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Sound of Fluids at Low Mach Numbers

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ejmflu

Young J. Moon

Computational Fluid Dynamics and Acoustics Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, Republic of Korea

article

info

Article history:

Available online 9 February 2013

Keywords:

Low subsonic flow

Turbulent flow noise

LES/LPCE hybrid method

abstract

The sound of fluid at low Mach number is a special research area that poses diverse applications not only

in aerodynamics but also in bio-medical or biological fluids. The related Mach numbers are in the order

of O(102 ) or even less and therefore the compressibility effects are substantially low but still play an

important role in many aspects. A hybrid method of splitting the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field

is of our present interest and attention is given to the linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCE).

In this paper, the linearized perturbed compressible equations are reviewed with some discussion on the

acoustic source term, DP /Dt. A few selected applications of aerodynamic noise and bio-fluid sound are

demonstrated by the present hybrid method.

Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The sound of fluids at low Mach numbers is often encountered

in many practical aerodynamic applications such as ground transportation vehicles, ventilation ducts and jets, etc. A typical flow

speed of automobiles, for example, is in the range of 50100 km/h

(or M = 0.040.08) and flows are mostly turbulent and at moderately high Reynolds numbers. The computation of low-subsonic

turbulent flow noise is, however, a difficult task because the noise

sources are highly localized in the turbulent boundary layer near

the wall or in the wake, while the acoustic wavelengths far exceed

the hydrodynamic length scales. In this case, a direct numerical

simulation (DNS) employing the full compressible NavierStokes

equations becomes very difficult and expensive, coping with the

fact that a long-time computation is often required to represent

the turbulence statistics, i.e. the noise sources.

The sound in bio-medical or biological fluids is also in the range

of very low Mach numbers. For example, the vocal fold of the human larynx [1], or an insect flapping wings [2] produces the sound

by periodically disturbing the flow with body oscillating at the frequency range of 50200 Hz. The associated Mach number can be

figured as M = Ub /co = (Lc f )/co , where Ub is the moving speed of

the body, Lc the distance of travel, f the oscillating frequency of the

body, and co the speed of sound. For a biological body with length

scale of 12 cm, the associated Mach numbers are in the range of

M = 0.00150.012.

For computing sound of fluids at such low Mach numbers,

numerical difficulties lie not only in scale disparity between the

136-701 Seoul, Republic of Korea.

E-mail address: yjmoon@korea.ac.kr.

of the system of the governing equations. In regard to this, a

hybrid approach has been sought as an alternative. This hybrid

method is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting technique

proposed by Hardin and Pope [3]. The hydrodynamic flow field is

solved by the incompressible NavierStokes equations, while the

acoustic field is computed by the perturbed Euler equations with

acoustic source obtained from the incompressible NavierStokes

equations. The idea of splitting the hydrodynamic part and the

acoustically perturbed part from the full compressible flow field is,

however, not a straightforward task because of the physics coupled

between these two fields. It has been found [4,5] that an unstable

vortical mode can easily be excited by the non-linear terms in

the perturbed momentum equations when the source terms are

improperly treated; for example, either lack of physical diffusion or

lack of grid resolution of the perturbed vorticity (

= u ). Here

the prime denotes an instantaneously perturbed quantity from the

incompressible state.

To avoid such vortical instability, the linearized perturbed

compressible equations (LPCE) [5] are formulated by eliminating

the terms related to the generation of the perturbed vorticity.

The details of the linearized perturbed compressible equations

(LPCE) are reviewed in Section 2. In present formulation, a material

derivative of the hydrodynamic pressure (DP /Dt) is derived

as an acoustic source in the linearized perturbed compressible

equations. At low Mach numbers, the material derivative of the

hydrodynamic pressure (scaled by itself) in the near field of the

incompressible flow is found very closely related to the dilatation

rate of the compressible counterpart, because the flow speed

relative to the speed of sound is substantially low that any thermal

effect during processes is nearly negligible. The near field of the

compressible flow computed by the direct numerical simulation

and that by the present hybrid method with acoustic source are

0997-7546/$ see front matter Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.euromechflu.2013.02.002

generation.

In Sections 4 and 5, a few selected applications of aerodynamic

noise and bio-fluid sound are demonstrated by the present hybrid

method.

The present LES/LPCE hybrid method is based on a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting method [3], in which the total flow

variables are decomposed into the incompressible and perturbed

compressible variables as,

(1)

p(

x, t ) = P (

x, t ) + p (

x, t ).

The incompressible variables represent hydrodynamic flow field,

while acoustic fluctuations and other compressibility effects are

resolved by perturbed quantities denoted by ( ).

The hydrodynamic turbulent flow field is first solved by incompressible LES. The filtered incompressible NavierStokes equations

are written as,

(2)

(3)

(4)

Here, is the mean radius of the grid cell (computed as cubic root

of its volume), Sij is the strain-rate tensor.

After a quasi-periodic stage of hydrodynamic field is attained,

the perturbed quantities are computed by the linearized perturbed

compressible equations (LPCE) [5]. A set of the linearized perturbed

compressible equations is written as,

+ (U ) + 0 ( u ) = 0

t

u

1

+ (u U ) + p = 0

t

0

+ b1

fi+2 fi2

41x

1x2

fi+2 2fi + fi2

,

+ b2

41x2

(8)

(9)

and b2 = 3/11.

