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ABSTRACT.

Surveillance system is a deliberate system geared towards keeping a close


watch on the behaviors or activities of persons, groups, organizations and
institutions suspected of doing something illegal or warehousing information
capable of causing a breach of security. In todays world of insecurity of lives
and properties, there is need to fathom ways on how to bring about harmony
and peaceful co existence between students on one hand and the institution on
the other. It is on this basis that this project introduces how a surveillance
software can be used as tools for information gathering and security
management in computer science department 500 capacity, Federal Polytechnic
Nekede. In this project we describe a framework for design, and deployment of
a software for surveillance system for the department of computer science 500
capacity, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri. This project focuses on using
Visual Basic Programming Language in combination with top down design
methodology to develop a software to manage a surveillance system for
Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede which contributes
to ICT by providing a means by which students can perform more research on
programming with different programming languages to enhance this project.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The emergence of new Information and Communication Technologies has


revolutionalized every aspect of human Endeavour. In todays world of
insecurity of lives and property, there is need to fathom ways on how to bring
about harmony and peaceful co-existence between individuals on one hand and
among nations on the other. It is on this basis that this project examines how
surveillance, information and communication technologies can be used as tools
for information gathering and security management. Surveillance is the
monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of
people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them.
The use of surveillance systems has been rising over the past decade. Most
recently, the need to improve public safety and the concerns about terrorist and
cult activities have contributed to a dramatic increase in the demand for
surveillance systems. The presence of these systems is very common in airports,
subways, metropolitan areas, seaports, and in areas with large crowds. Modern
video surveillance systems consist of networks of cameras connected to a
control room that includes collection of monitors. Typical control rooms have a
much smaller number of monitors than cameras and far fewer operators than
monitors. The monitors either cycle automatically through the cameras, or

operators can manually choose any camera from the network and display it on a
selected monitor.
Crime prevention through environmental design facilitates and enhances school
safety and security by ensuring that the physical layout and organization of the
school encourage positive student behavior. The principles of surveillance
center on three areas: controlling access, improving natural surveillance, and
increasing definition of school boundaries. These principles can easily and
effectively be applied to schools. For example, safe and secure schools
I.

II.

Can control unauthorized access to buildings and grounds by


a. having a single access point of entrance for visitors.
b. screening visitors and requiring them to wear ID tags.
c. monitoring entry to the school from a singlepoint.
d. reducing the number of secondary entries around the perimeter and
to buildings.
Improve natural surveillance of the school buildings and grounds by
a. ensuring clear lines of sight by removing unnecessary obstacles
and trimming vegetation.
b. limiting hiding places by raising signs off the ground, lowering
bushes, etc.
c. improving lighting, limiting shadows, or installing convex mirrors

III.

in dark or secluded areas.


Enhance school boundaries for better control by
a. clearly defining the edges of school property with tree plantings or
fences to reinforce the fact that the school is not a public-access
space.
b. individualizing areas of the school

to promote boundaries or

ownership and pride in the school as well as to make it easier to


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identify unauthorized individuals. keeping up good maintenance a


clean, well-cared-for school fosters school pride and orderliness.
We are mainly interested in video surveillance applications. Typically, much
more
Video than operators can observe is available. In addition, this video is
unedited, and more importantly, not focused on any agent in the scene. In
particular, our method offers the following contributions:

I.

a variable size cropping window which results in a smooth zoom

II.

in/out effect,
Multiple cropping windows to cover more agents in the scene, only a
relatively short video segment needs to be processed at a time not the

III.

complete video which makes the algorithm.


We show empirically that by stitching together results from short
segments of a video, we get a result identical to the globally optimal
one, given the entire video.

Surveillance systems work to deter criminal activity. We've seen countless


examples where the rate of reported incidents has dropped significantly, in
schools for instance, simply by the presence of surveillance systems. In many
cases, strategically placed surveillance cameras will make potential offenders

think twice about acting out, which of course leads to a safer environment
overall.
In terms of risk management, surveillance systems help to eliminate the threat
of false claims and frivolous lawsuits. For most businesses, such scenarios often
prove extremely costly. Video surveillance provides the necessary visual proof
to confirm facts and address legitimate cases while refuting false ones.
Its important to note that security cameras can deliver much more than video
images for post-event analysis. Todays video surveillance systems can provide
users with the tools for efficient real-time monitoring, advanced motion
detection, integration with external security systems, and other intelligent
features that increase the chances of catching potential threats as they happen.
In the end, the role of video surveillance is different for each user. How can a
video surveillance system help you? Answering that question is the first step in
determining what type of surveillance setup best meets your needs.

1.2

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


I.

Non-violent and violent crime continues to be prevalent in many


educational institutions around the world, signaling the need for more
security. In the Nigeria, for example, a substantial number of students
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experience some type of violence and related consequences in their


University career.
In the Campus, too many security officials are needed for security and

II.

there is no guarantee that they would remain at their station all


III.

through their duration.


