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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Wooden Adaptive Architecture System (WAAS)

Wooden Adaptive Architecture System (WAAS)

Andr Potvin1, Claude Demers2 and Cdric DuMontier3

Andr Potvin1, Claude Demers2 and Cdric DuMontier3

1, 2, 3 Groupe de recherche en ambiances physique


cole darchitecture, Universit Laval, Qubec, Qubec, Canada
andre.potvin@arc.ulaval.ca

1, 2, 3 Groupe de recherche en ambiances physique


cole darchitecture, Universit Laval, Qubec, Qubec, Canada
andre.potvin@arc.ulaval.ca

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

The development of a Wooden Adaptive Architecture System (WAAS) is part of a larger


research-creation project on Adaptive Architecture (AA) [1] exploring the entire design process leading
to a fully adaptable three story high 1:3/4 wooden structure. This paper links the notion of imagining
and speculating on an innovative adaptive system within the process of fabrication where problem
solving and problem finding are intimately related. It addresses the disconnect between imagination
and fabrication that should be at the heart of quality artefacts and architecture. WAAS allows the easy
manoeuvrability by the occupants of walls and floors in order to adapt the space to their environmental
and functional needs. Eighteen 6x 6 cells can be entirely reconfigured with movable planes in x, y
and z directions. The omnidirectional mobility criteria challenged conventional building techniques and
led to an innovative all-wood rigid node. Extensive prototyping using digital fabrication allowed the
team to optimize the node assemblage and precision through parametric experimentation before
proper production. Digital fabrication allowed the adaptation of the system through full-scale prototype
nodes and bridges ultimately made of 2000 small prefabricated sticks measuring as little as 1 x 1
x 24. The WAAS system, apart from providing fully adaptable space configurations, can be easily
deconstructed, transported, and reassembled in totally new building shapes.

The development of a Wooden Adaptive Architecture System (WAAS) is part of a larger


research-creation project on Adaptive Architecture (AA) [1] exploring the entire design process leading
to a fully adaptable three story high 1:3/4 wooden structure. This paper links the notion of imagining
and speculating on an innovative adaptive system within the process of fabrication where problem
solving and problem finding are intimately related. It addresses the disconnect between imagination
and fabrication that should be at the heart of quality artefacts and architecture. WAAS allows the easy
manoeuvrability by the occupants of walls and floors in order to adapt the space to their environmental
and functional needs. Eighteen 6x 6 cells can be entirely reconfigured with movable planes in x, y
and z directions. The omnidirectional mobility criteria challenged conventional building techniques and
led to an innovative all-wood rigid node. Extensive prototyping using digital fabrication allowed the
team to optimize the node assemblage and precision through parametric experimentation before
proper production. Digital fabrication allowed the adaptation of the system through full-scale prototype
nodes and bridges ultimately made of 2000 small prefabricated sticks measuring as little as 1 x 1
x 24. The WAAS system, apart from providing fully adaptable space configurations, can be easily
deconstructed, transported, and reassembled in totally new building shapes.

Key Words: architecture, adaptability, wood, prefabrication, design process

Key Words: architecture, adaptability, wood, prefabrication, design process

1. INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

The Adaptive Architecture project challenges traditional comfort theories based on standardised
comfort conditions by providing inhabitants with several adaptive opportunities that foster their
embodied agency. Evidence suggests that people are intrinsically active participants in buildings
whereas modern architecture mistakenly speculated that people were passive actors in controlling
their environment [2]. This assumption, combined with seemingly endless non-renewable energy, has
led to exclusive architecture with its adverse consequences on resources and the environment.
Technology has accomplished major advances in the fields of system efficiency and renewable
energy, but this progress may soon culminate in conjunction with peak oil and the rebound effect. We
therefore face a significant behaviour shift in the way we inhabit buildings. Biology equipped
inhabitants with remarkable adaptive capacities that are yet to be discovered in our quest for a more
sustainable future.
Autonomization of building occupants by providing them with adaptive
opportunities should be the new goal instead of their automation. If future buildings are to produce
considerably less or even no GES, they will have to become more robust to changing outdoor
conditions and engage their inhabitants in adapting to changing indoor environmental conditions.
Adaptive Architecture asks the designer to not only provide the obvious environmental controls
such as the operable window and adjustable sun shading devices but also to explore all possible ways

The Adaptive Architecture project challenges traditional comfort theories based on standardised
comfort conditions by providing inhabitants with several adaptive opportunities that foster their
embodied agency. Evidence suggests that people are intrinsically active participants in buildings
whereas modern architecture mistakenly speculated that people were passive actors in controlling
their environment [2]. This assumption, combined with seemingly endless non-renewable energy, has
led to exclusive architecture with its adverse consequences on resources and the environment.
Technology has accomplished major advances in the fields of system efficiency and renewable
energy, but this progress may soon culminate in conjunction with peak oil and the rebound effect. We
therefore face a significant behaviour shift in the way we inhabit buildings. Biology equipped
inhabitants with remarkable adaptive capacities that are yet to be discovered in our quest for a more
sustainable future.
Autonomization of building occupants by providing them with adaptive
opportunities should be the new goal instead of their automation. If future buildings are to produce
considerably less or even no GES, they will have to become more robust to changing outdoor
conditions and engage their inhabitants in adapting to changing indoor environmental conditions.
Adaptive Architecture asks the designer to not only provide the obvious environmental controls
such as the operable window and adjustable sun shading devices but also to explore all possible ways

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

to improve adaptive opportunities by structural, enclosure and inhabitants behavioural adaptive


opportunities according to diverse environmental conditions. What should be an architecture that
would encourage more active forms of bodily engagement with architecture? How could we tackle
adaptability at the onset of the design intention and carry it through the entire design process in order
to reach adaptive architecture? The development of the WAAS serves to illustrate the importance of
the notion of embodied agency at every level of architectural design to re-establish the connection
between the intelligent human agent and the environment through our inherent tactile oriented thinking
and bodily experience of the world as suggested by Pallasmaa [3] and Crawford [4]. Araya [5] even
suggests that architecture should be no longer limited to a static object but actually do things through
human agency.
Native architecture provided flexibility and adaptability to their inhabitants. In the absence of any
other option, they had to adapt, and their ingenuous shelters provided them with all sorts of adaptive
opportunities by simple transformations of the enclosure. Curvilinear shapes of native architecture
where wood or other organic material is intertwined produce highly efficient shells but more
importantly, native shelters expressed in their built form the explicit adaptive nature of their inhabitant
and their embodied agency with the architecture intimately dependent on the building technique.
Organic materials lack the strength in compression common in non-organic material such as concrete
or steel. They perform otherwise relatively well in flexion and therefore could be used more efficiently
when optimising this structural property. Todays grid shells stand out as a clever reinterpretation of
curvilinear native architecture. Although highly innovative assembly technique had to be developed in
these projects, the shells themselves always remain static and do not allow for moving elements due
to their curvilinear shapes. The exploration of an easily transformable space by human force alone
called for the optimisation of a simple orthogonal system of posts and beams and moving panels.
Unlike building scaffoldings or Segals Self Build system [6], WAAS has to act as a rigid frame without
the aid of diagonal bracing that would impede the free transformation of the space.

