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Supporting Malawis National Water

Development Program

Water Supply and Sanitation in Seven


Market Centres

Water Supply System Report

March 2015
Table of Contents

Acronyms................................................................................................................. xiii
Acknowledgements................................................................................................... xv
Executive Summary................................................................................................. xvi
1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 17
2 Background........................................................................................................ 17
3 Situation Analysis............................................................................................... 19
3.1 Nathenje...................................................................................................... 19
3.1.1 General Information...............................................................................19
3.1.2 Available Water Source..........................................................................19
3.1.3 Water Supply Facilities...........................................................................19
3.1.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................20
3.2 Kasiya.......................................................................................................... 20
3.2.1 General information...............................................................................20
3.2.2 Available Water Source..........................................................................20
3.2.3 Water Supply Facilities...........................................................................21
3.2.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................21
3.3 Nsaru........................................................................................................... 21
3.3.1 General Information...............................................................................21
3.3.2 Available Water Source..........................................................................21
3.3.3 Water Supply Facilities...........................................................................22
3.3.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................22
3.4 Ntaja............................................................................................................ 22
3.4.1 General Information...............................................................................22
3.4.2 Available water Sources.........................................................................23
3.4.3 Water supply Facilities...........................................................................23
3.4.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................23
3.5 Nsanama...................................................................................................... 23
3.5.1 General Information...............................................................................23
3.5.2 Current water Source.............................................................................24
3.5.3 Water supply Facilities...........................................................................24
3.5.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................24
3.6 Malosa.......................................................................................................... 25
3.6.1 General Information...............................................................................25
3.6.2 Current water Source.............................................................................25
3.6.3 Water Supply Facilities...........................................................................25
3.6.4 Water Supply Management....................................................................26
3.7 Nkando Thuchila Market Centre................................................................26
3.7.1 General Information...............................................................................26
3.7.2 Water supply Facilities...........................................................................26
4 Water Demand Projections................................................................................. 27
4.1 Population Projections..................................................................................27
4.1.1 Basic Considerations.............................................................................27
4.1.2 Past Population Data.............................................................................. 27
4.1.3 Population Growth Rate.........................................................................28
4.1.4 Population Projections............................................................................28
4.2 Water Demand Design Criteria....................................................................29
4.2.1 General.................................................................................................. 29
4.2.2 Domestic Water Demand.......................................................................30
4.2.1.1 Domestic Demand Categories............................................................30
4.2.1.2 Per Capita Water Demand Adopted for Market Centres......................31
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4.2.1.3 Percentage Coverage for each Domestic Demand Category..............32


4.2.2 Public Water Demand............................................................................35
4.2.3 Industrial Water Demand.......................................................................36
4.2.4 Water Requirement for Fire Fighting......................................................36
4.2.5 Water Losses......................................................................................... 37
4.2.6 Animal Demand..................................................................................... 37
4.2.7 Average Day Demand............................................................................37
4.2.8 Maximum Day Demand.........................................................................38
4.2.9 Peak Hour Demand................................................................................38
4.2.10 Total Water Demand..............................................................................38
4.3 Water Demand for Market Centres...............................................................38
4.3.1 Summary of Water Demand for Nathenje..............................................39
4.3.2 Summary of Water Demand for Kasiya..................................................40
4.3.3 Summary of Water Demand for Nsaru...................................................41
4.3.4 Summary of Water Demand for Ntaja....................................................42
4.3.5 Summary of Water Demand for Nsanama.............................................43
4.3.6 Summary of Water Demand for Malosa.................................................44
4.3.7 Summary of Water Demand for Nkando................................................45
5 Water Source Investigations...............................................................................46
5.1 Methodology................................................................................................ 46
5.2 Data Availability........................................................................................... 48
5.3 Summary of Hydrogeology of Project Areas.................................................49
5.4 Water Source Investigations for Project Areas.............................................51
5.4.1 Nathenje................................................................................................ 51
5.4.1.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................51
5.4.1.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................51
5.4.1.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 52
5.4.2 Kasiya.................................................................................................... 53
5.4.2.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................53
5.4.2.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................53
5.4.2.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 53
5.4.3 Nsaru Market Centre.............................................................................. 54
5.4.3.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................54
5.4.3.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................54
5.4.3.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 54
5.4.4 Malosa Market Centre...........................................................................55
5.4.4.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................55
5.4.4.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................55
5.4.4.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 55
5.4.5 Nkando Market Centre...........................................................................56
5.4.5.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................56
5.4.5.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................56
5.4.5.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 56
5.4.6 Ntaja Market Centre............................................................................... 57
5.4.6.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................57
5.4.6.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................57
5.4.6.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 58
5.4.7 Nsanama Market Centre........................................................................58
5.4.7.1 Surface Water Sources.......................................................................58
5.4.7.2 Ground Water Sources........................................................................58
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5.4.7.3 Water Quality...................................................................................... 59


5.4.8 Recommendation on Borehole Construction..........................................59
5.4.9 Final Recommendation on Water Supply Sources..................................59
6 Proposed Water Supply Systems for Project Areas.............................................61
6.1 Design Criteria............................................................................................. 61
6.1.1 General.................................................................................................. 61
6.1.2 Water Source......................................................................................... 61
6.1.2.1 Abstractions Arrangements from Groundwater Sources.....................61
6.1.2.2 Abstraction Arrangements from Surface Water Sources.....................62
6.1.3 Pipelines................................................................................................ 62
6.1.3.1 Conveyance System...........................................................................62
6.1.3.2 Distribution System............................................................................62
6.1.4 Distribution Storage Capacity................................................................62
6.1.5 Treatment Plant Capacity.......................................................................62
6.1.6 Pumping Stations................................................................................... 63
6.1.7 Supply Network Parameters..................................................................63
6.1.7.1 Pressure in the Pipelines.....................................................................63
6.1.7.2 Flow Velocities.................................................................................... 64
6.1.8 Communal Water Point..........................................................................64
6.1.9 Location of Fire Hydrants.......................................................................64
6.1.10 Location of Flushing Devices.................................................................64
6.1.11 System Appurtenance........................................................................... 64
6.1.12 Flow Measurement................................................................................65
6.1.13 Water Quality......................................................................................... 65
6.1.13.1 Raw Water Quality...........................................................................65
6.1.13.2 Treated Water Quality......................................................................65
6.1.14 Expected Life Time of Water Supply Components and Structures.........65
6.2 Proposed Water Supply Systems..................................................................67
6.2.1 General.................................................................................................. 67
6.2.1.1 Water source...................................................................................... 67
6.2.1.2 Pump Station...................................................................................... 67
6.2.1.3 Water treatment................................................................................. 67
6.2.1.4 Access Roads...................................................................................... 67
6.2.1.5 Power Supply...................................................................................... 68
6.2.1.6 Auxiliary Buildings..............................................................................68
6.2.1.7 Other components..............................................................................68
6.2.2 Nathenje................................................................................................ 68
6.2.2.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 68
6.2.2.2 Pump Station...................................................................................... 68
6.2.2.3 Pumping main.................................................................................... 69
6.2.2.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 69
6.2.2.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 69
6.2.2.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................69
6.2.3 Kasiya.................................................................................................... 69
6.2.3.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 69
6.2.3.2 Pumping Station.................................................................................70
6.2.3.3 Pumping Mains................................................................................... 70
6.2.3.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 70
6.2.3.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 70
6.2.3.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................70
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6.2.4 Nsaru..................................................................................................... 70
6.2.4.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 70
6.2.4.2 Pumping Station.................................................................................71
6.2.4.3 Pumping Mains................................................................................... 71
6.2.4.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 71
6.2.4.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 71
6.2.4.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................71
6.2.5 Ntaja...................................................................................................... 72
6.2.5.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 72
6.2.5.2 Pumping Station.................................................................................72
6.2.5.3 Pumping Mains................................................................................... 72
6.2.5.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 73
6.2.5.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 73
6.2.5.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................73
6.2.6 Nsanama............................................................................................... 73
6.2.6.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 73
6.2.6.2 Pumping Station.................................................................................74
6.2.6.3 Pumping Mains................................................................................... 74
6.2.6.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 74
6.2.6.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 74
6.2.6.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................74
6.2.7 Malosa................................................................................................... 74
6.2.7.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 74
6.2.7.2 Transmission Mains............................................................................. 75
6.2.7.3 Water Treatment Plant........................................................................75
6.2.7.4 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 75
6.2.7.5 Distribution Network...........................................................................75
6.2.8 Nkando.................................................................................................. 75
6.2.8.1 Water Sources.................................................................................... 75
6.2.8.2 Pumping Station.................................................................................76
6.2.8.3 Pumping Mains................................................................................... 76
6.2.8.4 Water Treatment................................................................................. 76
6.2.8.5 Storage Facilities................................................................................ 76
6.2.8.6 Distribution Network...........................................................................76
7 Cost Estimates................................................................................................... 78
7.1 Unit Costs.................................................................................................... 78
7.2 Summary of Cost Estimates for Market Centres..........................................78
7.2.1 Nathenje................................................................................................ 79
7.2.2 Kasiya.................................................................................................... 81
7.2.3 Nsaru..................................................................................................... 83
7.2.4 Ntaja...................................................................................................... 84
7.2.5 Nsanama............................................................................................... 86
7.2.6 Malosa................................................................................................... 88
7.2.7 Nkando.................................................................................................. 89
8 Environmental and Social Issues........................................................................91
8.1 The Validity of the Project............................................................................91
8.2 Existing Sewage Disposal Facilities..............................................................91
8.3 Environmental Impact of the Proposed Project............................................92
8.3.1 Impact from Site Selection.....................................................................92
8.3.2 Impacts from Construction....................................................................92
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8.4 Social-Economic Impacts.............................................................................92


8.5 Sanitation Impacts....................................................................................... 93
8.6 Mitigation Measures..................................................................................... 93
8.6.1 Effective Planning Measures..................................................................93
8.6.2 Construction Measures..........................................................................93
8.6.3 Operation Measures...............................................................................94
8.6.4 Mitigation of Impacts of Surface and Groundwater................................94
9 Estimated Beneficiaries...................................................................................... 94
9.1 Rationale...................................................................................................... 94
9.2 Summary of Estimated Beneficiaries of Water Supply Project.....................95
10
References...................................................................................................... 96
11
Annexes.......................................................................................................... 97
11.1 Water Quality Results...................................................................................97
11.2 Schematic Drawing of types of water supply system.................................117
12
Details of Meetings and Site Visits Conducted..............................................119
13
Details of people met.................................................................................... 123
14
Photographs.................................................................................................. 125

Figures
FIGURE 1: TYPICAL GROUND WATER SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT...........................................................114
FIGURE 4.1 SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF OPTION 2............................................................................115

Tables
TABLE 4.1: POPULATION AND NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS OF SELECTED MARKET CENTRES.......................27
TABLE 4.2: ANNUAL POPULATION PERCENTAGE GROWTH RATES FOR SELECTED MARKET CENTRES...........28
TABLE 4.3: POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR MARKET CENTRES............................................................29
TABLE 4.4: ESTIMATE OF BREAKDOWN OF PER CAPITA DOMESTIC WATER DEMAND BASED ON WATER USE
....................................................................................................................................... 31
TABLE 4.5: PER CAPITA WATER DEMAND ADOPTED BY DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONS................................32
TABLE 4.6: PER CAPITA WATER DEMAND ADOPTED FOR SELECTED MARKET CENTRES............................32
TABLE 4.7: SELECTED INDICTORS OF LEVEL OF ACCESS TO POTABLE WATER..........................................33
TABLE 4.8: PERCENTAGE USED TO CALCULATE POPULATION TO BE SERVED BY DEMAND CATEGORY...........35
TABLE 4.9: PERCENTAGE WATER DEMAND OF DOMESTIC DEMAND......................................................36
TABLE 4.10: WATER LOSS AS PERCENTAGE OF MAXIMUM DAY DEMAND..............................................37
TABLE 4.11: SUMMARY OF WATER DEMAND FOR NATHENJE...............................................................39
TABLE 4.12: SUMMARY OF WATER DEMAND FOR KASIYA...................................................................40
TABLE 4.13: SUMMARY OF WATER DEMAND FOR NSARU...................................................................41
TABLE 4.14: SUMMARY OF WATER DEMAND FOR NTAJA....................................................................42
TABLE 4.15: SUMMARY FOR WATER DEMAND FOR NSANAMA.............................................................43
TABLE 4.16: SUMMARY FOR WATER DEMAND FOR MALOSA...............................................................44
TABLE 4.17: SUMMARY FOR WATER DEMAND FOR NKANDO...............................................................45
TABLE 5.1: RECOMMENDED LIMITS FOR SELECTED WATER CONSTITUENTS............................................48
TABLE 5.2: BOREHOLE DATA....................................................................................................... 48
TABLE 6.1: HAZEN-WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT....................................................................................64
TABLE 6.2: DESIGN PERIOD AND EXPECTED LIFE TIME OF WATER SUPPLY COMPONENTS AND STRUCTURES 65

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TABLE 6.3: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR NATHENJE....................................................68


TABLE 6.4: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR KASIYA........................................................69
TABLE 6.5: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR NSARU........................................................70
TABLE 6.6: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR NTAJA.........................................................72
TABLE 6.7: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR NSANAMA....................................................73
TABLE 4.11: ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF BOREHOLES FOR NKANDO....................................................76
TABLE 7.1: PROJECT COSTS FOR OPTION 1 FOR NATHENJE (GROUNDWATER SYSTEM).............................79
TABLE 7.2: THE PROJECT COSTS FOR OPTION B FOR NATHENJE (CONJUNCTIVE GROUND WATER AND SURFACE
WATER SYSTEM)................................................................................................................. 79
TABLE 7.3: COST ESTIMATES FOR OPTION 1 FOR KASIYA ( GROUND WATER SYSTEM)..............................81
TABLE 7.4: COST ESTIMATES FOR OPTION 2 FOR KASIYA (SURFACE WATER SYSTEM)...............................82
TABLE 7.5: COST ESTIMATES FOR OPTION 1 FOR NSARU (GROUNDWATER SYSTEM)...............................83
TABLE 7.6: COST ESTIMATES FOR OPTION 1 FOR NTAJA (GROUNDWATER SYSTEM).................................84
TABLE 7.7: COST ESTIMATES FOR NTAJA CONJUNCTIVE GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER SYSTEM
(OPTION 2)....................................................................................................................... 85
TABLE 7.8: COST ESTIMATES FOR GROUND WATER SYSTEM AT NSANAMA (OPTION 1)............................86
TABLE 7.9: COST ESTIMATE FOR NSANAMA CONJUNCTIVE GROUND AND SURFACE WATER SYSTEM AT
NSANAMA.......................................................................................................................... 87
TABLE 7.10: COST ESTIMATES FOR A SURFACE WATER SYSTEM AT MALOSA.........................................88
TABLE 7.11: COST ESTIMATES FOR NKANDO GROUND WATER SYSTEM (OPTION 1)...............................89
TABLE 7: 12: COST ESTIMATES FOR NKANDO SURFACE WATER SYSTEM (OPTION 2)..............................90
TABLE 9.1:SUMMARY OF ESTIMATED BENEFICIARIES OF PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY PROJECT.......................95

Acronyms
AfDB

African Development Bank

ACGF

African Catalytic Growth Fund

AusAID

Australian Agency for International Development

AWSP

Africa Water and Sanitation Program

COMWASH

Community Water and Sanitation and Health

DFID

Department for International Development

DMA

District Monitoring Assistant

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EIB

European Investment Bank

EU

European Union

GOM

Government of Malawi

HWA

Health Worker

IDA

International Development Agency

JICA

Japanese International Cooperation Agency

JMP

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MDGS

Malawi Growth and Development Strategy

MICS

Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

MIWD

Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development

NWDP

National Water Development Program

NGO

Non-Government Organisation

OPEC

Oil Producing

PCUt

Program Coordinating Unit

PMU

Program management Unit

RWB

Regional Water Board

RWSS

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation

UNICEF

United Nations Children Fund

WATSAN

Water and Sanitation

WSI

Water and Sanitation Initiative

WUA

Water User Association

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Acknowledgements
The Cardno Acil Pty Ltd wish to express their gratitude to all persons and
organizations involved in the production of this report. The Consultant would like to
particularly extend appreciation and thanks to the Ministry of Irrigation and Water
Development and the Management of National Water Development Program and its
staff for their untiring support in providing information and relevant previous study
documentation, explanations to the Consultant during field visits and various
occasions on operational issues relating to this assignment; and general guidance
and advice on the project.
The Consultant would also like to extend his profound thanks for the contributions
made by the various stakeholders including Lilongwe, Machinga, Zomba and
Mulanje District Assemblies and all government institution officers at all the seven
centres for the valuable ideas and contributions to the project; and also all the
various members who contributed in all aspects to the successful completion of this
report.

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Executive Summary
This Baseline Assessment Report outlines the existing system, proposed works and
cost estimates for Seven Market Centres of Nathenje, Nsalu and Kasiya in Lilongwe
District, Malosa in Zomba District, Ntaja and Ulongwe in Machinga District and
Mkando in Mulanje District. AusAID has proposed support for the Government of
Malawis efforts to increase access to water supply and sanitation services in towns
in Malawi. This will be achieved through co-financing the African Development
Banks (AfDB) investment plan in support for National Water Development Program
(NWDP).
Therefore, this report describes all available alternatives and the implication of
choosing any alternative to enable appraisal by AusAID management of the
proposed program to support the NWDP in the seven market centres in four
districts. AusAID funding of AUD17 million is proposed to support the AfDB funded
program over two years FY 09/10 and FY 10/11 through co-financing NWDP to
increase access to water supply services and sanitation in the market centers,
improve water security through improved WRM and provide support for improved
institutional arrangements and capacity building of Regional Water Boards and
Local Government.
Currently, all market centres do not have piped water supply systems apart from
Malosa. The available water supply is through boreholes which are equipped with
hand pumps. Institutions such as Clinics and ADMARCs have boreholes which are
fitted with motorized pumps. Hence water is pumped from the boreholes to
elevated tanks which supply the institutions through a simple reticulation system.
The coverage of these reticulation systems is just the institutions themselves and
their residential houses. Malosa has a gravity fed water supply scheme which gets
its water from Likwenu River. This system supply all the mission establishment at
the centre which include a hospital, nursing school secondary school and a lay
training centre. Apart from the institutional establishments, the market centre is
supplied with boreholes and a rural gravity fed system called Lufani.
The management of the available water facilities is done by the institutions that
own the systems. Community boreholes are managed by water point committees
which comprise of elected members from the beneficiary communities. Vibrancy of
these committees is variable depending on who is elected. The water point
committees are responsible for operation and maintenance of the borehole which is
funded through cash contributions from the beneficiary households.
One main important component of a realistic and viable water supply project is a
well-conceived assessment of population and economic growth, supported by
current/future land use plans, and as far as possible, an accurate projection of water
consumption and demand pattern. Therefore, the Consultant had to work out the
population and water demand estimates for each market centre for design year of
2030. Some of the main issues which were covered included the demand categories
taking into account the present and future development situation of the Town. The
water demand consists of domestic, institutional, commercial, industrial, animal in
some cases and water for fire fighting. Unaccounted for water is also included in the
demand projections to accommodate the losses without affecting the service level
to the consumers.
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Below is a table containing the summary of the projected population and the
projected demand for each centre.

Market Centre

2030
Projected Population

Projected Maximum
Day Water Demand
M3/day

Nathenje

9,000

1,250

Kasiya

5,477

738

Nsaru

3,993

507

Ntaja

11,049

1,535

Nsanama

8,286

1,117

Malosa

7,538

1,047

Nkando

3,971

535

49,314

1,255,479

Total

In order to assess the water supply situation at the selected market centres and
hence recommend options for water supply source, the Consultant visited all sites in
December 2009. These visits were complemented with desk studies on existing
water supply systems for the above-mentioned centres. The assessment entailed
both the adequacy of the available water resources to meet the existing and
projected water demand as well as the suitability of the quality of water for human
consumption. The investigations earmarked both groundwater and surface water
sources without taking into account storage facilities. Thus, surface water intakes
were considered where resources were noted to be available in adequate quantity
and quality, with little risk of water pollution or where water pollution could be
economically prevented. Reliability of the supply was another important factor that
was given serious consideration in the investigations.
Water samples were also collected from all possible water sources for the centres
for analysis of physical, chemical and biological composition by the Central Water
Quality Laboratory. The results of samples got from boreholes, generally show that
the water is suitable for human consumption whilst surface water sources require
full scale treatment. Additionally, all samples indicated that the concentrations of
fluoride, iron and sulphate, which are problem elements in the Precambrian
Basement Complex aquifer, are very low apart from surface water source from Mudi
River in Kasiya which has high iron content.
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Thereafter, the Consultant had to come up with the proposed water supply systems
for each market centre with associated cost estimates. Below is a summary of the
proposed systems for the market centres.