In the case of a trial there is always the lack of forensic evidence,

IV.

which leads to long trials.


Slow response to emergencies due to the fact that there is no watching

V.

eye.
No great sense of security for students, staff and campus investors

I.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

This project is geared towards achieving the objectives of the existing


system efficiently and at the same time conquering most disadvantages of
the existing system. The objectives include;
1) Monitoring the activities going on around the 500 capacity building,
department of computer science.
2) Detecting any abnormal behavior of any person or persons around the
environment 24 hours a day.
3) Providing an undeniable evidence of events that took place around
the environment.
4) Preventing people from taking place in criminal activities around the
environment.
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5) Encouraging external investors because of a secured environment.

In detection one can be determined within the field of view of the camera,
but even the identification of a person cannot be determined.
1.4

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers the creation of a video surveillance system
software.
I.

It is only applicable to the department of Computer Science, Federal

II.

Polytechnic nekede.
This study does not involve the hardware installation of the video
surveillance camera.

1.5

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study has its significance that after implementation the following will take
place;
I.

Stretches security budgets by enabling coverage of more locations with

II.

less security personnel.


Prevents crime because the presence of a watching eye can stop many

III.

would-be criminals in their tracks.


Provides undeniable evidence because when students or teachers are
brought into a school office and see a video showing them committing an
illegal or unacceptable act, they will usually admit to the incident. If the

incident requires legal action, a recorded video can be invaluable in


IV.

securing a conviction and may help avoid a lengthy and expensive trial.
Enables faster response to crimes, emergencies and other situations by

V.

catching it as it happens.
Provides a greater sense of security because students, parents and faculty
feel safer when doing everything from remaining in buildings after class
hours to using parking lots.
Whenever a violent crime at a school makes national news, parents

VI.

immediately start thinking of the safety of the institutions they are


considering for their children or their children are attending. Being able to
assure parents you provide a secure environment is a strong marketing
advantage and becoming a necessary standard in public education.
Colleges, in particular, that fail to take measures to secure their Campus
will gradually see reduced enrollment and a loss of reputation.
Surveillance videos provide excellent protection against fraudulent

VII.

liability claims, ensuring that testimony regarding an incident does not


consist solely of hearsay.
1.6

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In the case of this study, there where many limitations which include;
I.
II.

There is limited finance for the course of this study


After implementation, there is need for a steady communication
between law enforcement and system managers but Communication in
transmission is expensive.

1.7

III.

Power was another problem because there was no steady supply of

IV.

light.
Lack of expert persons to implement and maintain the system.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO ICT

ICTs play an enormous role in every day of human life. It involves in different
services in the modern era such as it receives and manipulates information, store
it, retrieve it and transmit it in digital form when require such as TV, Personal
Computer, emails, robots and others digital technologies.
Surveillance is a deliberate system of keeping a close watch on the behaviours
or activities of persons, groups, organizations and institutions suspected of
doing something illegal or warehousing information capable of causing a breach
of security by governments security agencies.
This could be done electronically with Closed Circuit Television cameras or
interception of electronically transmitted information such as Internet traffic or
phone calls or by means of low-technology methods such as human intelligence
agents and postal interception.
Other means include: surveillance cameras, social network analysis, biometric
surveillance, data mining and profiling, corporate surveillance, satellite imagery,
radio-frequency identification and geo-location devices to mount surveillance
on suspected targets.

In surveillance, Intelligence gathering helps security agencies to keep tabs on


the activities of suspected groups, organizations or persons likely to breach the
peace. Today, such ICT tools as the internet, mobile telephony system, social
media networks and the media have become veritable platforms for intelligence
gathering efforts of our security agencies, so long as they observe the ethics of
using these technologies for intelligence gathering purposes.
Intercepting communication between terror groups and enhancing intelligence
sharing and other collaborative measures between security agencies is now
absolutely possible through ICT. We now have electronic devices and gadgets
with in-built unique identification numbers that makes them electronically
traceable regardless of location. So its no longer impossible to track
communication devices or gadgets used by criminal gangs or groups.
Information and Communication Technology is a vital tool for tracking, tracing
and investigating suspected financial transactions funneled to criminal
activities. With the recent introduction of cash-less society, transactions will be
done on electronic platforms where suspicious cash movements can be
identified and questioned. This would go a long way in curbing the financing of
activities that constitute a threat to national security because no terrorist group
or gang can operate without funding.