to improve adaptive opportunities by structural, enclosure and inhabitants behavioural adaptive


opportunities according to diverse environmental conditions. What should be an architecture that
would encourage more active forms of bodily engagement with architecture? How could we tackle
adaptability at the onset of the design intention and carry it through the entire design process in order
to reach adaptive architecture? The development of the WAAS serves to illustrate the importance of
the notion of embodied agency at every level of architectural design to re-establish the connection
between the intelligent human agent and the environment through our inherent tactile oriented thinking
and bodily experience of the world as suggested by Pallasmaa [3] and Crawford [4]. Araya [5] even
suggests that architecture should be no longer limited to a static object but actually do things through
human agency.
Native architecture provided flexibility and adaptability to their inhabitants. In the absence of any
other option, they had to adapt, and their ingenuous shelters provided them with all sorts of adaptive
opportunities by simple transformations of the enclosure. Curvilinear shapes of native architecture
where wood or other organic material is intertwined produce highly efficient shells but more
importantly, native shelters expressed in their built form the explicit adaptive nature of their inhabitant
and their embodied agency with the architecture intimately dependent on the building technique.
Organic materials lack the strength in compression common in non-organic material such as concrete
or steel. They perform otherwise relatively well in flexion and therefore could be used more efficiently
when optimising this structural property. Todays grid shells stand out as a clever reinterpretation of
curvilinear native architecture. Although highly innovative assembly technique had to be developed in
these projects, the shells themselves always remain static and do not allow for moving elements due
to their curvilinear shapes. The exploration of an easily transformable space by human force alone
called for the optimisation of a simple orthogonal system of posts and beams and moving panels.
Unlike building scaffoldings or Segals Self Build system [6], WAAS has to act as a rigid frame without
the aid of diagonal bracing that would impede the free transformation of the space.

2. METHODOLOGY

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1. The plan libre Challenge

2.1. The plan libre Challenge

Traditional timber frame architecture provided continuity and fit conditions for rigidity through
complex joinery. Careful craftsmanship of joinery insured much of the structural continuity and rigidity
of the connections in Western traditional timber frame building but bracing by means of diagonal wood
elements or solid walls was always required to prevent racking. In ancient Chinese wooden
architecture however, the wall only defines an enclosure, and does not form a load-bearing element
[7]. Dougong (fig.1) provided continuity and rigidity by transferring the weight on secondary horizontal
elements over a larger area to vertical elements. Dougongs prove that it is possible to design a rigid
yet elastic wooden structure providing continuity and fit while allowing a complete liberty in internal
partition layout just like in the plan libre, one of LeCorbusiers five points for a new architecture. Unlike
LeCorbusiers solution however, traditional oriental architecture incorporated mainly organic materials
including wood, bamboo, straw and rice-paper screens. Traditional and modern Japanese interiors
represent paradigms of adaptive architecture allowing inhabitants to easily transform spaces
according to changing use of environmental conditions. Moreover, this high adaptability was made
possible within the physical constraints of wooden construction technology inherited from Chinese and
other Asian cultures. Its success relied on a strong sense of craftsmanship and inhabitants interaction
with architecture. By liberating the wall from its load-bearing function, rigid frames also allow the
orthogonal movement of sliding screens or walls. But how could we provide a full three dimensional
movement of walls within the structural limitations of a rigid frame? Japanese chidori (fig.2) inherited
from the dougong craftsmanship provided the first clue. Not unlike traditional wood frame assembly
emulating tree structures, it was decided that wood alone had to provide the basic three-dimensional
structural integrity of the Adaptive Architecture project.

Traditional timber frame architecture provided continuity and fit conditions for rigidity through
complex joinery. Careful craftsmanship of joinery insured much of the structural continuity and rigidity
of the connections in Western traditional timber frame building but bracing by means of diagonal wood
elements or solid walls was always required to prevent racking. In ancient Chinese wooden
architecture however, the wall only defines an enclosure, and does not form a load-bearing element
[7]. Dougong (fig.1) provided continuity and rigidity by transferring the weight on secondary horizontal
elements over a larger area to vertical elements. Dougongs prove that it is possible to design a rigid
yet elastic wooden structure providing continuity and fit while allowing a complete liberty in internal
partition layout just like in the plan libre, one of LeCorbusiers five points for a new architecture. Unlike
LeCorbusiers solution however, traditional oriental architecture incorporated mainly organic materials
including wood, bamboo, straw and rice-paper screens. Traditional and modern Japanese interiors
represent paradigms of adaptive architecture allowing inhabitants to easily transform spaces
according to changing use of environmental conditions. Moreover, this high adaptability was made
possible within the physical constraints of wooden construction technology inherited from Chinese and
other Asian cultures. Its success relied on a strong sense of craftsmanship and inhabitants interaction
with architecture. By liberating the wall from its load-bearing function, rigid frames also allow the
orthogonal movement of sliding screens or walls. But how could we provide a full three dimensional
movement of walls within the structural limitations of a rigid frame? Japanese chidori (fig.2) inherited
from the dougong craftsmanship provided the first clue. Not unlike traditional wood frame assembly
emulating tree structures, it was decided that wood alone had to provide the basic three-dimensional
structural integrity of the Adaptive Architecture project.

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Figure 1: Traditional dougong joint assembly showing


the progressive interlocking superposition of bowed
shape gongs on the dou block.

Figure 1: Traditional dougong joint assembly showing


the progressive interlocking superposition of bowed
shape gongs on the dou block.

Figure 2: A chidori, Japanese six-pieces wooden


puzzle inspired from traditional dougong suggesting a
relatively rigid yet elastic post and beam assembly.

Figure 2: A chidori, Japanese six-pieces wooden


puzzle inspired from traditional dougong suggesting a
relatively rigid yet elastic post and beam assembly.