Practically, when using a high order scheme to the stretched

meshes, numerical instability is encountered due to numerical

truncations or failure of capturing high wave-number phenomena.

Thus, a tenth-order spatial filtering (cut-off wave number, k1x

2.9) proposed by Gaitonde et al. [7] is applied every iteration to

suppress the high frequency errors that might be caused by grid

non-uniformity. For the far-field boundary condition, an energy

transfer and annihilation (ETA) boundary condition [8] with buffer

zone is used for eliminating any reflection of the out-going waves.

The ETA boundary condition is easily facilitated with a rapid

grid stretching in a buffer-zone and the spatial filtering which is

damping out waves shorter than grid spacing. So, if a buffer-zone

has grid spacing larger than out-going acoustic wave length, the

wave can be successfully absorbed by the ETA boundary condition.

the perturbed compressible equations (PCE), obtained by subtracting the incompressible NavierStokes equations from the full compressible NavierStokes equations.

The perturbed compressible equations [4] are written as

+ (u ) + ( u ) = 0

t

u

1

DU

1

+ (u )u + (u )U + p +

= fvis

t

Dt

p

+ (u )p + p( u ) + (u )P

t

DP

=

+ ( 1) q

Dt

p

DP

+ (U )p + P ( u ) + (u )P = .

t

Dt

21x

where the grid-resolved quantities are denoted by () and the unknown sub-grid tensor Mij is modeled as

2

Mij = U

i Uj Ui Uj = 2(Cs ) |S |Sij .

fi+1 fi1

2 fi

1 + fi + 2 fi+1 = a2

U j

=0

xj

U i

+ 0 (U i U j )

0

t

xj

U i

U j

P

+ 0

+

=

0 Mij ,

xi

xj xj

xi

xj

scheme [6] and integrated in time by a four-stage RungeKutta

method. For example, the first and second derivatives with respect

to x are implicitly calculated with a five-point stencil, i.e.

1 fi

1 + fi + 1 fi+1 = a1

2. Computational methodology

(x, t ) = 0 + (x, t )

(x, t ) = U (x, t ) + u (x, t )

u

51

(5)

(6)

(7)

propagation and refraction in an unsteady, inhomogeneous flow,

while the right hand side only contains an acoustic source term,

which is projected from the incompressible LES flow solution. It

is interesting to note that for low Mach number flows, the total

change of the hydrodynamic pressure, DP /Dt is only considered as

the explicit noise source term.

The filtered incompressible NavierStokes equations are solved

by an iterative fractional-step method (Poisson equation for pressure), whereas the linearized perturbed compressible equations

are solved in a time-marching fashion. To avoid excessive numerical dissipations and dispersions errors, the governing equations are

(10)

(11)

(12)

), fvis

where D/Dt = / t + (U

is the perturbed viscous force

vector, respectively. At low Mach numbers, the perturbed viscous

forces can be approximated as

uj

ui

2 uk

+

ij

(13)

xj

xi

3 xk

by assuming viscosity

= 0 (=constant), and and q are ex-

fvis

,i = 0

xj

pressed as

uj

uk

2 ul

=

+

jk

xk

xj

3 xl

p

qj = k

.

xj

uk

,

xk

(14)

(15)

with incompressible components subtracted, they represent not

only the acoustic fluctuations but also the other compressibility

52

and the perturbed field. One particular component of the perturbed

variables related to the consistency of the acoustic solution

is perturbed vorticity (

= u ), a non-radiating vortical

component generated in the PCE system. This fluctuating quantity

becomes unstable for various reasons and generates unwanted

errors in acoustic calculations [4].

Here, attention is given to identify the terms associated with

production and diffusion of the perturbed vorticity in its transport

processes. The perturbed vorticity transport equations, derived by

taking a curl on Eq. (11) with mathematical identities and the

incompressible NavierStokes equations employed, are written as

+ (u )

)u + (

+

( u )]

[(

)u] [(u )

I-a

I-b

II-a

II-b

II

( p) + Fvis ,

III

(16)

IV

where Fvis = (

fvis

0 2 U )/ .

In Eq. (16), one can clearly see that perturbed vorticity is

generated and diffused by source terms on the right hand side

through: (i) coupling effects between the hydrodynamic vorticity

and the perturbed velocities (terms I and II), (ii) entropy field

(term III), and (iii) viscous force (term IV). Term I is related to

the three-dimensional effect of vortex stretching: stretching of

hydrodynamic vorticity by perturbed velocities (term I-a) and

stretching of perturbed vorticity by total velocities (term I-b). Term

II represents a more direct coupling between the hydrodynamic

vorticity and the perturbed velocities. The convective effect of

hydrodynamic vorticity by perturbed velocity is represented by

term II-a, whereas term II-b is related to the dilatation rate effect.

Term III is not so important for low Mach number, non thermallydriven flows and term IV only provides physical diffusion to

the perturbed vorticity. In the previous study [5], it was shown

that term II-a is the most dominant source term that generates

perturbed vorticity and term II-b is considered less important at

low Mach numbers.

It is interesting to note that perturbed vorticity is not a radiating acoustic quantity but a convecting hydrodynamic vortical.

