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East San Diego Pedestrian Bridge


SE 151A
Concrete Mechanics and Design
Department of Structural Engineering
University of California, San Diego
Jose Restrepo

Alvin Aguelo
Luke Robinson

Term Project
Fall 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. References ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5
II. Dimensions & Section Properties............................................................................................................................... 6
III. Design Loads ................................................................................................................................................................ 8
IV. Structural Analysis........................................................................................................................................................ 9
V. Slab Design ................................................................................................................................................................... 19
VI. Girder Design ............................................................................................................................................................. 20
VII. Development of Longitudinal and Miscellaneous Requirements ..................................................................... 21
VIII. Column Design ....................................................................................................................................................... 22
IX. Drawings ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28
X. Appendix....................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Appendix 1.1: Calculations for Ag,slab ,Ixx,slab and Se,slab ........................................................................................... 36
Appendix 1.2: Calculations for Ag,column, Ixx,column and Se,column. .............................................................................. 36
Appendix 1.3: Calculations for yb, yt, Ag,girder, Ixx,girder and Se,girder. ......................................................................... 37
Appendix 1.4: Calculations for Slab Design Loads................................................................................................. 38
Appendix 1.5: Calculations for Girder Design Loads. ........................................................................................... 38
Appendix 1.6: Calculations for the Slab Design ...................................................................................................... 39
Appendix 1.7: Calculations for the Positive Girder Design .................................................................................. 41
Appendix 1.8: Calculations for the Negative Girder Design ................................................................................ 44
Appendix 1.9: Calculations for the Shear Design Slab Section ......................................................................... 47
Appendix 2.0: Calculations for the Shear Design Girder Section..................................................................... 48
Appendix 2.1: Bar Development Girder Calculations ........................................................................................... 50
Appendix 2.2 : Column Design Sample Calculation .............................................................................................. 53
Appendix 2.3: MATLAB Program used for Linear Interpolation ....................................................................... 55
XI. Hours Spent per Student .......................................................................................................................................... 56

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DESIGN PROCESS
ARCHITECTURAL
RENDERINGS

I. REFERENCES

PURPOSE:
The proposed bridge is designed as a connecting two-span pedestrian path for a park located in
East San Diego County. The proposed geometric layout requires a crossing of a 5 lane lowvolume roadway designed for frequent loading (due to pedestrians). As stated, the bridge will
account for multiple loading cases that are designed to assure public safety (reference accordance
with the American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)). The
permanent load cases are defined as follows: dead load of structural components (DC, AASHTO
3.3.2) and dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities (DW, AASHTO 3.3.2). Transient loading
are also accounted for and defined as: pedestrian live load (PL, AASHTO 3.3.2).
The preliminary design for the bridge was originally a T-shaped girder cross section which was
re-designed to have a taper of 30 mm depth. This design was primarily chosen for aesthetic basis
and as well as safety purposes. In addition, the slab and overhanging girder depth are designed
with consideration of the minimum code requirements (with specifications from the
client). Column size for the bridge was designed to have a side dimension of 850 mm.
Additional specification for the loading is as follows: the structure shall be designed to support
its own dead weight, the weight of a 50mm asphaltic concrete overlay (unit weight of asphaltic
concrete is 16 kN/m3, a 1 kN/m handrail load at the slab edges, and a live load per AASHTO
LRFD of 4.1 kN/m2. The normal weight of concrete are also considered and defined as 23.5
kN/m3 with a specified compressive strength of fc = 38 MPa. The average aggregate size used
in the concrete is 25 millimeters in diameter.

Figure1: Elevation View of Proposed Bridge (Dimensions in mm)

Figure 2: Preliminary Cross-Sectional View of Proposed Bridge (Dimensions in mm).