2.2. The Structural Challenge

2.2. The Structural Challenge

A rigid frame consists simply of two columns and a beam, but unlike a portal frame, it is laterally
and vertically stable without any type of wall infill or diagonal bracing. Stability is only achieved by
providing rigid joints between columns and beams, and/or at the column bases. Rigid joints are
bending-resistant connections that prevent relative rotation between the members. This implies that
the columns and/or beams must bend if the frame is to deflect sideways. According to Sandaker et al.
[8] : the stiffness of the structural elements provides stability, although in a flexible way, just like in a
branch-to-trunk tree joint. The continuity and fit of the joint is therefore a fundamental characteristic of
rigid frames allowing the load-sharing responsibility of all elements.
The characteristics of the wooden joint, its strength, flexibility, toughness, and appearance thus
derive from the properties of the materials and the skill of the craftsman. Timber frame structural
elements, prefabricated in the craftsman studio, were traditionally preassembled, numbered, and
disassembled for final manual erection on site. It is precisely this building for disassembly attribute of
timber framing, combined with digital prefabrication, which constitutes most promising research
avenues in the field of sustainability. It reintroduces all the advantages of a renewable material within
the efficiency of modern prefabrication techniques. Figure 4 presents the development flow diagram of
the WAAS bespoke rigid node. Each figure represents a particular iteration of the rigid node
development answering structural, functional or aesthetic considerations. The development
demonstrates the necessary trade-offs and constant adaptation negotiated by the craftsman in
balancing these three conditions when considering the actual fabrication of the joint. As an embodied
agent animated by a multisensory sensibility and a subjective judgement, the craftsman continuously
plays on three fronts to deliver an optimized artefact integrating complexity in a seemingly simple
solution. This flow diagram depicts a specific design process path but is in no way the only possible
one. Having to dissect the design process a posteriori from old sketches and models, we were striken
by the many possible ways we could have achieve our goals and the complexities of design and
intuition. Along the way several struggles occurred between the objective deterministic knowledge of
the scientist and the subjective empirical intuition of the artist.

A rigid frame consists simply of two columns and a beam, but unlike a portal frame, it is laterally
and vertically stable without any type of wall infill or diagonal bracing. Stability is only achieved by
providing rigid joints between columns and beams, and/or at the column bases. Rigid joints are
bending-resistant connections that prevent relative rotation between the members. This implies that
the columns and/or beams must bend if the frame is to deflect sideways. According to Sandaker et al.
[8] : the stiffness of the structural elements provides stability, although in a flexible way, just like in a
branch-to-trunk tree joint. The continuity and fit of the joint is therefore a fundamental characteristic of
rigid frames allowing the load-sharing responsibility of all elements.
The characteristics of the wooden joint, its strength, flexibility, toughness, and appearance thus
derive from the properties of the materials and the skill of the craftsman. Timber frame structural
elements, prefabricated in the craftsman studio, were traditionally preassembled, numbered, and
disassembled for final manual erection on site. It is precisely this building for disassembly attribute of
timber framing, combined with digital prefabrication, which constitutes most promising research
avenues in the field of sustainability. It reintroduces all the advantages of a renewable material within
the efficiency of modern prefabrication techniques. Figure 4 presents the development flow diagram of
the WAAS bespoke rigid node. Each figure represents a particular iteration of the rigid node
development answering structural, functional or aesthetic considerations. The development
demonstrates the necessary trade-offs and constant adaptation negotiated by the craftsman in
balancing these three conditions when considering the actual fabrication of the joint. As an embodied
agent animated by a multisensory sensibility and a subjective judgement, the craftsman continuously
plays on three fronts to deliver an optimized artefact integrating complexity in a seemingly simple
solution. This flow diagram depicts a specific design process path but is in no way the only possible
one. Having to dissect the design process a posteriori from old sketches and models, we were striken
by the many possible ways we could have achieve our goals and the complexities of design and
intuition. Along the way several struggles occurred between the objective deterministic knowledge of
the scientist and the subjective empirical intuition of the artist.

A Cross Node constitutes the most obvious orthogonal continuous rigid joint but still falls short in
providing support for movable panels. In Japanese traditional buildings, rails hidden in the thickness of
the walls insured stability of the sliding partitions. In the absence of any fixed walls or any other
hardware device, only a twin structure can provide the necessary support and movement for the
panels. The duplication of the basic Cross Node in all three axes generates a Twin Cross Node where

A Cross Node constitutes the most obvious orthogonal continuous rigid joint but still falls short in
providing support for movable panels. In Japanese traditional buildings, rails hidden in the thickness of
the walls insured stability of the sliding partitions. In the absence of any fixed walls or any other
hardware device, only a twin structure can provide the necessary support and movement for the
panels. The duplication of the basic Cross Node in all three axes generates a Twin Cross Node where

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

sliding panels could be inserted between the beams and columns. However, the flat to edge
connection between the x and z members would create an incompatibility between the y and x sliding
elements. Rotating the x members to the flat and reinserting them between the y members, a
symmetrical well-balanced node is created with equal edge to flat joining, equal spacing between the
twin members AND compatible sliding movements in all three axis. However, the spacing between the
twin members still remained far too wide to hold thin sliding panels. At this point, halving all members
flat to edge in all axes would have been the most obvious solution to settle the spacing issue yielding
directly to a fully isotropic node. However, halving was not an option since the integral section of the
already small lumber elements had to be preserved and the complex crafting of a half-cross wood
joinery was far beyond the competence of the design team.

sliding panels could be inserted between the beams and columns. However, the flat to edge
connection between the x and z members would create an incompatibility between the y and x sliding
elements. Rotating the x members to the flat and reinserting them between the y members, a
symmetrical well-balanced node is created with equal edge to flat joining, equal spacing between the
twin members AND compatible sliding movements in all three axis. However, the spacing between the
twin members still remained far too wide to hold thin sliding panels. At this point, halving all members
flat to edge in all axes would have been the most obvious solution to settle the spacing issue yielding
directly to a fully isotropic node. However, halving was not an option since the integral section of the
already small lumber elements had to be preserved and the complex crafting of a half-cross wood
joinery was far beyond the competence of the design team.

Figure 4: Flow diagram presenting the development of the bespoke rigid node for the purpose of Adaptive
Architecture. The left portion shows the isotropic (ISO) node where members are placed on edges in all
directions whereas the right portion shows the anisotropic (ANISO) node where members are placed on the flat.

Figure 4: Flow diagram presenting the development of the bespoke rigid node for the purpose of Adaptive
Architecture. The left portion shows the isotropic (ISO) node where members are placed on edges in all
directions whereas the right portion shows the anisotropic (ANISO) node where members are placed on the flat.