Market
Centre

Proposed System

Estimated Cost
US$

Nathenje

The water source will be six boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
750m3 by high lift pumps through a
2,800m pumping main. The only
treatment which will be applied will be
disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 8,450m

1,348,400.00

Kasiya

The water source will be five boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
420m3 by high lift pumps through a
3,000m pumping main. The only
treatment which will be applied will be
disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 8,500m

1,160,980.00

Nsaru

The water source will be three boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
280m3 by high lift pumps through a
2,200m pumping main. The only
treatment which will be applied will be
disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 7,600m

978,270.00

Ntaja

The water source will be seven boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
850m3 by high lift pumps through a
3,000m pumping main. The only
treatment which will be applied will be
disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 11,700m

1,613,150.00

Nsanama

The water source will be five boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
620m3 by high lift pumps through a
2,750m pumping main. The only

1,434,670.00

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treatment which will be applied will be


disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 11,500m

Malosa

The water source will be from two rivers


Likwenu and Lufani hence intakes will
constructed on both rivers which will be
connected to a break pressure tank
before connecting to the treatment works
by a gravity transmission main of
4,500m. Then the water will be treated in
through a sedimentation tank, pressure
filters and disinfection. Thereafter, the
water will flow into a 580m3 reservior.
The total reticulation will be 16,400m.

2,098,850.00

Nkando

The water source will be 2 boreholes


which will be connected to sump and
water will be pumped to a storage tank of
300m3 by high lift pumps through a
2,750m pumping main. The only
treatment which will be applied will be
disinfection and the total reticulation will
be 7,600m.

966,750.00

Total

9,601,070.00

Environmental issues were looked into so that proper management could be


produced for the project. Therefore, a number of mitigation and management plans
have been proposed to be implemented. To achieve the best results, the mitigation
measures shall be carried out in collaboration with all the stakeholders of the
project i.e. the local people, the contractor, the consultant and the Client. Since
each of these market centres have a population of less than 10,000 people it is
expected that a full EIA will not be required, therefore the impacts will be suitably
addresses through the adequate engineering and construction methods which have
been outlined.
In general terms, a total of 49,314 people are envisaged to benefit from the water
supply projects in all the market centres. Therefore this project would contribute to
the economic growth and poverty reduction which the Government of Malawi has
priotized in its national overarching strategy.

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1 Introduction
This Baseline Assessment Report outlines the existing system, proposed works and cost
estimates for Seven Market Centres of Nathenje, Nsalu and Kasiya in Lilongwe District,
Malosa in Zomba District, Ntaja and Ulongwe in Machinga District and Mkando in Mulanje
District. Therefore, this report describes all available alternatives and the implication of
choosing any alternative to enable appraisal by AusAID management of the proposed
program to support the NWDP in the seven market centres in four districts. The objective
of this consultant service is to provide sufficient information in terms of the details and
cost of the program to enable preparation of a Design Summary Implementation
Document (DSID) that will satisfy AusAID appraisal requirements.

2 Background
Australias $300 million Water and Sanitation Initiative (WSI) will be implemented from July
2009 to June 2011. The Africa Water and Sanitation Program (AWSP) will be the largest
regional/country program supported by the WSI. It will focus on Sub Saharan Africa. The
AWSP will be a key part of Australias expanded support to Africa. AusAID has proposed
support for the Government of Malawis efforts to increase access to water supply and
sanitation services in towns in Malawi. This will be achieved through co-financing the
African Development Banks (AfDB) investment plan in support for National Water
Development Program.
Malawis National Water Development Program (NWDP) is a sector program of approx.
US$300 million that covers all of Malawi and aims at 80% coverage of improved water
supply and sanitation by 2015. Available financing for the rural water supply and
sanitation (RWSS) component (including towns), which will benefit 4.45 million rural and
district people, is approx. US$142 million, and the water resources component, which will
benefit all Malawians, is US$16 million. NWDP has four components: C-1) Urban Water
Supply and Sanitation; C-2) Town, Market Centre and Rural Piped and Point Water Supply
and Sanitation; C-3) Water Resources Management; and C-4) Program Management and
Capacity Building.
AfDBs current funding of US$48 million for NWDP supports work in four districts, Lilongwe,
Zomba, Machinga and Mulanje. Funding includes US$42.5 million from the Africa
Development Fund for C2(c) rural piped water systems, C2(d) rural water supply and
sanitation, C3 Water Resource management and Program Management and Capacity
Building. A further US$5.5 million is provided from RWSSI Trust Fund for C2 (d) rural water
supply and sanitation. AfDB involvement in NWDP has helped leverage five other
development partners into the program.
AWSP funding will focus on increasing services to population centres in rural Malawi
through the following sub components: (C2) Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Systems
Towns and Market Centres; (C 3) Water Resource management; and (C4) Capacity Building.
AusAID will aim to increase the percentage of funds spent under NWDP on sanitation and
hygiene. It is proposed that AWSP funding will support the same four districts on which
AfDB is currently working, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mulanje and Zomba and will focus on the
market centres of Nathenje, Nsalu and Kisiya in Lilongwe District, Malosa in Zomba
District, Ntaja and Ulongwe in Machinga District and Mkando in Mulanje District.
An outline of the proposed AWSP program in support of NWDP is as follows:

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15

Provision of piped water supply facilities in the seven market centres including catchment
protection activities in the specific water catchments proposed for water supply to the
centres.
Provision of sanitation facilities in public places such as markets, schools and health
centres in the seven market centres. Support for latrine construction for disadvantaged
groups such as the disabled and the elderly.
Provison of hygiene promotion programs in the seven market centres and possibly in other
centres depending on availability of funding
Provision of district-wide catchment management program in one of the four Districts
Capacity building to the districts for the establishment of water user associations and local
operators.
AusAID funding of AUD17 million is proposed to support the AfDB funded program over
two years FY 09/10 and FY 10/11 through co-financing NWDP to increase access to water
supply services and sanitation in the market centers, improve water security through
improved WRM and provide support for improved institutional arrangements and capacity
building of Regional Water Boards and Local Government.

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3 Situation Analysis
3.1 Nathenje
3.1.1

General Information

a. Location
Nathenje is found in Lilongwe in Central Region of Malawi. It is designated as a rural
market centre situated approximately 25 km east of Lilongwe City along North and South
sides of LilongweBlantyre (M1) Road. Geographically, the market centre is at 598000 E
and 8443000 N

b. Land Use
As a designated a rural market, Nathenje has an urban structure plan prepared by the
Town and Country Planning Department of Malawi Government. Urban development has
concentrated on the southern side of the Lilongwe Blantyre (M1) Road and west of
Nathenje River.Establishments at the centre include ADMARC Facility, Private Secondary
Schools, Tobacco Grading Centre, Police Post, Islamic Centre, Veterinary Clinic, Health
Clinic, Agriculture Training School, Primary School to the North, Commercial development
restricted to a few shops, restaurants, bars leisure centres and the Nathenje Catholic
Mission
Greater commercial land usage is found on the Southern side where there is a market and
a Trading Centre. There are some medium density housing and villages of traditional
semi-permanent type.

3.1.2 Available Water Source


Currently Nathenje mainly uses groundwater from boreholes equipped with Afridev hand
pumps. Groundwater source is not sustainable. The yields of existing boreholes are very
low in the range of dry to 1.0 l/s. Considering the number of boreholes and their yields,
the existing boreholes do not satisfy the present water demand and the type of system is
not convenient for urban setting. Because of this, some residents opt for unprotected
water supplies including open hand dug wells and sometimes Nathenje River.

3.1.3 Water Supply Facilities


Nathenje has no water supply system. There is a motorised pump fitted borehole at
ADMARC that supplies ADMARC, Police Post, Health Clinic, Post Office and 15 other houses
that buy water at a stand- pipe. There is another motorised pump fitted borehole serving
Agriculture Trading Centre.
Majority of the residents obtain their water from hand pump fitted boreholes (which need
repairs and maintenance from time to time) while some obtain water from hand dug wells.
There are also privately owned boreholes not accessible by the residents.

3.1.4 Water Supply Management


Water facilities are for institutions are managed by the institutions that own them.
ADMARC manages its small piped water system and the other institutions are responsible
for their boreholes. The community boreholes are managed by water point committees
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17

which comprise of elected members from the beneficiary communities. Vibrancy of these
committees is variable depending on who is elected. The water point committees are
responsible for operation and maintenance of the borehole which is funded through cash
contributions from the beneficiary households.

3.2 Kasiya
3.2.1 General information
a. Location
Kasiya is located about 50km West-North-West and it is one of the market centres in
Lilongwe district in the Central Region. It is in Traditional Authority Khongoni and is
accessed by two roads namely T346 from M6 and D179 from S117. It is locates at 539000
E and 8478000 N in the Lilongwe plain.

b. Land Use
The centre has government agency offices namely, police unit and a primary school on the
eastern side of Mudi River, Agriculture station, a court, ADMARC depot. There are also local
authority facilities such as market. There is also a Tobacco Association of Malawi Depot.
Apart from the traders who run grocery shops, hawkers, restaurants and rest houses, there
are institutional houses for staff of various establishments in the area. The rest of the
settlements or buildings are residential homes for the resident community members. The
settlements are mainly located along the secondary roads passing through the market
centre
The market centre is surrounded by both smallholder tobacco gardens and small to
medium farms.

3.2.2 Available Water Source


Kasiya mainly uses groundwater sources. Currently there are five boreholes at the market
centre with yields of between 1.0 l/s and 3.0 l/s. There are also surface water sources the
nearest being Mudi River which runs across the market centre. However, the river is wide
and shallow. The flows of the river are reasonable; however there will be need to carry out
detailed hydrological analysis of the flows and identify a location for intake in the detailed
design stage if groundwater sources are chosen for the proposed water supply system.
According to Carl Bro Report, and confirmed by the water quality tests done for this report,
the water quality from the existing water sources is variable (Carl Bro International, 1988).
The water from the old primary school borehole was reported to be very hard, saline, and
aggressive and stains clothes. However, the current borehole at the primary school drilled
about 100m away has better water quality. The recent water quality parameters as
follows:

3.2.3 Water Supply Facilities


There is no piped water supply system at Kasiya. The main means of access of household
water are boreholes equipped with Afridev hand pumps and protected wells. There are five
boreholes one of which is not functional. The functional boreholes are located at the
market and shops (western side) and one at the primary school (on the eastern side).
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Each bore hole has two concrete sinks for washing. The waste water is disposed by means
of soak pits. Currently there are sanitation challenges on most of the boreholes: the drains
and soak pits are blocked by solid wastes such as plastic papers and rubbish and there is
stagnant water.

3.2.4 Water Supply Management


The water sources are managed by the institutions and water point committees who are
responsible for operation and maintenance. In case of users other than institutions, the
beneficiary communities bear the costs for operation and maintenance.

3.3 Nsaru
3.3.1 General Information
a. Location
Nsaru Market Centre is located about 40km West-North-West and it is a market centres in
Traditional Authority Kabudula in Lilongwe district in the Central Region. It is accessed by
secondary road (S117) and a district road (D184 & D185) from M6. It is connected to
Kasiya by S117 and D179. It is locates at 554000 E and 8465000 N in the Lilongwe plain.

b. Land Use
Nsaru is a typical market centre in terms of its land use which comprise of government
institutions such as primary and secondary schools, Agriculture Training Centre, ADMARC
and a trading centre which includes a rural market.

3.3.2 Available Water Source


Nsaru market centre is currently using ground water sources which are abstracted by
means of boreholes equipped with hand pumps and submersible pumps. Other
communities use protected and unprotected wells.

3.3.3 Water Supply Facilities


The communities use boreholes fitted with hand pumps while two institutions namely,
Nsaru Health Centre and Girls Private Schools have their own small private piped water
supply systems. The systems comprise of a borehole equipped with a submersible pump, a
short transmission main, 20m3 elevated plastic tanks and a small reticulation system
covering the institution and a few staff houses.

3.3.4 Water Supply Management


The small piped water supply systems are managed by the institutions while the boreholes
are managed by water point committees except for one borehole which is privately owned
by a former member of parliament. The beneficiary communities are responsible for
operation and maintenance. In case of public boreholes the communities contribute
money through the water point committees for maintenance of the water sources. On the
other hand the privately owned water sources are maintained by the owners

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3.4 Ntaja
3.4.1 General Information
a. Location
Ntaja is a market centre in Machinga District. It is located 49 kilometres north east of
Liwonde Town Assembly along Bakili Muluzi Highway. Ntaja Market centre is under T/A
Kawinga. Ntaja is a flat area which lies at an altitude of about 50 m above sea level.
Geographically the centre lies between 7701814 and 7702814 easting and 83o5368
and 83o5568 northing.
b. Land use
The market centre has the following land use patterns which are agriculture, settlement,
commercial and public facilities. Settlement and agriculture are dominating ones.
Agricultural land use alone covers about 57 percent of total land.
Commercial structures at the centre include rest houses, Chipiku store, Southern Bottlers
depot, Peoples Trading Centre, groceries and maize and rice mills. Public facilities present
are Ntaja Police station, ADMARC, Ntaja Health Centre, MTL exchange, primary schools and
community day secondary schools
c. Climate
Ntaja market centre is a low lying area which experiences hot to very hot temperatures
throughout the year. Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures being 24.3 oc and
33.6oc respectively. October and November are the hottest while July is the coldest. The
mean monthly wind speed is 1.9 m/s.
The area has a mean annual precipitation of 1,122.7 mm. The main rainy months are
November to April. The highest rainfall occurs during the month of January while May to
October is the dry season with very little and scattered and rainfall.

3.4.2 Available water Sources


Groundwater is the most reliable source of water for the centre. Surface water source is in
limited supply since the perennial rivers are about 30 km away in the Chikala Hills.
Mbenjere and Nkhande Rivers which are within the centrer are annual rivers. Kawinga
Gravity Rural Water Supply Scheme which gets water from the Chikala Hills used to supply
part of Ntaja in the past but the system is not working as of now.
The Consultant was advised by the NWDP that Kawinga Gravity Rural Water Supply
Scheme is going to be rehabilitated under the ADB funding and procurement of design and
supervision consultants is under way.

3.4.3 Water supply Facilities


There are about 11 hand pump fitted boreholes with one broken. Mbenjere and Nkhande
Rivers also provide water for domestic uses although these rivers are annual. As already
indicated above, previously the area was supplied from Kawinga gravity fed system from
Chikala hills but is not working due to pipe vandalism.
Three institutions which included Mbenjere Secondary School (MSS), St. Marys Pastoral
Centre and Ntaja Health Centre (NHC) have pumping systems. MSS had a submersible
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20

pump which discharges into 20 m3 elevated tank and supplies the school and seven staff
houses. The system at the Pastoral centre supplies the hostels and the church while the
system at the Health Centre supplies the centre excluding staff houses.

3.4.4 Water Supply Management


The management of water supply varies from one source to the other. For boreholes which
are fitted with handpumps, the management is through Water Point Committees. These
committee are composed of people who use the facility and they are elected by the
community within the vicinity of the boreholes.
The management of other institutional systems are privately managed by the institutions
themselves.

3.5 Nsanama
3.5.1 General Information
a. Location
Nsanama is another market centre in T/A Kawingas area and is about 12 km to Ntaja. It is
located 38 kilometres north east of Liwonde Town Assembly along Bakili Muluzi Highway.
Nsanama is a flat area which lies at an altitude of about 50 m above sea level.
Geographically the area lies between 76o70 and 77o easting and between 83o40 and
83o44 northing.

b. Land use
Land at the market centre is mainly used for agriculture, settlement, commercial and
public facilities. The surrounding arable land is used for cultivation of crops and rearing of
livestock. The main crops grown are tobacco, rice, maize, paprika and soya while livestock
reared include cattle and goats.
Settlement patterns at the centre are not distinct. It is a mixture of traditional, high
density permanent and medium density housing type.
Commercial and public structures at the centre include wholesales, grocery shops, rest
houses, maize & rice mills, schools, Nsanama Health centre, post office and Nsanama
E.P.A.

c. Climate
Nsanama market centre is a low lying area which experiences hot to very hot
temperatures throughout the year. Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures
are the same as for Ntaja being 24.3 oc and 33.6oc respectively. October and November are
the hottest while July is the coldest. The mean monthly wind speed is 1.9 m/s.
The area has a mean annual precipitation of 1122.7 mm. The main rainy months are
November to April. The highest rainfall occurs during the month of January while May to
October is the dry season with very little and scattered and rainfall.

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3.5.2 Current water Source


Groundwater is the most reliable source of water for the centre. Surface water source is in
limited supply since the perennial rivers are about 30 km away in the Chikala Hills. Other
sources are unprotected shallow wells and streams. The most notable stream is Mwalasi
emanating from Chikala Hills.

3.5.3 Water supply Facilities


There are about six (6) hand pump fitted boreholes and several shallow wells. The most
notable stream is Mwalasi emanating from Chikala Hills. Previously the area was supplied
from Mgodi/Kawinga gravity fed system from Chikala hills but is not working due to pipe
vandalism.
The Consultant was advised by the NWDP that Kawinga Gravity Rural Water Supply
Scheme is going to be rehabilitated under the ADB funding and procurement of design and
supervision consultants is under way.
Nsanama Health Centre had its own pumping system supplying the hospital and staff
houses. Staff houses have stand taps.

3.5.4 Water Supply Management


The management of water supply varies from one source to the other. For boreholes which
are fitted with handpumps, the management is through Water Point Committees. These
committee are composed of people who use the facility and they are elected by the
community within the vicinity of the boreholes.
The management of other institutional systems are privately managed by the institutions
themselves.

3.6 Malosa
3.6.1 General Information
a. Location
Namwera Turn-off also known as Malosa is located 40 km from Zomba. The area is found in
Zomba District. The average elevation at the centre of the area is about 760 meters above
sea level and its coordinates are 15o 17S and 35o 12E.
b. Land use
Public facilities at the centre include post and telecommunications and ADMARC. There is
St. Luke hospital under Anglican Church, full primary, secondary and nursing schools. The
centre has an urban structure plan and is connected to the national power grid.
Cassava and rice are major cash crops grown at Namwera Turn off with maize as food crop.
Livestock reared are cattle, pigs, goats and chickens.

c. Climate
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The area is generally warm and partly humid during summer between August and
November. Average monthly temperature is 21.6c. Mean monthly minimum temperature
is 16.3c with the lowest recorded being 11c between June and August. Mean monthly
maximum is 26.9c with the highest recorded being 32.5c between October and
November.
Namwera Turn Off has mean annual rainfall of 1,294mm with the highest recently
recorded being 1,825.2mm in 2001/2002 season and lowest recently recorded being
866.6mm in 2003/2004 season.
Rain season is normally between November and April. Highest rainfall occurs in the month
of January while summer reaches its peak in October.

3.6.2 Current water Source


Malosa Area has both surface and ground water sources. The perennial rivers available in
the areas are Likwenu River to the North and Lufani River to the South of the centre.

3.6.3 Water Supply Facilities


Malosa has several boreholes that were drilled by Ministry of Irrigation and Water
Development fitted with Afridev hand pumps. Lufani Rural Gravity Water Supply Scheme
supplies the area around the South of the centre and some stand taps are located within
the Malosa Market as well as Namwera Turnoff.
Mission institutions at Malosa are supplied from a water supply system whose source is
Likwenu River. There is an intake structure, new ground concrete storage tank and
reticulation which covers Malosa Secondary School, St Lukes Hospital, Nursing School and
a Lay Training Centre.

3.6.4 Water Supply Management


The management of water supply varies from one source to the other. For boreholes which
are fitted with handpumps, the management is through Water Point Committees. These
committees are composed of people who use the facility and they are elected by the
community within the vicinity of the boreholes.
The Anglican Church manages the institutional water supply system whilst the Lufani Rural
Water Supply Scheme is managed by a water committee formed by the water users within
the scheme.

