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Aircraft Stability and Preformace
Lineratization
x y z

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Aerospace Vehicles

Aircraft Equations of

Motion

Dynamic Stability

Degree of

dynamic

stability:

time it takes

the motion to

damp to half or

to double the

amplitude of its

initial

amplitude

Handling

quality of an

airplane

Oscillations

growing

exponentially

Dynamic Stability

z

Longitudinal (symmetric)

z

z

z

Short period

z

z

Exchange of KE and PE

Easily controlled by pilot (usually)

Lightly damped

Usually heavily damped

Higher frequency than phugoid

Lateral-directional (asymmetric)

Roll mode (aperiodic roll rate convergence)

Dutch roll mode

z

z

Moderately damped

Moderate frequency

Vector Analysis

z

z

vector quantity has both magnitude and direction.

From physical point of view, when a mathematical vector is

used to express a physical element, such as force acting on an

object, velocity of a mass point, the third factor of location

needs to be accounted for.

As a result, the vector quantities can be classified into three

types:

(direction) and sense (magnitude) but not acting through any

particular point ;

a sliding vector, such as the moment acting on the body depends

upon the line of action of the force, has definite or specific line of

action, but is independent of the precise point of application along

that line;

a fixed vector is a vector with specified magnitude, direction, and

point of application.

Rigid body

z

distances between the particles do not vary. To

describe the motion of a rigid body we use two

systems of coordinates, a space-fixed system

xe, ye, ze, and a moving system xb, yb, zb, which is

rigidly fixed in the body and participates in its motion.

Newtons second law

Body frame

m

vc

CM

Fixed frame

inertial axis

mass respect to inertial reference system

z

a,v referred to an

absolute reference

system (inertial)

P (t ) = c (t ) + r (t )

P m

r

vc

dr

v = vc +

= vc + r

dt

a = ac +

CM

d 2r

dt

CM

= ac + r + ( r )

Angular velocity

= pi + qj + rk

c

o

ye

xe

Fixed frame

ze inertial axis

Summation of all external forces acting on a body is equal to

the time rate of change of the momentum of the body

F=

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k

d

( mv )

dt

Fx =

d

d

d

( mu ) ; Fy = ( mv ) ; Fz = ( mw )

dt

dt

dt

the time rate of change of the moment of the momentum (angular

momentum)

M = M x i + M y j + M z k = Li + Mj + Nk

M = dt H

d

L=

d

d

d

Hx; M = H y; N = Hz

dt

dt

dt

are referred to an absolute or inertial reference frame

F, M

Force Equation

F = dt (mv)

d

F =m

dv

dt

v = vc +

dr

dt

dr

dr

F = F = dt vc + dt m = dt vc m + dt m

d

dv c d

dv

dr

d2

+ m = m c + 2 r m

dt dt

dt

dt dt

r

m

=

0

r

measured

from

the

center of mass

F=m

Force equation:

F=m

dv c

dt

Moment Equation M = dt H

d

M =

d

d

H = (r v ) m

dt

dt

v = vc +

dr

= vc + r

dt

H = H = ( r vc ) m + r ( r ) m

vc constant with respect to the summation

H=

r m vc + r ( r ) m

r m = 0 r measured from the center of mass

H=

r ( r ) m

H=

Moment Equation

Angular velocity

r ( r ) m

Position vector

= pi + qj + r k

r = xi + yj + zk

Propriety of Cross

Product

H = ( pi + qj + r k ) x + y + z m

2

r ( r )

(r r ) (r ) r

( xi + yj + zk )( px + qy + rz ) m

( y 2 + z 2 ) m q xy m r xz m

H y = p xy m + q ( x 2 + z 2 ) m r yz m

Hx = p

Hz = p

xz m q yz m + r ( x2 + y 2 ) m

Ix

Moment Equation

z

( y + z ) m

I y = ( x 2 + z 2 ) m

I z = ( x 2 + y 2 ) m

Ix =

xy m

I xz = xz m

I yz = yz m

I xy =

resistance to rotation

Moment Equation

Scalar equations for the angular momentum

H x = pI x qI xy rI xz

H y = pI xy + qI y rI yz

H z = pI xz qI yz + rI z

NOTE: If the reference frame is not rotating, then as the airplane rotates

the moments and the products of inertia will vary with the time

To simplify the problem we will fix the axis system to the aircraft

(body axis system)

z

dA

dt

=

I

dA

dt

+ A

B

then

F=m

dv c

dt

M=

=m

I

dH

dt

=

I

dv c

dt

dH

dt

+ m ( vc )