Joining the z elements flat to flat generates a Flat Node yielding a smaller spacing in the x axis
but more disturbingly, it created an anisotropic node challenging the basic common-sense structural

Joining the z elements flat to flat generates a Flat Node yielding a smaller spacing in the x axis
but more disturbingly, it created an anisotropic node challenging the basic common-sense structural

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

laws, with flat beams in two axes. This Flat Node reduces the flexural resistance in the x axis and the
flat to flat joining in the x and z axis appears to improve the overall rigidity. Functionally, the flat x and
z members minimized the actual risk of tumbling over beams. In fact, beams on the flat in the z axis
could significantly increase the usable horizontal working surface. Between architects, we were also
fascinated by this non-intuitive solution where the structure now seemed to literally disappear when
observed normal to the x axis. This immateriality of the structure, a new attribute otherwise unheard of
since the beginning of this experiment, was seen from that point onward as a necessary condition to
give sliding panels their full presence as the expressive elements of an Adaptive Architecture.
Minimizing the visual presence of the structure meant that further rotation of the remaining x and y
members to the flat could not be the easy answer to equal spacing. This fully flat node would also
have increased the danger of tippling on the x members. Halving some of the members while
preserving minimal structural continuity now appeared unavoidable forcing us to break from
conceptual thinking in favour of a more craft-oriented object making.
The Half Node preserves a critical third central section for structural continuity by halving two
thirds of the elements on edge (one third on each side). Halving flat to edge produces relatively weak
joints prone to splitting, especially when using non-homogeneous lumber wood, due to the lack of
shoulders, which would otherwise prevent twisting. Further halving the x members provided us, at
least theoretically, with equal spacing in all axes. The actual making of the node presented several
challenges, the most important being the precision or craftsmanship when halving. Moreover, adding
mechanical fastening would only decrease the already minimal section of the halved x and y
elements. Lumber wood could clearly no longer fulfill our continuity and fit objectives and needed to be
substituted with a more resistant material especially at the junction of the halved elements. The
introduction of a more resistant connector would reduce considerably the laborious and tricky halving
process. Engineered wood could provide the much needed structural resistance AND dimensional
stability.

laws, with flat beams in two axes. This Flat Node reduces the flexural resistance in the x axis and the
flat to flat joining in the x and z axis appears to improve the overall rigidity. Functionally, the flat x and
z members minimized the actual risk of tumbling over beams. In fact, beams on the flat in the z axis
could significantly increase the usable horizontal working surface. Between architects, we were also
fascinated by this non-intuitive solution where the structure now seemed to literally disappear when
observed normal to the x axis. This immateriality of the structure, a new attribute otherwise unheard of
since the beginning of this experiment, was seen from that point onward as a necessary condition to
give sliding panels their full presence as the expressive elements of an Adaptive Architecture.
Minimizing the visual presence of the structure meant that further rotation of the remaining x and y
members to the flat could not be the easy answer to equal spacing. This fully flat node would also
have increased the danger of tippling on the x members. Halving some of the members while
preserving minimal structural continuity now appeared unavoidable forcing us to break from
conceptual thinking in favour of a more craft-oriented object making.
The Half Node preserves a critical third central section for structural continuity by halving two
thirds of the elements on edge (one third on each side). Halving flat to edge produces relatively weak
joints prone to splitting, especially when using non-homogeneous lumber wood, due to the lack of
shoulders, which would otherwise prevent twisting. Further halving the x members provided us, at
least theoretically, with equal spacing in all axes. The actual making of the node presented several
challenges, the most important being the precision or craftsmanship when halving. Moreover, adding
mechanical fastening would only decrease the already minimal section of the halved x and y
elements. Lumber wood could clearly no longer fulfill our continuity and fit objectives and needed to be
substituted with a more resistant material especially at the junction of the halved elements. The
introduction of a more resistant connector would reduce considerably the laborious and tricky halving
process. Engineered wood could provide the much needed structural resistance AND dimensional
stability.

Figure 5:1:2.5 scale model components and assembly.

Figure 5:1:2.5 scale model components and assembly.

Figure 6: 1:15 scale components and final model.

Figure 6: 1:15 scale components and final model.

Prefab Node - The final development to our bespoke anisotropic node came with the necessity
to attach the nodes together to form the basic structure. Nodes could be attached with a hinge joint or
a rigid joint. Whilst a hinge would have been enough to resist lateral and gravity loads, a rigid attach
would considerably diminish bending moment and shear forces in the members. Therefore, bridges,
as we called them, had to provide continuity and fit with the nodes. The next natural step was to break
down all members, both nodes and bridges, in sub-members or sticks that would be mechanically
fastened together. In the context of prefabrication and manual assembly, this was a thrilling option
since the breaking down of the node in smaller pieces meant straightforward cuts that open up the
possibility for a simple yet very fit and rigid node. Moreover, it replaced the complex halving process
by a simple cut and drill prefabrication process. The fit and continuity condition being now met, the
fastening process of the sticks became the only remaining determinant of the prefab node
performance. Only large-scale models could allow the exploration of the fastening solution. Figure 5
and 6 shows the construction of the broken-down anisotropic rigid node at 1:2.5 and 1:15 scale
models. The 1:2.5 scale model is made of individual members that are cut, drilled and preassembled

Prefab Node - The final development to our bespoke anisotropic node came with the necessity
to attach the nodes together to form the basic structure. Nodes could be attached with a hinge joint or
a rigid joint. Whilst a hinge would have been enough to resist lateral and gravity loads, a rigid attach
would considerably diminish bending moment and shear forces in the members. Therefore, bridges,
as we called them, had to provide continuity and fit with the nodes. The next natural step was to break
down all members, both nodes and bridges, in sub-members or sticks that would be mechanically
fastened together. In the context of prefabrication and manual assembly, this was a thrilling option
since the breaking down of the node in smaller pieces meant straightforward cuts that open up the
possibility for a simple yet very fit and rigid node. Moreover, it replaced the complex halving process
by a simple cut and drill prefabrication process. The fit and continuity condition being now met, the
fastening process of the sticks became the only remaining determinant of the prefab node
performance. Only large-scale models could allow the exploration of the fastening solution. Figure 5
and 6 shows the construction of the broken-down anisotropic rigid node at 1:2.5 and 1:15 scale
models. The 1:2.5 scale model is made of individual members that are cut, drilled and preassembled

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

before the final assembly begins. First the x members, then the flat z members and finally y vertical
members are stuck into place and bolted to lock the assembly just like a chidori puzzle game. The
1:15 scale model validated the rigidity of the entire structure and its potential for generic expansion in
all 3 directions.

before the final assembly begins. First the x members, then the flat z members and finally y vertical
members are stuck into place and bolted to lock the assembly just like a chidori puzzle game. The
1:15 scale model validated the rigidity of the entire structure and its potential for generic expansion in
all 3 directions.