3.7 Nkando Thuchila Market Centre


3.7.1 General Information
a. Location
Nkando is a Market Centre in T/A Juma in Mulanje District. It is located 30 kilometres north
west of Mulanje Boma along Robert Mugabe Highway. Nkando is a fairly flat area.

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b. Land use
Land in at the Market Centre is mainly used for agriculture, settlement, commercial and
public facilities. The surrounding arable land is used for cultivation of crops and rearing of
livestock. The main crops grown are maize, paprika and soya while livestock reared
include cattle and goats.
Settlement patterns at the centre are not distinct. It is a mixture of traditional, high
density permanent and medium density housing type.
Commercial and public structures in the Market Centre include wholesales, grocery shops,
rest houses, maize & rice mills, schools, Thuchila Health Centre, post office and Thuchila
E.P.A.

3.7.2 Water supply Facilities


There are about five (5) hand pump fitted boreholes and several shallow wells. The most
notable river is Thuchila River emanating from Mulanje Mountain. Previously the area was
supplied from Namitambo Gravity Fed System from Mulanje Mountain but is not working
due to pipe vandalism.
The Consultant was advised by the NWDP that Namitambo Gravity Rural Water Supply
Scheme is going to be rehabilitated under the ADB funding and procurement of design and
supervision consultants is under way.
Thuchila Health Centre and Thuchila Community Secondary School had its own pumping
system supplying the hospital, school and staff houses respectively. Staff houses have
stand taps.

3.7.1 Water Supply Management


The management of water supply varies from one source to the other. For boreholes which
are fitted with handpumps, the management is through Water Point Committees. These
committee are composed of people who use the facility and they are elected by the
community within the vicinity of the boreholes.
The management of other institutional systems are privately managed by the institutions
themselves.

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Population Projections
3.7.2 Basic Considerations
One main important component of a realistic and viable water supply project is a wellconceived assessment of population and economic growth, supported by current/future
land use plans, and as far as possible, an accurate projection of water consumption and
demand pattern. Reliable estimate of present and future demands flows and discharge can
only be determined based on available and agreed demographic and economic
projections.

Therefore, the Consultant has carefully reviewed the past reports on population growth
and discussed with the Client, Physical Planning Department and the National Statistical
Office. The population forecasts of previous studies have been reviewed and adjustment in
conjunction with the 2008 Population Census results.
The Consultant had a discussion with the District Assembly and Physical Planning
Department Officials on the existing land use plans and incorporated the latest domestic,
institutional, commercial and industrial development and planning.

3.7.3 Past Population Data


National Population Censuses have been carried out five times in the post-independence
Malawi, i.e. 1966, 1977, 1987, 1998 and 2008. The population of the market centres and
number of households from the 2008 census results report are shown in Table 2.1 below.
Table 4.1: Population and Number of Households of Selected Market Centres
Market Centre

2008
Population

No. of Households

Nathenje

4,598

981

Kasiya

2,798

611

Nsaru

2,040

406

Ntaja

5,891

1,396

Nsanama

4,418

1,013

Malosa

4,876

1,145

Nkando

2,514

648

27,135

6,200

Total

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3.7.4 Population Growth Rate


Population growth is affected by a number of factors such as results of development taking
place in a centre and external factors such as political, economical and social conditions of
the country. Development of a centre attracts migrants and transfer of employees from
other areas to provide the required labour force and work service. The economic
development of a centre can also be affected by the housing and land allocation policy
and the service available. Demographic policy by the Government in terms of family
planning, HIV/AIDS control, inter alia, may also affect the population growth.

The National Statistical Office (NSO) gives the annual population growth rate for districts.
Assuming that the growth rate for the district is the same as that of a selected market
centre the annual growth rate for the selected market centres are as in Table 4.2
Table 4.2: Annual Population Percentage Growth Rates for Selected Market Centres
Selected Market Centre

Annual Population %
Growth Rate

Nathenje

3.1

Kasiya

3.1

Nsaru

3.1

Ntaja

2.9

Nsanama

2.9

Malosa

2.0

Nkando

2.1

3.7.5 Population Projections


Population projections are made using the growth rates indicated above for each of the
centres. Therefore, the projections are shown in Table 2.3 below.

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Table 4.3: Population Projections for Market Centres


Market Centre

2008

2010

2015

2020

2030

Nathenje

4,598

4,887

5,694

6,632

9,000

Kasiya

2,798

2,974

3,465

4,036

5,477

Nsaru

2,040

2,168

2,526

2,943

3,993

Ntaja

5,891

6,238

7,196

8,302

11,049

Nsanama

4,418

4,678

5,397

6,226

8,286

Malosa

4,876

5,073

5,601

6,184

7,538

Nkando

2,514

2,621

2,908

3,226

3,971

Total

27,135

28,639

32,787

37,549

49,314

3.8 Water Demand Design Criteria


3.8.1 General
Water demand depends on the size of the population served, their standard of living,
activities and importantly the cost of water supplied. Availability of wastewater service has
also to be taken into account. It also depends on the existence and level of institutional
and social establishments and service of municipal water supplies.

The water demand for the market centres is determined for different user categories
taking into account the present and future development situation of the Town. The water
demand consists of domestic, institutional, commercial, industrial, animal in some cases
and water for fire fighting. Unaccounted for water is also included in the demand
projections to accommodate the losses without affecting the service level to the
consumers.

In assessing the water demand of different groups within a market centre the following
conditions were taken into account:

Hydraulic condition;
Per capita water consumption;
Water demand forecast for domestic groups;
Water required for non domestic consumption;
Connection profiles for different user categories;
Target coverage (service level);

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Water quality;

Previous study reports and engineering documents have been referred to in the
assessment and establishment of the different water demand parameters. Past
consumption trends by different consumer groups have also been assessed and analyzed
in order to project the future consumption levels for different user groups. The water
demand is therefore considered for domestic, institutional, commercial, animal, fire
fighting and water losses.

3.9.2

Domestic Water Demand

Domestic water demand is the daily water requirement for use by a human being for
different domestic purposes. The water required for domestic purpose is mainly used for
drinking, cooking, washing utensils, flushing toilets and for cleansing of the body. In
addition, water can be used for gardening, cleaning vehicles, washing paved compounds
and miscellaneous domestic purposes. The amount of water used for domestic purposes
varies depending on the lifestyle, living standard, climate, mode of service and above all
on the price of water and affordability by the users as well as facilities owned by the
individual.

3.9.2.1 Domestic Demand Categories


Domestic water demand service can be categorized according to the level of service to be
provided and the amount of per capita water required to satisfy the demand served by
that level of service.

Categorization of demand as a standard has not been made so far and different countries
and projects use their own categorization depending on the type and water collection
methods and land use pattern of those particular towns or cities.
The domestic water supply service in urban areas supplied by Regional Water Boards is
categorized in the following mode of services:

Communal Water Point

(CWP)

High Density Housing Areas

(HDHA)

Medium Density Housing Areas

(MDHA)

Low Density Housing Areas

(LDHA)

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The four demand categories are commonly used in the study and design of different water
supply projects in Malawi. Accordingly, similar demand categories or mode of services will
be used for the market centres domestic water demand analysis.

3.8.1.1 Per Capita Water Demand Adopted for Market


Centres
The per capita water demand is the sum of the water requirement for different uses, which
are related to specific conditions of each area such as climatic conditions, the socioeconomic level and living standard of the people and availability of water supply facilities
of the specific town or city. The water requirement for different domestic use could also
vary based on the mode of service to be used and the closeness to water supply facilities.

Table 4.4 presents the estimated water requirement for different uses by mode of service
where there is adequate water supply coverage. The figures are established based on
assessments from different literatures for developed and developing countries and
existing conditions of the market centres water needs.

Table 4.4: Estimate of Breakdown of Per Capita Domestic Water Demand Based on Water Use
Purpose

Water Requirement by Category (l/c/day) and Mode of


Service
CWP

HDHA

MDHA

LDHA

(Yard Taps)

(House
Connections)

(House
connections)

Drinking

Cooking

10

10

10

25

Ablution

10

20

35

Washing utensils & house

20

25

50

Washing clothes

10

25

25

35

Flushing water closets

30

30

Other purposes

10

20

Total

36

75

125

200

Note; Estimated based on the Ministry of Water Development Standard.

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The Consultant has reviewed the standard figures from the Ministry of Irrigation and Water
Development and per capita demands used in several studies for the three Region Water
Boards for similar schemes to come up with the right per capita domestic demands for the
scheme. Previous studies by Carl Bro Internationals, NIRAS and Norconsult in centres
(including Nathenje) with similar characteristics in terms of settlement pattern the
proportion of housing categories were ascertained by estimation. Table 4.5 below shows
the Ministry of Water Development and Irrigation Standard as well as the NRWB first
Business Plan demands.

Table 4.5: Per Capita Water Demand Adopted by Different Organizations


Water Demand by Category(l/c/d)
`Organisation

CWP

HDHA

MDHA

LDHA

Ministry of Water Development Standard

36

75

125

200

NRWB

25

50

80

125

CRWB

36

50

80

125

SRWB

36

50

75

Therefore, in view of the above demands and the Consultants observations of the
settlement patterns in the selected market centres, per capita domestic water demands
for each category have been estimated. Table 4.6 below shows the per capita water
demands adopted to be used in the demand projections for centres.

Table 4.6: Per Capita Water Demand Adopted for Selected Market Centres
Demand Category

Per Capita Water Demand


(l/c/d) for 2010-2025

CWP

36

HDHA

50

MDHA

80

LDHA

125

3.8.1.2 Percentage Coverage for each Domestic Demand


Category
According to the Master Indicator Cluster Survey, the proportions of population that have
access to appropriately treated drinking water are 23.4%, 8.3%, 13.7% and 7.7% for
Lilongwe, Machinga, Zomba and Mulanje respectively. In Zomba household members
responsible for collecting water spend more time (50.6 min) whereas Lilongwe has the

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least time of 24.5 minutes. This could be attributed to the settlement patterns and the
type of terrain. Table 4.7 shows the percentages and time for each indicator of access.
Table 4.7: Selected indictors of level of access to potable water
Selected Indicator for Access
to Potable Water

Un
it

Lilong
we

Proportion of household
population with tube-well/borehole as main source of drinking
water

Proportion of households using


improved drinking water sources

Machin
ga

Zomba

Mulanj
e

38.0

49.9

62.4

47.5

72.0

70.6

81.7

80.7

Proportion of Household
population using drinking water
from all drinking water sources
treated by applying an
appropriate water treatment
method

23.4

8.3

13.7

7.7

Proportion of households storing


water in jerry can/narrow neck
container with lid

17.3

7.0

6.1

21.6

Proportion of households in which


an adult woman collects drinking
water,

88.0

90.6

86.1

86.6

Mean time to source of drinking


water
(excluding
those
on
premises)

mi
n

24.5

50.5

39.7

28.4

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2006

The development objective of NWDP II is to increase access to sustainable water supply


and sanitation services for people living in cities, towns, market centers, and villages and
improve water resources management at the national level. According to the Project
Appraisal Document (World Bank, 2007) access to potable water for market centres was
65% in 2007 with a target of 78% by 2012. This includes all sources of water supply hence
in the case of this design, the piped water supply is at zero in all these centres since there
are no existing piped water schemes. Therefore in view of aspirations of Malawians as
complemented by the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy and Millennium
Development Goals (MGDs) targets for access to potable water which is to reduce by halve
people with no access to potable water by 2015 the percentage the percentage of
population served by each demand category has been estimated. The estimations are
supported by experience from previous similar projects to come up with relevant
assumptions. Therefore the percentages for the HDHA, MDHA LDHA have been assumed
that they will increase gradually during the project service period due to expected
development and housing type and demand shift to the next higher category. All
consumers that will not use water from individual connections are assumed to take water
| Photographs

31

from CWP for safety purpose in estimating the total water requirement of the Centre at the
end of the design period. It is also assumed that the percentage of service coverage would
reach 90% in year 2015 on the condition that connection works will be expedited within
short period after the completion of the project.
Cognizant of the differences in settlements and level of potential for further developments
based on proximity and ease access from major development centres such as cities and
towns the selected market centres have been categorized into high, medium and low
growth centres comparatively.

Ntaja, Nathenje and Malosa are well connected by main tarmac roads as such they
are considered to be high growth centres.
Nsanama, Kasiya and Nkando despite being better connected are slightly remote.
However, they have more institutions and commercial establishments as such it is
considered a medium growth centre
Nsaru is smaller compared to the other centres and is categorized as low growth
centre though it has a very high potential of growth

The estimated population percentage in each demand category for Selected Market
Centres is shown in Table 4.8 below. The estimated percentages of categories given in
the Table 4.8 are proportions of total population of the selected market centre rather than
for population served.
Assumed Centre
Growth Category

High Growth Centres


(Nathenje, Ntaja and
Malosa)

Medium Growth
Centres (Kasiya,
Nsanama and
Nkando)

Low Growth Centres


(Nsaru)

| Photographs

Demand
Category

Year 2010

Year 2015

Year 2020

Year 2030

Not served

100%

50%

90%

0%

CWP

60

30%

31%

22%

HDHA

25

13%

38%

38%

MDHA

13

6%

17%

27%

LDHA

1%

4%

13%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

Not served

100%

50%

90%

0%

CWP

70%

34%

33%

25%

HDHA

20%

10%

37%

37%

MDHA

9%

5%

17%

28%

LDHA

1%

1%

3%

10%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

Not served

100%

50%

90%

0%

CWP

80%

40%

36%

34%

HDHA

16%

8%

36%

30%

MDHA

4%

2%

16%

28%

LDHA

0%

0%

2%

8%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

32

Table 4.8: Percentage Used to Calculate Population to be served by Demand Category

3.8.2 Public Water Demand


The water required for schools, hospitals, hotels, public facilities, parks, offices,
commercial establishments, military camps, small scale industries, etc. is classified as
public demand. Public demand is usually expressed as a percentage of the average day
domestic demand. The general situation related to the public demand is that it is high at
the initial stage of the service installation and gradually reduces as the number of
domestic connections increase. It is also understood that the percentage of public demand
is high in smaller towns compared to large towns or cities where there could be high
number of domestic connections.

Table 4.9: Percentage Water Demand of Domestic Demand


WATER DEMAND
ASSESSMENT YEAR
Assumed Centre Growth
Category

Description

2008 2010 2015 2020 2030


Public Demand as % of
domestic demand

Institutional
High Growth Centres
(Nathenje, Ntaja and Malosa) demand

25%

25% 23% 20% 15%

Commercial
demand

20%

20% 25% 27% 28%

Institutional
demand

27%

27% 25% 20% 17%

Commercial
demand

22%

22% 24% 25% 27%

Institutional
demand

28%

28% 25% 22% 16%

Commercial
demand

23%

17% 20% 25% 26%

Medium Growth Centres


(Kasiya, Nsanama and
Nkando)

Low Growth Centres (Nsaru)

3.8.3 Industrial Water Demand


Industrial water demand refers to big industries that would consume significant amount of
water for processing of their products.

| Photographs

33

There are no plans and no information regarding the establishment of any big industries in
selected market centres. Due to this, special consideration is not made for the industrial
demand in the projection of demand.

3.8.4 Water Requirement for Fire Fighting


The water demand for fire fighting has not been included exclusively in the water demand
assessment. The design of the distribution system will incorporate fire hydrants at some
critical places to be selected during design phase of the project.
The most important factor in fire fighting is the pressure available at the site of fire. If fire
fighting is to be met directly from the distribution networks, the minimum available
pressure in the system must be at least 50m head. However, marinating this head will
make the network very costly. Fire fighting water is therefore, recommended to be carried
out by trucks equipped with water tanks and high pressure pumps.
The amount of water required for fire fighting for one fire out break will not be more than
the amount of water distributed during the maximum day water demand for the period of
the fire. Therefore the water required for firefighting would be stored in the reservoir as a
reserve for critical days when the reservoir is empty. This will be 10% of the storage
volume of the reservoir and water for firefighting will be met from the storage but not from
the source.

3.8.5 Water Losses


Water loss is the difference of the production and the consumption expressed as a
percentage and is caused by different factors. The main causes of unaccounted for water
(UFW) are leakages in pipelines, customer water meters, fittings as well as failure of some
inlet control systems when water reaches maximum level in the reservoirs.
High water loss is expected at the start because there is already an existing system which
will be under rehabilitation. Then, after the completion of the project, the UFW will
drastically decrease to 20% which is the Boards by-law acceptable water loss limit. This
will be maintained until the system starts getting older and the UFW will be gradually
increasing to the end of the design period.

Table 4.10: Water Loss as Percentage of Maximum Day Demand


Water Demand Assessment Year
2010
2015
2020
As a percentage of the total average day demand
20%
21%
22%

| Photographs

2025
25%

34

3.8.6 Animal Demand


Domestic animal water demand may be required if there are no other water sources to the
proximity of the centre. There are several rivers and dambo areas around centres which
are good sources of water for domestic animals. Apart from this, there is no dairy or
poultry farm within the centre, therefore there is no need to consider domestic animal
water demand.

3.8.7 Average Day Demand


The average day demand is obtained as the sum of the domestic demand, the public
demand plus the losses. The average demand for selected market centre Subsection 4.3
below.

3.8.8 Maximum Day Demand


The water consumption varies from day to day throughout the year. The ratio of the
maximum day consumption to the mean annual day consumption is the maximum day
factor.
Maximum day factor usually varies from place to place and ranges from 1.20 up to as high
as 2.0 in certain cases. In most cases the smaller the town, the higher the maximum day
factor will be. Since the selected market centres are relatively small a maximum day factor
of 2.0 has been adopted.

3.8.9 Peak Hour Demand


The peak hour demand is greatly influenced by the size of the town, mode of service and
social activity of the town. The peak hour factor normally varies between 1.1 and 4 and
sometimes may go beyond in special cases. It should be noted that in most cases the
smaller the number of consumers, the higher the peak hour factor. The selected market
centres have current population ranging from 2,524 to 5,891 (refer to Table 4.1 and 43).
But being a market centre, a larger population of the market catchment area comes to the
market centre on market days. Similar there students for school come from the catchment
area whose boundary is not necessarily extends further than that of the centre. This
certainly increases water supply demand, perhaps under the institutional or commercial
demand category. Therefore a higher factor has to be considered. On the other hand, a
high factor results into expensive design of the system, therefore in order to make the
design economical, a peak hour factor of 2.0 on the average day demand or a factor of
1.67 on the maximum day demand is adopted for this project.

3.8.10 Total Water Demand


The total water demand therefore takes into account all the above-mentioned design
criteria. The base year maximum day demand for selected market centres range from 6 to
18 litres per second as shown below. This water demand includes supply requirement for
domestic and public facilities. It is assumed that as period goes on, the served population
will increase hence an increase in the overall water demand. The details of the projected
water demands for the years 2010 to 2025 are presented in Subsection 4.3 below.
| Photographs

35

3.9 Water Demand for Market Centres


Based on the domestic demand categories, assumptions of category proportions,
estimated public demand and coverage, the water demands for each selected market
centres are given below.

| Photographs

36

3.9.1 Summary of Water Demand for Nathenje


Table 4.11: Summary of Water Demand for Nathenje
Description
Population

Year
No.

2008

2010

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

4,598
3.1%

4,887
3.1%

0%

2%

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

High Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

%
No.
-

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

6,632

9,000
3.1%

1%

4%

13%

239

171

1,170
17%

1,015
13%

370
60%

2030

3.1%

6%

25%

27%
2,430

38%
2,268

30%

38%
3,420

31%

22%

0
-

Not Served %

2020

3.1%

28

%
No.

5,694

13%
-

CWP %

2015

%
No.

100.0%

854
100%

4,598

4,887

1,850
50%

2,847

1,980
10%

663

0%
-

No.
%

2,847

5,969

9,000

0.0%

0%

50%

90%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

4
14
19
31
66

30
81
113
67
291

146
194
171
71
583

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

25%
17
23%
15
0%
0
32

27%
79
20%
58
0%
0
137

28%
163
15%
87
0%
0
251

0
0%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

98
21%
21
119
1
143
2

428
22%
94
522
6
626
7

834
25%
208
1042
12
1250
14

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)

| Photographs

37

m3/day
m3/h

| Photographs

238

1,044

2,084

10

43

87

38

3.9.2 Summary of Water Demand for Kasiya


Table 4.12: Summary of Water Demand for Kasiya
Description
Population

Year
No.

