You are on page 1of 71

Emergency Shelter Typologies: Determining its

Applicability in the Philippine Environment

AR 200-1, AR 200-1 F , AR 200-1S Architectural Thesis Design


BY: AGUINALDO, ROLAND JULIUS B.
2009120401

THE PROBLEM: Introduction


The Philippines is the 3rd in the most
disaster prone country in the world
Natural disasters are the primary
source of displacement of families
and communities
We still lack in providing long term
solutions to these problems.

THE PROBLEM: Statement of the Problem


Displaced families from
disasters are forced to live in
crowded evacuation areas
Inadequate facilities and
structures
Increased risk to diseases and
abuse
Poor shelter conditions

THE PROBLEM: Goals, Objectives and


Strategies
Goal:
- Achieve a swift and efficient way of providing pre-disaster and post-disaster assistance by
means of architecture, without compromising the basic needs of the affected individuals.

- Assess the different causes that are affecting the operations and implementation of emergency
structures to efficiently deliver their services to the evacuees and affected individuals.
- Look in to the different pros and cons of different types of emergency structures, considering
this goal would help in the design phase of this thesis.

- Adopt to the prevailing challenges of disaster risk-reduction efforts brought by different


circumstances and that would help in the long term efforts of providing emergency structures.
- Achieve better technological solutions in providing better emergency structures

THE PROBLEM: Goals, Objectives and


Strategies
Objectives:
- Study the different emergency structures in accordance to its efficiency in
providing disaster mitigation, response and recovery efforts.
- Find the proper solution to the natural, physical, social and political
challenges faced by the implementation of disaster risk-reduction and
climate change adoption.
- Provide an improvement or a new solution to the existing disaster
emergency structures through architecture.

THE PROBLEM: Goals, Objectives and


Strategies
Strategies:
- To conduct a case study to existing types of emergency structures to compare
and contrast the efficiency of its use.

- Interview of the respective government and non-government offices that are


involved in the efforts done in disaster risk-reduction programs.
- Study the general challenges faced by the implementation of disaster riskreduction to see which of these can be solved through architectural solutions.
- Gather relevant sample datas and information from the past disasters that
occurred in the Philippines to point out architecturally the adoption that needs
to be done in the design stage of this research.

THE PROBLEM: Significance of the Research


- Provide a basis on which emergency structures must be used in the
typology of disaster in the Philippines, with the consideration of the
existing challenges that makes disaster risk-reduction efforts slow.
- Provide a hypothetical architectural long term solution that is swift and
efficient and that will conform to prevailing and future challenges faced
by disaster risk-reduction management in the Philippines.
- To improve the situation of emergency structures, to each have
different problem in terms of short and long term usage, design and
purpose of the structures.

THE PROBLEM: Scope, Limitations and


Assumption
Scope :

- Study of the different emergency structures, its efficiency in providing short


and long term solution to disaster mitigation, response and recovery efforts.

- General study of the different situations or challenges that disaster riskreduction faces that may be solved through architectural out puts.
- Improvement of emergency structures and which of these structures are highly
applicable to the typology of situation faced by disaster risk-reduction
programs.
- Analysis of data and information gathered from national government and
international organizations that are relevant to disaster risk-reduction,
emergency structures and natural disaster occurrence in the Philippines.

THE PROBLEM: Scope, Limitations and


Assumption
Limitations :

- The datas and information is provided by the offices of government and


non-government, and is recommended to conduct a more interactive data
gathering procedure to provide a second hand data from the ground zero
of the occurrence of natural disasters.
- The study is limited to emergency structures and the different
circumstances that are affecting disaster risk-reduction programs.

- The study is also time and resource bound, and is limited to the available
books, references, online resources, documentaries and offices that can be
accessed be the researcher.

THE PROBLEM: Scope, Limitations and


Assumption
Assumption :
- The research is assumed to be time bound and must based on the datas
gathered in the research progress to be used in the design process.
- The researcher is assumed to know the different principles and technical
aspects that are needed in the research
- The study is assumed to study the different typologies of emergency
shelters used in natural calamities.