2.3. Prototyping

2.3. Prototyping

The transition from conceptual scale models to real scale fabrication requires the
acknowledgement of the basic laws of physics namely gravity and elasticity. Gravity loads should not
pose a serious problem but lateral loads would be challenging. The sharing of lateral forces through
the elements of this rigid frame are most unpredictable and depends ultimately on the structural
properties of each individual element composing the frame, namely the basic wood sticks and the
bolts. The engineers are also particularly anxious about the loss of structural rigidity due to wood
hygrometric variations and lack of accuracy in the elements cutting and drilling. Two anisotropic node
prototypes were built out of two types of engineered wood, laminated veneered lumber (LVL) and
laminated stranded lumber (LSL) using state-of-the-art Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC)
cutting and milling to optimise accuracy.
The transformation of large 2 by 9 feet LVL and LSL panels into small sticks reveals the intrinsic
fabrication of these engineered woods by exposing their section to the eyes. The LVL immediately
appeals by the alternation of light Douglas fir layers and black binding layers. Only small transversal
holes betray the necessary gap between wood layers during the veneering process. This
manufacturing flaw of the LVL reminds us of the Japanese aesthetic ideals of imperfection where the
raw beauty of bamboos with their knots and smooth surfaces is literally sought after. LSL cuts suggest
no such reference to a natural material. The sticks present neither contrast of texture nor colour
differences between faces. However, the fact that polymer glue by volume is as much important as
wood chips confers LSL an excellent resistance to compression parallel to the grain compare to LVL.

The transition from conceptual scale models to real scale fabrication requires the
acknowledgement of the basic laws of physics namely gravity and elasticity. Gravity loads should not
pose a serious problem but lateral loads would be challenging. The sharing of lateral forces through
the elements of this rigid frame are most unpredictable and depends ultimately on the structural
properties of each individual element composing the frame, namely the basic wood sticks and the
bolts. The engineers are also particularly anxious about the loss of structural rigidity due to wood
hygrometric variations and lack of accuracy in the elements cutting and drilling. Two anisotropic node
prototypes were built out of two types of engineered wood, laminated veneered lumber (LVL) and
laminated stranded lumber (LSL) using state-of-the-art Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC)
cutting and milling to optimise accuracy.
The transformation of large 2 by 9 feet LVL and LSL panels into small sticks reveals the intrinsic
fabrication of these engineered woods by exposing their section to the eyes. The LVL immediately
appeals by the alternation of light Douglas fir layers and black binding layers. Only small transversal
holes betray the necessary gap between wood layers during the veneering process. This
manufacturing flaw of the LVL reminds us of the Japanese aesthetic ideals of imperfection where the
raw beauty of bamboos with their knots and smooth surfaces is literally sought after. LSL cuts suggest
no such reference to a natural material. The sticks present neither contrast of texture nor colour
differences between faces. However, the fact that polymer glue by volume is as much important as
wood chips confers LSL an excellent resistance to compression parallel to the grain compare to LVL.

Figure 7: Anisotropic node. Six slightly different components make up this node but the front elevation clearly
shows the minimal dimension of the horizontal structural elements suggesting a disappearance of the structure
and enhancing the perception of the planes.

Figure 7: Anisotropic node. Six slightly different components make up this node but the front elevation clearly
shows the minimal dimension of the horizontal structural elements suggesting a disappearance of the structure
and enhancing the perception of the planes.

Once every individual stick has been drilled, we can at last assemble our first prototype node,
beginning with the anisotropic one. We first preassemble the six members made out of five sticks
using simple hammer and ratchet hand tools to fasten four 5-1/4 by 1/4 diameter bolts per member.
The fit is absolutely perfect and yields a very stout and rigid node. Its size and presence suggests a
cast-iron Industrial Revolution look with its multiple bolts and nuts. Looking closer though, one is stuck

Once every individual stick has been drilled, we can at last assemble our first prototype node,
beginning with the anisotropic one. We first preassemble the six members made out of five sticks
using simple hammer and ratchet hand tools to fasten four 5-1/4 by 1/4 diameter bolts per member.
The fit is absolutely perfect and yields a very stout and rigid node. Its size and presence suggests a
cast-iron Industrial Revolution look with its multiple bolts and nuts. Looking closer though, one is stuck

6"

6"

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

by the wood feel and precision that we can now reproduce quickly and easily thanks to the digital
prefab process. Isotropic and anisotropic nodes are linked together with bridges using LVL and LSL
prototypes to form our basic rigid frame prototypes (fig. 8). These first full-scale node-to-bridge
structures show the expressive qualities of the LVL over those of the LSL. The visible layering
structure of the LVL inspires strength and confidence in flexion compared to the cake-like structure of
the LSL that looks about to crumble. LVLs black and white linear structure exposed in section,
enhanced by the warm red-brown color of its flat surfaces, elegantly expresses the linearity and
simplicity of the structure. It engages a respectful dialogue between the craft and the craftsman in the
hidden understanding of the process that generated the form. The rigid node assemblage puzzles the
mind of the observer by its precision referring to steel working and yet this is made of wood. Therefore
this structure can still be considered as being a hybrid-crafted artefact made with the help of machine.
However, the objective/subjective debate between architects and engineers could not vanish that
soon as much uncertainty still persisted about the material to be used. Engineers preferred LSL for its
intrinsic homogeneity and low cost whereas architects preferred LVL for its laminar visual and tactile
feel and imperfection still suggesting the fibrous structure of a tree.

by the wood feel and precision that we can now reproduce quickly and easily thanks to the digital
prefab process. Isotropic and anisotropic nodes are linked together with bridges using LVL and LSL
prototypes to form our basic rigid frame prototypes (fig. 8). These first full-scale node-to-bridge
structures show the expressive qualities of the LVL over those of the LSL. The visible layering
structure of the LVL inspires strength and confidence in flexion compared to the cake-like structure of
the LSL that looks about to crumble. LVLs black and white linear structure exposed in section,
enhanced by the warm red-brown color of its flat surfaces, elegantly expresses the linearity and
simplicity of the structure. It engages a respectful dialogue between the craft and the craftsman in the
hidden understanding of the process that generated the form. The rigid node assemblage puzzles the
mind of the observer by its precision referring to steel working and yet this is made of wood. Therefore
this structure can still be considered as being a hybrid-crafted artefact made with the help of machine.
However, the objective/subjective debate between architects and engineers could not vanish that
soon as much uncertainty still persisted about the material to be used. Engineers preferred LSL for its
intrinsic homogeneity and low cost whereas architects preferred LVL for its laminar visual and tactile
feel and imperfection still suggesting the fibrous structure of a tree.