2008

2010

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

2,798
3.1%

2,974
3.1%

0%

1%

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

High Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

%
No.

0.0%
0

%
No.

100.0%

%
No.
-

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

4,036

1%

3%

10%

109

618

173

2,974

1,534

1,344

37%
2,026

33%
1,199

50%
1,732

28%

37%

34%
589

2,798

548
17%

10%

100%

5,477
3.1%

87

70%

2030

3.1%

5%

20%

2020

3.1%

17

Not Served %

3,465

9%
-

CWP %

2015

25%
1,369

10%
404

0%
-

No.
%

1,732

3,632

5,477

0.0%

0%

50%

90%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

2
7
9
21
39

14
49
67
43
173

68
123
101
49
342

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

24%
9
25%
10
0%
0
19

25%
43
20%
35
0%
0
78

27%
92
17%
58
0%
0
150

0
0%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

58
21%
12
70
1
84
1

251
22%
55
307
4
368
4

492
25%
123
615
7
738
9

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)

| Photographs

39

m3/day
m3/h

| Photographs

140

613

1,230

26

51

40

3.9.3 Summary of Water Demand for Nsaru


Table 4.13: Summary of Water Demand for Nsaru
Description
Population

Year
No.

2008

2010

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

2,040
3.1%

2,168
3.1%

0%

0%

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

High Density (%)

%
No.

0.0%
0

%
No.

0.0%
0

%
No.

100.0%

%
No.
-

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

| Photographs

2,943

0%

2%

8%

53

424

101

2,168

1,118

953

30%
1,198

36%
953

50%
1,263

28%

36%

40%
505

2,040

319
16%

8%

100%

3,993
3.1%

25

80%

2030

3.1%

2%

16%

2020

3.1%

Not Served %

2,526

4%
-

CWP %

2015

34%
1,358

10%
294

0%
-

No.
%

1,263

2,648

3,993

0.0%

0%

50%

90%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
2
5
18
25

7
34
48
34
123

40
89
60
49
238

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

23%
0
28%
0
0%
0
0

17%
0
28%
0
0%
0
0

20%
5
25%
6
0%
0
11

25%
31
22%
27
0%
0
58

26%
62
16%
38
0%
0
100

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

37
21%
8
44
1
53
1

180
22%
40
220
3
264
3

338
25%
85
423
5
507
6

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

41

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)


m3/day
m3/h

89

439

845

18

35

3.9.4 Summary of Water Demand for Ntaja


Table 4.14: Summary of Water Demand for Ntaja
Description
Population

Year
No.

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

High Density (%)

%
No.

2008

2010

5,891
2.9%

6,238
2.9%

0%

2%

%
No.
-

0.0%

%
No.

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial

| Photographs

%
No.

1%

4%

13%

299

5,891

6,238

2,983

2,839

1,079

38%
4,199

31%
2,316

50%
3,598

27%

38%

30%

100%

1,436
17%

1,270

468

11,049
2.9%

13%

60%

2030

2.9%

216

100.0%

8,302

6%

25%

0.0%

2020

2.9%

36

Not Served %

7,196

13%

0.0%
-

CWP %

2015

22%
2,431

10%
830

0%
-

No.
%

3,598

7,472

11,049

0.0%

0%

50%

90%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

4
17
23
39
84

37
102
142
83
364

180
239
210
88
716

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

25%
21
23%
19
0%
0
40

27%
98
20%
73
0%
0
171

28%
200
15%
107
0%
0
308

m3/day
%

0
20%

0
20%

124
21%

536
22%

1023
25%

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

42

Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

26
150
2
181
2

118
653
8
784
9

256
1279
15
1535
18

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)


m3/day
m3/h

| Photographs

301

1,307

2,558

13

54

107

43

3.9.5 Summary of Water Demand for Nsanama


Table 4.15: summary for Water Demand for Nsanama
Description
Population

Year
No.

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

High Density (%)

%
No.

CWP %

Not Served %

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

2008
4,
418
2.9%

2010
4,
678
2.9%

2015
5,
397
2.9%

2020
6,
226
2.9%

2030
8,
286
2.9%

0%

1%

1%

3%

10%

0.0%

9%

27
5%

168
17%

0.0%

20%

135
10%

0.0%

70%

270
34%

100.0%
4,
418

100%
4,
678

917
50%
2,
698

953
37%
2,
073
33%
1,
849
10%

829
28%
2,
320
37%
3,
066
25%
2,
072
0%

623

0.0%

0%

2,
698
50%

5,
603
90%

8,
286
100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

3
11
13
33
61

21
76
104
67
267

104
186
153
75
517

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

24%
15
25%
15
0%
0
30

25%
67
20%
53
0%
0
120

27%
140
17%
88
0%
0
228

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

0
25%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

90
21%
19
109
1
131
2

388
22%
85
473
5
568
7

745
25%
186
931
11
1117
13
1

%
No.

%
No.
%
No.

No.
%
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)

| Photographs

44

m3/day
m3/h

| Photographs

219

946

,861

39

78

45

3.9.6 Summary of Water Demand for Malosa


Table 4.16: Summary for Water Demand for Malosa
Description
Population

Year
No.

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
(Served)
Low Density (%)

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

High Density (%)

%
No.

2008

2010

4,876
2.0%

5,073
2.0%

0%

2%

%
No.
-

0.0%

%
No.

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

%
No.

1%

4%

13%

223

4,876

5,073

2,035

2,115

840

38%
2,865

31%
1,725

50%
2,800

27%

38%

30%

100%

980
17%

946

364

7,538
2.0%

13%

60%

2030

2.0%

168

100.0%

6,184

6%

25%

0.0%

2020

2.0%

28

Not Served %

5,601

13%

0.0%
-

CWP %

2015

22%
1,658

10%
618

0%
-

No.
%

2,800

5,566

7,538

0.0%

0%

50%

90%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

4
13
18
30
65

28
76
106
62
271

122
163
143
60
488

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

20%
0
25%
0
0%
0
0

25%
16
23%
15
0%
0
31

27%
73
20%
54
0%
0
128

28%
137
15%
73
0%
0
210

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

0
25%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

97
21%
20
117
1
141
2

399
22%
88
487
6
584
7

698
25%
175
873
10
1047
12

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)

| Photographs

46

m3/day
m3/h

| Photographs

234

973

1,745

10

41

73

47

3.9.7 Summary of Water Demand for Nkando


Table 4.17: Summary for Water Demand for Nkando
Description
Population

Year
No.

Growth Rate
Population Distribution
Low Density (%)

Medium Density (%)

%
No.

High Density (%)

%
No.

2008

2010

2,514
2.1%

2,621
2.1%

0%

1%

%
No.
-

%
No.

Demand Projections
Total Present Population
Served
% Population Served
Per Capita Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Domestic Demand
LDHA
MDHA
HDHA
CWP
Sub Total
Public Demand
Commercial
Institutional
Industrial
Sub Total Public + Industrial
Total Domestic + Public
Industrial
Losses
Total Average Demand
Maximum Day Demand (1.2)

%
No.

2.1%

1%

3%

10%

48

2,514

2,621

1,112

597

494

37%
1,469

33%
532

50%
1,454

28%

37%

34%

100%

397
17%

274

145

3,971
2.1%

10%

70%

100.0%

3,226

2030

2.1%

73

2020

5%

20%

0.0%
-

Not Served %

9%

0.0%
-

CWP %

2,908

15

0.0%
-

2015

25%
993

50%
1,613

0%
-

No.
%

1,454

1,613

3,971

0.0%

0%

50%

50%

100%

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

125
80
50
36

m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day
m3/day

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

2
6
7
18
33

6
22
30
19
77

50
89
73
36
248

%
m3/day
%
m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

22%
0
27%
0
0%
0
0

24%
8
25%
8
0%
0
16

25%
19
20%
15
0%
0
35

27%
67
17%
42
0%
0
109

m3/day
%
m3/day
m3/day
l/s
m3/day
l/s

0
25%
0
0
0
0
0

0
20%
0
0
0
0
0

49
21%
10
59
1
71
1

112
22%
25
136
2
163
2

357
25%
89
446
5
535
6

l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d
l/c/d

Peak Hour Demand (2.0)


m3/day

| Photographs

118

272

892

48

m3/h
-

| Photographs

11

37

49

4 Water Source Investigations


In order to assess the water supply situation at the selected market centres and hence
recommend options for water supply source, field visits were made by the Consultant to
Nathenje, Kasiya, Nsaru, Malosa, Nkando, Ntaja and Nsanama during the month of
December in 2009. These visits were complemented with desk studies on existing water
supply systems for the above-mentioned centres. The assessment entailed both the
adequacy of the available water resources to meet the existing and projected water
demand as well as the suitability of the quality of water for human consumption. The
investigations earmarked both groundwater and surface water sources without taking into
account storage facilities. Thus, surface water intakes were considered where resources
were noted to be available in adequate quantity and quality, with little risk of water
pollution or where water pollution could be economically prevented.
Reliability of the
supply was another important factor that was given serious consideration in the
investigations. As far as surface water resources are concerned, the sources were
investigated even if for periods shorter than the planning horizons, bearing in mind that if
the development sequence allowed for construction of upstream storage in future years or
could be supplemented by ground water then such projects could be implemented to
augment the supply. In carrying out the assessment, the Consultant was assisted by water
experts drawn from the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development, the Central and
Southern Region Water Boards, and the National Water Development Programme (NWDP).
The Team comprised hydrologists, hydrogeologists, water chemists, as well as water
resources experts. Presented in the following sections are the methods that the Team
adopted in carrying out the investigations aimed at identifying reliable sources of water
supply for the centres in terms of discharge (yield) and quality of water resources, and the
recommended options for each market centre according to their ranking of priority, with
Option 1 as top priority.

4.1 Methodology
The approach adopted for identifying reliable sources of water supply for each of the
seven selected centres mainly comprised desk studies and field assessments.

Desk studies involved a review of existing reports on previous studies as well as reports on
the water supply situation in Malawi in general and in market centers in particular as
documented by the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development. The documents
reviewed during the desk study included the Water Resources Master Plan of 1986
(Department of Water / UNDP, 1986), the National and Shire Irrigation Study (NSIS, 1980),
the Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency Plan (2007), the Water
SWAp (2008) and various reports on ground water data for existing boreholes in the
market centres. Desk studies covered both surface and ground water resources and were
complemented with field visits to the seven selected market centres.
| Photographs

50

As alluded to in the preceding discussion, the Consultant followed the following principal
stages of planning but not limited to:
i. Review of reports on previous studies, assessment of topographical and geological
maps, and analysis of hydrological and hydro-geological information;
ii. Conducting topographic surveys to delineate the extent and characteristics of all land
use types within the designated area of the market centre, and also noting maximum
flood levels within the premises of the market centres.
iii. Review of data on rainfall, stream-flow, evaporation and other climatological data,
and sediment and erosion data.
It should be noted that each source capable of meeting the projected water demand up to
the year 2030 planning horizon was fully investigated and constituted an alternative
option of water supply source for the market centre under study.

Field assessment of existing water supply sources for the seven market centres were
carried out during the month of December in 2009. The assessment entailed observation
of stream flows and boreholes yields, as well as the quality of water resources. Although
the Team did not conduct discharge measurements in the few existing rivers and streams,
professional experience guided the Team to make informed decisions on the suitability of
stream flows to sustain the proposed water demand for the centres. Rough estimates of
borehole yields were made by filling a 20-litre bucket and noting the time taken to do so.
The observed discharge was then compared with the yield recorded during pumping tests.
In most cases, the two values were very similar.

After conducting discharge measurements, water samples were corrected from surface
and ground (boreholes) water sources for physical, chemical, and biological analysis. The
results were compared with standards for domestic water supply set by the World Health
Organization (WHO), Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS), and the Ministry of Irrigation and
Water Development (MIWD). MIWD Standards are still being improved upon hence the
ones being used are temporary. This comparison was carried out with a view to
determining the suitability of the water for human consumption WHO and Malawi.
Parameters of particular interest were sulphate, iron, fluoride, chloride, hardness and
turbidity (Table 5.1)

| Photographs

51

Table 5.1: Recommended Limits for Selected Water Constituents


Constituent

Unit

WHO

MBS

MIWD

Sulphate

mg/L

400

400

800

Iron

mg/L

Fluoride

mg/L

1.5

Chloride

mg/L

600

600

750

Hardness
(CaCO)

mg/L

500

500

800

Turbidity

NTU

25

4.2 Data Availability


Most of the data used in assessing the availability and suitability of water supply for the
market centres was obtained from the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development. These
data included stream flows from hydrometric stations, borehole yields, and water quality.
Presented in Table 5.2 are summarized borehole data for the market seven market centres.

Table 5.2: Borehole Data


Market Centre

Nathenje

Kasiya

| Photographs

Location

Borehole Depth
(m)

Yield (L/s)

Kaduna Village

30.81

1.26

Maxing Clothing

30.81

1.14

Nathenje Catholic

21.35

0.44

Mwalawamkango

48.8

1.0

Nathenje TC

36.6

0.95

Nathenje Tobacco

29.99

3.64

Nathenje Hospital

53.38

2.85

Nathenje

33.55

1.3

Kasiya Police

33.5

0.9

Kasiya Stores

51.85

1.23

Kasiya School

45.75

3.0

Kasiya Unit

61.0

0.81
52

Nsaru

Malosa

Nkando

Ntaja

Nsanama

Nsaru Agriculture

46.36

0.49

Nsaru Tobacco

76.25

Nsaru

45.75

0.5

Nsaru Unit

45.75

0.9

Kalesi

38.13

1.9

Nsaru Station

61.0

0.94

Nsaru

39.0

0.54

Malosa Agr.
Station

42.7

1.1

Malunga Village

34.1

0.43

Agri. TC

31.72

0.38

Thuchila Farm

64.05

1.2

Ntaja Road Camp

30.5

0.97

Ntaja

28.06

0.84

Ntaja RTC

40.36

1.1

Mahuta

26.23

0.43

Mtimbwilimi

30.5

0.91

Nsanama

37.21

0.5

Nsanama H.C.

43.31

0.68

Mgodi Farm

39.04

1.1

Nsanama

45.75

4.3 Summary of Hydrogeology of Project Areas


The seven market centres are located in areas that may be grouped into two distinct zones
comprising Precambrian Basement Complex aquifers on one hand, and alluvial aquifers on
the other. Nathenje, Kasiya, Nsalu, and Malosa market centres comprise Precambrian
Basement Complex aquifers. These aquifers are characterized by generally low yields
ranging from 0.25 - 5 litres per second, low transmissivities (in the order of 5 to 35
m2/day), variable hydraulic conductivities (0.5 - 1.5 m/day), and low storativity values
ranging from 5*10-3 to 1*10-2 (Water Department / UNDP, 1986). In basement aquifers, it is
not recommended to continue drilling boreholes after encountering the bedrock because
of the absence of ground water in such geological formation. Transmissivity may be
| Photographs

53

defined as the volume of flow through a full vertical section of the aquifer of lateral unit
width under unit hydraulic in unit time. Hydraulic conductivity (permeability) may be
defined as the volume of flow through unit area of the aquifer under unit gradient in unit
time. Storage Coefficient (storativity) may be defined as the volume of water an aquifer
releases from a vertical storage column per unit surface area per unit change in head.

The degree of weathering in the Basement Complex aquifer increases progressively


upwards from the fresh unweathered bedrock. However, the character of the weathered
zone varies with the type of parent rock, texture, and topography. Ground water is
commonly first struck near the base of the clays and rises to the rest water level.

Nkando, Ntaja and Nsanama comprise alluvial aquifers of the Lake Chilwa-Phalombe Plain.
Generally, alluvial aquifers vary in thickness from 50 to 150 metres (NSIS, 1980); and the
thickness is usually irregular because of the undulating and tilted nature of the basement
floor. Boreholes constructed under the National and Shire Irrigation Study (NSIS, 1980)
showed that alluvial aquifers may have yields higher than 45 litres per second and high
transmissivity values, ranging from 50 m 2/day to 300 m2/day. Permeabilities and
storativities of alluvial aquifers vary from 10-20 m/day and 1*10 -2 to 5*10-2, respectively
(Water Department / UNDP, 1986; NSIS, 1980).

Water Department / UNDP (1986) showed that water quality data for boreholes drilled in
the Precambrian Basement Complex aquifer exhibit low mineralization, implying that the
weathered zone is highly leached of soluble minerals and that ground water was derived
from relatively recent recharge. Ground water in plateau areas is generally classified
predominantly as calcium-bicarbonate type (Water Department / UNDP, 1986). Generally,
the biological quality of the water was noted to suitable for human consumption, with a
very small number of coliform counts.

The main feature of water quality in alluvial aquifers is the extreme heterogeneity in the
extent of mineralization and the chemical composition even over short distances. Where
electrical conductivity values are low (i.e., less than 1000 S/cm), the composition is
usually calcium-bicarbonate type implying recent recharge and processes of solution and
hydrolysis of silicate minerals controlling water quality. More saline ground waters with EC
exceeding 2000 S/cm usually have high concentration of sulphate and/or chloride,
derived from gypsum and common salt (NaCl) respectively.

| Photographs

54

4.4 Water Source Investigations for Project Areas


Preliminary findings from desk studies and field observations principally show that
Nathenje, Kasiya, Nsalu, Nkando, Ntaja and Nsanama will be supplied from well fields /
boreholes whereas, Malosa will be supplied from surface water resources. A detailed
discussion regarding water supply options for each market centre is provided in the
following sections.

4.4.1 Nathenje
From desk studies and field surveys, three water source options were identified for
Nathenje Market Centre. This was done after a thorough analysis of the available water
resources within easy reach of the market centre. These comprised are surface and ground
water resources.

4.4.1.1 Surface Water Sources


The main river in the area is the Nathenje, which passes the market centre at the bridge
on M1. According to a study done by Carbro in 1986, at this point the river drains a
catchment area of about 100 km2.

Discharge records from existing gauging stations on Nathenje River show very low flows
during the dry season, making the surface water option an unacceptable alternative /
option for Nathenje Water Supply using direct abstraction.

There are three dams south of Nathenje Market Centre; and from the Carl Bro report, it is
clear that these dams would not be an ideal source of water supply for the market centre
because of their inadequate storage. This is further compounded by the limited areal
extent of the catchment, which limits inflows into the reservoirs and volume of storage.

4.4.1.2 Ground Water Sources


The present groundwater abstraction in Nathenje is limited to a few boreholes equipped
with Afridev hand pumps in the central area, and four boreholes equipped with motorized
pumps at ADMARC, Agricultural Offices, Health Centre and the Catholic Mission. The yields
from these boreholes vary from 0.44 litres per second to 3.64 litres per second. However,
the hydrogeological analysis of the area showed that some areas within the premises of
the market centres might have good potential for water supply for the centre.
| Photographs

55

4.4.1.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from three boreholes and the analysis for physical, chemical
and biological composition was carried out at the Central Water Quality Laboratory. The
results of the water analyses are presented in the attached results sheets for sample
numbers 640 to 642. The results show that the quality of the water is suitable for domestic
consumption, considering that the concentrations of fluoride, iron and sulphate, which are
problem elements in the Precambrian Basement Complex aquifer, are very low.
Option 1
This will involve the construction of boreholes in the fault zone at grid points: 8443400
latitude and 598400 longitude on the Nathenje 1:50,000 Map. The site was chosen
because of its proximity to a relatively high yielding borehole (1.5 litres per second) that
supplies water to Nathenje Health Centre, but located outside the fault zone. Although the
existing borehole is some 25 metres away from the center of the fault, it is envisaged that
with thorough borehole siting and proper borehole construction, a well field developed in
the fault zone would produce adequate ground water supply for the market centre.

As stated in the preceding discussion, ground water in this area is suitable for domestic
consumption.

Option 2
This option entails conjunctive use of ground water and surface water resources, i.e.,
abstracting water from Nathenje River and complementing the supply with ground water
from boreholes sited within the fault zone mentioned under Option 1. The abstraction
point along Nathenje River would be identified through detailed surveys, but would be
located upstream of the bridge on M1.