Conceptual Framework:

REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURES AND STUDIES
Challenges of Disaster Risk-Reduction
Management
Situation of Evacuation Centers
Philippines: Life in Evacuation Centers:
Vital Lessons for the Philippines Recovery from Super
Typho on Haiyan
Permanent Evacuation Centers Pushed

REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURES AND STUDIES
Extensive Studies
Metro Manila Earthquake Impact Study

Effects of Natural Disaster Occurrence to Buildings

Earthquakes
Volcano
Typhoon and Storm Surges
Flood

REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURES AND STUDIES
Role of Transitional Sheltering
or Core Shelters in Disaster
Mitigation Plans

METHODOLOGY: Interviews
Mr. Gerardo D. Tivedo

(Fire Response Officer)


Member of the Manila Disaster Risk-Reduction and
Management Office
Responded to the different emergencies within the City of
Manila
One of the organizers of Disaster Training and Drills done
in the Del Pan Evacuation Center and in the City of Manila
One of the responders in the aftermath of Super Typhoon
Haiyan

METHODOLOGY: Interviews
Mr. Eduardo Galang
(Brgy. Bangkal, Makati Barangay Administrator Officer)

Head of the Barangay Bangkal Disaster Risk-Reduction


Management team
Responded from different barangay and city evacuation,
response and rescue

METHODOLOGY: Interviews
Archt Albert Zambrano
(Professor, Architect, Urban Planner)

Papers and Projects involving Rising Core House, Baseco


Incremental Development
His knowledge in

METHODOLOGY: Interviews
August L. Baltazar
(Habitat for Humanity, Director; Planning Design and
Construction)
Has been involved in various humanitarian sheltering
response and sheltering projects for affordable housing

METHODOLOGY: Case Studies


Del Pan Manila Evacuation Center

METHODOLOGY: Case Studies


Bangkal Multipurpose Hall

METHODOLOGY: Case Studies


Binakayan National High School as Evacuation
Center

METHODOLOGY: Case Studies


Transitional Sheltering in Tacloban
City

Tornado Wind Speed and PostDisaster Outcome


Storm Surge Height and its
Damages

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Summary of Findings
Summary of Findings
Case Study SWOT analysis
Case Study Building Analysis
Interview results

FINDINGS AND DESIGN


RECOMMENDATIONS: Summary
of Findings
Summary of Findings
Summary of Work
Flow in different
Emergency Shelter
Typologies
NORMAL DAYS

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Summary of Findings
Summary of Findings
Data Analysis and Summary of the
National Risk-Reduction Management
Council Reports

Comparative Chart of Number of Evacuation Centers to


In Evacuation and Not Needing Evacuation Centers
3,000,000

600

2,500,000

500

2,000,000

400

1,500,000

300

1,000,000

200

500,000

100

0
Not in Evacuation
In Evacuation
Num. of Evac. Centers

Juan
57,311
370,651
12

Not in Evacuation

Pedring
511,910
98,832
499
In Evacuation

Pablo
483,644
228,038
68

Yolanda
2,586,625
836,876
383

Num. of Evac. Centers

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Summary of Findings
Summary of Findings

Comparative Ratio of Barangays to Evacuation Centers


and Evacuees

Data Analysis and Summary of the


National Risk-Reduction Management
Council Reports

100%

900,000

90%

800,000

80%

700,000

70%

600,000

60%

500,000

50%
400,000

40%

300,000

30%

200,000

20%

100,000

10%
0%
Number
Number
Families
Families

of Barangays
of Evac. Center
Outside
inside

Number of Evac. Center

Juan
3,434
12
80,227
1,388

Pedring
3,316
499
52,337
46,495

Number of Barangays

Pablo
3,064
68
223,516
4,522
Families inside

Yolanda
12,139
383
815,927
20,949

Families Outside

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Summary of Findings
Summary of Findings
Data Analysis and Summary of the
National Risk-Reduction Management
Council Reports

Comparative Chart of Evacuees to Non Evacuees to


Total Cost Damages
40,000,000,000.00

100%
90%

35,000,000,000.00

80%
30,000,000,000.00
70%
25,000,000,000.00

60%

20,000,000,000.00

50%
40%

15,000,000,000.00

30%
10,000,000,000.00
20%
5,000,000,000.00
0.00
Non - Evacuees
Evacuees
Cost Damages