Its physical meaning represents modification of the hydrodynamic

vorticity through interactions between the hydrodynamic vorticity and the velocity fluctuations. At low Mach numbers, the magnitude of the perturbed vorticity is small but, if falsely resolved,

it becomes self-excited and grows to affect the acoustic solution.

Since term II-a is related to the gradient of hydrodynamic vorticity

, perturbed vorticity usually appears at the edge of the hydrodynamic vorticity and its length scale is similar to (or sometimes

smaller than) the hydrodynamic vortical scale. Therefore, acoustic

grid resolution must carefully be handled in calculation.

By neglecting the second-order, non-linear terms such as (

u

+ (U ) + 0 ( u ) = 0

t

u

1

+ (u U ) + p

t

0

DU

1

u ) (

= (

U )

+ fvis

0 Dt

0

(17)

(18)

p

+ (U )p + P ( u ) + (u )P

t

DP

=

+ ( 1) q

(19)

Dt

)u + (u )U = (u U ) +

with mathematical identity, (U

u ) + (

(

U ). Since the left hand side of Eq. (18) does not

generate any vortical component, only the right hand side terms

are responsible for the generation of perturbed vorticity. The first

u and

two terms,

U correspond to the dominant source

terms (terms I and II) in the perturbed vorticity transport equations

and the last two terms are associated with the entropy and viscous

effects (terms III and IV).

To show the Mach number dependence of each term, the perturbed momentum and energy equations, Eqs. (18)(19) are combined into a convective wave equation, neglecting the viscous and

thermal effect terms and then a Mach number scaling is conducted.

The hydrodynamic variables are scaled by their free stream values:

2

0 , U U , and P U

. For the perturbed variables,

a Mach number expansion approach [9,10] is employed; for example, u = U + Mu(1) + M 2 u(2) + M 3 u(3) + . So, the perturbed

velocity, u Mu(1) and from the linear acoustics, p ( c )u

and ( /c )u . The time is also scaled by l/c , where l is a

reference length scale and c is the speed of sound.

The resulting convective wave equation is written as

2 p

) p + U p

+

(

U

t2

t

t

O(M )

O(M 2 )

P 2

p +

0

P

P

u

P + (u )

+

( u )

t

t

t

O(M 3 )

u )} +

P {(

U ) + (

O(M 4 )

DP

.

t Dt

DU

0 Dt

+ (u U )

(20)

O(M )

3 (1) 2

3

Each term has the order of c

u /l (or c

U /l2 ) multiplied by a Mach number to the power denoted in Eq. (20). It is

clearly shown that the terms responsible for the generation of perturbed vorticity (i.e. the right hand side in Eq. (18)) have a Mach

number dependency O(M 4 ), whereas the leading-order terms

are O(M ). It is also interesting to note that the only explicit

acoustic source term, DP /Dt on the right hand side of Eq. (20) has

the same order as the first term in the convective wave equation,

2 p / t 2 .

Now, it is evident that the first two terms on the right hand

side of Eq. (18) are not so responsible for sound generation at low

Mach numbers and thereby one can exclude these to suppress

the generation of perturbed vorticity. The third term related to a

momentum correction to the perturbed mass can also be neglected

at low Mach numbers. The last term (perturbed viscous force)

is not necessary any more because there is no generation and

diffusion of perturbed vorticity. With the thermal terms neglected

in the perturbed energy equation, a set of linearized perturbed

compressible equations (LPCE) now read Eqs. (5)(7).

Because a curl of the linearized perturbed momentum equations, Eq. (6) yields

= 0,

t

(21)

Fig. 1. Instantaneous 1

D

Dt

Fig. 2. Instantaneous

53

1 DP

P Dt

and decaying) of perturbed vorticity in time. In fact, the perturbed

vorticity could generate self-excited errors, if

is not properly

resolved with the acoustic grid. Hence, the evolution of the

perturbed vorticity is pre-suppressed in LPCE, deliberating the fact

that the perturbed vorticity has little effects on noise generation,

particularly at low Mach numbers. For hybrid methods [5,11], this

is an important property that ensures consistent, grid-independent

acoustic solutions. The derivation of LPCE with detailed discussion

on the characteristics of the perturbed vorticity can be found in

Ref. [5].

3. Acoustic source

The aerodynamic noise at low Mach numbers is often dominated by vortex interactions with solid walls. When a vortex interacts with the solid body, its strength changes in time and as a

consequence, the circulation in the neighboring fluids is altered

and so are the local streamlines. The time-varying streamlines are

directly connected to the pressure change in time and space and

therefore a so-called vortex sound is produced.

A generation of dipole tone from a circular cylinder is, for example, due to an alternating formation of vortex behind the cylinder and therefore circulation around the cylinder oscillates in time.

When vortex is formed at the upper side, a negative circulation

around the cylinder lowers the stagnation point at the frontal face

of the cylinder with creation of positive lift force. At a certain spe-

cific time interval, the flow field and lift force are at the opposite

phase when the vortex is formed at the lower side.

D

field during one period of dipole sound generated from the cylinder

at ReD = 150 and M = 0.2 is shown in Fig. 1. This is computed by

solving the full compressible NavierStokes equations. The upper

and lower four figures represent respectively the processes of

expansion and compression over the upper surface of the cylinder.