Option 3
This will involve the abstraction of water from two exploratory boreholes located at
8445300 and 593600 on the Nathenje 1:50,000 Map and drilled in a fault zone about 6 km
away from Nathenje towards the City of Lilongwe. The two boreholes were drilled in the
1980s and tested over a 24-hour period at a discharge rate of 5 litres per second, with a
total drawdown of about one metre. However, the Consultant was not able to retrieve
information from the archives at the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development; but a
member of the consultancy team was involved in the project in the supervision of the
project. The only constraint with using these boreholes as a source of water supply for
| Photographs

56

Nathenje Market Center is the cost of trenching and piping to convey water from the well
field to the market center.

4.4.2 Kasiya
Findings from desk studies and field surveys indicate that Kasiya Market Centre may be
supplied from ground water resources considering that the Mudi River may not sustain
adequate flows during the dry season and that water abstraction from the Bua River may
not be a viable option. The Consultant came to this conclusion after a thorough analysis of
the available water resources within easy reach of the market centre. These comprised are
surface and ground water resources.

4.4.2.1 Surface Water Sources


According to the Carlbro Report of 1986, the main river in the area is the Bua which runs
approximately 10 km to the west of Kasiya through an area covered with dambos. In this
region, the Bua is not perennial and hence not ideal water supply source for the market
centre. The other surface water supply body in the area is the Mudi, which passes through
the central part of the market centre. This river may require storage if there is need to use
it as a water supply source.

4.4.2.2 Ground Water Sources


The present ground water abstraction at Kasiya is limited to nine boreholes fitted with
Afridev hand pumps and one borehole equipped with a motorized pump at ADMARC
premises. Like the Nathenje boreholes, the yields vary from 0.81 litres per second to 3.0
litres per second. However, the hydrogeological analysis of the market centre showed that
some areas within the market centre might have good ground water potential, particularly
the western side of Mudi River where the quality of ground water may not pose problems

4.4.2.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from two boreholes and from Mudi River at the bridge. The
numbers allocated to these samples are 617 to 619. The feacal coliform counts from Mudi
River show very high values (i.e., 1098 FC / 100 ml) rendering the water unsuitable for
human consumption. The sulphate and iron content of ground water is higher on the
eastern side of the Mudi than on the western side. Note that samples 617 and 618 were
respectively collected from the eastern and western side of the Mudi.
Option 1
The main option is the development of a well field within easy reach of Kasiya Market
Centre at 8477800 and 538800 on the 1:50,000 Kasiya Map. Since ground water resources
on the eastern side of the dambo through which the Mudi flows has relatively higher
| Photographs

57

mineral content than on the western side, it would be advisable to concentrate borehole
siting efforts on the western side of the dambo if water quality problems are going to be
averted.

Option 2
This would entail conjunctive use of surface water abstraction from the Mudi River and the
development of the well field at the location mentioned under Option. Surface water
abstraction would require storage facilities.

4.4.3 Nsaru Market Centre


Results of desk studies and field surveys show that the most feasible source of water
supply for Nsaru Market Centre may be groundwater. The Consultant arrived at this
conclusion after a detailed analysis of available water resources within easy reach of the
market centre.

4.4.3.1 Surface Water Sources


The absence of perennial rivers in the area precludes the possibility of using surface water
resources as a source of water supply for Nsaru Market Centre. Notable surface water
bodies include Nsaru River, which only sustains flows during the rainy season, and the two
dams (Thumba and Nsaru) that are currently used for irrigated agriculture.

4.4.3.2 Ground Water Sources


Nsaru Market Centre has 10 boreholes, nine of which are fitted with Afridev hand pumps
and one is motorized and supplies water to the health centre. The yields vary from 0.49
litres per second to 1.9 litres per second, and the quality of the water is generally suitable
for domestic consumption.

4.4.3.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from three boreholes. The numbers allocated to these
samples are 614 to 616. The results show that the water is safe for human consumption.

Option 1
| Photographs

58

The main option for Nsaru Market Centre is to develop of a well field at 8465700 and
554800 on the 1:50,000 Map of Nsaru.

4.4.4 Malosa Market Centre


Malosa Market Centre is generally rich in both ground and surface water resources. The
Anglican Mission, comprising Malosa Secondary School, St. Luke Nursing School, etc, gets
its water from a gravity fed water supply system that abstracts water from Likwenu River,
whereas the rest of the market centre gets it water from boreholes fitted with Afridev hand
pumps.

4.4.4.1 Surface Water Sources


Likwenu and Lifani Rivers are dominant water bodies in the vicinity of Malosa Market
Centre. The flows of these two perennial rivers are generally adequate to meet the water
demand for the market centre, but the water supply system would require installation of
storage facilities in order to guard against water shortages associated with low flows
during the dry season. Previous studies proposed augmenting Malosa Water Supply with
water drawn from Domasi Rural Piped Water Scheme.

4.4.4.2 Ground Water Sources


Boreholes fitted with hand pumps provide water to the rest of the market centre not
covered by the surface water scheme. The yields vary from 0.43 litres per second to 1.1
litres per second, but could be enhanced with better borehole siting and improved
borehole construction methods.

4.4.4.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from the intake point on Likwenu River, a borehole at
Sambaisa Primary School and from a tap at Malosa Mosque. . The numbers allocated to
these samples are 620 to 622. The results show that the water is safe for human
consumption.
Option 1
The main option for Malosa Market Centre is to develop a water supply scheme that will
entail harvesting water from Likwenu River at 8317800 and 750500 and Lifani River at

| Photographs

59

8317300 and 750800 on the 1:50,000 Map of Malosa and conveying it to a central
treatment plant at 8317600 and 751000.
Option 2
This would involve the development of the well field at 8316600 and 753400 on the
1:50,000 Map of Malosa. The major constraint with this option is the associated
operational costs.

4.4.5 Nkando Market Centre


The water supply system for Nkando Market Centre comprises boreholes fitted with hand
pumps. However, there are plans to augment the supply by connecting the market centre
to a gravity fed rural piped water scheme that supplies water to most of the area in the
Lake Chilwa Phalombe Plain (Namitambo Scheme). Thus, in the interim the market
centre may have to continue relying on ground water.

4.4.5.1 Surface Water Sources


Desk studies and field visits have shown the river that flows in the vicinity of Nkando
Market Centre is not perennial and hence may not be relied upon as a sustainable source
of water supply. However, most of the rural settlements close to Nkando get their water
from the existing gravity fed piped water scheme.

4.4.5.2 Ground Water Sources


Boreholes fitted with hand pumps provide water to the market centre. As with other
market centers discussed in the preceding sections, the yields vary from 0.38 litres per
second to 1.2 litres per second. While such yields may be sufficient for rural water supply,
they are obviously inadequate for a market centre.

4.4.5.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from the two boreholes at the market centre and from a
village being served by the gravity fed rural piped water scheme. The respective numbers
allocated to these samples are 623, 624, and 625. The results show that the water is
Suitable for domestic consumption.

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Option 1

This option will involve the development of a well field at 8238800 and 752800 on the
1:50,000 Map of Nkando.

Option 2
This would involve tapping water from the exiting gravity fed rural piped water scheme.

4.4.6 Ntaja Market Centre


Ntaja Market Centre is mainly supplied from boreholes fitted with hand pumps, except for
a borehole at the Health Centre that is motorized. The absence of perennial rivers in the
vicinity of the market centre precludes the use of surface water resources as a source of
water supply. However, it was learned during the field visit that most of the areas around
Ntaja were a long time ago catered for by Kawinga Gravity Fed Rural Piped Water scheme
that has since broken down. It was further learned that there are plans to rehabilitate the
scheme. But the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development and the National Water
Development Programme have not yet fixed dates for the commencement of the works.

4.4.6.1 Surface Water Sources


The absence of perennial rivers in the vicinity of the market centre makes it difficult to use
surface water resources as a source of water supply for Ntaja Market Centre. However, as
pointed out above, the rehabilitation of Kawinga Gravity Fed Rural Water Supply may
augment the water supplies for Ntaja.

4.4.6.2 Ground Water Sources


Boreholes are the only source of water supply to the market centre. The yields were noted
to vary from 0.43 litres per second to 1.1 litres per second. However, the yields could be
enhanced with better borehole siting and improved borehole construction methods.

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4.4.6.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from three boreholes. The numbers allocated to these
samples are 626 to 628. The results show that the water is safe for human consumption.

Option 1

The main option for Ntaja Market Centre is to develop a well field at 8554700 and 772300
on the 1:50,000 Map of Ntaja.

Option 2
This would involve the rehabilitation of Kawinga Gravity Fed Rural Piped Water scheme to
complement ground water resources.

4.4.7 Nsanama Market Centre


The water situation at Nsanama Market Centre is very similar to the one at Ntaja Market
Centre. Nsanama gets it water supply from ground water resources. The absence of
perennial rivers in the vicinity of the market centre precludes the use of surface water
resources as a source of water supply. However, it was learned that Kawinga Gravity Fed
Rural Piped Water scheme used to supply water to the market centre a long time ago. In
the light of the above, the rehabilitation of the scheme will augment the water supply for
Nsanama.

4.4.7.1 Surface Water Sources


The absence of perennial rivers in the vicinity of the market centre makes it difficult to use
surface water resources as a source of water supply for Nsanama Market Centre. However,
as pointed out above, the rehabilitation of Kawinga Gravity Fed Rural Water Supply may
augment the water supplies for the market centre.

4.4.7.2 Ground Water Sources


Boreholes are the only source of water supply to the market centre. The yields were noted
to vary from 0.5 litres per second to 1.1 litres per second. However, the yields could be
enhanced with better borehole siting and improved borehole construction methods.

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4.4.7.3 Water Quality


Water samples were collected from three boreholes. The numbers allocated to these
samples are 629 to 631. The results show that the water is safe for human consumption,
except for the feacal coliform count for Mgodi Farm borehole that gave a value of 176
FC/100 ml.

Option 1
The main option for Nsanama Market Centre is to develop a well field at 8341200 and
769400 on the 1:50,000 Map of Nsanama.

Option 2
This would involve the rehabilitation of Kawinga Gravity Fed Rural Piped Water scheme to
complement ground water resources.

4.4.8

Recommendation on Borehole Construction

A number of boreholes in Malawi perform below their optimum capacity because of poor
well completion and lack of adherence to recommended borehole development
procedures. It is highly likely that boreholes will yield turbid waters, if wells are backfilled
with filter of smaller media than the installed screen. Also, where very little time is
devoted to well development to clean the aquifer, it takes a long time for the water from
the aquifer to become clear, and encourages silting of wells, a phenomenon that causes
serious damages to pumps. In the light of the above, it is recommended that the
construction of boreholes for the above listed market centers should be done by very
competent and proficient drillers, under close supervision of a professional hydrogeologist.
Lack of adherence to this recommended procedure would result in the construction of low
yielding boreholes.

4.4.9 Final Recommendation on Water Supply Sources


Based on the recommendation made in Section 5.5, it is expected that boreholes drilled at
Nathenje, Kasiya, and Nsaru in the Precambrian Basement Complex aquifer would produce
a minimum yield of 3 litres per second, while boreholes drilled at Nkando in the alluvial
aquifer would produce a minimum yield of 5 litres per second. Boreholes drilled at Ntaja
and Nsanama in the alluvial aquifer of the Lake Chilwa Phalombe plane would be
expected to produce a minimum yield of 3 litres per second, 1 litre/s less than boreholes at
Nkando, because Ntaja does not receive as much rainfall as Nkando.

Malosa Water Supply will get its water from abstracting Likwenu and Lifani Rivers.
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5 Proposed Water Supply Systems for Project Areas


5.1 Design Criteria
5.1.1 General
The following elements of water supply components will be covered in the design
criteria:

intake structure;
pumps and pumping stations;
water treatment facilities;
chemical dosing and disinfection / chlorination;
rising and gravity transmission mains;
distribution network;
water storage facilities;
service connections / water points;
access and service roads;
power supply (HT lines);
auxiliary buildings

Other standard design criteria not captured at this stage will be referred to during the
course of the design activities. The design criteria will serve as guidelines for the
subsequent detailed engineering design.

5.1.2 Water Source


A surface water source is considered to be adequate if it has a minimum yield of 130%
of the maximum day demand and for a ground water source if it has a minimum yield,
140%. A dam or reservoir water source is considered adequate if the estimated
frequency of water shortage during the dry season is less than 1 in 10 years.

5.1.2.1 Abstractions Arrangements from Groundwater


Sources
Abstraction from groundwater sources will be by means of deep boreholes with
casing diameter of 150mm or higher depending on the yield of the boreholes. The
boreholes in a well field will be equipped with submersible pumps sized in terms of
their yield and head and the pump into a sump of at least 50m3 from which high lift
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pumps will lift the water to service reservoirs. Boreholes will be as far apart as so
that no borehole is located within a zones of influence of another borehole.

5.1.2.2 Abstraction Arrangements from Surface Water


Sources
Abstraction from streams or rivers shall be by means of run-of the-river intakes
constructed across of the river with a small impoundment concrete structure to
allow for environmental flows.

5.1.3 Pipelines

5.1.3.1 Conveyance System


The rising and gravity mains will be designed for the maximum day demand of a 20
year design period.

5.1.3.2 Distribution System


The distribution network will be designed for the peak hour demand of a 20 year
design period. The minimum pipe size which will be considered in the network design
will be of DN 63 mm external diameter. Sizes under DN 63 mm will be considered only
for tertiary pipes which are to be laid as required during implementation.

In general, the network will be designed as a looped system as much as possible so that it
will be suitable and advantageous in operation. The network analysis will be made using
the WaterCAD software on computer. The WaterCAD will be used that can be linked to the
Town Plan Drawings in order to get a lot of information from the analysis.

5.1.4 Distribution Storage Capacity


The optimization of storage reservoir will be carried out on the basis of supply and demand
analysis over the period of 24 hours and taking into consideration that 50% of its storage
will be replenished daily. 10% of the storage volume will be reserved for fire fighting.
Standard reservoir sizes will be used whenever applicable.

5.1.5 Treatment Plant Capacity


If surface water source is going to be used, then the treatment plant will be designed for
the maximum day demand in two stages; the first stage up to 10 years and the second
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stage up to 20 years design life. All chemical dosing units will be designed to have
minimum two units with 100% standby capacity.

The filtration capacity of the treatment plants and the type of treatment plant to be used
will be decided depending on the raw water quality of the source to be developed and the
cost of the treatment plant.

If ground water source is going to be used, the water treatment which will be required will
be disinfection and as already indicated all chemical dosing units will be designed to have
minimum two units with 100% standby capacity.

5.1.6 Pumping Stations


The main pumping and booster stations will have a stand-by capacity as follows:-

a) Station with one pump will have a stand-by capacity of 100%


b) Station with two pumps will have a stand-by capacity of 50%.
c) Station with three pumps will have a stand-by capacity of 33%.
d) Stations with four or more pumps, the stand-by capacity will be decided on the
basis of the pump types and amount of water pumped.
The capacity of the pumps will be designed for the maximum day demand.

5.1.7 Supply Network Parameters

5.1.7.1 Pressure in the Pipelines


The minimum and maximum pressures in the distribution network shall not be below
15m and shall not be above 70m manometer head. The static pressure in the
distribution network shall not be more than 50m manometer head.
Values of the Hazen-Williams Coefficient given in Table 4.9 below will be used for
hydraulic calculations of flow in pipes. The values given below are also considered to
include the losses in fittings.

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Table 6.1: Hazen-Williams Coefficient


Type of Pipe

UPVC

Steel

DCI/GI

New Pipe *

130

100

110

Existing

110

80

100

* For the period of the project

5.1.7.2 Flow Velocities


The design of the distribution network shall be such that the minimum velocity of flow
in pipelines during peak hour shall be not less than 0.3 m/s and the maximum velocity
not greater than 2 m/s.

Design velocity in the transmission and/or gravity pipelines will be minimum of 0.6 m/s
and maximum of 1.2 m/s for economical operation of the system.

5.1.8 Communal Water Point


One Communal Water Point with two faucets shall be provided for every 120 people
using Communal Water Point depending on the local population density and physical
situation. The flow from one faucet should not be less than 0.25 l/s. The maximum
walking distance to a Communal Water Point should not exceed 500 meters.

5.1.9 Location of Fire Hydrants


Fire hydrants shall be located at selected places of public interest such as schools,
hospitals, shops, market areas, parks, etc.

5.1.10 Location of Flushing Devices


Flushing devices shall be located at low points of the distribution network except
where fire hydrants are to be placed at low points which will also serve as flushing
device.

5.1.11 System Appurtenance


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Isolating valves, air relief valves and pressure reducing valves shall be provided
wherever they are required in the distribution network and in the rising mains to
facilitate smooth operation and maintenance of the system.

5.1.12 Flow Measurement


Flow measurement devices shall be provided at raw water inlet point to the treatment
plant, all pumping stations, outlet from treatment plant to clear water collection
reservoir, outlets from service reservoirs in different pressure zones, major connection
to supply areas and at all Communal Water Points.

5.1.13 Water Quality

Raw Water Quality

5.1.13.1

The raw water source shall be free from the dangers of chemical pollution. In addition,
intake structures should be free from human and animal interactions and should be
fenced.

Treated Water Quality

5.1.13.2

The bacteriological, chemical and physical qualities of the treated water shall be within
the drinking water standards specified by the Temporary Guidelines used by the
Ministry of Irrigation and Water Development of Malawi, Malawi Bureau of Standards
and the World Health Organization Guide Lines for water quality. Non-disinfected
supplies and distribution systems will not be recommended.

5.1.14 Expected Life Time of Water Supply Components and


Structures
The expected lifetime of the various components, units and structures of the water
supply system are provided in Table 4.2.
Table 6.2: Design Period and Expected Life Time of Water Supply Components and
Structures
Unit

Expected life time (year)

Intake structure

50

Dams

50

Raw water pump

5-10 *

Treatment structures

50

Dosing pumps

Clear water pumps

10

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Reservoir

50

DCI & steel pipes

40

UPVC pips

25

Buildings

50

*Depending on the water quality

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5.2 Proposed Water Supply Systems


5.2.1 General
The analysis presented in the chapter four shows that the capacity of the new water
sources for 2030 for Nathenje are 1,250m 3/day, 738m3/day for Kasiya is, 507 m3/day for
Nsaru, 1,535 m3/day for Ntaja, 1,117 m3/day for Nsanama, 1,047 m3/day for Malosa and
535 m3/day for Nkando. The study and design of the market centres water supply schemes
will cover the following components:

5.2.1.1 Water source


Groundwater System
For ground water sources abstraction will be by means of boreholes. The boreholes will be
equipped with submersible pumps installed based on the borehole design that will be done
after drilling taking into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer. The
design will give specifications of type and size of casing and wellhead protection of at least
1 m high to prevent contamination from surface runoff or by human activities.
From each borehole a collector pipe of not more than 200m long and 50-75mm diameter
shall be installed to convey water to a rising main of 75mm UPVC that conveys water into
a 50m3 concrete sump at a Pump Station.
Surface Water System
Surface water system will have a run-of the-river intake and a gravity transmission
pipeline that conveys water into a receiving well at a proposed water treatment plant.

5.2.1.2 Pump Station


For ground water systems the proposed pump station shall comprise of an underground
sump, duty and standby pumps, chemical dosing systems, switch gears and other control
units sized according to required capacity of the pumping station.
For surface water systems flow intakes and water treatment plants have been located at
higher elevation so that flows in the system are by gravity.

5.2.1.3 Water treatment


Water treatment for ground water supply systems will comprise of disinfection by
chlorination using dosing pumps housed in pump houses and the dosing is proposed to be
in line into the PVC pumping mains to avoid corrosion of pipes. For surface water it will be
a conventional treatment to that allows treatment through appropriate processes that are
applicable for the raw water quality.

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5.2.1.4 Access Roads


Gravel compacted access roads are proposed to all components of the water system. As
such the number and length of such roads will depend on the choice of location for such
components which include tanks and boreholes.

5.2.1.5 Power Supply


For the new water supply scheme facilities, power supply will be required for
pumps as well as illumination. Therefore, power supply to these facilities will be
from the nearest ESCOM national grid system. The required power supply
established during the detailed design phase. For centres that does not have
power alternative power sources will be considered.

driving
tapped
will be
ESCOM

Switch gears and control panels shall be installed in all power control points to regulate
power supply to different elements of the water supply system.