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Security agencies can minimize duplication of efforts, guard against the


mishandling of information as well as enhance information sharing among them
for a better management of our national security through ICT. This involves
pulling the nations data into a coordinated and centralized database as a
proactive means of combating insecurity.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TECHNICAL TERMS
1. Control Room: is a room serving as a central space where a large
physical facility or physically dispersed facilities has a centralized
control.
2. Controlling access: Access control refers to security features that control
who can access resources in the operating system. Applications call
access control functions to set who can access specific resources or
control access to resources provided by the application.
3. Crime prevention: this is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and
criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to
reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.
4. Frivolous: Unworthy of serious attention.
5. Law suit: comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law
whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy.
6. Monitors: To check by means of an electronic receiver for significant
content, such as military, political, or illegal activities in an environment.
7. Network:
A computer
network or
data network is
a
telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data.
In computer networks, networked computing devices pass data to each
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other along data connections. The connections between nodes are


established using either cable media or wireless media.
8. Secure Environment: is any system or environment which implements
the controlled storage and use of information. In the event of computing
data loss, a secure environment is used to protect personal and/or
confidential data. Often, secure environments employ cryptography as a
means to protect information.
9. Surveillance:The systematic observation of aerospace, surface, or subsur
face area,places,persons, or things by visual, aural, electronic, photograph
ic, or other means.
10.System: A set of detailed methods, procedures and routines created to
carry out a specific activity, perform a duty, or solve a problem.
11.Unauthorized Access: is an act of illegally gaining access into any
environment without permission.

1.9

ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS

Chapter One contains the introduction to the project, problem definition and the
importance of the project.
Chapter Two contains the review of every literature used in the course of this
project.
Chapter three contains the research methods, the investigation of the existing
system and how we intend to design the new system.
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Chapter four contains the system design and implementation of the new system
and the maintenance schedule.
Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the
project.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1

BACKGROUND OF SURVEILLANCE.

In todays fast paced world, it is imperative for security personnel and


journalists to be armed with proper and efficient tools to respond to ever
changing and unpredictable situations they encounter in performing their duties.
Considering contemporary developments in technological world, surveillance
serves as a valuable and essential tool for information gathering in combating
criminal activities and security management. The word surveillance means
keeping close watch over someone or something. In other words, surveillance
involves gathering and reporting news of happenings in the community, and it is
sometimes done in a surreptitious manner. However, surveillance is a French
word for watching over. It may be applied to observation from a distance by
means of electronic equipment. or interceptions of electronically transmitted
information. It may also refer to simple, relatively no-or-low-technology
methods such as human intelligence agents, investigative/journalistic reportage
or postal interceptions. Police and intelligence services are paying more
attention to the need of surveillance and control, especially in respect of
potential

trans-border

crime,

child

pornography,

terrorism,

domestic

disaffection. Plus many new kinds of cyber crime. Conventionally, within any
society or country, information gathering and surveillance mechanisms exist for
the purpose of security of lives and property. In time past, there was a
significant time lag separating in time an event, incident or a crime is
committed, and the time such happening or event may be publicly made
available. But the emergence of new information and communication
technologies has revolutionalized every aspect of human endeavors. Today,
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Information and Communication Technologies promise a whole new and


interesting horizon characterized by boundless possibilities and opportunities.
With regards to information and communication technologies, communication
technologies are the nervous system of contemporary society, transmitting and
distributing seasons and control information and interconnectivity, a myriad of
independent

units.

Operationally

Information

and

Communication

Technologies, comprise digital devices either notifies of the hardware or


software for transferring information. It includes low-cost means of
communication, like radio, GSM/mobile phones, and digital television-not
leaving out the internet. Information and Communication Technologies is the set
of technology used in accomplishing one or two way communication without
face-to-face meeting. The set of technology is what we see as electronic
machines devices and their application that have both computing and
communication capabilities. Information and Communication Technology
facilitates the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information
by electronic means. This draws attention to the fact that with Information and
Communication Technologies in place, news gathering and information
dissemination with regards to security management has been made easier. The
telephone has shortened the time between the reporter and the source, reporter
and editor, saving costs such as travel logistics. He added: With the advent of
mobile phone, media enterprises have ensured that reporters on the ground,
correspondents and stringers are only a call-away and that they are now closer
to sources who are miles away. However, it is presumed that the radical changes
brought in the realm of information gathering and security management through
information and communication technologies revolution has affected
immensely, the management of security. By and large, it is apparent that with
the aid of technology, security agents and journalists can gather information
without stress. For instance, security agent can use surveillance cameras to
capture peoples or criminal activities without their knowledge. The devices are
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small enough not to be noticed. In the same vein. The usage of closed circuit
television, in banks, airports, hotels, supermarkets etc seems to have
discouraged theft and other criminal activities, and it has also eased or curtailed
security threat.