It is clearly noticeable that the rate of change of the dilatation

rate acts as a sound source in the near field, and Fig. 3 shows

the generation and propagation of the sound wave generated in

the near field by the snapshots of the two-level contours of the

dilatation rate, positive (red) and negative (blue).

The same physics of sound generation can also be represented

by the rate of change of the hydrodynamic pressure experienced

), which is computed

by a material element of the fluid (i.e. P1 DP

Dt

by solving the incompressible NavierStokes equations for the

contours

same flow condition (ReD = 150). The instantaneous P1 DP

Dt

in the near field during one period of dipole sound generation

are shown in Fig. 2. One can note a good resemblance between

these two total derivatives of the density and the hydrodynamic

pressure, both scaled by itself and plotted with the same contour

levels. It is also clearly noticeable in Fig. 4 that the rate of change

of P1 DP

acts as a sound source in the near field. The propagation of

Dt

the sound produced by the rate of change of P1 DP

is well shown by

Dt

the instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours, computed by the

linearized perturbed compressible equations with acoustic source,

DP /Dt.

54

Fig. 3. Instantaneous 1 Dt contours; positive (red) and negative (blue) (compressible NS eqs., ReD = 150, M = 0.2). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this

figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 4. Instantaneous pressure fluctuation p contours (linearized perturbed compressible eqs. (LPCE) with acoustic source DP /Dt from the incompressible NS eqs.,

ReD = 150, M = 0.2).

be estimated at an instant by a point where the dilatation rate and

both the linear strain rates in x and y directions are null. During the

repeated process of expansion and compression, the rate of change

of the linear strain rates are coupled with that of the dilatation rate,

via conservation of mass. The condition of null for the dilatation

rate and the linear strain rates represents an inflection point, i.e. a

material point (or line in 3D) that takes only translation in flow

motions and therefore, pressure or density changes most rapidly

during a transient development of the flow field.

D

The locations satisfying the null condition (i.e. 1 Dt = 0,

u

x

= 0, and

v

y

the dilatation rate contours in Fig. 3. In the top four figures, one

can note a process of expansion along the trace of the marked

circles on the right, whereas the emission of the compression

wave can be traced along those on the left. The bottom four

figures also show the formation and emission of the sound wave

at opposite phase along the traces of the marked circles. The

same process of sound generation can also be traced in Fig. 4,

which shows the instantaneous pressure fluctuations p perturbed

from the incompressible hydrodynamic pressure P, computed by

the linearized perturbed compressible equations with acoustic

source, DP /Dt acquired from the incompressible NavierStokes

solutions. The marked circles found in compressible flow solutions

can be found in the incompressible flow solutions with condition

satisfying P1 DP

= 0, Ux = 0, and Vy = 0. Along the marked circles,

Dt

the sound generation process of expansion and compression as

well as their emissions can also be well traced in the figures.

4.1. Trailing-edge noise

This case considers a flow (Uo = 20 m/s) over the flat plate at

zero angle of attack (experiment described in Ref. [12]). The plate

has a chord length of c = 10 cm with thickness h = 0.03c and

span L = 3c. The Reynolds number of the flow based on the chord

length, Rec is 1.3 105 and the Mach number, M is 0.06. This free

stream Mach number is considerably low, as far as capturing the

compressibility effects are concerned.

For incompressible large eddy simulation, an o-type grid is employed to treat four rounded-corners of the leading and trailing

edges. The computational domain is set to r = 10c and a spanwise

extension is chosen as 3% of the plate chord with flow periodicity

assumed at the side boundaries. The computational domain consists of 657 201 21 (about 2.8 millions) points in x, y, and z and

is divided into 32 blocks for parallel computations. A minimal grid

+

size for x and y is 0.0005c (or 1x+

min = 1ymin 3), while a uniform

grid spacing of 0.0015c (or 1z + 15) is used in the spanwise direction. The computation is conducted with 1t = 1 106 s for

400,000 iterations (or 0.4 s).

The boundary layer is triggered approximately at x = 0.2c by

the leading-edge separation bubble and becomes turbulent downstream towards the trailing-edge of the plate. It was found that the

thickness of the boundary layer, is 1.12h at x = 0.2c from the

trailing-edge and the turbulent Reynolds number, Re is approximately 230. The iso-surfaces of the second invariant property of the

velocity gradients (Q = 200) clearly show the noise sources near

55

Fig. 5. Instantaneous Q iso-surfaces around the trailing-edge (left); wall pressure fluctuations along the plate (right).

Fig. 6. Instantaneous DP /Dt contours on the acoustic (top) and hydrodynamic (bottom) grids (left); instantaneous pressure fluctuation field (right).

within the boundary layer and the vortex shedding at the trailingedge. Fig. 5(right) also shows the wall pressure fluctuations monitored along the plate from A to I (A: x = 0.2c, I: the rear face of the

trailing-edge). One can notice the leading-edge separation, convection of turbulent eddies, and the vortex shedding at the trailingedge in the time history of the wall pressure fluctuations.

The flat plate self-noise is now computed by the linearized

perturbed compressible equations. Fig. 6(left) shows the noise

sources near the trailing-edge, i.e. the acoustic source, DP /Dt

computed by LES interpolated onto the acoustic grid using bilinear

interpolation. The acoustic grid (347 247) with minimal normal

spacing at the wall five times larger than that of the hydrodynamic

grid allows the same time step used in LES (i.e. 1t = 1 106 s)

for the LPCE computation.