II. DIMENSIONS & SECTION PROPERTIES

A.) Deck Slab:


Analysis of the decking slab and determination of the slab depth was based on idealizing
the T-section as a solid one way cantilevered beam. Checking against ACI Code in Table
9.5(a), to avoid calculating deflections the minimum depth of the fixed end of the
cantilever must be 0.19m or larger. For the proposed bridge a slab depth of 0.20m was
chosen for simplicity.

Figure 3: Cross-Sectional Measurements: Decking Slab measurement in mm.

The proposed slab has the following sectional properties:

Cross-Sectional Properties:
Decking Slab
Ag,slab
Ixx,slab
Se,slab

0.2 m2
6.667e-4 m4
6.667e-3 m3

Table 1: Sectional Properties of Decking Slab (For Calculation See Appendix 1.1)

B) Girder:
Analysis of the girder and determination of the girder depth was based on ACI Code for
non-pre-stressed beams. Checking against ACI Code in Table 9.5(a), to avoid calculating
deflections the minimum depth of the non-pre-stressed beam with one end continuous
must be a minimum if 0.95m. For the design proposed a depth of 1m was chosen for
calculation purposes.

Figure 4: Cross-Sectional Measurements: Girder measurement in meters.

The proposed girder has the following sectional properties:

Cross-Sectional Properties:
Decking Girder
Ag,girder
yb
yt
Ixx,girder
Sb,girder
St,girder

1.510 m2
0.701 m
0.299 m
0.1254 m4
0.1788 m3
0.420 m3

Table 2: Sectional Properties of Girder (For Calculation See Appendix 1.2)

C) Column:
The design of the column is allowed to be 850mm, 900mm, 950mm. For the proposed
bridge, a slanted square cross section has been chosen with a width of 850mm. The
thinner column has a more aesthetic quality to it and gives an overall more transparent
appearance to the bridge. Should it be found later that the bridge needs a larger column, it
can always be increased easily.

The proposed column has the following sectional properties:


Cross-Sectional Properties:
Column
Ag,column
Ixx,column
Se,column

0.723 m2
0.0435 m4
0.1024 m3

Table 3: Sectional Properties of Girder (For Calculation See Appendix 1.1)

III. DESIGN LOADS

A) Deck Slab Design Loads: The design loads for the deck slab were determined to be:

Design Factor
Design Loads: Deck Slab
WDC1,slab
PDC2,slab
WPL,slab
WDW,slab

4.70 kN/m
1.00 kN
4.10 kN/m
0.80 kN/m

1.25
1.25
1.75
1.50

Final Load
Design with
Factors
5.875 kN/m
1.25 kN
7.175 kN/m
1.20 kN/m

Table 4: Design Loads for Deck Slab Cantilever (For Calculation See Appendix 1.3)

B) Girder Design Loads:


The design loads for the girder were determined to be:

Design Loads: Girder


WDC1,girder
WDC2,girder
WPL,girder
WDW,girder

35.49 kN/m
2.000 kN/m
18.655 kN/m
3.640 kN/m

Table 5: Design Loads for Deck Slab Cantilever (For Calculation See Appendix 1.4)

Shear Value
Moment Value

WDW, slab

WPL, slab

WDC1, slab

WDC2, slab

Wcomb1, slab

2.28 kN
2.17 kN-m

13.63 kN
12.95 kN-m

11.16 kN
10.6 kN-m

1.25 kN
2.25 kN-m

28.33 kN
27.97 kN-m

Table: 6The shear and the moment values for the loads are calculated through SAP and yield:

IV. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

A) Slab:
i) Model:

Figure 5: Cross-Sectional View of the idealized model for transverse bending and shear in the slab.

ii) Load Factors and Combinations:


Using ASSHTO Code for structural analysis, limit states STRENGTH I and
STRENGTH III recommend a load factor of 1.75 for pedestrian live loads in Table
3.4.1-1. Referring to Table 3.4.1-2, ASSHTO Code recommends a minimum load
factor of 1.25 for DC Components and 1.50 for DW wearing surfaces. The following
load factors are incorporated in the Design Envelope.
iii & iv) Bending Moment Diagrams & Shear Force Diagrams:
NOTE: The following shear and moment diagrams were modeled for a solid fixed
end one-way cantilever of length 1.9m. The design loads used were according to
Table 4 of this document and did not use ASSHTO design load factors.