+ H

reference axis fixed to the airplane

vc = ui + vj + wk

dv

Fx = m c

dt

+ m ( vc ) i

Force equations

Fx = m ( u + qw rv ) ; Fy = m ( v + ru pw ) ; Fz = m ( w + pv qu )

Moment equations L = (

dH

dt

+ H) i

B

L = H x + qH z rH y ; M = H y + rH x pH z ;

xz plane of symmetry

I yz = I xy = 0

Moment equations:

N = H z + pH y qH x

L = I x p I xz r + qr I z I y I xz pq

M = I y q + rp ( I x I z ) + I xz p 2 r 2

N = I xz p + I z r + pq I y I x + I xz qr

(respect to a fixed frame)

z

airplane and the one of a fixed

frame coincide

three consecutive angular rotation

(Euler Angles)

rotation about z (through the

yaw angle

rotation about y (through the

pitch angle

rotation about x (through the

roll (bank) angle

Euler Angles

Fixed Reference Frame:

dx

= u1 cos v1 sin

dt

dy

= u1 sin + v1 cos

dt

dz

= w1

dt

u1 , v1 , w1 = f (u2 , v2 , w2 )

u2 , v2 , w2 = g (u, v, w)

u1

w1

v1

(respect to a fixed frame)

The orientation of an airplane, relative to local axes, can

be specified by the three sequential rotations about the

body axes. Starting with the body axes aligned with the

local axes, the first rotation is about the z-axis through

an angle , followed by a rotation about the y-axis

through an angle , followed by a rotation about the

x-axis through an angle . These angles of rotation

are the Euler angles, and can represent any possible

orientation of the airplane.

constructed from the Euler angles

dx

dt

u

dy = C v

[

]

dt

w

dz

dt

; ;

dt dt dt along the fixed frame

u; v; w

Velocity components

along the body axes

=

=

=

NOTE: Use of Quarternions is sometime better: see

Kinematic

equations for

the Euler angles

http://www.aerojockey.com/papers/meng/node19.html

10

(in the body frame) and the Euler rates

0

p 1

q = 0 C

r 0 S

1 S tan

C

= 0

0 S sec

S

C S

C C

C tan p

S q

C sec r

Gravitational Forces

Along the body axes

Fgrav = mg

Fx

grav

Fy

grav

Fz

grav

= mg sin

= mg cos sin

= mg cos cos

11

Force and

Moment due to

propulsion

system

Fprop

Trust forces

Fxprop = X T

Fy

Fz

prop

prop

= YT

= ZT

Lprop = LT

M prop = M T

N prop = NT

Summary

xz plane of symmetry I yz = I xy = 0

12

Summary

12 equations, 12 unknowns/variables: x, y, z; , , ; u, v, w; p, q, r

z

used to predict the motion of a vehicle assuming the forces and

moments can be computed at the flight conditions of interest.

The equations are nonlinear because of the quadratic

dependence of the inertia forces on the angular rates, the

presence of trigonometric functions of the Euler angles

and angles of attack and sideslip, and the fact that the forces

depend on the state variables in fundamentally nonlinear

ways. While the quaternion formulation avoids some of the

trigonometric nonlinearities, the equations remain nonlinear.

13

z

consider small variations of motion about some reference

condition for which the equations (including the forces and

moments) may be approximated by a linear model.

This approach was extremely important in the early days of

simulation when high speed computers were not available to

solve the fully nonlinear system.

Now, the general set of equations is often maintained for the

purposes of simulation, although there are still important

reasons to consider linear approximations and many conditions

for which the linear approximation of the system is perfectly

acceptable.

approximations

z

z

developed based on linear models.

The theory of linear quadratic regulator design (LQR) and most

other optimal control law synthesis techniques are based on a

linear system model.

Even many nonlinear simulations, that keep the full equations

of motion, rely on linear aerodynamic models (or at least

partially linearized aero models) to keep the size of the

aerodynamic database more manageable

14

Derivatives

z

There are two senses in which we may deal with "linear" aerodynamic

models.

describing the fluid flow are linearized. These linear models lead to

aerodynamic characteristics that are nonlinear in the dynamics state

variables (such as angle of attack) due to nonlinearities in the boundary

conditions and speed-pressure relations. Thus, dynamicists must deal with

the results of potential flow codes, Euler codes, or Navier-Stokes solvers in

much the same way as they do with wind tunnel data.