An instantaneous pressure fluctuation field (1p = (P + p )

(P + p )) around the plate in Fig. 6(right) clearly shows the radiation of the dipole tone generated by the vortex shedding at

the trailing-edge. The acoustic wavelength of the tone is close to

/c = 2.5, corresponding to the frequency St = 0.2 at M = 0.06.

Besides, the figure shows other high frequency waves being emanated from the trailing-edge as well as from the shear-layer reattachment point. There will also be the waves diffracted at the

leading and trailing-edge of the plate, and all of these will contribute in part to the far-field noise measured at the microphone

location.

In order to predict the far-field SPL spectrum, a computational

procedure described in Ref. [13] is followed. Since the microphone

is located at 20c from the plate, the 2D acoustic field computed

by the LPCE for the domain of 10c needs to be extrapolated to

20c and also to be corrected for 3D spectral pressure. Finally,

the 3D spectral pressure radiated by the simulated span h needs

to be corrected for the total span 100h (or 3c) employed in the

experiment. This procedure requires information on the spanwise

Fig. 7. Sound pressure level spectrum at r = 20c vertically away from the midchord of the plate; computation (blue), experiment (black). (For interpretation of

the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web

version of this article.)

dominant noise source region, i.e. the trailing-edge of the plate.

The spanwise coherence length of the surface pressure, Lc () is

then calculated by a Gaussian law, (z ) = exp{(z /Lc ())2 }. The

largest value of Lc () is approximately estimated as 7h at St = 0.2

but in most cases, Lc () is below h [13].

The far-field SPL spectrum for the actual span 3c is now

compared in Fig. 7 with the measured data of the Ecole Centrale de

Lyon [14]. The numerical results are signal-processed by applying a

hanning window function with the sampling frequency of 50 kHz,

56

the block length of 0.04 s, and the number of averages of 10. The

agreement is found excellent, especially for the match of the tonal

peak (peak level deviation is 2.7 dB), its spectral broadening, as

well as the other broadband part. This comparison indicates that

not only the noise sources but also their turbulence statistics are

well captured by the incompressible LES, while the propagation,

scattering, and diffraction of the acoustic waves around the plate

are accurately computed by the LPCE.

The directivity patterns at r = 20c are also presented in Fig. 8

for various Strouhal numbers (or ratios of the plate chord length

to the acoustic wavelength). At vortex shedding frequency (St =

0.2 or c / = 0.4), it represents a clear dipole. As the Strouhal

number increases or the acoustic wavelength becomes shorter

than the chord length, the waves diffracted at the leading and

trailing-edge of the plate are well captured; the directivity pattern

changes to a finger-like shape. It is worth noting that the first two

plots of St = 0.2 and 0.4 are consistent with what is expected

from analytical modeling based on zero-thickness assumption, as

shown for instance in the study of Roger and Moreau [15]. At

higher Strouhal numbers, the directivity pattern departs from the

analytical results, essentially by showing a secondary beaming

around 45 and 30 at St = 1 and 2, respectively. This could be

attributed to the plate thickness.

4.2. Porous trailing-edge

A porous treatment to the same flat plate for reduction of

trailing-edge noise is demonstrated, imposing a porous surface

with porosity of = 0.25 to a small, selected area of the trailingedge (2h upstream from the edge, with a plenum inside, see

Fig. 9), where the vortex shedding and eddy scattering produce a

dipole sound. The porous surface has a thickness of = 0.001c

and is characterized by non-dimensionalized permeability, K =

KU0 / c = 1 103 for case 1, 1 102 for case 2, and 1 101

for case 3. The porous flow is often modeled by employing the Ergun equation,

P s =

CE

U s + 0 U s U s

K

(22)

where CE denotes a dimensionless Ergun coefficient or Forchheimer constant, which is dependent on porosity and pore structure. The Forchheimer constant is, however, set to zero in the

present computation because the pore-level Reynolds number

based on the permeability and the transpiration velocity averaged

in time and space, ReK = Ut K 1/2 / turns out to be less than unity.

First, an xt plot of the wall pressure fluctuations is examined

along the plate and in the wake region. As shown in Fig. 10(left),

the solid trailing-edge exhibits distinct, regularly-spaced pressure

marks (1tUo /h 5) near the trailing-edge which corresponds

to the vortex shedding frequency at St 0.2. This is obviously

the noise source for producing the tone. With the porous surface

(K = 1 102 ), however, the strips of pressure marks are broken

into pieces (see Fig. 10(right)) by local blowing and suction of the

flow in the plenum.

The influence of the porous surface is more clearly explained

in Fig. 11 that the correlation length of the pressure fluctuations

57

Fig. 9. Depiction of porous surface (left); schematic of turbulent flow over a flat plate with porous trailing-edge (plenum inside) (right).

Fig. 10. Comparison of xt plot of wall pressure fluctuation at the mid-span near the trailing-edge; solid (left) and porous (right).

Fig. 11. Spatial correlation Rpp contours of wall pressure fluctuations (left); Rpp along the mid-span (right).

is substantially reduced in the streamwise direction, i.e. a significant reduction in the size of the dipole noise source. The spatial

correlation of the wall pressure fluctuations, Rpp along the midspan of the plate clearly indicates that the streamwise correlation length does not exceed 0.01c, i.e. 1% of the chord length with

K = 1 102 . The uncorrelated pressure field is resulted from

the transpiration velocity along the porous surface, non-uniformly

distributed in both the streamwise and the spanwise directions.