2.2

APPLICATIONS OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM SOFTWARE

Surveillance system software have swept the world with powerful force, thereby
affecting the society in various ways. In this regard, we should note that
technology is not merely equipment but is also an interaction between
equipment and their users.
In the past few decades Surveillance system software have transformed all
spheres of life. Its potential for reducing manual operation in fostering the
media has increased rapidly.
The role of Surveillance system software has also been stressed in security
management which points that, to nip any evil plan in the bud, information
about such intent must be available so as to map out strategies to prevent the
occurrence. That, even when these crisis, disasters or chaos occurred in the
society, accurate and timely information always help to profer solution to
ameliorate the situation.
When it comes to information, the internet has it all. That, there is more
information on computers and other Surveillance system software than one
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could ever possibly digest. The greatest thing about the Surveillance system is
that you can use it to keep in touch with changes in the field and groups that
make these changes happen. By using their search capability, you can even learn
about the history itself or about a piece of equipment introduced into your
office. He concluded that in this modern world everybody has to be Information
and Communication Technologies compliance so as to help in providing
information and constructive suggestions on how to combat terrorism and other
security challenges that threaten the existence of our society.
On the other hand, surveillance is a well established craft involving technique
and Information and Communication Technologies gadgets which aid
information gathering and security management. However, most surveillance
has physical and electronic aspects and is preceded by extra caution and not
infrequently by surreptitious entry.
Today, in addition to anticrime advertising, case processing using media
technology, and police surveillance systems based on the older technologies of
audio- and videotaping, there is an abundance of newer media technologies
capable of both facilitating and constraining communication, interaction and
realization of fluid identities.
Moreover, the digitized, computerized, and networked information and
communication technologies exemplified by the Surveillance system software

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have created virtual worlds with their own changing norms, value and codes of
practice. Altering the ways in which people engage in time and space.
However, the idea of using surveillance for the purpose of information gathering
and security management received a boost with the advent of internet computer.
These technological transformations have created new opportunities and risks
for crime and victimization, and for surveillance and crime control. For
example, close circuit television cameras, information gathering, and data
processing have transformed how people perceive and negotiate their social
worlds with caution and reserve.
In addition to improving the quick delivery of information and security
management, computer and telecommunication technology can improve both
the quality and quantity of information reported. Technology enables the
existing news industry and security agencies to deliver its news and findings in
real time, and largely increased the quantity of information that can be made
available.
In a related view, most media imagery and video are recorded from a
perspective on or near the earth, recent years have seen the growth of imagery
and video of the earth but observed from hundreds of miles above the ground.
Remote- censoring satellite imagery has since the end of the cold war, grown
dramatically to become an almost daily path of media content. On the Web;

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members of the public can type their address and see a satellite image taken of
their neighborhood.
Satellite imagery not only plays an important role in security and military
operation, it can also be invaluable for journalists covering story on the
environment or the influence of development on farm land, for example.
Looking at weather patterns over time can also provide vital information and
help people to prepare for severe weather.
2.3

COST EFFECTIVENESS AND USES

Information and communication technologies boast of wide ranging uses and


benefits. These include:
i.

To ease generation and processing of information

ii.

To enhance speedy utilization or dissemination of information

iii.

To simplify work and reduce costs in modern business or


organizational management.

iv.

To facilitate the process of quality decision-making.

The indispensability of information and communication technologies when he


pointed out that they are being used by many government and business
organizations as a strategic weapon for gaining competitive advantage,
improving productivity, promoting effective and efficient performance,
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improved method or organizing, controlling, directing, coordinating, planning,


communication and new business development. This explains why it has been
widely accepted that information technology has become the new key to
business, organizational and national survival and development. No serious
organization will be able to operate successfully or effectively without it in one
form or the other in the 21st century.
Inspite of the numerous uses and benefits from Information and Communication
Technologies and surveillance in information gathering and management, many
factors still remain hindrance to their effective use. Some of the factors are:
i.

Policy structure of the government.

ii.

Political factor

iii.

Economic factor

iv.

Literacy barrier

v.

Inadequate human resources.

Under human resources, it is not a matter about the vast population of Nigeria,
rather about those who are Information and Communication Technology
compliant.
On the significance of information and communication technologies on
information gathering and security management, Surveillance system software
is seen as an electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and
disseminating information. It is the convergence of micro electronic, computing
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and telecommunication, which has become a global phenomenon of great


importance and concern in all spheres-labour, productivity, trade, commerce and
others.
Information and communication technologies are

technologies such as

computer, software, peripherals and internet connections and infrastructure


required to support information processing and communication function.
The above is real, because, information and communication technologies
facilitate the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information
by electronic means. This includes, radio, television, telephone, fax. Computer
and the internet.
Four characteristics describe these modern Surveillance system software
include;
i.

Interactively: Surveillance system software are effective two-way

ii.

communication technologies
Permanent Availability: the new Surveillance system software are

iii.
iv.

available 24 hours a day.


