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DOF: Duplicate Detectable

Opportunistic Forwarding in DutyCycled Wireless Sensor Networks


Daibo Liu1, Zhichao Cao2, Jiliang Wang3, Yuan He3
Mengshu Hou1, Yunhao Liu3
1

University of Electronic Science and Technology of China


2 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
3 Tsinghua University

CitySee

Protocols
Routing
Collection Tree Protocol (CTP) (SenSys09)

Duty-cycled media access


X-MAC

I wake up periodically. If I hear nothing, I will go back to sleep!

I prepare send a packet. I will not stop sending until the ACK comes!
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Drawback
Waiting long time for the deterministic
forwarder wake-up
Longer delay
Energy waste

Opportunistic Forwarding
S

t
S

R1

R4

R1
R2

R3
R2
Reliable Link
Bursty Link

R3
R4

Take first wake-up and


successfully received opportunity.

Drawback
S
R1

Data

Data

Data

R1
R1

R2

Data

R3

Data

R1, R2, and R3 are all active


R4

Shorten the lifetime

R4

R3
R3

R2
R2
Reliable Link
Bursty Link

Traffic jam
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Existing Techniques
Overhearing
Not scalable
Lossy link

Coordination
Extra control overhead
How to mitigate the influence of the duplicate in a lightweight and efficient way?
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Temporal Diversity of ACK


Split the Acknowledgment (ACK) waiting
interval into multiple slot
Distinguish all potential forwarders by
their different ACK time slot
t

Probe

ACK Waiting Interval


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DOF Overview

Probe (P): detecting available forwarders

ACK (A): acknowledge the probe in different time slot


Data: send the data to the forwarder R2

S
R1

0 1 2 3 4

p
p

Data

R1
R1

R2

R3

R4

A 1 2 3 A 0

Data

R4

R3
R3

R2
R2
Reliable Link
Bursty Link

Slot Assignment
Routing progress

Routing progress: D

Mapping to
priority sequence

Hash

Priority
sequence

0 1 2 ... 9 10 11 12 ... 19 20 21 22 ... 29

Zone 0

ACK slot

Zone 1

Zone 2

Mapping to an ACK
slot with randomness

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the earliest ACK


at slot 0

Sender

P
T1

A
T2

Slot Inference
the received ACK

Tbase T 2 T1

A
T3

T r T3 T1

The slot Ks of the received ACK as :

K s (T r T base ) / T slot

T slot : preconfigured slot size

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Slot Size
Large Slot Size
Less ACK slots
Robust

Small Slot Size


More ACK slots
Vulnerable

Experiments in office environment


Tslot = 0.2ms
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Retransmission
Data transmission failure
Link failure
Mismatch of slot information

Experiments in office environment


link failure is rare
Link initiated by probe is temporally available

Maximum number of data transmission is 2

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Tunnel Transmission
Take the benefit of the probe transmission
of the first packet.
Send
Queue

R1

R4

R3
R2

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Evaluation

Indoor Testbed with 20

Telosb nodes

Different traffic loads


Inter Packet Interval (IPI) of
each node is set as 1s, 2s, 4s,
8s and 16s.

ORW (IPSN12)

Opportunistic Routing in Wireless


sensor networks

A-MAC (SenSys10) + CTP

Receiver initiated duty-cycled


media access
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Duplicate

IPI <= 2s, the duplicate ratio


ORW: > 80%
DOF: < 10%
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Packet Reception Ratio

IPI <= 2s, the average PRR


DOF: > 46.5% improvement
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Energy and Delay

Energy: radio duty cycle


DOF : > 21.4% improvement

Delay: average preamble count


DOF : as low as ORW

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Conclusion
DOF is a practical opportunistic forwarding technique tailored
to duty-cycled WSNs.
Key design
Exploiting the temporal diversity of ACK
Evaluation

Indoor testbeds
Good performance under various traffic loads
Future works
Large-scale test
Different hardware
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Thank you!
Question?

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Slot Assignment Function


Fixed slot assignment
Avoid the ACK slot collision
Extra control overhead
Lose some opportunities

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