5.2.1.6 Auxiliary Buildings


There is need of basic infrastructure which will be required for the smooth running of the
scheme by the Operator hired by the Water User Associations (WUAs). The Consultant
would like to propose the following:

80 sq.m office block with at a suitable site


2 EH5 Dwelling houses for operators

5.2.1.7 Other components


Other components proposed for these water supply systems are storage facilities,
distribution network, auxiliary buildings, access and service roads and power supply (HT
lines). The storage facilities proposed are elevated steel tanks for flat areas and concrete
tank for mountainous areas like Malosa.

5.2.2 Nathenje

5.2.2.1 Water Sources


As discussed in Chapter 5 of this report ground water sources have been recommended for
Nathenje market centres. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to be
sited and drilled in a well field near the Health Centre. At estimated yield of 3.0 litres per
second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table 6.3below:
Table 6.3: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Nathenje
Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

20
30
14
6

2020
7
2

2015
2
1

2010
0
0

Based on the maximum day demand for 2030, 6No boreholes equipped with submersible
pumps are proposed for Nathenje market centre
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5.2.2.2 Pump Station


The proposed pump station comprise of a underground 50m 3 concrete sump, two (2No)
high lift pumps housed in a 14m2 pump control building. One pump is proposed to be on
duty while the other one is on standby. The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.2.3 Pumping main


The pumping main (2.8km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to
convey water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 8.1.8.5.

5.2.2.4 Water Treatment


Based on the water quality situation presented in Chapter 5, Section 5.1.1.6, the supply
will only require disinfection to mitigate against any contamination that may occur.
Consequently, two (2No) dosing pump complete with chlorine tanks have been proposed
for Nathenje

5.2.2.5 Storage Facilities


A ground tank with capacity of 750m 3 located on high location at an elevation of
approximately 3700masl located at 8442400 latitude and 598500 longitude is proposed
based 2030 maximum day demand and additional 10% of maximum demand for fire
fighting. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments

5.2.2.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 8.45 km (700 of DN 200mm, 2.5km of DN 160mm,
2.4km of DN 110mm and 2.85km of DN 63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Nathenje market
centre. During detailed design an estimate for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed
sections such as stream crossings .

5.2.3 Kasiya

5.2.3.1 Water Sources


Ground water sources are proposed based on their suitability as outlined in Chapter 5 of
this report. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to be sited and
drilled in a well field on the western side of the dambo. At estimated yield of 3.0 litres per
second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table 6.4 below:
Table 6.4: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Kasiya
Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

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20
30
14
4

2020
7
2

2015
2
0

2010
0
0

72

4 No boreholes equipped with submersible pumps have been proposed for Kasiya market
centre

5.2.3.2 Pumping Station


Similar to the arrangements proposed for Nathenje, the proposed pump station comprise
of a underground 50m3 concrete sump, two (2No) high lift pumps housed in a 14m 2 pump
control building. One pump is proposed to be on duty while the other one is on standby.
The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.3.3 Pumping Mains


The pumping main (3km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to convey
water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 8.1.9.5.

5.2.3.4 Water Treatment


It is proposed that the only treatment for water will be disinfection which will be by means
of in line dosing of chlorine solution. Two dosing pumps one of which would be a standby
are proposed for the water supply system. The dosing system is to be housed in the pump
house at the pump station

5.2.3.5 Storage Facilities


An elevated steel plated tank with capacity of 420m 3 is proposed for Kasiya market centre.
The tank is to be located at an elevation of about 3700 masl located at 8475000 latitude
and 539500 longitude. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments

5.2.3.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 8.5 km (4.5km of DN 110mm and 3.5km of DN
63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Kasiya market centre. During detailed design an
estimate for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as stream
crossings.

5.2.4 Nsaru

5.2.4.1 Water Sources


Ground water sources are proposed as a best option based on their suitability as outlined
in Chapter 5 of this report. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to
be sited and drilled in a well field on the western side of the dambo. At estimated yield of
3.0 litres per second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table
6.5 below:

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Table 6.5: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Nsaru


Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

20
30
6
2

2020
3
1

2015
1
0

2010
0
0

3 No boreholes equipped with submersible pumps have been proposed for Kasiya market
centre. One borehole will be on standby.

5.2.4.2 Pumping Station


Similar to the arrangements proposed for Nathenje, the proposed pump station comprise
of a underground 50m3 concrete sump, two (2No) high lift pumps housed in a 14m 2 pump
control building. One pump is proposed to be on duty while the other one is on standby.
The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.4.3 Pumping Mains


The pumping main (2.2km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to
convey water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 8.1.10.5.

5.2.4.4 Water Treatment


It is proposed that the only treatment for water will be disinfection which will be by means
of in line dosing of chlorine solution. Two dosing pumps one of which would be a standby
are proposed for the water supply system. The dosing system is to be housed in the pump
house at the pump station

5.2.4.5 Storage Facilities


An elevated steel plated tank with capacity of 280 m 3 is proposed for Nsaru market centre.
The tank is to be located at an elevation of about 3800 masl located at 8464500 latitude
and 553500 longitude. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments

5.2.4.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 7.6 km (2km of DN 110mm and 5.6km of DN
63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Nsaru market centre. During detailed design provision
for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as stream crossings.

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5.2.5 Ntaja

5.2.5.1 Water Sources


Ground water sources are proposed as a best option based on their suitability as outlined
in Chapter 5 of this report. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to
be sited and drilled in a well field on the western side of the dambo. At estimated yield of
3.0 litres per second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table
6.6 below:
Table 6.6: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Ntaja
Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

20
30
18
6

2020
6
3

2015
2
1

2010
0
0

7No boreholes equipped with submersible pumps have been proposed for Ntaja market
centre. One borehole will be on standby.

5.2.5.2 Pumping Station


Similar to the arrangements proposed other proposed ground water system, the proposed
pump station comprise of a underground 50m 3 concrete sump, two (2No) high lift pumps
housed in a 14m2 pump control building. One pump is proposed to be on duty while the
other one is on standby. The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.5.3 Pumping Mains


The pumping main (3km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to convey
water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 8.1.11.5.

5.2.5.4 Water Treatment


It is proposed that the only treatment for water will be disinfection which will be by means
of in line dosing of chlorine solution. Two dosing pumps one of which would be a standby
are proposed for the water supply system. The dosing system is to be housed in the pump
house at the pump station

5.2.5.5 Storage Facilities


An elevated steel plated tank with capacity of 850 m 3 is proposed for Kasiya market
centre. The tank is to be located at an elevation of about 2400 masl located at 8357500
latitude and 7739400 longitude. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments

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5.2.5.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 11.7 km (6.6km of DN 110mm and 5.1km of DN
63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Ntaja market centre. During detailed design provision for
GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as stream crossings.

5.2.6 Nsanama

5.2.6.1 Water Sources


Ground water sources are proposed as a best option based on their suitability as outlined
in Chapter 5 of this report. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to
be sited and drilled in a well field at locations given in Chapter 5 . At estimated yield of 3.0
litres per second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table 6.7
below:
Table 6.7: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Nsanama
Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

20
30
13
4

2020
7
2

2015
2
1

2010
0
0

5No boreholes equipped with submersible pumps have been proposed for Ntaja market
centre. One borehole will be on standby.

5.2.6.2 Pumping Station


Similar to the arrangements proposed other proposed ground water system, the proposed
pump station comprise of a underground 50m 3 concrete sump, two (2No) high lift pumps
housed in a 14m2 pump control building. One pump is proposed to be on duty while the
other one is on standby. The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.6.3 Pumping Mains


The pumping main (2.75km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to
convey water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 5.1.12.5.

5.2.6.4 Water Treatment


It is proposed that the only treatment for water will be disinfection which will be by means
of in line dosing of chlorine solution. Two dosing pumps one of which would be a standby
are proposed for the water supply system. The dosing system is to be housed in the pump
house at the pump station.

5.2.6.5 Storage Facilities


An elevated steel plated tank with capacity of 620 m 3 is proposed for Nsanama market
centre. The tank is to be located at an elevation of about 2050 masl located at 8341500
latitude and 767000 longitude. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments
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5.2.6.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 11.5 km (8.5km of DN 110mm and 5.5km of DN
63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Nsanama market centre. During detailed design
provision for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as stream
crossings.

5.2.7 Malosa

5.2.7.1 Water Sources


Run-of the-river concrete intakes have been proposed on Likwenu River at 8317800 and
750500 and Lifani River at 8317300 and 750800 in the Zomba Mountains. There shall
consist of screen and an abstraction chamber. The combined capacity for the treatment
plant is 12 litres per second.

5.2.7.2 Transmission Mains


Water will be conveyed by 4.5 km transmission mains of 90-110mm GI pipes to receiving
well at the treatment plant. The specific associated fittings such as anchors and crossings
will be determined during detailed designs.

5.2.7.3 Water Treatment Plant


A water treatment plant with facilities for sedimentation, filtration and disinfection has
been proposed. The capacity of the proposed plant is 1,047m 3/day. A concrete
sedimentation tank, pressure filters and chemical dosing system have been proposed for
sedimentation; filtration and disinfection respectively (see Annex 1). A provision for in
line dosing of a coagulant in the sedimentation tank inlet pipeline at a point that allows
adequate contact time is proposed for application of a coagulant in times of high turbidity.
Provision for standby dosing pumps for disinfection and coagulation are also proposed.
The water treatment component will be located at elevations that avoid pumping but
rather use gravity flow to reduce operation and maintenance costs. The exact location will
be determined during detailed designs.

5.2.7.4 Storage Facilities


The storage facilities are to be located at an elevation below the water treatment plant to
allow for flow of water by gravity from the water treatment plant but a location high
enough to allow for supply to all residents of Malosa centre. The proposed capacity of the
storage facility is 580m3. A concrete storage reservoir is proposed.

5.2.7.5 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 16.4 km (500m of DN 160mm, 9.9km of DN
110mm and 6km of DN 63mm pipeline) is proposed for Malosa market centre. During
detailed design provision for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as
stream crossings.

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77

5.2.8 Nkando

5.2.8.1 Water Sources


Ground water sources are proposed as a best option based on their suitability as outlined
in Chapter 5 of this report. Ground water abstract will be by means of deep boreholes to
be sited and drilled in a well field at locations given in Chapter 5 . At estimated yield of 5.0
litres per second the number of boreholes required will be as indicated in the Table 6.7
below:
Table 4.11: Estimation of Number of boreholes for Nkando
Horizon Year
Maximum Day Demand
Estimated Number of
Boreholes

20
30
6
1

2020
2
0

2015
1
0

2010
0
0

2No boreholes equipped with submersible pumps have been proposed for Nkando market
centre. One borehole will be on standby.

5.2.8.2 Pumping Station


Similar to the arrangements proposed other proposed ground water system, the proposed
pump station comprise of a underground 50m 3 concrete sump, two (2No) high lift pumps
housed in a 14m2 pump control building. One pump is proposed to be on duty while the
other one is on standby. The proposed pumps are negative suction pumps.

5.2.8.3 Pumping Mains


The pumping main (2.75km DN 110mm Class 16 (or above) uPVC shall be installed to
convey water from the well field to service reservoir described in section 5.2.8.5.

5.2.8.4 Water Treatment


It is proposed that the only treatment for water will be disinfection which will be by means
of in line dosing of chlorine solution. Two dosing pumps one of which would be a standby
are proposed for the water supply system. The dosing system is to be housed in the pump
house at the pump station.

5.2.8.5 Storage Facilities


An elevated steel plated tank with capacity of 300 m 3 is proposed for Nkando market
centre. The tank is to be located at an elevation of about 2300 masl located at 8239000
latitude and 751000 longitude. The proposed tank is to have equal two compartments.

5.2.8.6 Distribution Network


A distribution network of approximately 7.6 km (3.5km of DN 110mm and 4.1km of DN
63mm uPVC pipe) is proposed for Nkando market centre. During detailed design provision
for GI pipe will have to be included for exposed sections such as stream crossings.
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78

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79

6 Cost Estimates
6.1 Unit Costs
Preliminary estimates for financial requirements for the different options of project
implementation have been prepared based on the costs incurred on similar projects
already implemented by the NWDP and from the Consultants experience.

The following assumptions for unit costs have been taken into account:

Unit construction costs for production intake = US$ 200 per m 3/d. The maximum
day demand has been used in the calculation of preliminary costs for the
production.
Treatment Works cost = US$150 per m3/d.
Storage unit construction cost = US$ 250 per m3
Transmission unit construction cost = US$ 50 per m
Main distribution line unit construction cost = US$ 50 per m
Secondary distribution unit construction cost = US$ 50 per m
Service Connection = US$ 50 per m, although 36% contribution is made by the
customer

6.2 Summary of Cost Estimates for Market Centres


Summary costs for each market centre have been calculated based on the different
alternatives. Below are tables showing these cost estimates:

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80

6.2.1 Nathenje

Table 7.1: Project costs for Option 1 for Nathenje (Groundwater System).
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Preliminary general

LS

1.00

Borehole Drilling and


Development
Pumping Sump

No.

Rate
(US$)
180,000.0
0
15,000.00

6.00
m3

380.00
50.00

Treatment works

m3

1,2

10.00

2,8

50.00

8,4

50.00

50.00
Transmission lines

m
00.00

Distribution lines

m
50.00

Electro-mechanical
equipment
Storage tanks

LS

80,000.00
1.00

m3

380.00

50.00
Auxiliary buildings

m2

600.00
80.00

Access roads

50.00

00.00
CWP

No

2,200.00
12.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection

LS

35,000.00
1.00

TOTAL

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Cost (US$)
180,
000.00
90,
000.00
19,
000.00
12,
500.00
140,
000.00
422,
500.00
80,
000.00
285,
000.00
48,
000.00
10,
000.00
26,
400.00
1,313,
400.00
35,
000.00
1,348,
400.00

81

Table 7.2: The project costs for Option B for Nathenje (Conjunctive Ground water and Surface
Water System)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate (US$)

Cost (US$)

Preliminary general

LS

1.00

250,000.00

250,000.00

Intake construction

m3

1,250.00

200.00

250,000.00

Borehole Drilling and


Development

No.

2.00

15,000.00

30,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50.00

380.00

19,000.00

Treatment works

m3

1,250.00

150.00

187,500.00

Transmission lines

2,800.00

50.00

140,000.00

Distribution lines

8,450.00

50.00

422,500.00

Electro-mechanical equipment

LS

1.00

120,000.00

120,000.00

Storage tanks

m3

750.00

380.00

285,000.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80.00

600.00

48,000.00

Access roads

400.00

50.00

20,000.00

CWP

No

12.00

2,200.00

26,400.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

| Photographs

1,798,400.00
LS

1.00

35,000.00

35,000.00
1,833,400.00

82

6.2.2 Kasiya
Table 7.3: Cost Estimates for Option 1 for Kasiya ( Ground water system)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

150,000.00

No.

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50

Treatment works

m3

738

10.00

Transmission lines

3,000

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

8,500

50.00

LS

Storage tanks

m3

420

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80

600.00

Access roads

200

CWP

No

10

LS

380.00

60,000.00

50.00
2,200.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

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35,000.00

Cost (US$)
150,
000.00
75,
000.00
19,
000.00
7,
380.00
150,
000.00
425,
000.00
60,
000.00
159,
600.00
48,
000.00
10,
000.00
22,
000.00
1,125,
980.00
35,
000.00
1,160,
980.00

83

Table 7.4: Cost Estimates for Option 2 for Kasiya (Surface water system)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate (US$)

Cost (US$)

Preliminary general

LS

1.00

150,000.00

150,000.00

Intake construction

m3

738.00

200.00

147,600.00

Borehole Drilling and Development

No.

2.00

15,000.00

30,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50.00

380.00

19,000.00

Treatment works

m3

738.00

150.00

110,700.00

Transmission lines

3,000.00

50.00

150,000.00

Distribution lines

8,500.00

50.00

425,000.00

Electro-mechanical equipment

LS

1.00

120,000.00

120,000.00

Storage tanks

m3

420.00

380.00

159,600.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80.00

600.00

48,000.00

Access roads

200.00

50.00

10,000.00

CWP

No

10.00

2,200.00

22,000.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

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1,391,900.00
LS

1.00

35,000.00

35,000.00
1,426,900.00

84

6.2.3 Nsaru
Table 7.5: Cost Estimates for Option 1 for Nsaru (Groundwater system)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

150,000.00

No.

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50

Treatment works

m3

507

10.00

Transmission lines

2,200

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

7,600

50.00

LS

Storage tanks

m3

280

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80

600.00

Access roads

200

CWP

No

2,200.00

LS

35,000.00

380.00

50,000.00

50.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

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Cost (US$)
150,
000.00
45,
000.00
19,
000.00
5,
070.00
110,
000.00
380,
000.00
50,
000.00
106,
400.00
48,
000.00
10,
000.00
19,
800.00
943,
270.00
35,
000.00
978,
270.00

85

6.2.4 Ntaja
Table 7.6: Cost Estimates for Option 1 for Ntaja (Groundwater system)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

200,000.00

No.

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50

Treatment works

m3

1,535

10.00

Transmission lines

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

3,000
1
1,700

LS

Storage tanks

m3

850

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

100

600.00

Access roads

200

50.00

CWP

No

14

LS

380.00

50.00
80,000.00

2,200.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

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35,000.00

Cost (US$)
200,
000.00
105,
000.00
19,
000.00
15,
350.00
150,
000.00
585,
000.00
80,
000.00
323,
000.00
60,
000.00
10,
000.00
30,
800.00
1,578,
150.00
35,
000.00
1,613,
150.00

86

Table 7.7: Cost Estimates for Ntaja Conjunctive Groundwater and Surface Water System (Option
2)
Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general

LS

1.00

200,000.00

Connect with Kawinga


Gravity Fed Scheme

LS

1.00

100,000.00

Borehole Drilling and


Development

No.

2.00

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50.00

380.00

Treatment works

m3

1,535

10.00

Transmission lines

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

3,000
1
1,700

LS

Storage tanks

m3

850

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

100

600.00

Access roads

200

50.00

CWP

No

14

LS

Activity

50.00
80,000.00

2,200.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

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35,000.00

Cost (US$)
200,
000.00
100,
000.00
30,
000.00
19,
000.00
15,
350.00
150,
000.00
585,
000.00
80,
000.00
323,
000.00
60,
000.00
10,
000.00
30,
800.00
1,603,
150.00
35,
000.00
1,638,
150.00

87

6.2.5 Nsanama
Table 7.8: Cost Estimates for Ground Water System at Nsanama (Option 1)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

200,000.00

No.

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50

Treatment works

m3

1,117

10.00

Transmission lines

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

2,750
1
1,500

LS

Storage tanks

m3

620

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

100

600.00

Access roads

300

50.00

CWP

No

12

TOTAL

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380.00

50.00
80,000.00

2,200.00

Cost (US$)
200,
000.00
75,
000.00
19,
000.00
11,
170.00
137,
500.00
575,
000.00
80,
000.00
235,
600.00
60,
000.00
15,
000.00
26,
400.00
1,434,
670.00

88

Table 7.9: Cost Estimate for Nsanama Conjunctive Ground and surface Water System at
Nsanama
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

LS

1.00

200,000.00

Preliminary general
Connect with Kawinga
Gravity Sch
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

1.00

100,000.00

No.

2.00

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50.00

380.00

Treatment works

m3

1,117

10.00

Transmission lines

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

2,750
1
1,500

LS

Storage tanks

m3

620

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

100

600.00

Access roads

300

50.00

CWP

No

12

LS

50.00
80,000.00

2,200.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

| Photographs

35,000.00

Cost (US$)
200,
000.00
100,
000.00
30,
000.00
19,
000.00
11,
170.00
137,
500.00
575,
000.00
80,
000.00
235,
600.00
60,
000.00
15,
000.00
26,
400.00
1,489,
670.00
35,
000.00
1,524,
670.00

89

6.2.6 Malosa
Table 7.10: Cost Estimates for a Surface Water System at Malosa
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

LS

1.00

250,000.00

Preliminary general
Intake construction
(Lufani and Likwenu
Rivers)

m3

Treatment works

m3

Transmission lines

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

m
LS

1,0
47.00
1,0
47.00
4,5
00.00
16,4
00.00
1.00

200.00
150.00
50.00
50.00
40,000.00

5
Storage tanks

m3

80.00

380.00
1

Auxiliary buildings

m2

Access roads

00.00
1,2
00.00

CWP

No

10.00

2,200.00

LS

1.00

35,000.00

600.00
50.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

| Photographs

Cost (US$)
250,
000.00
209,
400.00
157,
050.00
225,
000.00
820,
000.00
40,
000.00
220,
400.00
60,
000.00
60,
000.00
22,
000.00
2,063,
850.00
35,
000.00
2,098,
850.00

90

6.2.7 Nkando
Table 7.11: Cost Estimates for Nkando Ground Water System (Option 1)
Activity

Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Borehole Drilling and
Development

LS

150,000.00

No.