As discussed before, the far-field acoustics for the actual span

is directly related to the spanwise coherence length of the noise

source. Fig. 12 shows the spectrally-decomposed spanwise coherence lengths Lc at x = 0.02c. The most prominent reduction of

at other frequencies no noticeable difference or even slightly increased coherence lengths are found with the porous treatment.

Thereby, the tonal noise at St = 0.21 is expected to be much reduced compared to that of the solid case.

Finally, the PSD spectra of the far-field noise are compared in

Fig. 13 for different permeabilities. It is found that for K = 1

102 , the dipole peak at St = 0.21 is significantly reduced by 13 dB,

while there is no significant noise reduction with others. This is

due to the fact that with large permeability (e.g. K = 1 101 ),

the fluid flow in porous medium encounters almost negligible

resistance and therefore the plate with porous trailing-edge is

58

Fig. 12. Spanwise coherence length of wall pressure fluctuations for solid and

porous trailing-edges.

Fig. 13. Comparison of PSD spectra at r = 20c for porous trailing-edges with

different permeabilities.

permeability (e.g. K = 1 103 ), the porous surface behaves like

a solid surface so that the wall pressure fluctuations as well as the

PSD of the far-field acoustics are almost identical to those for the

solid case. Only within a certain range of permeability (e.g. K =

1 102 ), however, the porous surface provides a mechanism of

non-uniformly distributed transpiration velocity along the lower,

upper, and back-end surfaces and subsequently allows pressure

fluctuations to be modified along the porous surface.

5. Applications on bio-fluid sound

5.1. Human larynx

An experimental study has been conducted at the department

of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology of the University hospital

Erlangen, Germany, to measure the vibrating surface of the human hemilarynx. Fig. 14 shows the human hemilarynx with a tube

inserted to blow air from the compressor and the optical measurement system: glass plate at the glottal midline, vocal fold and

brass calibration cube on the left side of the plate, glass prism,

and high-speed camera on the right. The surface grid evolution

of the human hemilarynx measured during one period of motion is monotonically interpolated in time and space: raw geometry(left); first interpolation(middle); second interpolation(right)

(see Fig. 15).

A 2D computational domain of flow and sound is configured

to include the hemilarynx vibrating at a fundamental frequency

of 140 Hz within a vocal track, 28 times of the vocal fold length

(L = 12 mm). Fig. 16 shows the moving grids at four different time

intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion at the mid-plane.

The first two figures are at the closure phase of the vocal fold,

whereas the last two are at the opening. The case considered here

corresponds to a flow rate of 0.0004 m3 /s with pressure difference

of 2.88 kPa, and in terms of non-dimensional quantities, the

corresponding flow condition is at ReL = 840 and M = 3.1 103 .

Fig. 17 shows the instantaneous vorticity contours of the flow

within the vocal track at the same time intervals as the moving

grids. A periodic disturbance introduced by the mucosal wave motion of the hemilarynx continuously makes the gap flow pulsating

at 140 Hz and as a result, the vortices are shed downstream the vocal track with a specific scale. The corresponding acoustic field is

computed with the same moving grids by the linearized perturbed

compressible equations with acoustic source acquired from the INS

solutions. As shown in Fig. 18, the top five figures are the instantaneous acoustic fields at closure of the vocal fold, whereas the remaining figures are at the opening phase. One can clearly note that

the sound waves generated in the human hemilarynx are very subtle to the vocal fold motion at each stage.

The computed 2D acoustics monitord at 11L upstream the

hemilarynx are compared in Fig. 19(left) with the experimental

data measured at the University Hospital Erlangen. Considering

the fact that the computed sound wave is a 2D solution, it depicts

well the basic characteristics of the sound produced by the human

hemilarynx. The main vocal sound at fundamental frequency of

140 Hz is well resolved by the present 2D model, whereas the

high frequency waves observed in the experiment is substantially

simplified as a discrete tone with frequency corresponding to the

scale shown in the vorticity pattern. From the present result, it is

worth to note that there exits an interesting correlation among the

hemilarynx motion, the vortical flow structure within the vocal

track, and the corresponding acoustic field. A similar correlation

can also be noted in Fig. 18 (right) on the computed sound wave

from the larynx vibrating with the same fundamental frequency.

The difference of the sound wave profile between the hemilarynx

and the larynx is attributed by the Coanda effect of the pulsating jet

in the gap, which was clearly depicted in the computed flow field

of the larynx.

A computation of the sound wave at this low Mach number

(i.e. M < O(103 )) can hardly be accessible with the compressible

NavierStokes equations and for this reason, the present hybrid

formulation may be considered as a viable tool for computing

diverse bio-medical fluid and sound applications at such low Mach

numbers. The full 3D surface geometry of the human larynx is

now undertaken by the present LES/LPCE hybrid method, and

one can expect more complex vortical structures produced by the

three-dimensional surface motions of the human larynx and their

associated sound waves in wider range of frequency scales, as

observed in the experiment.