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1)

Dead Load WDC1,slab (Dead Load due to Concrete)

Figure 6: Shear Force Diagram (Max Shear: 11.16 kN)

Figure 7: Moment Diagram (Max Moment: -10.60 kN*m)

2)

Superimposed Dead Load WDW,slab (due to Overlay)

Figure 8: Shear Force Diagram (Max Shear: 2.28 kN)

Figure 9: Moment Diagram (Max Moment: -2.17 kN*m)

3)

Handrail Road WDC2,slab (due to handrail)

Figure 10: Shear Force Diagram (Max Shear: 1.25 kN)

Figure 11: Moment Diagram (Max Moment: -2.25 kN*m)

4)

Pedestrian Live Load WPL,slab

Figure 12: Shear Force Diagram (Max Shear: 13.63 kN)

Figure 13: Moment Diagram (Max Moment: -12.95 kN*m)

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5) Design Envelope: ASSHTO load factors considered.

Figure 14: Shear Force Diagram (Max Shear: 28.33 kN)

Figure 15: Moment Diagram (Max Moment: -27.97 kN*m)

B.) Girder:
i.) Model:

Figure 16: First-order SAP Model of the proposed bridge. All dimensions are in mm.

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ii.) Load Combinations and Factors:


The un-factored loads used in the girder design can be found in Table 5. Five load
cases were considered for the proposed bridge to account for moving live loads and
variability in specific gravity of materials used in the construction of Pollo Gigante
Pedestrian Bridge.

Figure 17: Load Case 1 Live load across entire bridge span with max load factors used in dead weight of
construction materials.

Figure 18: Load Case 2&3 Live load across half bridge span with min. load factors used in dead weight of
construction materials.

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Figure 19: Load Case 4&5 Live load across half bridge span with max load factors used in dead weight of
construction materials.

Load Case 1
Design
LF
Load
Load
(p)
(kN/m)
WDC1,girder 1.25 44.36
WDC2,girder 1.25 2.500
WPL,girder 1.75 32.65
WDW,girder 1.5 5.460
Load Case 4
Design
LF
Load
Load
(p)
(kN/m)
WDC1,girder 1.25 44.36
WDC2,girder 1.25 2.500
WPL,girder 1.75 32.65
WDW,girder 1.5
5.46

Design Loads: Girder


Load Case 2
Load Case 3
Design
Design
LF
LF
Load
Load
Load
Load
(p)
(p)
(kN/m)
(kN/m)
WDC1,girder 0.9 31.94 WDC1,girder 0.9 31.94
WDC2,girder 0.9 1.800 WDC2,girder 0.9 1.800
WPL,girder 1.75 32.65 WPL,girder 1.75 32.65
WDW,girder 0.65 2.366 WDW,girder 0.65 2.366
Load Case 5
Design
LF
Load
Load
(p)
(kN/m)
WDC1,girder 1.25 44.36
WDC2,girder 1.25 2.500
WPL,girder 1.75 32.65
WDW,girder 1.5
5.46

Table 7: Design Loads and Load factors used for Girder analysis.

Load Case 1 is considered to account for the possibility of the bridge being
completely loaded with pedestrians, LC 1 yields a maximum negative moment in the
girder near the column and in the top of the column and also yields maximum shear in the
girders and column. Load Cases 2, 3 were considered for possible maximum positive
bending in the girder, but was not large enough to control the design. Load cases 4 and 5
were also considered to determine maximum positive bending moments in the left and

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right side of the girder and did control the design. The design loads for the load cases
used in analysis are as follows.

iii.) Bending Moment Diagrams:

Figure 20: Moment Diagram for Load Combination 1 with Max Values units in kN-m.