15,000.00

Pumping Sump

m3

50

Treatment works

m3

535

10.00

Transmission lines

1,800

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

7,600

50.00

LS

Storage tanks

m3

300

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80

600.00

Access roads

400

CWP

No

2,200.00

LS

35,000.00

380.00

60,000.00

50.00

SUB TOTAL
Catchment protection
TOTAL

| Photographs

Cost (US$)
150,
000.00
30,
000.00
19,
000.00
5,
350.00
90,
000.00
380,
000.00
60,
000.00
114,
000.00
48,
000.00
20,
000.00
15,
400.00
931,
750.00
35,
000.00
966,
750.00

91

Table 7: 12: Cost Estimates for Nkando Surface Water System (Option 2)
Unit

Quantity

Rate
(US$)

Preliminary general
Connect with Namitambo
Gravity Fed Scheme

LS

1.00

150,000.00

LS

1.00

100,000.00

Treatment works

m3

535

10.00

Transmission lines

1,800

50.00

Distribution lines
Electro-mechanical
equipment

7,600

50.00

LS

Storage tanks

m3

300

380.00

Auxiliary buildings

m2

80

600.00

Access roads

400

CWP

No

Activity

TOTAL

| Photographs

80,000.00

50.00
2,200.00

Cost (US$)
150,
000.00
100,
000.00
5,
350.00
90,
000.00
380,
000.00
80,
000.00
114,
000.00
48,
000.00
20,
000.00
15,
400.00
1,002,
750.00

92

7 Environmental and Social Issues


7.1 The Validity of the Project
The project objective is to meet the water demand for the population living in the Centres
up to the year 2030 and improve sanitation in the market centres as well as high density
and traditional housing areas of the centres.
At each market, the project is expected to employ about 200 people at the peak time of
construction works since some works will be labour exetensive. The major work will be
constructed of the intake treatment works, a reservoir and pipelines. Mentioned facilities
and the main equipment which will be in use are:

Excavator
Bull dozer
Lorry
Concrete mixers
Vibrator
Grader
Water Booster

These market centres are generally trading areas with some institutional establishment
depended on the area. The common institutional offices available are ADMARC, Health
Centres and schools. Most of these centres are surrounded by agricultural land hence
there are physical limits to outward growth due to agricultural activities in the peripheral
areas. Therefore, the probable major growth will take place in the present centre areas
leading to high population densities hence a need of better services to improve the area.

7.2 Existing Sewage Disposal Facilities


The majority of the people live in traditional and high density houses, whereby they use pit
latrines. They draw water from Communal Water Points, and waste water from the
bathrooms and kitchens is diverted to open drainage.
The toilet facilities in the local primary schools are grossly inadequate. These toilets are pit
latrines. The schools normally have stand pipes from where water can be collected.

Due to lack of portable water supply for medium and low density houses, they also use pit
latrines and waste water from the bathrooms and kitchens is diverted to open drainage as
well.

| Photographs

93

Most of the institutions have their own water supply which consist of motorized boreholes
which pump water to elevated tanks. Therefore offices, hotels, boarding schools, big
shops, hospitals and rest houses have waterborne toilets connected to septic tanks.

Whenever consumers need to empty their septic tanks, they either approach the nearest
City Assemblies of Lilongwe, Zomba and Blantyre, or Malawi Housing Corporation or
Department of plant and Vehicle Hire under the Ministry of Transport and Public Works.

7.3 Environmental Impact of the Proposed Project


Following are the environmental impacts of the proposed project:

7.3.1 Impact from Site Selection


Loss of land e.g. Agricultural land, this will mainly involve the land for storage tanks or the
treatment works for some sites if required and the pipeline route within the market centre
though it will not cover a big width of land.

7.3.2 Impacts from Construction

Soil erosion and the sedimentation of surface water sources.


Ground and surface water supplies contaminated by oil, grease and fuel spills from
construction machinery.
Creation of stagnant water-bodies in borrow pit and quarries which may occasionally
act as habitats for disease sectors.
Social disruption of local population by construction workers (e.g. imported labour
may be of different background).
Occupation hazards to construction workers.
Introduction of new diseases (e.g. Sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis)
and prostitution, gambling and drugs abuse to the local population.

7.4 Social-Economic Impacts


Positive Socio-Economic Impact
- Improve public health due to a greater quantity and quality of domestic
water.
- Improve health due to the sanitation that is introduced.
- The creation of new employment opportunities in the construction and
operation of the system.
- Encouragement of water demanding industries and other services such as
clinic and schools to locate in the area.
Negative Social-Economic Impacts
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94

Surface and ground water construction through spills and leakage of


machine fuels.
Public health hazards in vicinity of discharges.
Worker accidents at work sites.
Soil, crop and groundwater contamination and disease sector breeding at
sewage disposal sites.

7.5 Sanitation Impacts

Impacts on Water Quality


- Overflow of waste facilities during floods pollution surface and ground waters.
- Contaminated run-off from leaching of sludge and filter scrapings deposits.
- Inadequate disinfections.

7.6 Mitigation Measures


In order to protect the environment from the adverse effects of water supply and
sanitation programmes and projects there are a number of mitigation and management
plans which will be Implemented. To achieve the best results, the mitigation measures
shall be carried out in collaboration with all the stakeholders of the project i.e. the local
people, the contractor, the consultant and the Client.Following are the measures:

7.6.1 Effective Planning Measures

Forward planning for effective settlement programme for the affected people.
Planning the site and scale to avoid the water supply sources conflicting with
other users e.g. safe yield of rivers.
Taking the consideration of the potential social problem of the population of the
utilising the project facilities, gaining public corporation, incorporating
neighbourhood improvements.
Conforming to land-use planning and strengthening land use controls to regulate
secondary development.
Considering small community systems in water short areas e.g. provision of the
Communal Water Points.

7.6.2 Construction Measures

Applying erosion and sedimentation controls e.g. revegetation.


Enforcing adherence to safety procedures.
Balancing cuts and borrow pits.
Locating and designing workforce settlement so as to avoid social conflicts and
problems.
Encouraging employment of local people as unskilled labourers.

7.6.3 Operation Measures


Mitigation of Social Economic Impact
| Photographs

95

Incorporating a health and sanitation education programme


addressing:
Operating of facilities.

Hygienic.

Instituting companion education activities e.g.


Sanitation or hygiene education.

Project maintenance education.

Public meeting to introduce the system.

- Pictorial signs displayed where water use or sanitation problems occur.

Restricting access to wastewater and sludge disposal sites.

7.6.4 Mitigation of Impacts of Surface and Groundwater

Ensuring adequate provision for the operation management and


maintenance of facilities (e.g. staff training).
Designing facilities for ease of maintenance and reliability.
Controlling land-use in watershed, ensuring soil construction.
Providing impermeable base to sludge disposal areas e.g. sludge
chambers.
Careful maintenance of all components of the systems.

Since each of these market centres have a current population of less than 10,000 people it
is expected that a full EIA will not be required, therefore the impacts will be suitably
addresses through the adequate engineering and construction methods which have been
outlined.

8 Estimated Beneficiaries
8.1 Rationale
Any development project brings change in area which causes economic growth and
poverty reduction. Therefore the rationale behind this project is to provide potable water
supply and sanitation services to the project areas. In return, to ensure that the areas have
healthy people who will be able to contribute to the development welfare as well as that of
the country and achieve economic growth and poverty reduction.
| Photographs

96

8.2 Summary of Estimated Beneficiaries of Water Supply


Project
In every project, there are direct and indirect or primary and secondary beneficiaries. The
former category includes people formally targeted by the project designers or developers.
They are clearly defined in project proposals i.e. people using water supply and sanitation
facilities provided by the Project in the Market Centres in this case. The later category
includes people who get social and financial benefits during project implementation and
those who do not live in the project area permanently. In other words, people get
temporary employment during construction phase and or sell construction materials. Both
categories of beneficiaries are important in development work. The determination of these
beneficiaries depend on the methods used and access to the project facilities.
In the water supply component, the beneficiaries are all people who get service from the
water supply scheme. A summary of estimated beneficiaries for year 2030 of the water
supply project is presented in Table 9.1 below.

Table 9.1:Summary of Estimated Beneficiaries of proposed water supply project


Name of Market Centre

No. of Beneficiaries of Water


Supply System by 2030

Nanthenje Lilongwe District

9,000

Nsaru Lilongwe District

3,993

Kasiya in Lilongwe District

5,477

Ntaja in Machinga District

11,049

Nsanama in Machinga District

8,286

Malosa in Zomba District

7,538

Nkando in Mulanje District

3,971

Total for 7 Market Centres

49,314

| Photographs

97

9 References
1. Birdie G.S, Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering, Dhanpat Rai and Sons, 1987
2. Carbro Consultants, Master Study for Urban and Rural Centres Water Supply in
Malawi, 1986
3. Government of Malawi, Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency Plan
(2007),

4. Government of Malawi, Market Centre and Rural Piped Water Supply and
Sanitation Programme. Guidelines for establishment of Water Users Association
in Malawi, April 2009.
5. Government of Malawi, National Gender Policy, 2000
6. Government of Malawi, National Sanitation Policy. December 2008
7. Government of Malawi, National and Shire Irrigation Study (NSIS, 1980),

8. Government of
December 2000
9. Government of
December 2000
10.Government of
December 2000
11.Government of
December 2000

Malawi, Socio Economic Profile Report for Lilongwe District,

Malawi, Socio Economic Profile Report for Machinga District,


Malawi, Socio Economic Profile Report for Mulanje District,
Malawi, Socio Economic Profile Report for Zomba District,

12. Government of Malawi, Water Sector Wide Approach, 2008


13. Government of Malawi, UNDP, Water Resources Master Plan, 1986

14.National Statistical
September 2009.
15.National Statistical
2005
16.National Statistical
District, 2006.
17.National Statistical
2006.
18.Twort A.C, Hoather
Edition, 1984.

| Photographs

Office: 2008 Population and Housing Census Main Report,


Office: Integrated Household Survey, 2004 2005, October

Office, UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for Mulanje


Office, UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for Malawi,
R.C, Law F.M, Water Supply, Edward Arnold Publishers Second

98

10 Annexes
10.1 Water Quality Results

| Photographs

99

Ref. WQPC 12/1


Telephone: (265) 770 344
Fax No.: (265) 773 737/774678

Communications should be addressed


to:
The Secretary for Irrigation &Water
Development

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


PRIV ATE BAG 390
CAPITAL CITY
LILONGWE 3
MALA WI

24th December, 2009

The Managing Director,


Chapita Consulting Engineers,
P.O. BOX 2349,
Lilongwe.
(Attention: Mr. J. Chagunda)

WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS OF WATER SAMPLES FROM


SELECETD WATER POINTS/SOURCES IN LILONGWE, MACHINGA,
ZOMBA, CHIRADZULU AND MULANJE DISTRICTS

Attached, please find physical, chemical and bacteriological test results of 21 water samples collected from different
water point/source types in Lilongwe (9), Zomba (3), Mulanje (2), Chiradzulu (1) and Machinga (6) districts.
Sampling exercise was conducted by our personnel during the period 10-18th December, 2009.

Of the total water samples, 17 were from groundwater sources (boreholes) and the remainder from surface water
sources (Rivers and water supply taps from gravity fed piped water supply schemes).

Analysis of the parameters requested was conducted in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water & Wastewater, 21st Edition.

1. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

1.1 Bacteriological quality

One of the key elements in the quality control of drinking water is microbiological examination of the water. In the water
samples under review, two bacteria types namely, Faecal coliform and Faecal streptococci were enumerated. The group of
| Photographs

100

coliform organisms as a whole is taken as indicators of faecal pollution. However, the presence of Faecal (thermotolerant)
coliform organisms in particular, provides definite evidence of faecal pollution and that pathogens could be present.

Bacteria values registered in the water samples ranged from 0-1,098 and 0-660 counts per 100ml for Faecal coliform and
Faecal streptococci types of bacteria respectively. The highest values registered on Faecal coliform type of bacteria was as
expected from a surface water source (Munde River) while on Faecal streptococci, it was from a borehole at Kasiya Primary
school.

It is worth noting that as expected, all the surface water sources registered the two bacteria types enumerated and the values
ranged from 32-1,098 and 55-432 counts per 100ml for Faecal coliform and Faecal streptococci types of bacteria respectively.

Five of the total water samples (29.4%) from boreholes registered zero Faecal coliform count per 1O0ml and 12 of the total
samples from boreholes (70.6%) were at the time of sampling delivering water with Faecal coliform values within the
acceptable limits according to the National Standards for drinking water delivered from Boreholes and Shallow Wells
(MS733:2005).

1.2 Physical and Chemical Parameters

Chemically, water delivered from these water points/sources under review can be said to be ranging from very soft to very
hard and acidic to alkaline. This classification is based on the Total Hardness (CaCO3) and power of hydrogen ion (pH) values
observed which ranged from 3.0-566 mg/I and 6.78-8.04 respectively.

As expected, very soft water was mostly observed being delivered from surface water sources (e.g Majikuta Village water
supply Tap) and very hard water from groundwater sources (e.g. Mkando Mosque). Very soft and acidic water is normally
aggressive to metals and metallic plumbing materials while very hard water tends to be laxative and consumes a lot of soap
before formation of foam. Hard water also tends to form scales in heating elements and people drinking such water for the first
time may find it not palatable.

Iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001-8.61 mg/I. It is worth noting that only two of the total water samples registered
values above 1.0 mg/l and are all located in Traditional Authority (T/A) Khongoni in Lilongwe district. Only one registered a
value above the National Standarqs of 3.0mg/l for drinking water delivered from Boreholes and Shallow Wells (MS733:2005).
The highest Value of Iron (8.61 mg/I) was registered in a surface water source (Munde River). High Iron content tends to be a
nuisance in water for drinking and other domestic purposes because of the bitter taste it imparts, corrosion of plumbing
materials, colouring of white materials and proliferation of bacteria.

| Photographs

101

In general, most of the parameters tested registered values that are within the acceptable limits according to the Malawi
Standards for drinking water delivered from boreholes and shallow wells (MS733:2005).

2. Remark(s)/Recommendation(s)

Please note that whatever remarks that have been made in this report are based on this single set of data collected from
these water samples analysed.

.
Bacteriologically, 16 of the total water points (76.2%) registered bacteria counts of <50 's counts per 100ml
(MS733:2005). Five of the total 17 borehole (29.4%) registered zero Faecal coliform counts per 100ml and as expected, all
the surface water sources registered the two bacteria types enumerated and values ranged from 32-1,098 and 55-432 counts
per 100ml for Faecal coliform and Faecal streptococci types of bacteria respectively.

It is worth noting that of far more serious consequences than the health hazards associated with chemical substances in
drinking water are diseases related to contaminated water that are spread by a biological agent of disease (pathogen). In
general, most of the water points were at the time of sampling delivered water that was not safe for human consumption
without any mode of treatment.

You may therefore wish to consider this element bacteriological quality so seriously if you intend to construct public drinking
water supply networks. It is also worth noting that bacteriological quality standards for drinking water in public drinking water
supply network (MS678:2005) is so stringent compared to that of Boreholes and Shallow Wells (MS733:2005).

.
Chemically, water delivered from these water points/sources under review can be said to be ranging from very soft to
very hard and acidic to alkaline. Very soft water was mostly from gravity fed piped water schemes (e.g. Majikuta village in
Chiradzulu district) and very hard water was observed in groundwater sources (e.g. Mkango mosque in Mulanje district). Note
that hard water tends to consume a lot of soap before foam formation leading to reduction in its cleansing action, and cause
sc,ale in water distribution mains and hot-water heaters.

It is however, important to note that the highest value observed for Total Hardness (566mg/l) is within the National Standards
value of 800 mg/I for water delivered from Boreholes and Shallow Wells.

Iron value was observed to be above the limit of 3.0 mg/I (MS733:2005) in a water sample from a surface water source,
Munde River, located at Kasiya in Lilongwe district. If water from this water source is to be used for human consumption, you
| Photographs

102

may wish to consider reducing the Iron concentration value observed. Reduction in Iron concentration may also lead to
reduction in bacteria content as Iron tends to encourage the proliferation of Iron type of bacteria.

Also attached to this report is our invoice No. 0854417 for the sum of One hundred fifty-one thousand (MK 151,000.00) Malawi
kwacha only. The Charge is for the laboratory services rendered to your Organization.

Please feel free to contact this office should you need more clarification in the laboratory test results provided.

cc:

The Director for Water Resources, Ministry of Water Development, Private Bag 390, Capital City, Lilongwe 3.

The Deputy Director of water Resources (Groundwater), Ministry of Irrigation & Water Development, Private Bag
390, Capital City, Lilongwe 3.