Figure 8: Anisotropic Node on the left and the engineer expressing his bias for the Isotropic Node on the right.
The contrasting layered texture of the LVL expresses more clearly the physical properties of the material
compared to the homogeneous feel of the LSL.

Figure 8: Anisotropic Node on the left and the engineer expressing his bias for the Isotropic Node on the right.
The contrasting layered texture of the LVL expresses more clearly the physical properties of the material
compared to the homogeneous feel of the LSL.

2.4. Physical Property Tests

2.4. Physical Property Tests

The only possible way to isolate the material most relevant for WAAS application came to the
objective assessment of the respective physical properties of the LVL and LSL. The elastic and
maximum resistances of these two types of engineered wood were tested using ASTM test norms for
their respective compression and flexion resistances, tearing threshold and hygrometric dimensional
variations. More specifically, two types of LVL, a softwood foreign option made of spruce already used
for the LVL prototype and a hardwood LVL locally sourced option made of fast growing aspen and
birch trees will be tested in addition to the LSL. The hygrometric variation test is probably the most
important condition for the structural integrity since AA will be erected outdoor and subjected to rain
and the thawing cycle of snow and ice. Dimensional variation is of particular concern since the
assemblage resistance depends ultimately on the exact fit between elements following successive
episodes of saturation and drying. Table 1 presents the results of these normative property tests.

The only possible way to isolate the material most relevant for WAAS application came to the
objective assessment of the respective physical properties of the LVL and LSL. The elastic and
maximum resistances of these two types of engineered wood were tested using ASTM test norms for
their respective compression and flexion resistances, tearing threshold and hygrometric dimensional
variations. More specifically, two types of LVL, a softwood foreign option made of spruce already used
for the LVL prototype and a hardwood LVL locally sourced option made of fast growing aspen and
birch trees will be tested in addition to the LSL. The hygrometric variation test is probably the most
important condition for the structural integrity since AA will be erected outdoor and subjected to rain
and the thawing cycle of snow and ice. Dimensional variation is of particular concern since the
assemblage resistance depends ultimately on the exact fit between elements following successive
episodes of saturation and drying. Table 1 presents the results of these normative property tests.

The flexion resistance parallel to the wood plies is 10 to 30% higher than perpendicular to the
plies;
A drilled element losses as much as 20% of its flexion resistance compared to a solid element;

362

The flexion resistance parallel to the wood plies is 10 to 30% higher than perpendicular to the
plies;
A drilled element losses as much as 20% of its flexion resistance compared to a solid element;

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

The tearing resistance of perpendicular to ply bolt assembly is 20% higher than the parallel ply
assembly.
The most important dimensional variation (10%) occurs perpendicular to wood ply orientation
(thickness) ; water absorption causing the wood to return to its non-compressed state before
manufacturing ;
Water saturation incurs a 30% reduction in compression resistance; and
The average balance humidity value (BHV) of wood at the plant is 7% whereas its saturated BHV
is 100% meaning that water account for a s much as wood at a saturated state.

The tearing resistance of perpendicular to ply bolt assembly is 20% higher than the parallel ply
assembly.
The most important dimensional variation (10%) occurs perpendicular to wood ply orientation
(thickness) ; water absorption causing the wood to return to its non-compressed state before
manufacturing ;
Water saturation incurs a 30% reduction in compression resistance; and
The average balance humidity value (BHV) of wood at the plant is 7% whereas its saturated BHV
is 100% meaning that water account for a s much as wood at a saturated state.

The prototyping process identified the main advantages and limitations of the WAAS
prefabricated construction system. The anisotropic node option provides large horizontal surfaces that
facilitate and improve security of the construction team. The physical properties of hardwood LVL, in
particular its relative dimensional stability compared to softwood LVL and LSL confirm that this option
was best suited for outdoor application. Moreover, the directionality of its laminated plies conveys the
direction of the actual forces at stake in the assemblage. Aesthetically, LVL allows a clear reading of
the individual sticks composing the assemblage and the appreciation of its precision manufacturing.

The prototyping process identified the main advantages and limitations of the WAAS
prefabricated construction system. The anisotropic node option provides large horizontal surfaces that
facilitate and improve security of the construction team. The physical properties of hardwood LVL, in
particular its relative dimensional stability compared to softwood LVL and LSL confirm that this option
was best suited for outdoor application. Moreover, the directionality of its laminated plies conveys the
direction of the actual forces at stake in the assemblage. Aesthetically, LVL allows a clear reading of
the individual sticks composing the assemblage and the appreciation of its precision manufacturing.

Table 1: Relative performance of three engineered wood samples (LVLhard, LVLsoft and LSL) with LVLhard as
a reference value. LVLhard clearly outperforms LVLsoft for all tests but flexion perpendicular to the ply.

Table 1: Relative performance of three engineered wood samples (LVLhard, LVLsoft and LSL) with LVLhard as
a reference value. LVLhard clearly outperforms LVLsoft for all tests but flexion perpendicular to the ply.

2"

2"

1,5"

1,5"

1"

1"
LVL3hard"

0,5"

LVL3hard"
0,5"

LVL3soft"

LVL3soft"

LSL"

LSL"

0"

0"
compression" 0lexion3para"

0lexion3perp"
tests$

tearing"

dimensional"
variation"

compression" 0lexion3para"

0lexion3perp"
tests$

tearing"

dimensional"
variation"

3. FABRICATION

3. FABRICATION

Fabrication is divided in two major phases: workshop prefabrication and in situ assembly. The
former celebrates the machine-made efficiency and precision whereas the latter focuses on human
agency. Prefabrication made assembly on site efficient by providing small human-scaled elements
easy to fasten. Apart from its inherent superior product quality, the prefabrication process allowed the
project team to build AA on a tight schedule. The entire prefabrication took the equivalent of 10 weeks
and the actual erection on site took only 4 days. A graduate student with a background in carpentry
and Computer Numerical Command (CNC) fabrication supervised five architecture and wood
engineering graduate students. Figure 9 shows the entire production process from workshop-based
LVL cutting to the final in-situ assembly.