Figure 21: Moment Diagram for Load Combination 2 with Max Values units in kN-m.

Figure 22: Moment Diagram for Load Combination 3 with Max Values units in kN-m.

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Figure 23: Moment Diagram for Load Combination 4 with Max Values units in kN-m.

Figure 24: Moment Diagram for Load Combination 5 with Max Values units in kN-m.

iv.) Shear Force Diagrams:

Figure 25: Shear Diagram for Load Combination 1 with Max Values units in kN.

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Figure 26: Shear Diagram for Load Combination 2 with Max Values units in kN.

Figure 27: Shear Diagram for Load Combination 3 with Max Values units in kN.

Figure 28: Shear Diagram for Load Combination 4 with Max Values units in kN.

Figure 29: Shear Diagram for Load Combination 5 with Max Values units in kN.

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v.) Shear and Bending Moment Design Envelopes:

Figure 30: Moment Design Envelope. All Load Combinations with Max Values in kN-m

Figure 31: Shear Design Envelope with All Load Combinations with Max Values in kN

vi.) Girder Analysis Result Table:


The results for the Girder Analysis are shown below. These results are consistent with
those found from the values in the Moment and Shear Diagrams. From the table, we
check for possible design loads:
1. Shear Analysis (Left Girder): The highest positive shear on the left girder (from
nodes 2 & 3) is 918 kN and the highest negative shear to design for is -567 kN.
2. Shear Analyis (Right Girder): The highest positive shear on the right girder
(from nodes 5 & 6) is 629 kN and the highest positive shear to design for is -848
kN.

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LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4
LC 5

Pos. M
(kN*m)
1664
1576
503
1892
815

Loc.
(m)
6.1
6.7
5.5
6.7
5.5

LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4
LC 5

Pos. M
(kN*m)
2130
741
1901
1147
2309

Loc.
(m)
9.8
10.4
9.8
10.4
9.8

LC 1
LC 2
LC 3
LC 4
LC 5

Pos. M
(kN*m)
1222
905
611
1142
848

Loc.
Girder
Girder
Girder
Girder
Girder

Girder Analysis
Element Nodes 2-3: Girder Left
Neg. M
Pos. V
(kN*m)
Loc.
(kN)
Loc.
-3295
Col.
918
Col.
-2069
Col.
708
Col.
-2000
Col.
425
Col.
-2699
Col.
883
Col.
-2630
Col.
599
Col.
Element Nodes 5-6: Girder Right
Neg. M
Pos. V
(kN*m)
Loc.
(kN)
Loc.
-2102
Col.
602
Sup.
-1304
Col.
232
Sup.
-1285
Col.
512
Sup.
-1703
Col.
347
Sup.
-1684
Col.
629
Sup.
Element Nodes 8-9: Column
Neg. M
Pos. V
(kN*m) Loc.
(kN)
Loc.
-1863
Ft.
458
Ft.
-1016
Ft.
287
Ft.
-1302
Ft.
286
Ft.
-1381
Ft.
378
Ft.
-1667
Ft.
343
Ft.

Neg. V
(kN)
-532
-466
-191
-567
-293

Loc.
Sup.
Sup.
Sup.
Sup.
Sup.

Neg. V
(kN)
-848
-384
-662
-546
-824

Loc.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.
Col.

Neg. V
(kN)
425
262
262
344
377

Loc.
Girder
Girder
Girder
Girder
Girder

Table 8: Tabular results of load case analysis. Listed are the maximum and minimum moments and shears
for each load case and their locations on the girder and column. (Col. Column/Girder Node [3 or 5], Sup.
Support/Girder Node [2 or 6], Ft. Footing/Column Node [9], Girder Column/Girder Node [8]) If Location
is in meters, it is the distance from the left node [2 or 5] of the girder element analyzed.)