BACTERIAL TEST RESULTS OF SURFACE AND GROUNG WATER SOURCES IN LILONGWE,


| Photographs

103

MACHINGA, ZOMBA, CHIRADZULU AND MULANJE DISTRICTS AS SAMPLED DURING THE


PERIOD 10th - 18th DECEMBER 2009
N

SAMPLE SOURCE/ LOCATION

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Borehole, Paulendo Private Secondary School, T/A Kabudula, Nsalu,


LilonQwe District
Borehole, Kabuthu Community Day Secondary School, T/A Kabudula,
Lilongwe District
Borehole, Nsalu Trading Centre,T/A Kabudula, LilonQwe District
Borehole, Kasiya Primary School, T/A Khongoni, LilonQwe District
Borehole, Kasiya Trading Centre, T/A Khongoni, Kasiya, Lilongwe
District.
Munde River at Kasiya Trading Centre Road Bridge, T/A Khongoni,
Lilongwe District
Likwenu River, Malosa Gravity Fed Water Supply Intake, Zomba
District
Borehole, Sambaisa Primary School, T/A Malenga, Zomba District
Malosa Mosque Water Supply Tap, T/A Malenga, Malosa, Zomba
District
Borehole, Mkando Mosque, Mkando Trading Centre, T/A Juma,
Mulanje District
Borehole, Thuchira Post Office, T/A Juma, Mulanje District
Majikuta Vge Water Supply Tap, T/A Kadewere, Chiladzulu District
Borehole, Ntaia Health Centre, T/A Liwonde, MachinQa District
Borehole, Bata at Ntaja Trading Centre, T/A Liwonde, Machinga
District
Borehole, Agriculture Rural Development Programme (ARDP), T/A
Liwonde, MachinQa District
Borehole, Nsanama Community Day Secondary School, T/A
Nsanama, Machinga District
Borehole, Nsanama Mosque, T/A Nsanama, Machinga
District
Borehole, MQodi Farm, T/A Nsanama, Machinga District
Borehole, Mwatibu Primary School, T/A Chadza, Nathenje,
LilonQwe District
Borehole, Rural Housing Office, T/A Chadza, Nathenje, Lilongwe
District
Borehole, Maye Village, T/A Chadza, Nathenje, Lilonqwe District

BACTERIA TYPES ENUMERATED &


LEVELS REGISTERED
FC/100 ml
FS/100ml
0
0
8

328

12
48
28

20
660
156

1098

432

78

160

0
102

0
55

0
32
28
20

1
96
0
0

100

20

36

176
28

0
0

***NB: FC= Faecal coliform, FS= Faecal streptococci


FORM No. WQPC 12/1

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS
LAB No.
DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT

| Photographs

614
101,1 2/09
21/12/09
-

615
10/12/09
21/12/09
-

616
10/12/09
21/12/09
-

104

MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

PAULENDO PRIVATE

KABUTHU CDSS

NSALU TRADING

SECONDARY
SCHOOL BOREHOLE,
T/A KABUDULA, NSALU,

BOREHOLE,
T/A KABUDULA,
NSALU

CENTRE BOREHOLE,
T/A KABUDULA,
NSALU,

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (\-IS/em at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mq/l

7.76
350
207

7.75
381
211

9.94
340
204

CARBONATE (as C032-), mg/l


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mq/l
CHLORIDE (as Clt mq/l
SULPHATE (as S042-), mg/l
NITRATE (as N03t mq/l
FLUORIDE (as Ft mq/I

14
134
19
5.9
0.0030.20

12
148
23
7.3
0.006
0.16

0.00
154
22
8.2
<0.001
0.54

12.9
1.2
34
13.6
<0.001
-

20.1
2.6
41
0.108
-

20.9
1.1
26
15.3
0.152
-

142
141
22
2.0
<0.01

128
126
34
2.0
<0.01

618
10/12/09
21/12/09
-

619
10/12/09
21/12/09
-

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

SODIUM (as Na+), mg/l


POTASSIUM (as K+), mq/l
CALCIUM (as Catt), mq/l
MAGNESIUM (as Mg tt), mg/l
IRON (Fe tt), mq/l
MANGANESE (Mn tt), mg/l
TOTAL HARDNESS (asCaC03), mg/l
TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mg/l
SILICA (as Si02) mq/l
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/l

140
133
42
4.0
2.0

9.7

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory

FORM No. WQPC 12/1

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS

LAB No.
DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT
| Photographs

617
10/12/09
21/12/09
-

105

MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

KASIYA PRIMARYSCHOOL
BOREHOLE,
T/A KHONGONI,
KASIY A,

KASIYA TRADING
CENTRE BOREHOLE,
T/A KHONGONI,
KASIY A,

MUNDE RIVER,
AT KASIYA TC
ROAD BRIDGE,
KASIY A,

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (uS/em at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mq/I

7.87
1202
640

7.70
618
302

7.33
588
326

CARBONATE (as C032-), mg/I


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mg/I
CHLORIDE (as CI-), mq/I
SULPHATE (as S042-), mg/I

29
79
37

40
208
24

12
114
26

5.7

NITRATE (as N03-), mg/I


FLUORIDE (as F-), mq/I

340
0.005
0.31

0.406
0.10

111
0.021
<0.01

SODIUM (as Na+), mg/I


POTASSIUM (as K+), mq/I
CALCIUM (as Ca++), mq/I
MAGNESIUM (as Mg ++), mg/I
IRON (Fe ++), mq/I
MANGANESE (Mn ++), mq/I

28
10.6
119
29.2
1.036
-

21
3.2
72
16.5
0.047
-

22.7
0.70
60
12
8.61
-

419
113
46
4.0
2.0

248
237
40
<0.01
<0.01

214
113
17
24
26

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mq/I


TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mg/I
SILICA (as Si02) mq/I
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/I

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory


FORM No. WQPC 12/1

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS

LAB No.
DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT
MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

| Photographs

620
.11/12/09
21/12/09

622
11/12/09
21/12/09

621
11/12/09
21/12/09
-

106

LlKWENU RIVER,
MALOSA GRAVITY FED
WATER SUPPLY
INTAKE,

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

SAMBAISA PRIMARY
SCHOOL BOREHOLE,
T/A MALENGA
ZOMBA DISTRICT

ZOMBA DISTRICT
pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (!-IS/em at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mQII

MALOSA MOSQUE
WATER SUPPLY
TAP,
T/A MALENGA,
MALOSA,
ZOMBA DISTRICT

7.54
56
35

6.78
129
78

7.28
52
29

CARBONATE (as C032-), mg/I


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mQ/1
CHLORIDE (as CI-), mQII
SULPHATE (as S042-), mg/I
NITRATE (as N03-), mQ/1
FLUORIDE (as F-), mQ/1

0.00
12
9.0
2.3
0.008
0.43

0.00
48
12
4.0
0.021
0.27

0.00
8.0
8.2
3.4
0.048
0.46

SODIUM (as Na+), mgll


POTASSIUM (as K+), mQ/1
CALCIUM (as Ca++), mg/I
MAGNESIUM (as MQ ++), mg/I
IRON (Fe ++), mQ/1
MANGANESE (Mn ++), mQII

6.8
1.2
2.8
0.9
0.194
-

9.3
2.1
8.2
5.3
0.011
-

5.2
1.2
3.4
0.60
0.075
-

TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mq/I


TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mg/I
SILICA (as Si02) mq/I
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mq/I

11
10
9
2.0
<0.01

42
39
16
1.8
<0.01

11
7.0
5.0
1.0
<0.01

'

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory

FORM No. WQPC 12/1

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS
LAB No.
DATE SAMPLED

DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED


WATER RESOURCE UNIT

MAP SHEET/GRID REF.


| Photographs

623
12/12/09
21/12/09
-

624
12/12/09
21/12/09

625
12/12/09
21/12/09

107

MKANDO MOSQUE

THUCHIRA POST

MAJIKUTA VILLAGE

BOREHOLE,
MKANDO TC,
T/A JUMA,

OFFICE BOREHOLE,
MKANDO TC,
T/A JUMA,

WATER SUPPLY TAP,


T/A KADEWERE,
CHILADZULU DISTRICT

MULANJE DISTRICT

MULANJE DISTRICT

pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (uS/em at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mQ/1

7.25
1570
770

7.68
934
480

6.97
18
11

CARBONATE (as C032-), mg/I


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mQ/1
CHLORIDE as CI-), mQ/1
SULPHATE as S042-), mg/I
NITRATE (as N03-), mQ/1
FLUORIDE (as F-), mQ/1

13
617
124
21.4
0.053
0.66

12
452
36.1
14.9
0.458
0.70

0.00
2.0
3.0
2.8
0.028
<0.01

SODIUM (as Na+), mg/I


POTASSIUM (as K+), mQ/1
CALCIUM (as Ca++), mg/I
MAGNESIUM (as Mg ++), mg/I

86
1.6
146
49
<0.001

29
1.5
120
23.4
0.085

2.1
0.20
0.9
0.3
0.025

566
527
19
2.0
<0.01

396
390
23
1.0
<0.01

3.0
1.6
3.0
2.0
<0.01

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

IRON (Fe ++), mQ/1

MANGANESE (Mn ++), mQ/1


TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mg/I
TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mg/I
SILICA (as Si02) mQ/1
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/I

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory

| Photographs

108

FORM No. WQPC 12/1

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER


DEVELOPMENT

.......

WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS


LAB No.

626
13/12/09
21/12/09
-

627
13/12/09
21/12/09
-

NTAJA HEALTH

BATA AT NTAJA

CENTRE BOREHOLE,
T/A LlWONDE,
MACHINGA DISTRICT

TRADING CENTRE
BOREHOLE,
T/A LlWONDE,

DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT
MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

MACHINGA DISTRICT
pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (j.JS/cm at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mQ/1

628 /
13/12/09
21/12/09
-

7.81
428

230

AGRICULTURE (RDP)
BOREHOLE,
T/A LlWONDE,
NT AJA,
MACHINGA DISTRICT

6.82
360

,7.69
326

200

187
10
132
18
3.9
0.775
0.39

CARBONATE (as COn, mq/I


BICARBONATE (as HCOi-), mQ/1
CHLORIDE (as CI-), mg/I
SULPHATE (as S042-), mq/I
NITRATE (as N03-), mQ/1
FLUORIDE (as F-), mQ/1

6.0
204
22
3.5
0.399
0.57

0.00
156
32
2.7
0.993
0.49

SODIUM (as Na+), mQ/1


POTASSIUM (as K+), mQ/1
CALCIUM (as CaH), mq/I
MAGNESIUM (as MQ H), mq/I
IRON (Fe H), mQ/1
MANGANESE (Mn H), mQ/1

14.2
1.3
48
15
0.056
-

20.6
2.8
30
13.6
<0.001
-

TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mg/I


TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mq/I
SILICA (as Si02) mQ/1
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/I

181
177
21
1.2
<0.01

131
128
24
1.3
<0.01

10.9
2.1
38
9.7
0.140
135
125
32
2.0
<0.01

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory


FORM No. WQPC 12/1

| Photographs

109

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS

LAB No,
DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT

629
13/12/09
21/12/09
-

630
13/12/09
21/12/09
-

631
13/12/09
21/12/09

NSANAMA CDSS

NSANAMA MOSQUE

MGODI FARM

BOREHOLE,
T/A NSANAMA,
NSANAMA,

BOREHOLE
AT NSANAMA TC,
T/A NSANAMA,

BOREHOLE,
T/A NSANAMA,
NSANAMA,

MACHINGA DISTRICT

MACHINGA DISTRICT

MACHINGA DISTRICT

pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (IJS/cm at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mg/I

7.73
540
290

8.04
805
426

,7.41
425
244

CARBONATE (as C032-), mg/I


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mg/I
CHLORIDE (as CI-), mq/I
SULPHATE (as S042-), mg/I
NITRATE (as N03-), mg/I
FLUORIDE (as F-), mqll

4.0
270
26
2.8
0.013
0.38

9.0
320
62
9.5
0.050
0.62

4.0
164
37
5.5
0.045
0.47

SODIUM (as Na+), mg/I


POTASSIUM (as K+), mq/I
CALCIUM (as Ca++), mq/I
MAGNESIUM (as Mg ++), mg/I
IRON (Fe ++), mq/I
MANGANESE (Mn ++), mq/I

20.5
2.6
59
20
0.008
-

42.4
1.4
98
15,3
0.158

26
2.7
34
13.7
0.364
-

TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mq/I


TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mq/I
SILICA (as Si02) mq/I
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/I

230
228
26
1.8
<0.01

277
32
2.0
<0.01

142
141
37
2.0
<0.01

MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

308

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory


FORM No. WQPC 12/1

| Photographs

110

MINISTRY OF IRRIGATION & WATER DEVELOPMENT


WATER QUALITY TEST RESULTS
'"

LAB No.
DATE SAMPLED
DATE ANALYSIS COMPLETED
WATER RESOURCE UNIT
MAP SHEET/GRID REF.

640
18/12/09
21/12/09
-

641
18/12/09
21/12/09
-

642
18/12/09
21/12/09
-

MWATIBU PRIMARY

RURAL HOUSING

MAYE VILLAGE

SCHool BOREHOLE,
T/A CHADZA,
NATHENJE,

OFFICE BOREHOLE,
T/A CHADZA,
NA THENJE,

BOREHOLE,
T/A CHADZA,
NATHENJE,

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

LILONGWE DISTRICT

pH Value
CONDUCTIVITY (j.JS/cm at 25C)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS, mQ/I

7.65
466
237

7.68
840

7,62
750

426

389

CARBONATE (as C032-), mq/l


BICARBONATE (as HC032-), mq/I
CHLORIDE (as CI-), mQ/I
SULPHATE (as S042-), mg/l
NITRATE (as N03-), mq/l
FLUORIDE (as F-), mQ/I

4.0
220
26
7.1
0.165
0.16

12
384
46
10.3
0.298
0.28

2.0
354
44
10.7
0.024
0.34

16.8
1.5
43
21.4
0.120

30.2
2.7
102
21.4
0.067

32
2.3
88
19
0.082
-

195
187
11
3.5
2.0

343
335
15
6.0
4.0

298
293
17
<0.01
<0.01

SOURCE IDENTITY/LOCATION

SODIUM (as Na+), mq/l


POTASSIUM (as K+), mq/I
CALCIUM (as Catt), mQ/I
MAGNESIUM (as Mq tt), mq/l
IRON (Fe tt), mQ/I
MANGANESE (Mn tt), mQ/I
TOTAL HARDNESS (as CaC03), mQ/I
TOTAL ALKALINITY (as CaC03), mg/l
SILICA (as Si02) mq/l
TURBIDITY, NTU
SUSPENDED SOLIDS, mg/l

Analysis conducted by Central Water Laboratory

| Photographs

111

10.2 Schematic Drawing of types of water supply system

Chemical
dosing
unit

Chlorine dosing pipe for


disinfection

Pumping
Main

Clear
water
Reservoir

Pump Station and


Sump

Distributio
n Network
Reservoir

Borehole
s

Figure 1: Typical Ground Water System Arrangement

| Photographs

112

Elevated
tank

Chemical
dosing
unit

Dosing Chamber

Compressor &
back wash
pump house

Pressure filters

Sedi,
basin
Floating river
Intake River

Pumping
Main

Chlorine dosing pipe for


disinfection

Clear
water
Reservoir

Raw
water
pumping
station

Figure 4.1 Schematic Drawing of Surface Water System

| Photographs

113

11 Details of Meetings and Site Visits Conducted

| Photographs

114

DAY/

TIME

ACTIVITY

PARTICIPANTS

VENUE

DATE
Monday

07.30

07/12/09

09:00

AfDB and AusAID Meeting: inception and


planning

Inception Meeting with MoIWD Management &


10:30 RWBs1
11:30 Ministry of Gender, Women and Child
Development
14:00

Meeting with Ministry of Persons with Disabilities


and FEDOMA

AfDB and AusAID

AfDB

Mission Team2

Tikwere
House

Mission Team & MoIWD


Mission Team & MoIWD

City Centre
CardNo and Local Consultants
Chapita
House

Consultants Start-up Meeting


Tuesday

09.00

08/12/09

Capital Hill

Working meeting with MoIWD, RWBs


Management and NWDP PMU at MoIWD

Mission Team, MoIWD [DWR,


DWSS, DSH, DoP, DD (PDC),
DD(SW)], PMU [PM, PC (AfDB)], &
RWBs

Tikwere
House

Visit Lilongwe District Assembly

Ross & Jeph

Lilongwe

13:00

Wednesda
y
09/12/09

09:00 Site Visit to Nathenje, Reconnaissance Survey

Card No & Local Consultants

Lilongwe
District

Thursday

09:00 Visit field sites to Kasiya & Nsalu, Lilongwe


District Reconnaissance Survey

Mission Team & Local Consultants

Lilongwe
District

10/10/09
1
2

RWBs Region Water Boards; Central and Southern


Mission Team composition Messrs Peter Duncan-Jones (AusAID), Ross Kearton (AusAID Consultant) and Benson Nkhoma (AfDB, MWFO)

| Photographs

115

DAY/

TIME

ACTIVITY

PARTICIPANTS

VENUE

DATE
Friday
11/12/09

07:00 Leave Lilongwe for Machinga & Zomba

Card No & Local Consultants

Machinga &
Zomba
District

Card No & Local Consultants

Mulanje
District

Card No & Local Consultants

Machinga
District

Card No & Local Consultants

Travelling
back to LL

11:00 Visit Machinga District Assembly


14.00

Visit Zomba District Assembly

15.00

Field Visit Malosa & Night in Zomba

Saturday

07:00 Leave Zomba for Mulanje

12/12/09

09:00 Visit Mulanje District Assembly


14:00 Field visit at Nkando
18:00 Night in Zomba

Sunday
13/12/09

08:00 Leave Zomba for Machinga


11:00 Field visit in Ntaja
14:00 Field visit in Nsanama
18:00 Night in Mangochi

Monday
14/12/09
Tuesday

08:00 Leave Mangochi for Lilongwe


14.00

Arrive in Lilongwe

10:00 Meeting with UNICEF in Lilongwe

Card No & Local Consultants

15/12/09

| Photographs

116

DAY/

TIME

ACTIVITY

9.00

Meeting with MoIWD Chief Water Supply Officer


and Hydrologist

PARTICIPANTS

VENUE

DATE
Wednesda
y

Card No & Local Consultants

Lilongwe

14:00 Meeting with Water Aid

Card No & Local Consultants

Lilongwe

14:00 Meeting with MoIWD Director of Sanitation

Card No & Local Consultants

Lilongwe

16/12/09
Thursday
17/12/09
Friday
18/12/09
Saturday

Mr. Ross Kearton Leaves Malawi

Lilongwe

19/12/09

| Photographs

117

12 Details of people met


NO
.

NAME

DESIGNATION/LOCATION

7th and 16th December,


2009

1.

Mr. R.M.A Champiti

Project Coodinator
NWDP, Lilongwe.

2.

Mr. Mikuwa

Chief
Water
Resources
Officer, Ministry of Irrigation
and
Water
Development,
Lilongwe

7th December, 2009

3.

Mr. P. Mleta

Chief
Hydrogeologist,
Ministry of Irrigation and
Water
Development,
Lilongwe

7th, 9th 13th December,


2009

4.

Mr. E. Chiundira

Hydrologist,
Ministry
of
Irrigation
and
Water
Development, Lilongwe

7th, 9th 13th December,


2009

5.

Mr. L.C Banda

Water Chemist, Ministry of


Irrigation
and
Water
Development, Lilongwe

7th, 9th 13th December,


2009

6.

Mr. J.P Kasambwe

Ass. Procurement Specialist,


NWDP, Lilongwe.

7th, 9th 13th December,


2009

7.

Mr. G. Segeme

Technical Services Manager,


Central Region Water Board,
Lilongwe.

7th, and 9th December,


2009

8.

Mr. S. Dzinkambani

Engineer,
Central
Region
Water Board, Lilongwe.

9th and 10th December,


2009

9.

Mr. M. Saulosi

Projects Engineer, Southern


Region Water Board, Zomba

7th, and 11th December,


2009

10.

Mr. B. Mwabutwa

Assistant Projects Engineer,


Southern
Region
Water
Board, Zomba

12th and 13th December,


2009

11.

Mr. Charles Kalemba

District
Commissioner,
Lilongwe District Assembly,
Lilongwe

7th December, 2009

12

Mrs. R. Kalonga

District Water Development


Officer,
Lilongwe
District
Assembly, Lilongwe

7th December, 2009

13.

Mr. W.H. Chausa

Health
Area
Manager,
Nathenje, Lilongwe.

9th December, 2009

| Photographs

(ADB),

DATE

118

14.

Mr. L. Musa Banda

MISO/Ag.
Director
of
Administration,
Machinga
District Assembly, Machinga

11th December, 2009

15.

Mr. O.K Kumwenda

Director of Public Works,


Machinga District Assembly,
Machinga

11th December, 2009

16.

Mr. A.W Medi

Director of Finance, Machinga


District Assembly, Machinga

11th December, 2009

17.

Mr. S. Gondwe

Environmental Development
Officer,
Zomba
District
Assembly, Zomba

11th December, 2009

18.

Mr. J. Monjeza

Director of Public Works,


Zomba District Assembly,
Zomba

11th December, 2009

19.

Mr. G. Mkwanda

Director of Planning and


Development,
Mulanje
District Assembly, Mulanje

11th December, 2009

20.

Mr. L. Kumwenda

District Water Development


Officer,
Mulanje
District
Assembly, Mulanje

12th December, 2009

21.

Mr. A.M Mwalija

Water Officer, Ministry of


Irrigation
and
Water
Development,
Nkando,
Mulanje

12th December, 2009

22.

Mr. J. Kumwenda

Chief Water Supply Engineer,


Ministry of Irrigation and
Water
Development,
Lilongwe

16th December, 2009

23.

Mr. Kantukule

Hydrologist,
Ministry
of
Irrigation
and
Water
Development, Lilongwe

16th December, 2009

24.

Mr. R. Kampala

Country Director, WaterAid,


Lilongwe

17th December, 2009

25.

Mr. B. Nyirenda

Rural Development Manager,


WaterAid, Lilongwe

17th December, 2009

26.

Mr. M. Mpasa

Director
of
Sanitation,
Ministry of Irrigation and
Water
Development,
Lilongwe

18th December, 2009

| Photographs

119

13 Photographs

One of the irrigation dams in Nathenje whereby


cultivation is just next to the dam

Site Visit: members showing location of facilities on a


map

A possible Nathenje River abstraction point up

Women waiting for water level for raise for a borehole

stream

| Photographs

120

Mudi River in Kasiya whereby the water has a high

Part of the market centre at Kasiya

Mineral content as observed in the photo

Tasting borehole water at Nsaru

Meeting with officers at Zomba District Assembly

River intake on Likwenu River in Malosa

Tap water from Lifani Rural Water Supply at Malosa

Constructed and operated by the Mission

Market Centre

| Photographs

121

A borehole and tap on the foreground sited


Next to each other at Malosa Mosque

Waiting for their turn at a borehole in Ntaja

The remains of a rural water supply pipe of the

A vandalized pipe for Namitambo Rural Water Supply

For Kawinga Gravity Fed Water Supply

in Nkando area, Mulanje

| Photographs

122