Fabrication is divided in two major phases: workshop prefabrication and in situ assembly. The
former celebrates the machine-made efficiency and precision whereas the latter focuses on human
agency. Prefabrication made assembly on site efficient by providing small human-scaled elements
easy to fasten. Apart from its inherent superior product quality, the prefabrication process allowed the
project team to build AA on a tight schedule. The entire prefabrication took the equivalent of 10 weeks
and the actual erection on site took only 4 days. A graduate student with a background in carpentry
and Computer Numerical Command (CNC) fabrication supervised five architecture and wood
engineering graduate students. Figure 9 shows the entire production process from workshop-based
LVL cutting to the final in-situ assembly.

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Workshop

Workshop

cutting

drilling

preassembling

cutting

In-situ

drilling

preassembling

In-situ

assembling nodes

bridging nodes

assembling nodes

Figure 9: AA chain of production from the workshop-based prefabrication process of cutting, drilling and
preassembling members to the in situ nodes assembly and final bridging.

bridging nodes

Figure 9: AA chain of production from the workshop-based prefabrication process of cutting, drilling and
preassembling members to the in situ nodes assembly and final bridging.

3.1. Workshop Prefabrication

3.1. Workshop Prefabrication

Large 40 x 80 LVL panels are cut into small 24 and 48 1 x 1 square elements on a
CNC saw bench. 3 axis CNC router is used for the elements necessitating drilling on two sides
whereas 2 axis CNC router is used for drilling single sided elements. Human agency proved again
critical to ensure the required fit of the structure, as these machines require precise manual feeds
using clamps mounted on the suction routing table. All elements are saturated in a water repelling
solution to improve their dimensional stability under high humidity content.

Large 40 x 80 LVL panels are cut into small 24 and 48 1 x 1 square elements on a
CNC saw bench. 3 axis CNC router is used for the elements necessitating drilling on two sides
whereas 2 axis CNC router is used for drilling single sided elements. Human agency proved again
critical to ensure the required fit of the structure, as these machines require precise manual feeds
using clamps mounted on the suction routing table. All elements are saturated in a water repelling
solution to improve their dimensional stability under high humidity content.

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Workshop prefabrication
48 nodes and
104 bridges made of
52 LVL sheets 4 x 8 x 1 cut into
1472 LVL elements 24 x 1 x 1 and
400 LVL elements 48 x 1 x 1
preassembled into
496 node components using
3008 sets stainless steel bolts 5 x , nuts
, washers and split-ring lock washers in
51 days by
6 graduate students part-time.

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

In situ assembly
12 screw-in piles (outsourced)
496 node components preassembled in situ into
48 nodes linked with
104 bridges supporting
48 sliding panels on
3 levels accessible via
3 ladders and completed in
4 days by
6 graduate students full-time.

Workshop prefabrication
48 nodes and
104 bridges made of
52 LVL sheets 4 x 8 x 1 cut into
1472 LVL elements 24 x 1 x 1 and
400 LVL elements 48 x 1 x 1
preassembled into
496 node components using
3008 sets stainless steel bolts 5 x , nuts
, washers and split-ring lock washers in
51 days by
6 graduate students part-time.

In situ assembly
12 screw-in piles (outsourced)
496 node components preassembled in situ into
48 nodes linked with
104 bridges supporting
48 sliding panels on
3 levels accessible via
3 ladders and completed in
4 days by
6 graduate students full-time.

3.1. In-situ Assembly

3.1. In-situ Assembly

Careful upstream planning and the quality of the workforce play a major role in the achieved
quality of a project. Whatever the extent of upstream planning, the erection phase of a project is
always a reality checkpoint where any kind of unsuspected contingency requires a good amount of
creative thinking for quick assessments and successful adaptive strategies. Site work supervisors
always try to avoid trades overlapping which is much easier to achieve with prefabrication. Apart from
the necessary screw-in piles outsourced by professionals, the entire assembly and erection of the
structure was realised by non-professionals graduate students. Figure 10 shows three stages of the
in-situ assembly process and the final fully adaptable space.

Careful upstream planning and the quality of the workforce play a major role in the achieved
quality of a project. Whatever the extent of upstream planning, the erection phase of a project is
always a reality checkpoint where any kind of unsuspected contingency requires a good amount of
creative thinking for quick assessments and successful adaptive strategies. Site work supervisors
always try to avoid trades overlapping which is much easier to achieve with prefabrication. Apart from
the necessary screw-in piles outsourced by professionals, the entire assembly and erection of the
structure was realised by non-professionals graduate students. Figure 10 shows three stages of the
in-situ assembly process and the final fully adaptable space.

Figure 10: In-situ assembly process from foundation to sliding panels insertion and the resulting fully adaptable
space allowing walls, roof and floors movements in all directions.

Figure 10: In-situ assembly process from foundation to sliding panels insertion and the resulting fully adaptable
space allowing walls, roof and floors movements in all directions.

4. CONCLUSION

4. CONCLUSION

According to Stacey [9], the new digital paradigm may well represent the epitome of embodied
agency in facilitating a seamless process between imagination and fabrication where thinking and
feeling become contained within the process of making. In this sense, digital fabrication may well
require more, not less craftsmanship knowledge than traditional analogical fabrication process. Digital
prefabrication made possible the actual erection of a three story high wooden structure by graduate
students alone. The prefabrication of small, precise and easily handled building components
maximised the tactile learning of the students with the reassurance that everything would fit perfectly.

According to Stacey [9], the new digital paradigm may well represent the epitome of embodied
agency in facilitating a seamless process between imagination and fabrication where thinking and
feeling become contained within the process of making. In this sense, digital fabrication may well
require more, not less craftsmanship knowledge than traditional analogical fabrication process. Digital
prefabrication made possible the actual erection of a three story high wooden structure by graduate
students alone. The prefabrication of small, precise and easily handled building components
maximised the tactile learning of the students with the reassurance that everything would fit perfectly.