Global Reach: geographical distances hardly matter any more
Reduced Cost for Many: Relative costs of communication have shrunk
to a fraction of previous values.

For effective information gathering and security management, government


agencies use computer for a wide range of purposes. These include but not
limited to accounting, budgeting forecasting, storage of information on birth,
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death, social welfare, census of population data, voting registers, among others.
Today, unprecedented information are being gathered through effective
surveillance with the aid of satellite and other technological gadgets.
Surveillance, when examined critically, has much in common with investigative
reporting, this is because investigative reporting is a master detective work. He
noted that investigating reporting can be described as the more aspect of
reporting. Effective surveillance can bring out more aspects of an issue or event
the same with investigative reporting. Specific words are used in investigating
reporting.
Revealing, uncovering, unearthing.
It is a fact that the above will go a long way to enhance effective security
management in any human organization. However, people who may involve in
the act of information gathering and security management must indeed possess
the following qualities.
i.

Sound event analysis

ii.

Sense of public interest

iii.

Research, analytical and good communication skills

iv.

A mind for adventure

v.

Capacity to make sound and balanced socio-political judgments.

vi.

Courage

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vii.

Ability to see the event behind the event

viii.

knowledge of photojournalism

ix.

Computer literate

x.

Above

all,

Information

and

Communication

Technology

compliance.
Surveillance and Information and Communication Technology can be
effectively used when the various information gathering and disseminating
agencies work together in form of synergy.
Security agencies make extensive use of telecommunication in receiving and
transmitting their massages. All these agencies originate in nations where the
press was highly developed, the agencies came into being between 1835 and
1918.
Some of the agencies which employed Information and Communication
Technology for information gathering and management include the following;
Reuters, Associated Press, Agency
France Press
United Press International
Reuters:

Reuter is a non- profit agency with operation costs derived from

subscribing media. Its services are received in almost every country. Reuters is
known for its reliable alert reporting.
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Associated Press: A cooperative agency owned by its member newspapers,


provides news to subscribers in some 10 nations. It employs 2,500 news
gatherers around the world, about 560 of them full timers working outside
United States. AP has about 50 bureaux in foreign countries and has exchange
agreements with agencies of about a dozen countries.
Agency France Press; After France was liberated at the end of World War II,
several interim war agencies were merged to form the Agencies France-Press
which was set up in the old Havas headquarters and took over most of the prewar agencys employees.
AFP has a staff of some 3,000 and as many clients around the world.
Transmission of news is mainly by wire, but radio is being used increasingly.
The agencies has some 70 Bureaux abroad and about 20 in France. Nearly half
of the AFPs daily transmission is world news. It has exchange agreements with
agencies in some 30 nations and with the other big world agencies.
United Press International
In May 1958, the United Press International was formed in the United States,
when the United States Press Association and the international news service
were consolidated. The UPI is known for its lively and colourful writing over
the years. However, these super-powers agencies today provide the bulk of the
information which the society, government and its security agents work with.

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2.4

LEGAL ISSUES OF SURVEILLANCE AND THE LAW OF

INVASION OF PRIVACY
Despite the fact that surveillance, information and communication technologies
serve as tools for information gathering and security management, it is apparent
that the employment of CCTV cameras seems to be a direct invasion of privacy.
Though, it may be argued that surveillance is in public and government interest,
and as well serves as the first step towards a submissive and controlled society,
the fact that the general public has the right to privacy even in public area
should not be undermined.
In this view, it is asserted that video surveillance is analogous to mechanical
police officer. It could be added that it does not intrude upon an individual
sphere of privacy, but rather records events occurring in public space for which
individuals do not have reasonable expectations of privacy.
Surveillance systems have a mysterious knack for justifying themselves
regardless of what happens to crime. Because, when crime goes up, the cameras
get credit for detecting it, and when crime goes down, they get the credit for
preventing it.
However, the nagging questions are;
i.
ii.

Which condition may warrant public surveillance?


What are the association legal and constitutional implications?

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iii.

And how effective are information and communication technologies for


information gathering and security management?

With regard to privacy right, section 37 of the 1999 constitution of the federal
republic of Nigeria made provisions guaranteeing the privacy of the citizen of
the country in his home, correspondence, telephone conversation and
telegraphic communication. A lot of arguments have also been raised on the
necessity of privacy laws, if information must be gathered and published for and
in the interest of the public.

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

METHODOLOGY ADOPTED

The methodology used in this research is Structured Systems Analysis and


Design Methodology. It is a set of standards for systems analysis and
application design. It uses a formal methodical approach to the analysis and
design of information systems. It was developed by Lear month Burchett
Management Systems and the Central Computer Telecommunications Agency
in 1980-1981 as a standard for developing British database projects. The
Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology is an open methodology
based on the waterfall model. It has been used by many commercial businesses,
consultants,

educational

establishments

and

CASE

tool

developers.