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V. SLAB DESIGN

i.) Slab Flexure

Slab Design Single Layer Tensile Steel


Bar
Size
4

No.
Bars
7

d (mm)

c (mm)

c/d

144

14.881

0.1
c/d<0.42

db (mm)

Ab (mm2)

As (mm2)

smin (mm)

s (mm)

12.7

129

903

60

130.2

Mn (kNMcr (kNm)
m)
51.59
25.89
Mn > 1.85Mcr

Mu (kNm)
46.53
28
Mn > Mu

Mn (kN-m)

Table 9: This table lists the slab design for multiple spacing. It also includes the checks for each of the bars
recommended.

Figure32: Slab design with reinforcement. Unit in mm.

ii.) Slab Shear


From analysis of the load case for the slab sections, it was determined that the
concrete in the slab has a factored resistance of 79kN. The analysis listed a maximum
demand of 28kN at the base of the cantilevered section. Per ACI-318, when designing for
shear, no shear reinforcement is needed if the factored demand is less than half the
resistance of the concrete. With a factored resistance of more than 3x the demand, no
shear reinforcement was considered for the slab design.

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VI. GIRDER DESIGN

i.)

Girder Flexure Design:

Girder Design - 1 Layer (Critical Positive Moment)

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No.
Bars
7

d (mm)
919

c (mm)
29.38

Bar Size

Bar Size
17
d (mm)
923

db (mm)

Ab (mm2)

As (mm2)

smin (mm)

s (mm)

35.81

1006

7042

50.8

62

c/d
Mn (kN-m) Mcr (kN-m)
0.032
265
68
c/d<0.42
Mn > 1.85Mcr

Mn (kN-m) Mu (kN-m)
2383
2309
Mn > Mu

Girder Design - 1 Layer (Critical Negative Moment)


No.
db (mm) Ab (mm2)
As (mm2)
smin (mm)
s (mm)
Bars
9
28.65
645
10965
50.8
varies
c (mm)
c/d
Mn (kN-m) Mcr (kN-m) Mn (kN-m) Mu (kN-m)
240.44
0.26
3763
485
3387
3295
c/d<0.42
Mn > 1.85Mcr
Mn > Mu
Table 10: This table provides the chosen design for the girder

Figure 33: Design of Girder cross section for the critical positive moment case. Units in mm.

Figure 34: Design of Girder cross section for the critical negative moment case. Units in mm.

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II.) ii.) Girder Shear Design:


III.)
IV.)
The shear Design was completed per ACI-318. All calculations may be found in
Appendix 2.0. It was found that the worst case shear dictated a large section of Case 2,
another Case 3 section near the columns and a small case 1 section at mid-span. Due to
seismic loading in California no unreinforced shear sections were designed for. Minimum
reinforcement was used in all sections of the girder up to section 3. Lastly even though
one side of the bridge experienced less loads per analysis, to be safe and make for easier
constructability, the worst case will be mirrored about the centerline at the column.
V.)

Case 4
Case 3
Case 2

Range

Vn (kN)

Start (mm)

3Vc<Vu<Vc

1600
733

50
4875

Vc<Vu<0.5Vc

End (mm)
# sets
Not Encountered
4690
32
17325
35

Rebar

Config.

s (mm)

#4
#3

4 leg
4leg

135
400

Table11: design results from shear analysis.

Figure 35a: Shear design near the column. Case 3

Figure 35b: Shear design near mid-span to the supports. Case 2.

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VII. DEVELOPMENT OF LONGITUDINAL AND MISCELLANEOUS


REQUIREMENTS

A.) Bar development per ACI-381


From the ACI code, all calculations passed the design checks. It was decided that
the negative reinforcement would be cut off from 17#9 bars to 6#9bars more than
3.27m from the column. Then cut off from 6#9 bars to 4#9 bars at more than 5.61m
from the column and continue till the support for shear stirrups.
The positive reinforcement was determined that the 7#11 bars would be cut off to
4#11 bars at a distance greater than 15.29m from the column and less than 4.08m
from the column, taking proper development into account.
The shear calculations per ACI 12.10.5.1 all passed and no design changes were
needed in that regard. The following is the graphs used in the design of the bar
development. For calculations See Appendix2.1 and for more detail see drawings IV
and V in section IX. Drawings.