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Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

Proceeding of International Conference on Adaptation and Movement in Architecture (ICAMA2013)

None of the team members had ever built anything full scale apart from the supervisor. This may
come as a surprise to a non-architect reader but unfortunately, as reckoned by Sennett [10], most
architectural student never build what they design. In fact, few professional architects ever build what
they design. Throughout the erection process, students were confronted to ever-present gravity
challenge ultimately facing the architect in-situ compare to the relative off-hand conceptual thinking.
The learning experience of such an undertaking cannot be over emphasised in the context of adaptive
architecture and human agency. If human scale adaptive opportunities are to be provided to
inhabitants, it is intimately related to the actual fabrication of architecture.
The development of the WAAS raised passion among the design team. More than a mere
multidisciplinary exercise, the design process was clearly transdisciplinary and asked a good dose of
adaptability from every participant. Either guided by scientific evidence or pure design intuition,
architects and engineers often clashed. In such occasions, scale models still proved invaluable as
common tools to shake-up beliefs and engage the team towards more innovative solutions by tactile
thinking and empirical knowledge. However, the most important fact about building your own design
perhaps resides in the acknowledgement that architecture does not exist until it actually interacts with
a site. AA interaction with the sun, light and wind and the rich interior-exterior transactions could not
have been predicted in simulations and scale models. Full-scale spaces initiate a brand new dialogue
between architecture, landscape and inhabitants. AA will allow the inhabitants to constantly reinvent
this dialogue in the flesh of architecture by adapting itself seamlessly to diurnal and seasonal cycles.
The actual inhabitation and transformation experimentations of AA are presented elsewhere.
Architecture has always been a medium to support what cannot be predicted: life. Since
inhabiting a space involves the continuous movement through spaces defined by walls, architects will
never be able to predict how program will change, how movement will be performed, how changes will
occur. Instead of battling against the unpredictability of the users in static buildings, the WAAS
development aims at fostering and celebrating inhabitants-architecture dynamic interactions leading to
more Adaptive Architecture.

None of the team members had ever built anything full scale apart from the supervisor. This may
come as a surprise to a non-architect reader but unfortunately, as reckoned by Sennett [10], most
architectural student never build what they design. In fact, few professional architects ever build what
they design. Throughout the erection process, students were confronted to ever-present gravity
challenge ultimately facing the architect in-situ compare to the relative off-hand conceptual thinking.
The learning experience of such an undertaking cannot be over emphasised in the context of adaptive
architecture and human agency. If human scale adaptive opportunities are to be provided to
inhabitants, it is intimately related to the actual fabrication of architecture.
The development of the WAAS raised passion among the design team. More than a mere
multidisciplinary exercise, the design process was clearly transdisciplinary and asked a good dose of
adaptability from every participant. Either guided by scientific evidence or pure design intuition,
architects and engineers often clashed. In such occasions, scale models still proved invaluable as
common tools to shake-up beliefs and engage the team towards more innovative solutions by tactile
thinking and empirical knowledge. However, the most important fact about building your own design
perhaps resides in the acknowledgement that architecture does not exist until it actually interacts with
a site. AA interaction with the sun, light and wind and the rich interior-exterior transactions could not
have been predicted in simulations and scale models. Full-scale spaces initiate a brand new dialogue
between architecture, landscape and inhabitants. AA will allow the inhabitants to constantly reinvent
this dialogue in the flesh of architecture by adapting itself seamlessly to diurnal and seasonal cycles.
The actual inhabitation and transformation experimentations of AA are presented elsewhere.
Architecture has always been a medium to support what cannot be predicted: life. Since
inhabiting a space involves the continuous movement through spaces defined by walls, architects will
never be able to predict how program will change, how movement will be performed, how changes will
occur. Instead of battling against the unpredictability of the users in static buildings, the WAAS
development aims at fostering and celebrating inhabitants-architecture dynamic interactions leading to
more Adaptive Architecture.

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

[1] Demers, C. and Potvin A. 2009. Adaptive Architecture. Social Sciences and Humanities Research
Council (SSHRC) Research-Creation Grant. Ottawa, Canada.

[1] Demers, C. and Potvin A. 2009. Adaptive Architecture. Social Sciences and Humanities Research
Council (SSHRC) Research-Creation Grant. Ottawa, Canada.

[2] Cole, R.J., Robinson, J., Brown, Z. and O'Shea, M. 2008. Re-contextualizing the notion of
comfort. In: Building Research & Information. 36:4, pp. 323-336.

[2] Cole, R.J., Robinson, J., Brown, Z. and O'Shea, M. 2008. Re-contextualizing the notion of
comfort. In: Building Research & Information. 36:4, pp. 323-336.

[3] Pallasmaa, J. 2009. The Thinking Hand: Essential Embodied Wisdom in Architecture. Chichester
UK: John Wiley & Sons.

[3] Pallasmaa, J. 2009. The Thinking Hand: Essential Embodied Wisdom in Architecture. Chichester
UK: John Wiley & Sons.

[4] Crawford, M. 2009. Shop Class as Soulcraft: an Inquiry into the Value of Work. Waterville ME:
Thorndike Press.

[4] Crawford, M. 2009. Shop Class as Soulcraft: an Inquiry into the Value of Work. Waterville ME:
Thorndike Press.

[5] Araya, S. 2011. Performative Architecture. DSpace@MIT [Online],


http://18.7.29.232/handle/1721.1/68413?show=full [Accessed 23 March 2013].

[5] Araya, S. 2011. Performative Architecture. DSpace@MIT [Online],


http://18.7.29.232/handle/1721.1/68413?show=full [Accessed 23 March 2013].

Available

at:

Available

at:

[6] Segal, W. 1979. [Online], Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ 2011011


8095356/ http://www.cabe.org.uk/case-studies/walter-segal-self-build [Accessed 15 August 2013].

[6] Segal, W. 1979. [Online], Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ 2011011


8095356/ http://www.cabe.org.uk/case-studies/walter-segal-self-build [Accessed 15 August 2013].

[7] Ssu-ch'eng, Liang. 2005. Chinese Architecture: A Pictorial History. Mineola NY: Dover
Publications. 232 p.

[7] Ssu-ch'eng, Liang. 2005. Chinese Architecture: A Pictorial History. Mineola NY: Dover
Publications. 232 p.

[8] Sandaker, N. et al. 2011. The Structural Basis of Architecture. London: Routledge.

[8] Sandaker, N. et al. 2011. The Structural Basis of Architecture. London: Routledge.

[9] Stacey, M. 2012, Digital Craft in the Making of Architecture. In: B. Sheil, ed. 2012. Manufacturing
the Bespoke. Chichester UK: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 58-77.

[9] Stacey, M. 2012, Digital Craft in the Making of Architecture. In: B. Sheil, ed. 2012. Manufacturing
the Bespoke. Chichester UK: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 58-77.

[10] Sennett, R. 2008. The Craftsman. London: Penguin Books.

[10] Sennett, R. 2008. The Craftsman. London: Penguin Books.

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