5.2. Bumblebee

The unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of the flapping

wing are numerically investigated for a two-dimensional model

of bumblebee at hovering and forward flight conditions. In this

study, the time-dependent flow and acoustic fields are computed

59

Fig. 14. Measurement of 3D surface of the human hemilarynx vibrating at the fundamental frequency (left); schematic of optical measurement system (right).

Fig. 16. Moving grids at four different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion at the mid-plane.

Fig. 17. Instantaneous vorticity contours at four different time intervals in one

period of the vocal fold motion; top two at closure, bottom two at opening.

for a prescribed flapping wing motion which mimics the real wing

kinematics employed by superposition of the pitching and heaving

motions, sometimes referred to as a figure-eight motion [16].

elliptic wing (chord length c and thickness d = 0.1c). The unsteady

motion is replicated by a wing motion of two strokes (down and

up), and each stroke consists of three stages (transverse, tangential,

and rotational motions).

Here, all the specific parameters of the flapping wing are based

on Bombus terrestris, bumblebee [17,18]; chord length (c ) is 0.8 cm,

wing span (R) which is the distance from base of the wing to tip

is 1.7 cm, beat frequency (f ) is 170 Hz, and stroke amplitude ( )

is 150, defined as the angle swept out by the leading edge from

dorsal reversal (start of downstroke) to ventral reversal (start of

upstroke) in the mean stroke plane.

For a computational domain of circle (extended to r = 500c),

the incompressible NavierStokes equations are solved with moving hydrodynamic grid (401 181, see Fig. 20(right)), to compute

Fig. 18. Instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours at ten different time intervals in one period of the vocal fold motion; top five at closure, bottom five at opening.

60

Fig. 19. Sound wave profiles at 11L upstream the vocal fold; red (hemilarynx/compt.), blue (larynx/compt.), black (hemilarynx/exp.), L: vocal fold base length. (For

interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 20. Flapping motion of an elliptic wing (downstroke by hollow, upstroke by filled) (left); moving grids at transverse and tangential motions (right).

St = fc /c0 = 0.004. The sound field is then computed by LPCE on

the moving acoustic grid (251 91), with minimum grid spacing

five times that of the hydrodynamic grid. Note that all the variables

investigated here are non-dimensionalized by the speed of sound

c0 , chord length c, and air density 0 .

For hovering case, the flapping angle is set to 0 and the advance ratio defined by the ratio of the flight speed to the mean

flapping velocity of the wing J = U /(2 fR) [18] is also set to

0. The Reynolds number based on the maximum translational

velocity, Rec = Umax c /air is 8800 and Mach number M = Umax /c0

is 0.0485, where c0 is the speed of sound. Fig. 21 shows the time

variations of the drag and lift coefficients of the flapping wing. It

is indicated that the mean drag coefficient (averaged over 10 periods) is nearly 0, while the mean lift coefficient is about 0.66. From

the definition of CL = FL /0.50 Umax cR, one can calculate the lift

force on a three-dimensional wing, employing the properties of the

bumblebee [17]. In this study, the maximum translational velocity

Umax of the bumblebee is 17 m/s so that the lift force generated by

a pair of 3D wing is about 3.11 102 N. This value is large enough

to support the weight of bumblebee, 8.63 103 N, although the

three-dimensional effects neglected in this study could partially

reduce the lift force.

Now the computed sound fields of the flapping wing in hovering motion are presented in Fig. 22. The result indicates that the

flapping wing sound is generated by two different basic mechanisms. First, a dipole sound is generated by a transverse motion

of the wing (two on the left). Due to the fact that the dipole axis

changes its direction from downstroke to upstroke, a drag dipole

is generated at wing beat frequency (St = fc /c0 = 0.004), while

the lift dipole is produced at 2f (i.e. St = 0.008), similar to the

drag and lift coefficients. Hence, the flapping wing sound is directional, as shown in Fig. 23. The sound pressure level (SPL) peak

at 0 and 180, while the wing beat frequency (drag dipole) is also

not present at 90 and 270. At other angles, both the drag and lift

dipoles clearly exhibit their peaks. This result is similar to the previous observation by Sueur et al. [19], indicating that the wing beat

frequency is most dominant in front, whereas the second harmonic

is most appreciable at sides.

Another sound source is associated with the vortex edgescattering during tangential motion of the wing. In Fig. 22(two

on the right), one can identify the sound waves (bracketed) at

61

Fig. 22. Instantaneous pressure fluctuation contours around the wing in hovering motion; flow fields representing the associated sound sources: (first and second) wing

loading by transverse motion and (third and fourth) vortex edge-scattering during tangential motion.

Fig. 23. Sound pressure level spectra around a hovering insect ( = 0 and = 0; U = 0 m/s) at r = 100c and every 45 position.

41c and 48c at t /T = 0.5 and 1, respectively. Considering the

wave speed c0 (=340 m/s = 250c /T ), the travel time of the

waves is estimated as 0.60.7 (i.e. 1t /T = 150/250175/250).

So, it is figured that these waves were generated during t /T =

8/109/10 and 3/104/10 at each stroke. Now, one can note

that the flow fields at t /T = 9/10 and 4/10 clearly exhibit the

vortical structures that are responsible for producing the dipole

sound during tangential motion of the wing. The vortices in the

shear layer emanated from the leading-edge scatter at the trailingedge of the wing and generate waves radiating perpendicularly to

the wing. It is also found that the frequencies of these waves are

close to St (=fc /c0 = c /) = 1/48 0.02 and 1/41 0.024.