The waterfall model is a sequential design process, often used


in software development processes, in which progress is seen
as flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall through the
phases

of

Conception,

Initiation,

Construction, Testing and Maintenance.

Analysis, Design,

The techniques used in

SSADM are logical data modeling, data flow modeling and entity behavior
modeling.

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I.

Logical Data Modeling: This involves the process of identifying,


modeling and documenting data as a part of system requirements
gathering. The data are classified further into entities and relationships.

II.

Data Flow Modeling: This involves tracking the data flow in an


information system. It clearly analyzes the processes, data stores, external
entities and data movement.

III.

Entity Behavior Modeling: This involves identifying and documenting


the events influencing each entity and the sequence in which these events
happen.

In this project, we are going to develop a prototype software. The Prototyping


Model is a systems development method in which a prototype is built, tested,
and then reworked as necessary until an acceptable prototype is finally achieved
from which the complete system or product can now be developed. This model
works best in scenarios where not all of the project requirements are known in
detail ahead of time. It is an iterative, trial-and-error process that takes place
between the developers and the users.
3.1.1 EXPERT SYSTEMS
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates
the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to
solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented primarily
as rules rather than through conventional procedural code. The first expert
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systems were created in the 1970s and then proliferated in the 1980s. Expert
systems were among the first truly successful forms of AI software. An expert
system is divided into two sub-systems: the inference engine and the knowledge
base. The knowledge base represents facts and rules. The inference engine
applies the rules to the known facts to deduce new facts. Inference engines can
also include explanation and debugging capabilities.
3.1.2 OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Object-oriented analysis and design Method is a popular technical approach to
analyzing, designing an application, system, by applying the object-oriented
paradigm and visual modeling throughout the development life cycles to foster
better stakeholder communication and product quality.
3.2 ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SYSTEM
The present system, involves the use of security guards who patrol around the
school premises, on shifts. It has a centralized control with different subheads
placed around the school premises. Then in 500 capacity there is no steady
guard, they patrol from time to time and that does not provide a steady watch
over the environment. From the interview conducted, 90 percent of the people
interviewed supported the development of the software, because it will serve as
a preventive measure while the remaining 10 percent did not support because
they see it either as waste of resources, or another cause for unemployment.
Good security management is about being proactive rather than reactive. The
29

larger emphasis should be on prevention rather than detection. This should be


borne in mind when planning school's security. The goals of the present system
include:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.

providing personal safety of staff, students and visitors to school premises


Preventing Intruders and Unauthorized Visitors on school premises
Preventing Kidnapping / Abductions / Custody Issues
Preventing assault / Sexual Assault
Preventing Fire
Preventing Burglary and Theft
Preventing Vandalism

30

3.3 ORGANIZATIONAL FLOW DIAGRAM OF THE PRESENT


SYSTEM

FIG. 3.1 FLOW DIAGRAM


OF THE PRESENT
SYSTEM

In the flow diagram above, when an incident is suspected or


reported, the appropriate team investigates. If they find it valid,
its priority is determined otherwise the incident is suspended.
After determination of its priority, further investigation is
carried

out,

after

which

there

is

incident

containment,

eradication and control implementation. During this process


there is no true picture of the incident except what witnesses
say and there is high probability that their accounts will not be

31

100 percent true. Plenty time is spent before consideration of


the priority.

3.3.1

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENT

SYSTEM.

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

HEAD OF SECURITY

SECURITY UNIT HEADSECURITY UNIT HEAD


LAYER 1
LAYER 2

SECURITY UNIT HEAD


LAYER 3

PATROL
PATROL INSIDE PROPERTY BOUNDARY
PATROL
EXTERNAL
INDIVIDUAL BUILDING

SECURITY UNIT HEAD


LAYER 4

SECURITY SYSTEMS

1. Layer one covers the external environment outside school


environment, town and/or community, neighborhood. This layer is
defined by the schools edge or the property boundary.
2. Layer two covers everything inside the school boundary school
campus, fields, open grounds and groups of buildings.
3. Layer three covers individual buildings and their contents furniture,
equipment, resources and students work.
4. Layer four covers security systems security alarms.
32

3.4 DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES OF THE NEW SYSTEM


These refer to different factors or variables to be considered when designing the
program which include;
I.

Confusing Features: some features might be considered, especially

II.

when two names appear with different meaning.


Inconsistent Layout design: inconsistent layout design delays users

III.

navigation.
Human Factor: the program requires an expert user, the user must be

IV.

trained on how to use the program before he or she can use it.
Standby Power: the program requires steady power, uninterrupted
power supply and a standby power in case of power failure.

3.5.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE EXPECTED SYSTEM

The conclusions of the analysis are that the basic expectations of the new
system are as follows:
I.
II.