Shear Design Envelope


1800

Shear Force kN in Girder

1600

Case 3:
Vn = 1600kN

1400

Positive
Moment

1200
1000
800

Negative
Moment

Case 2:
Vn = 733kN

600

Design
Capacity

400
200
0
0

5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12
Distance x from Column Face (m)

13

14

15

16

17

Graph 1: Shear Design Envelope including factored resistances per the girder shear design and plots of the
shear for the maximum positive moment case and maximum negative moment case.

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Moment Degign Envelope & Bar Cutoffs


-4000
Positive
Moment
Negative
Moment
B-CutOff (+)

-1000
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

1000

3000

17

A-CutOff (-)
xBR+=15.29m

2000

16

B-CutOff (-)

Distance x from Column Face (m)

xBL+=4.08m

Moment kN-m in Girder

-2000

xA-=6.04m

xB-=3.27m

-3000

Max Positive
Moment

4000

Graph 2: Moment Design Envelope used for designing bar development of the girder section. The graph
includes maximum positive moment demand and maximum negative moment demand, then plotted are the
corresponding cutoff rebar locations and the distances from the column face.

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VIII. COLUMN DESIGN

i.

Column Analysis Results


The analysis for the column was performed through the simplification of the bars chosen
for a potential design. The following schematic illustrates the simplification:

Figure 36: Column Reinforcement

The following results were calculated using five cases that determine the
resistance-flexure axial load interaction diagram. These results are then used as the limits
and criteria for determining the amount of #10 bars that will be used in the column
reinforcement. The cover for the stirrups from the edge of the column is considered to be
50 mm while the stirrup used along the reinforcement is a 12 mm bar. The calculations
for the column design can be found in Appendix 2.2.

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Case
1
2
3
4
5

Pn(MN)
-17
2.7
-2.88
-4.26
-6.34

= .01
Mn(MN-m)
0
0
1.81
2.24
2.054

Pn(MN)
-22.3
10.76
-0.2
-2.66
-6.08

= .04
Mn(MN-m)
0
0
3.36
4.27
3.48

Table 12: Design schematic of the cross section of the bridge (girder) with appropriate dimensions

ii.

Factored Resistance-Flexure Axial Load Interaction Diagram

Graph 3: This table provides the chosen design for the girder; the graph displays all the maximum values
from the results of the structural analyses are within the red circle. The chosen design is marked by the red
dashed circle.

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Linear Interpolation of
4
3.5

0.04, 3.5

3
Mn

2.5
2

0.0213, 1.86

1.5
1

0.01, 0.875

0.5
0
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

g
Graph 4: Linear Interpolation Graph

From the linear interpolation of the data from the resistance-flexure axial load interaction
diagram, the value for rho was found to be .0213. This can now determine the
reinforcement that will be used for the
column.
iii.

Column Final Design


The final column reinforcement
design is the following:

20 #10 Bars with a 50 mm


cover from the edge of the
column; 12 mm stirrup at 250
o.c.

Figure 37: Final Column


Reinforcement Design

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iv.

Column Bar Development

Bar Development For Column


db10 32.26mm

12 fy t_bottome
d
1.3m
b10
20

f
MPa
c

ld_col

A development length 0f 1.3m will cause teh rebar to protrude from the decking surface. Use Std
hooks.
Factor 1.0

ACI 12.5.4 - At the ends of member, in this case


the coloumn member, the factor shall be 1.0

0.02e fy

ldh_col max
db10Factor8 db10 150mm 0.258m
fc MPa

12 db10 0.387 m
D10 8 db10 0.258 m

R10

(ACI 12.5.3)

D10
0.129m
2

For images and Detailed drawings of Bar development for the Column please refer to Section IX.
Drawings.

