)
among respondents tend to eat on fastfood chain for lunch. This shows a greater
percentage than the 26.25% (105 of 400) for lunch; 21.25% (85 of 400) for dinner and
6.5% (26 of 400) for breakfast.

3. Which fast food does you preferred most on a fast food store?

Figure 6

Pasta; 11%

Hotdog; 1% Others; 2%

Fries; 15%

Chicken; 43%

Burger; 14%
Pizza; 15%

The data gathered shows that 43% (172 of 400) of the respondents preferred
chicken in a fast food. Both pizza and fries got 15% (60 of 400) among respondents
choice. Also, 14% (56 of 400) and 10% (40 of 400). However, 1% (4 of 400) answered
while 2% (8 of 400) for others.
4. Based on the following factors, rank the given, in which 1 is the most important and
6 is the least important in your preferred fast food store.
Table 5
Quality of Food
Variety of Food
Price of Food
Convenience of
Location
Ambience/

236
20
83
18

97
64
113
26

39
113
78
54

10

27

37

Total

Rank

17
85
49
73

8
54
40
114

3
64
37
115

673
1481
1161
1784

1.68
3.70
2.90
4.46

90

115

121

1836

4.59

Atmosphere
Service Quality
36
80
95
91
50
48 1383
3.46
In Table 5, it showed the ranking of the consumer-respondents to the given
factors that quality of food is the most influential factor that affects the consumer in

choosing their preferred fast food chain followed by the price of the food, service quality,
variety of food, convenience of food, and with the least which is ambience/ atmosphere.
5. Are you willing to pay more than the usual you spend to eat on your preferred fast
food chain?
Figure 6

Category 1

YES
NO

50

100

150

200

250

300

Figure 6 show off the results that consumers are more willing to pay more than of
they usually spend with 60.25% (241 out of 400) of respondents answered yes than
39.75% (159 out of 400) that answered no.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter summarizes the study by highlighting the research conducted on the
topic. The conclusions given were drawn from the outcomes of the questionnaires and
evaluation on the top factor that highly considered by consumers on choosing fast food
chain. Moreover, recommendations were based from the findings and conclusion of the
study.
I.

General Summary of the Study


The researcher aimed to know the most preferred fast food chain as well as the

most influential factor that they consider in choosing fast food store. The researcher
used the descriptive-evaluative research method specifically survey in obtaining facts
and information for this study. This study used convenience sampling to obtain the
sample size from the population size. The sample size of the study was composed of
400 respondents who were considered as consumer when they bought or eat in fast
food store. To be able to have the data, the researchers used questionnaire as
instrument to collect data needed in the study. Also, relevant data were collected from
books as well as related study and literature of various local and/or foreign authors who
provided different facts that can be useful for this study. Internet also helped the
researchers on providing related information and different thoughts and ideas from
random people through the feedbacks that were found in internet. The statistical
treatments applied were ranking, and percentage.
II.

Summary of Findings
This research analyzes the factors that influence the consumers in choosing fast

food store. The general purpose of this study was covered on how to evaluate the
factors that could be improved and developed for the satisfaction of the consumers as
well as perceiving the present concept about consumers preferences in choosing fast
food chain.
1. What is the frequency of fast food consumption of the consumer-respondents in
terms of:
1.1
Age

Majority of the respondents in every age bracket tend to eat in a fast food
chain once a week. There are about 61.79% (76 out of 123) of adolescents,
60.42% (145 out of 240) of young adult, 63.64% (21 out of 33) of middle adult
and all the seniors replied once a week.
1.2

Gender
The data showed the Males dont usually eat on a fast food because

57.53% (107 out of 186) of the male respondents answered once a week as well
as the majority of the female respondents which is 64.95% (139 out of 214).
1.3
Civil Status
There are the majority of 58.11% (172 out of 296) of singles, 69.67% (62
out of 89) of married, 75.00% (9 out of 12) of separated and 100% (3 out of 3) of
widowed.
1.4
Occupational Status
There are the majority of 58.11% (172 out of 296) of singles, 69.67% (62
out of 89) of married, 75.00% (9 out of 12) of separated and 100% (3 out of 3) of
widowed.
2. What is the preferred meal time that consumers tend to eat in fast food chain?
The data showed that 46% (184 of 400) among respondents tend to eat
on fast food chain for lunch. This shows a greater percentage than the 26.25%
(105 of 400) for lunch; 21.25% (85 of 400) for dinner and 6.5% (26 of 400) for
breakfast.
3. What is the preferred fast food of the consumers?
The data gathered shows that 43% (172 of 400) of the respondents
preferred chicken in a fast food. Both pizza and fries got 15% (60 of 400) among
respondents choice. Also,14% (56 of 400) and 10% (40 of 400). However, 1% (4
of 400) answered while 2% (8 of 400) for others.
4. What is the most influential factor to the consumers in choosing fast food store?
The data showed quality of food is the most influential factor that affects the
consumer in choosing their preferred fast food chain followed by the price of the
food, service quality, variety of food, convenience of food, and with the least which is
ambience/ atmosphere as the respondents ranked it.
III.

Conclusions

The researchers were able to arrive at these conclusions based on the findings
of the study.
1. Majority of the consumers, even though in terms of age, gender, civil and
occupational status dine mostly once a week on a fast food chain.
2. Consumers tend to eat in fast food chain during lunch time.
3. Consumers preferred fast food store that offers Chicken.
4. Food Quality is the most influential factor that greatly affects the consumer in
choosing fast food store.
IV.

Recommendations