Public used areas and premises in school is to be protected


Reduction of Anti social behaviour and aggressiveness.

III.

Fear in crime participation.

IV.

Encourage better use of school facilities.

V.

The good security measure encourages continued investment in the


premises.

3.6

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM OF THE EXPECTED SYSTEM


33

The diagram below shows how data flows in the new system.
This is a preliminary step used to create an overview of the
system which will later be elaborated.

34

FIG 3.2

3.7

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM OF


EXPECTED SYSTEM

HIGH LEVEL MODEL OF THE EXPECTED SYSTEM.

In this project, the high-level models deal with areas such as


performance,

reliability,

availability,

maintainability,

and

system safety. The below procedure shows how the system will
run.
USER LOG IN

USER SELECTION

USER VIEWS DIFFERENT SCREEN

ANALYSIS

ANOMALY DETECTION

INTERPRETATION

FIG 3.3 HIGH LEVEL MODEL OF THE EXPECTED SYSTEM.


The above flowchart shows how the system run, the user of the system should
be an expert analyst. After the login, it is left for the user to detect any
abnormal behavior among students or people being observed.

35

CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

IV.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN


The design and implementation of this work is entirely software based which
gives the interrelationship between the camera and the personal computers that
may be attached to the system. It therefore involves proper interfacing of the
camera in motion and the PC for proper monitoring and documentation so that
the security system will be effective and efficient. Interfacing is also between
the PC and the DC motor which shows the angle at which the camera is to be
moved for proper surveillance. The design of this system has the following
objectives.
I.

Monitoring: In monitoring an observer can only determine the number,


direction and speed of movement of people.

II.

Detection: In detection one can be determined within the field of view of


the camera, but even the identification of a person cannot be determined.

III.

Recognition: A person can recognize an individual that he/she has


previously seen but cannot use in court to identify a perpetrator unless
confirmed by another person.

IV.

Identification: The quality of a picture and all details should be sufficient


to enable the identification of a subject. This kind of identification can be

36

used in court to identify a perpetrator without eye witness support, but


automatic face recognition may not be possible.
IV.2 CONTROL CENTER
As stated earlier in this work, the entire system is software-based design. It
comprises of two major parts:
(a) PC based control of camera rotation, and
(b) Remote viewing of video feeds from camera.
However, these two parts are achieved respectively using;
(i)
(ii)

Computer interfacing by means of serial communication, and


Streaming of digital video feeds across a network.

Computer interfacing can be defined as the art of connecting computers and


peripherals together, so that both devices can communicate with each other.
From the block diagram, figure 4.1, it is seen that it is microcontroller (B)
that drives the external device which in this case is the DC motor contained
in the camera holder. Thus the actual interfacing is between the PC and
microcontroller (B). To achieve interfacing between the PC and
microcontroller (B), microcontrollers (A and B) are both programmed with
instructions which they execute. The microcontrollers perform their various
functions by executing the instructions programmed into them. A camera
motion control application is developed and installed on the PC. This

37

application establishes connection between the PC and the external circuit,


and sends serial data to the external circuit through the serial port
IV.3 SPECIFICATION

OF

SOFTWARE

&

HARDWARE

REQUIREMENT
Hardware Requirements
The software designed needed the following hardware for an effective operation
of the newly designed system.
1. Minimum of Pentium IV System.

2. The Random access memory (RAM) should be at least 1GB memory.


3.

Enhanced keyboard.

4. At least 1TB hard disk.


5. E.G.A/V.G.A, a colored monitor.
6. Surveillance Camera
7. Network Cables

Software Requirements
The software requirements includes:I.
II.

A window xp or higher version for faster processing


Visual Basic Version 6.0.

38

IV.4 OUTPUT FOR THE NEW SYSTEM


The output design was based on the inputs. The information generated gives a
meaningful report to the management. The system designed will generated the
following outputs.
1.

Video/motion

2.

audio

These outputs can only be generated as softcopy or printed in hard copy as


pictures while the audio can only be in audio format.

IV.4.1INPUT SPECIFICATION
The inputs are designs generally based on the necessary data that needs to be
recorded into the system. The data are captured through surveillance cameras
and a microphone which are stored in a magnetic disk in an access database.

39

IV.5 ALGORITHM OF A PROPOSED SYSTEM


FIG 4.1

ALGORITHM OF A PROPOSED SYSTEM

START

ENTER LOGIN DETAILS


Select menu

Perform Operation
Select log?

Camera selected

Back to menu

Auto mode selected displayed

User mode selected


Mode select

Select direction of motion

Select direction in which motion starts

Specify no of windows

Specify no of windows

V.
Capturing inputs.

STOP

40

FIG 4.2 OVERALL DATA FLOW

Video
Video CaptureBlock memory matrix

INPUT IMAGE

VI.