The linearizations lead to aerodynamic models that are comprised of a set

of reference values and a set of "stability derivatives" or first order

expansions of the actual variations of forces and moments with the state

variables of interest.

Because these are first order models, the total force can be

conveniently "built-up" as the sum of the individual effects of angle

of attack, pitch rate, sideslip, etc. Since the six aerodynamic forces and

moments do not depend explicitly on the orientation of the vehicle with

respect to inertial coordinates, we expect derivatives only with respect to

the 3 relative wind velocity components and the 3 rotation rates.

Derivatives

to describe the first order aerodynamic characteristics of a flight

vehicle. However, the applied forces and moments may also vary,

not just with the values of the state variables, but also their time

derivatives. This can represent a significant complication to the

basic concept of stability derivatives. In most cases, however,

these effects are small and usually the only terms of much

significance are those associated with the rate of change of angle

of attack.

These derivatives can be expressed in dimensional form

making them just the coefficients in the linear state space

model, and assigning some direct physical significance to

their numerical values, or in dimensionless form. The latter

has the advantage that the values are relatively independent of

dynamic pressure and model size and that this is the form that is

used in wind tunnel databases and computational aerodynamics

models.

15

Small-Disturbance Theory

The equations of motion are frequently linearized for use in stability

and control analysis. It is assumed that the motion of the aircraft

consists of small deviation from a steady flight condition. The use of

small disturbance theory predicts the stability of unaccelerated flight. In

most cases, a perturbed fluid-aerodynamic force is a function of

perturbed linear and angular velocities and their rates:

expansion of the right-hand side of this equation:

aerodynamic derivatives.

Small-Disturbance Theory

z

Also, due to the assumed symmetry of the vehicle, derivatives

of X, Z, M w.r.t. motions out of the longitudinal plane are zero,

thus may be visualized by noting that X, Z, M must be

symmetrical w.r.t. lateral perturbations.

In other words, we neglect the symmetric derivatives w.r.t. the

asymmetric motion variables, i.e., for aerodynamic force X,

and so on.

16

Stability Derivative

Control

17

(taking first order approximations),

18

unaccelerated, steady, and with no angular velocity, therefore

equations

19

equations

Small-Disturbance Theory

Small deviations about the steady-flight:

u = u0 + u; v = v0 + v; w = w0 + w;

p = p0 + p; q = q0 + q; r = r0 + r ;

X = X 0 + X ; Y = Y0 + Y ; Z = Z 0 + Z ;

L = L0 + L;

M = M 0 + M ; N = N 0 + N ;

= 0 + ;

Symmetric flight condition and constant propulsive forces

v0 = p0 = q0 = r0 = 0 = 0 = 0

(x-axis in the direction of the velocity vector)

w0 = 0

20

X Force Equation

X mg sin = m ( u + qw rv )

X 0 + X mg sin ( 0 + ) =

d

= m ( u0 + u ) + ( q0 + q )( w0 + w ) ( r0 + r )( v0 + v )

dt

longitudinal and lateral rigid body equation of

motion

Longitudinal equation for the X force equation

X mg cos 0 = mu

X ( u , w, e , T ) =

X

X

X

X

u +

w +

e +

T

u

w

e

T

X

X

d X

X

m dt u u w w + ( mg cos 0 ) = e +

T

e

d

dt X u u ( X w ) w + ( g cos 0 ) = X e e + X T T

( )

Xu =

1 X

m u

21

representation

z

perturbation variables about the reference equilibrium condition

X =

X

X

X

X

u +

w +

e +

T

u

w

e

T

reference flight condition)

Stability

coefficient

= C x QS

(dimensionless)

Bryan, 1904

X,M (aero)

Expressed as

function of the

instantaneous

values of the

perturbation

variables

C x 1

X C x u0

1

=

QS =

QS = C xu

QS

u

u u0

u u0 u0

u0

pitching moment (in terms of perturbation variables)

X u , u , w, w, , e , e =

X =

X

X

X

X

u +

u + +

e +

e + H.O.T.