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IX. DRAWINGS

I.

T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
R
e
b
a
r
S
p
a
c
i

29

II.

L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
R
e
b
a
r
S
p
a
c
i
n
g
a

30

III.

L
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
i
n
a
l
R
e
b
a
r
S
p
a
c
i
n
g

31

IV.

G
i
r
d
e
r
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e

32

V.

S
u
p
p
o
r
t
R
e
b
a
r

33

34

35

36

X. APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1.1: CALCULATIONS FOR A G , S LA B ,I X X, S L AB AND S E , S L AB

h 1m

hf .2m

Ag_slab hf be 0.2m

bw .750m

be 1.00m

b h 3
e f 6.667 10 4 m4
Ixx_slab
12

b h 3
e f
Ixx_slab
Se_slab

12
Ixx_slab
hf
2

Girder Calculations
APPENDIX 1.2: CALCULATIONS FOR A G , C O LU MN , I X X, C OL U MN AND S E , C OL U MN .
bc .850m

hc .850m

Acolumn bc hc 0.722m

b h 3
c c 0.044m4
Ixx_column
12

Se_column

Ixx_column
3
0.102m
hc

2

37

APPENDIX 1.3: CALCULATIONS FOR Y B , Y T , A G , G I RD E R , I X X, G I R D E R AND S E , G I RD E R .


h 1m

hf .2m

bw .750m

hw h hf 0.8 m

Agirder1 bw hw 0.6m
Agirder2 be hf 0.91m

hw
y1
0.4m
2
hf
y2 hw
0.9m
2
Ag_girder Agirder1 Agirder2 1.51m

yb

Agirder1y1 Agirder2y2
Ag_girder

0.701m

yt h yb 0.299 m
d1 yb y1 0.301 m
d2 yb y2 0.199 m

b h 3
2
4
w w A
Ixx1
girder1d1 0.086m
12
b h 3
2
4
e f A
Ixx2
girder2d2 0.039m
12
Ixx_girder Ixx1 Ixx2 0.1254m

Sb_girder

Ixx_girder
3
0.1788m
yb

St_girder

Ixx_girder
3
0.42m
yt

be 4.55m

38

APPENDIX 1.4: CALCULATIONS FOR SLAB DESIGN LOADS.


concrete 23.5

kN
m

asphalt 16

kN
m

hasphalt 0.05m

kN
WDC1_slab concretehf 1m 4.7
m
kN
WDW_slab asphalthasphalt1m 0.8
m

kN 1m 1 kN
PDC2_slab 1

kN 1m 4.1 kN
WPL_slab 4.1
2
m
m

APPENDIX 1.5: CALCULATIONS FOR GIRDER DESIGN LOADS.

kN
WDC1_girder concreteAg_girder 35.485
m
kN
WDW_girger asphaltbe hasphalt 3.64
m
kN
kN
WDC2_girder 2 1
2
m
m

kN b 18.655 kN
WPL_girder 4.1
2 e
m
m

39

APPENDIX 1.6: CALCULATIONS FOR THE SLAB DESIGN

Critical Negative Moment Slab - Flexure Check


fc 38MPa

fy 414MPa

hf 200mm

h 1000mm

db4 12.7mm
bw 1000mm

d 144mm

l 1900mm

c 14.61mm

Mu 28kN m

be 1000mm

(38 28) 0.779

1 0.85 0.05

a 1 c 11.375mm
2

db4
886.738mm2
As 7
2

0.25 38MPa
2
bw d 536.036mm

fy

As_min

Cracking Moment of Section


6

fr 0.625 38 MPa 3.853 10 Pa

yt 100mm

4 4

Ig 6.66710

fr Ig
Mcr
25.686kN m
yt

Internal Compressive and Tensile Forces


5

C 0.85fc 1 c bw 3.674 10 N
5

T As fy 3.671 10 N
C T 100 0.082
Error 2

CT

Moment Carrying Capacity of Section


a

Mn T d 50.776kN m
2

(d c) .003 0.027

s 0.005

c
0.9 if 0.42
d
d
c
0.65 0.15 1 if 0.375 0.42
c
d
c
0 if 0.42 otherwise
d

0.9
Mn 45.698kN m

Tesile Dominated Section

(5.5.4.2.1 LRFD)