Encoder
Block memory

Transmitter

7u7687677yuyujg7t67yuyggghgygu

VGA monitor
Block memory matrix

Video

Receiver

Decoder Block memory

41

IV.6. DATA DICTIONARY


Term
Angle of

Definition
For security cameras, this refers to the

View

angular range in degrees that you can focus


the camera on without distorting the image.
When focusing close up, you can generally
see a wide angle of view. If the focus is
distant, the angle of view is smaller or

Audio

narrower.
To record the sound, your recording device
needs to support audio (must have at least one

audio input).
Compression Refers to taking an incoming signal or image,
which can be analog or digital, and
compressing the data so it can be stored or
transmitted faster and using less resources.
There are many different algorithms and
Covert

techniques that are used to compress data.


A covert application refers to a situation
where you don't want the person to know that
they are being watched or recorded. Also

Day/Night

known as 'hidden' cameras.


"Day/Night Cameras" are regular cameras

Camera

with an especially sensitive CCD chip that


42

allows a good image to be captured in very


low ambient lighting (regular lighting - not
infrared). Do not confuse these cameras with
"Night Vision" cameras which is another
Select

name for infrared cameras.


This button allows the user to specify the

Camera
mode

particular camera to use


This allows the user to either select the video

Log in

option or the picture capture option


This interface makes the application to be
accessed by authorized personnel only by

zoom

providing the user name and password lock


This interface enables the user to magnify the

Storage

lens on an object
This tab gives the user access to stored files
in the system

4.7 CHOICE AND JUSTIFICATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE


Both user interface applications are developed using Visual Basic
programming language. The applications developed are implemented to
enable the user to view video feeds from the camera as well as to record
video footage of events and save the recorded footage on the PC. The
developed system also has playback capability which can play saved video
footage whenever the user wishes to do so. There is no limit to the number of
cameras that this application can accommodate. As long as the cameras are
43

assigned a unique address by the programmer, the camera video feed can be
displayed by the application. The Camera Motion Control application
controls the direction in which the camera faces. It is equipped with a usercontrol mode and an auto-control mode.

44

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1

SUMMARY

Federal Polytechnic Nekede should have appropriate security measures in place.


Security is not just about choosing the right control measures; it is an attitude of
mind. To ensure the support of staff, they should be involved in the planning of
security measures. All school staff, teaching and non-teaching should be
familiar with security procedures. Please remember, security is everyones
responsibility. Security and personal safety should be dealt with from a Risk
Management point of view (i.e. taking steps to reduce the likelihood of loss or
damage to the school or injury to staff and pupils). It could be included within a
combined Safety and Security Plan/Policy for the school and be an agenda item
for Schools Board meetings, even if it is not intended to discuss specific
security issues.
Information and communication system is one of the best choices for crime
control and monitoring, especially in the high institutions, where huge budget is
spent on security, therefore this system is proposed for 500 capacity, Federal
Polytechnic Nekede where crime rate is increasing day by day, and law
enforcement agencies requires latest technology to overcome such situations.

5.2

CONCLUSION

45

Surveillance as a tool for information gathering and security management


remain a vital aspect of our life. It is important to note that at the federal, state,
high institutions such as Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri and even in remote
areas, security management has become an issue of great concern. The
contribution of surveillance in security management goes beyond the
comprehension of the ordinary man on the street. However, at this critical stage
of our Campus life, where insecurity of lives and properties remain as issue of
worry and where staff and students now live with uncertainty and fear, where
they are forced to sleep with one eye open, the employment of surveillance
seems vital.
If surveillance is properly managed in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, the current
problems of cultism and harassment of students can be reduced drastically. This
will be achieved with the usage of effective ICT and employment of well
trained personnel to enhance their effective use.

5.3

RECOMMENDATION

Based on a careful and in depth study undertaken in the course of this research,
some setbacks were observed in the existing method of surveillance in 500
capacities, Department of Computer Science Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
Which this research work is aimed at improving/correcting.

46

School systems has been on without this new system but I recommend that
Schools should try and adopt this new system, which according to research is
more beneficiary, compared to the existing system in terms of efficient security
services. In so many developed countries computer system are being used in
almost every aspect of technology and it has been as a mark of advancement
therefore, I recommend that the government and school management should
nature this project by providing the necessary needs for its implementation in
order to make it available for every department in Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
School systems have unique challenges in protection of students life and
properties and a good surveillance system play a legitimate role in contributing
to operator safety, particularly in the detection of crime.
As part of the critical infrastructure of modern societies, school environments
are viewed as desirable targets for terrorists therefore It is feasible to
successfully implement this project in school due to the fast response to
irregular activities seen on camera.
This project is still open for further research because of the rapid changes in the
computer world and even the software industry will bring much improvement
on the expert system.

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48