10%
Juan
1,638,333
370,651
10,980,673,78
Evacuees

Pedring
2,390,595
450,824
8,898,950,081
Non - Evacuees

Pablo
5,264,525
979,463
24,222,823,52

Yolanda
12,152,815
3,921,577
36,690,882,49

Cost Damages

0%

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Summary of Findings
Summary of Findings
Summary of Ratio of Compared
Data

Person

Families to

Evacuation

Evacuation

Evacuation

Cost of

s to

Barangay

Center to Total

Center to

Center to

Damage

Family

Ratio:

Evacuees Ratio:

Inside

Outside

s per

Evacuees

Evacuees

Person

Ratio:

Ratio:

Ratio:

Ratio:

Juan

125

30,888

427

30,462

5,466.00

Pedring

185

904

422

483

3,132.00

Pablo

233

14,404

294

14,111

389.00

Yolanda

283

10,240

266

9,974

2,283.00

TOTAL:

24

826

56,436

1,409

55,030

11,270.00

AVERAGE:

206.50

14,109

352.25

13,757.50

2,817.50

FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS:


Design Guidelines and Recommendations
Design Standards:

Red Cross Evacuation Center Field Guide


Standards for Shelter, Settlement, Site Selection and Planning
Communal facilities
Design of shelter, facilities and services
Gender Consideration in Design and Construction

Research Focus: Rationale


As a response to the problems in evacuation center, the displacement of
families and psychological impact of natural calamities, this research is
focused on:
Provide the basic necessities and supporting facilities that refugees needs for short

or long term recovery

Provide a shelter that is designed to lessen the psychological impact to evacuees.

Help the calamity victims to have a shelter that is easily transportable, deployable,

flexible, reusable, modular shelter.

Provide a single shelter that can be used as a transitional or core shelter for

permanent use.

Research Focus: Principles and Relevance to


the Project
Safety, Security and Support
Survivability

Redundancy
Communications
Flexibility and Open Architecture
Security

Research Focus: Principles and Relevance to


the Project
Building Technology
Use of Steel Folding Truss

Space Frame
Modular Building Components
Foldable, Movable and Detachable Walls and Furniture's
Space Saving Furniture's

Ease of connection
Adoption of Recycled Rubber Base Isolation

Research Focus: Principles and Relevance to


the Project
Maximization of Use Passive and Renewable Sources
Water Harvesting

Water Treatment
Water Reuse
Passive Lighting and Ventilation Techniques
Solar and Wind Power Harvesting

Research Focus: Principles and Relevance to


the Project
Family and Recreations
Accessibility Law

Family Centered Spaces


Recreational Facilities
Spiritual Rehabilitation
Color psychology and Relaxing Details

Research Focus: Principles and Relevance to


the Project
Transformable Shelter

Applicability to accommodate more in less footprint


Expandability of the Shelter for permanent use
Adoptability to Permanent Shelter Design
Readily adopted to natural calamities present in the Philippine environment.

Research Focus: Application to the Project


Providing shelter assistance to evacuating families should be as
humane as possible, even staying for evacuation in a short span
of time can have negative impact to evacuees; that is why people
may choose to stay in their homes in times of peril.

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Selection Process
Criteria for Site Selection
Communities with need of a more decent sheltering
The site must be away from calamity prone area or has less impact to
calamity
Must be accessible to and from other supporting facilities; like markets and
the like
Adequate space
Accessible to the high risk communities
Can provide the adequate use of passive ventilation and lighting
Open space area or Parks or Parking areas
Can be a

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Selection Process
Criteria for Site Option
Description
Quezon City
The largest city in the
philippines
2,960,627 as of 2010 with a
growth rate of 2.92% annually
Potential Hazards
20 Barangays in flood prone
areas
Lays along the Marikina Valley
Fault System
Low to Medium risk of Land
Slides

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Selection Process
Criteria for Site Option
Description
City of Manila

Population 1,660,714
and a growth rate of
.44% annually
Potential Hazards

Flood Prone City


Liquefaction Risk
Storm Surge Prone
Tsunami Prone
High Density of
Poverty Stricken
Communities
Fire Prone

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Selection Process
Criteria for Site Option
Description
Albay
Located in the South
Eastern portion of Luzon
Population of 1,233,432
as of 2010
Potential Hazards
Volcanic Eruption
Earthquake
Parts where moderate
to high susceptibility
of flooding
Liquefaction

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND


ANALYSIS: Site Selection Process
Criteria for Site Selection and Justification
Manila

High Density Population of Underprivileged Families.