u

u

e

e

M ( u , v, w, u, v, w, p, q, r , a , e , r ) =

M =

M

M

M

M

u +

v +

w + +

p +

u

v

w

p

22

X =

X

X

X

X

u +

w +

e +

T

u

w

e

T

Y =

Y

Y

Y

Y

v +

p +

r +

r

v

p

r

r

Z =

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

u +

w +

w +

q +

e +

T

u

w

w

q

e

T

L =

L

L

L

L

L

v +

p +

r +

r +

a

v

p

r

r

a

M =

M

M

M

M

M

M

T

u +

w +

w +

q +

e +

T

u

w

w

q

e

N =

N

N

N

N

N

v +

p +

r +

r +

a

v

p

r

r

a

and lateral rigid body equation of motion

Longitudinal Equations

d

dt X u u X w w + ( g cos 0 ) = X e e + X T T

d

d

Z u u + (1 Z w ) Z w w u0 + Z q

g sin 0 = Z e e + ZT T

dt

dt

d2

d

d

M u u M w + M w w + 2 M q = M e e + M T T

dt

dt

dt

Lateral Equations

dt Yv v Y p p + ( u0 Yr ) r ( g cos 0 ) = Y r r

I d

Lv v + L p p xz

+ Lr r = L a a + L r r

I

dt

dt

I d

N v v xz

+ N p p + N r r = N a a + N r r

dt

I z dt

23

Stability Derivatives

Forward Speed

L,M,D,T all vary with changes in the airplanes forward speed

X

D

T

u =

u +

u

u

u

u

X

D T

1

=

+

= C xu

QS

u

u u

u0

X =

changes in the x Force

S 2 CD

X

T

=

u0

+ 2u0CD0 +

u

u

2

u

CX u

u X

= 0 u

QS

CDu

Tu

24

C xu = u0

=

1 S 2 CD

T

u0

+ 2u0 CD0 +

QS 2

u

u

1 S 2 CD

T

+ 2CD0 +

u0

QS 2 u u0

u u0

CD u =

= ( CDu + 2CD 0 ) + CT u

CD

CT

; CT u =

u u0

u u0

CD u = M

CD

; M = Mach number

M

C xu = ( CDu + 2CD 0 ) + CT u

CT u = 0

a/c (constant trust cruise)

Z

1

= Su0 CLu + 2CL0

u

2

CZu = CLu + 2CL0

CL M =0

CL =

Prandtl-Glauert Formula

1 M 2

CL

M

=

CL M = 0

M 1 M 2

CLu =

u CL

CL

CL

M2

= 0

=M

=

CL

u u0

M 1 M 2

a u a

M =0

25

M =

M

u

u

M

= Cmu Scu0

u

Cm

Cmu = M

M

C zq

Cmq

(for the tail)

Lt = CL t Qt St

t

Z = Lt = CL

CZ =

qlt

Qt St

u0

Z

QS

CZ = CL

CZ q

qlt Qt St

ql S

= CL t t

t u

u0 QS

S

0

2u CZ

l S

CZ

= 0

= 2CL t t = 2CL VH

t

t

qc 2u0

c q

c S

26

M cgq = lt Lt = lt CL

Cmcg =

q

Cmq

M cg q

QSc

qlt

Qt St

u0

= VH CL

qlt

u0

2u Cm

Cm

= 0

c q

qc 2u0

Cmq 2CL VH

t

lt

c

downwash getting to the tail

C z Cm

Change of the AOA,

t = lt u0

t =

lt

d

d d

d

t

t =

t =

dt

d dt

d

takes to the change

in circulation imparted to the

trailing vortex wake

to reach the tail

t =

d lt

d u0

at the tail

attack at the tail

27

Change of the AOA,

d

t

dt

d lt

d d lt

d lt

t =

=

=

dt u0 d dt u0 d u0

t = lt u0 ;

t =

Lt = CL t Qt St

t

C z =

C z =

Lt

S

d lt St

= CL t t = CL

t

t

QS

S

d u0 S

2u C z

C z

d

= 0

= 2VH CL

t d

c

( c / 2u0 )

VH =

Qt

Q

lt St

c S

Change of the AOA,

M cg = lt Lt = lt CL t Qt St

t

Cmcg = VH CL

Cm =

d lt

d u0

Cm

2u Cm

d lt

= 0

= 2VH CL

t d c

( c / 2u0 )

c

1.1CZ ; 1.1Cm

28

C yp , Cnp , Clp

Lift=Cl Qcdy

(roll rate)

py

u0

dL = Lift y

CL

CL

pb

2u0

Y = CL v Qv Sv CY CY r

CYr =

CY

( rb / 2u0 )

N = CL v Qv Sv lv Cn Cnr

=

rlv

u0

29

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