These frequencies of dipole tones generated at the trailing-edge

agree fairly well with the theory of shear layer instability [20]: the

frequency of the shear layer breaking-off is calculated as 0.021 with

St = 0.017ML / , where ML = 0.044 is a local free stream Mach

number and = 0.035 is the momentum thickness normalized

note in the spectrum that the SPL peaks are multiples of the wing

beat frequency with comparable amplitudes (see Fig. 23). This

frequency composition closely resembles the buzz sound of fly

measured by Sueur et al. [19].

In order to mimic the forward flight of bumblebee, all the

properties are kept constant, except the advance ratio J = U /

(2 fR) and stroke plane angle . The advance ratio is generally

used to determine the free stream velocity U . It ranges from 0

(hovering) to 0.6 (fast flight) [21,22], and an intermediate value of

J = 0.3 corresponding to U = 4.5 m/s is considered in this study.

The stroke plane angle is then determined by the force balance

condition [21]; the mean thrust must be equal to mean drag for

a flight at constant speed. In the presence of free stream velocity

(J = 0.3), it is found that the mean drag coefficient is nearly 0 at

= 40. At this angle, the thrust force generated by the flapping

wing is almost the same as the drag force caused by the forward

flight of bumblebee. So, the stroke plane angle is determined as

62

Fig. 24. Sound pressure level spectra around a hovering insect ( = 40 and = 0.3; U = 4.5 m/s) at r = 100c and every 45 position.

= 40, which is very similar to the real bumblebee [18] for the

flight speed at U = 4.5 m/s.

Due to the free stream effect, the vortices shed from the leading and trailing-edge of the wing during transverse motion are not

developed as symmetric as for the hovering case and so are the induced velocity fields. Therefore, these vortices cannot self-propel

away from the wing but rather remain in the stroke paths. Besides,

the ratio between the free stream velocity and the maximum translational velocity of the wing is close to 0.26 and so the convection

effect is quite weak. As a result, the vortices drifting around the

flapping wing encounter complex wing-vortex interactions. When

compared with the hovering case, this clear distinction in vortical

flow structure is expected to change the aerodynamic sound characteristics for the forward flight case.

The sound fields for the flapping wing in forward flight are investigated by comparing the sound spectra in Fig. 24. Similar to the

hovering case, the transverse motion of the dipolar axis results in

drag (St = 0.004) and lift dipoles (St = 0.008). It is, however,

important to note that the directivity change is not as clear as that

at hovering. The dominant frequency does not vary significantly

and both the drag and lift dipoles exhibit their peaks with comparable amplitudes, regardless of directions. One may also note that

the dipole tones generated at the trailing-edge (St = 0.02 and

0.024) are not as distinct as for the hovering case (Fig. 23). These are

largely due to the prominent interactions between the wing and

the vortices, being considered as a discernible difference in acoustic feature between hovering and forward flight. This indicates that

the radiation pattern and frequency composition can change with

flight conditions and it is expected that these could be used as some

biological functions such as communication, territory defense, and

echolocation.

6. Conclusions

The present LES/LPCE hybrid method has efficiently predicted

the low-subsonic, turbulent flow noise, with accuracy confirmed

by comparison of the far-field sound pressure level with the experiment. The present method with modeling of flow in porous

medium has been extended for reduction of the trailing-edge

noise via porous material at the same low-subsonic, turbulent

flow condition. For applications of bio-medical and biological-fluid

sound, capacity and future potential of the method has been well

demonstrated by the present study. The flow and sound in biomedical and biological applications is a unique research field which

requires a very sophisticated analysis tool to emulate very weak

compressibility effects; for example, sound of blood flows in the

circulatory system or sound of airway flows in the respiratory system. It is also shown that at low Mach number, the acoustic source

represented by a material derivative of the hydrodynamic pressure

(i.e. DP /Dt) scaled by itself in the incompressible NavierStokes solution is very closely related to the dilatation rate of the compressible counterpart, at any instant, and so is the rate of change of P1 DP

Dt

to that of the dilatation rate.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Prof. Roger, M. at the Ecole

Centrale de Lyon and Prof. Doellinger, M. at the University Hospital

Erlangen for providing experimental data for the flat plate and the

human larynx, respectively, and students, Dr. Seo, J.H., Dr. Bae Y.M.,

Mr. Jo, Y.W. for their contributions during graduate study at Korea

University.

References

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[2] Y.M. Bae, Y.J. Moon, Aerodynamic sound generation of flapping wing, J. Acoust.

Soc. Am. 124 (1) (2008) 7281.

[3] J.C. Hardin, D.S. Pope, An acoustic/viscous splitting technique for computational aeroacoustics, Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 6 (1994) 323340.

[4] J.H. Seo, Y.J. Moon, Perturbed compressible equations for aeroacoustic noise

prediction at low mach numbers, AIAA J. 43 (2005) 17161724.

[5] J.H. Seo, Y.J. Moon, Linearized perturbed compressible equations for low mach

number aeroacoustics, J. Comput. Phys. 218 (2006) 702719.

[6] S.K. Lele, Compact finite difference schemes with spectral-like resolution,

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