Multiple Hazard Threats
High Density of Vulnerable Individuals
Suffers from annual Natural Calamity occurrence
4th on the list of ten most at risk globally from natural
hazards

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Evaluation and Analysis
The Macro Setting
District 1 and District 5 ; City of Manila
High Density Population, 984,943 as of 2010
Multiple Hazard Threats
High Density of Vulnerable Individuals, especially
along Manila Bay and Pasig River
Suffers from annual Natural Calamity occurrence

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Evaluation and Analysis
The Macro Setting
District 1 and District 5 ; City of Manila
Evacuation Centers
23 ( Including Del Pan and Baseco Evacuation
Centers)

Emergency Response
Police Station 11 ( for the whole city ); 4 ( in the
vicinity of the Districts)
Fire Stations 14 ( for the whole city ); 4 ( in the
vicinity of the Districts)
Hospitals 40 ( for the whole city ); 19 ( in the
vicinity of the districts)
Disaster Risk-Reduction Center 2 ( for the whole
city and the vicinity )

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND


ANALYSIS: Site Selection Process
Micro Setting
Quirino Grandstand, City of Manila
Accessible to slum residents of
Tondo, Baseco Compund, San Miguel
and San Nicolas
Near and Easily accessible to
emergency services such as hospitals,
police station and fire stations
Open Space with minimum vertical
structures
Elevated area
Can accommodate large number of
evacuees
For temporary evacuation only

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND


ANALYSIS: Site Evaluation and
Analysis
The Micro Setting
Sun Path and Wind Analysis

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND


ANALYSIS: Site Evaluation and
Analysis
The Micro Setting

Major and Minor Road Circulation


Noise Analysis
Pedestrian Site Access
Vehicular Access
Drop Off

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND


ANALYSIS: Site Evaluation and
Analysis
The Micro Setting
Hazzard maps

SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS: Site


Evaluation and Analysis
Related Laws and Ordinances
R.A. 10121 The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act (The
Philippine Disaster Act of 2010):
R.A. 9729 The Climate Change Act of 2009
R.A. 10174: The Peoples Survival Fund Act
Metro Manila Earthquake Contingency Plan 2011

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
Design Criteria
Design Objectives

Easily assemble and disassemble


Adopted to the natural calamities present in the Philippines
Reusable
Ensures the necessary facilities and use for the evacuees and volunteers
Flexible in space use, structure usage and adaptation to its environment
Modular
Ease use of logistics
Maximizes the use of Renewable Sources
Recreational Friendly
User Friendly
Can be integrated in Core Sheltering projects
Safe, Secure and Survivable

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program
Design Criteria
Philosophy
Architecture has a responsibility to its masters and
from whence it came from.

Principles
The Design must be:
Adoptable, Reusable, User Friendly and Sustainable.

Protection of Life, Security and Physical, Mental and


Moral Integrity
Protection of Right Related to Basic Necessities of
Life
Protection of Other Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights
Protection of Other Civil and Political Rights
Protection of Specific Groups of Persons

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Concept Development
Design Concept
Siphonophorae (sahy-fuh-nuh-fohr)
An animal that appears to be a single organism, but is
actually a colony of functionally specialized individual
organisms present in order for the whole colony to survive.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
Design Considerations
Laws and Standards

R.A. 9514 Fire Code of the Philippines


BP 344 Accessibility Law
P.D. 1096 National Building Code of the Philippines
P.D. 856 Sanitary Code of the Philippines
DSWD Administrative Order No. 171, Series of 2001

Qualitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

Qualitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

Qualitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

Quantitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

Quantitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

Quantitative Space Programming

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
Behavioral Analysis

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program
Behavioral Analysis

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
User Analysis

Major User

Minor User

General Evacuee

Administrative Volunteer

Children (Evacuee)

Culture Volunteer

Adolescents (Evacuee)

Health Volunteer

Adult Male (Evacuee)

Nutritional Volunteer

Adult Female (Evacuee)


Elderly (Evacuee)

User

Job Description

Activities

Possible Needs

Adult Male

Refuge / Minor

Security Assistance,

Psychological

(Evacuee)

Volunteer Work

Individual Family

Rehabilitation and

Technical Volunteer

Management,

Support,

Visitor

Reconstruction /

Rehabilitation

Recovery

Activities, Medical

User

Job Description

Activities

Possible Needs

Assistance, Security

and Health

General Evacuee

Refuge / Minor

General Assistance,

Psychological

Assistance,

Support, Food

Volunteer Work

Training, Recovery

Rehabilitation and

Livelihood Training,

Support

Assistance, Minor Facility

Support, Rehabilitation

Adult Female

Refuge / Minor

Kitchen Assistance,

Psychological

Maintenance

Activities, Medical and

(Evacuee)

Volunteer Work

Individual Family

Rehabilitation and

Health Support, Food

Management,

Support,

Support

Livelihood Training,

Rehabilitation

Psychological

Recovery

Activities, Medical

Rehabilitation and

Assistance, Minor

and Health

Support, Rehabilitation

Facility

Support, Food

Activities, Medical and

Maintenance

Support

Refuge / Minor

Kitchen Assistance,

Psychological

Volunteer Work

Individual Family

Rehabilitation and

Children (Evacuee)

Refuge

Play, School Work

Health Support, Food


Support
Adolescents (Evacuee)

Elderly (Evacuee)

Refuge / Minor

Play, School Work, Minor

Psychological

Management,

Support,

Volunteer Work

Reconstruction

Rehabilitation and

Reconstruction

Rehabilitation

Assistance, Minor Kitchen

Support, Rehabilitation

Assistance, Minor Facility

Activities, Medical and

Assistance, Minor

and Health

Maintenance

Health Support, Food

Evacuation

Support, Food

Support

Management

Support

Assistance, Security Activities, Medical

ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN
TRANSLATION:
Design Program

User

Job Description

Activities

Possible Needs

Administrative Volunteer

Security, Management,

General Camp

Camp Management and

Operations

Management, Camp Safety

Organization Tools,

and Order Management

Emergency Assistance
Group

Culture Volunteer

Reception, Rehabilitation,

Psychological Evaluation,

Large Group Spaces, Camp

Press-Relation

Rehabilitation Facilitation,

Management Support

Camp and External

User Analysis

Relations
Health Volunteer

Medical Assistance,

Medical Support, Health

Medical Facilities and First

Sanitation Maintenance,

Maintenance, Waste

Aid Support, Sanitary

Waste Management

Management and Disposal Management Tools, Waste


Organization Tools,
Emergency Assistance

Group
Nutritional Volunteer

Food Preparation, Serving

Food Preparation, Serving

of Foods and Relief Goods of Foods and Relief Goods,


Nutritional Management

Food Preparation Facilities,


Food Storage Facilities,
Relief and Food Distribution
Areas

Technical Volunteer

Communication, Monitoring,

Technical Maintenance,

Technical Facility,

Technical Maintenance

Communications, Monitoring

Maintenance Area

of Calamity
Visitor

Visit

Visit to Evacuees

Sitting, Sanitation Access

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
Organizational Structure

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Design Program
Functional Zoning

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Design Program
Programming Matrix / Diagrams
Interrelationship
Adjacency
Circulatory

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Concept
Development
Architectural Concept
Space Evolution and Form Evolution

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Concept Development
Architectural Concept
Structural Concept
Steel Folding Truss

Above Ground Foundation

Seismic Base Isolation from


Recycled Tire Pads

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
TRANSLATION: Concept
Development

Lighting Concept
Solar Bottle Light

Architectural Concept
Electrical Concept
Solar Power Generation
Wireless Electricity

Combined Piezoelectric Pads


and Micro-Wind Turbine

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Concept Development
Architectural Concept
Sanitation Concept
Grey Water Recycling

Grey Water Treatment and Re-use

Storm Water Harvesting and


Distribution

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION:


Synthesis
2 Plan Schemes