40

AASHTO Code Checks

Mmin min 1.22Mcr 1.33Mu 31.337kN m

Check1 "PASS " if Mn Mmin

(5.7.3.3.2 LRFD)

"FAIL" if Mn Mmin

Check2 "PASS " if Mn Mu

"FAIL" if Mn Mu

Check3 "PASS" if 0.42


d

c
"FAIL" if 0.42 d

(5.7.3.3.1 LRFD)

Check4 "PASS" if As As_min

"FAIL" if As As_min

Check1 "PASS"

Check2 "PASS"

Check3 "PASS"

Check4 "PASS"

41

APPENDIX 1.7: CALCULATIONS FOR THE POSITIVE GIRDER DESIGN

Critical Positive Moment Case:


Assuming No.4 Stirrup and No.11 Flexural Rebar to get a rough As (design)
and a strength reduction factor of 0.9

fc 38MPa

fy 414MPa

be 3950mm

dclear 50mm db 35.81mm

dstr 12.7mm

db
d 1000mm dclear dstr
919.395mm

.9

Mu 2309kN m
a1

fy

2 .85 fc be

1
671.693 MPa
m

b b 2 4 a c
1
1 1
2
1
559849mm

b b 2 4 a c
1
1 1
2
1
6822 mm

2 a1

smin 50.8mm

bw 750mm

Mu
c1
2566kN
m

1
b1 fy d 380630 kN
m

2 a1

dNo9 28.65mm
2

A No9 645mm

dNo10 32.26mm
2

A No10 819mm

dNo11 35.81mm
2

A No11 1006mm

Assuming Number 4 stirrup

NNo9

bw 2 dstr

NNo10

NNo11

2 d clear s min

8.501

d No9 s min

bw 2 dstr

2 d clear s min

d No10 s min

bw 2 dstr

2 d clear s min

d No11 s min

A No9_max 8 A No9 5160 mm

8.131

A No10_max 8 A No10 6552 mm

7.798

A No11_max 7 A No11 7042 mm

42

Critical Positive Moment Girder - Flexure Check


fc 38MPa

fy 414MPa db11 35.84mm d 919mm

hf 200mm

h 1000m

bw 750mm

c 29.41mm

l 17500mm

Mu 2309kN m

l
3
be min bw 2 8 hf 3.95 10 mm
4

1 0.85 0.05

( 38 28)
7

0.779

a 1 c 0.023m
2

db11
As 7
7.062 10 3 m2
2

0.25 38MPa b d 2.566 103 mm2


w
fy

As_min

Cracking Moment of Section


6

fr 0.625 38MPa 3.853 10 Pa

yt 701mm

fr Ig
m
689.21kN
yt

Ig 0.1254m

M cr

Internal Compressive and Tensile Forces


6

C 0.85 fc 1 c b e 2.921 10 N
6

T A s fy 2.924 10 N

Error 2

CT
C T

100 0.076

Moment Carrying Capacity of Section


a
3
Mn T d 2.653 10 kN m
2

( d c)
c

.003 0.091

s 0.005

Tensile Dominated Section

c 0.42
d

d
c
0.65 0.15 1 if 0.375 0.42
c
d
c
0 if 0.42 otherwise
d
0.9 if

0.9
3

M n 2.388 10 kN m

(5.5.4.2.1 LRFD)

43

AASHTO Code Checks

Mmin min 1.22Mcr 1.33Mu 840.836kN


m
Check1 "PASS" if Mn Mmin

"FAIL" if Mn Mmin

(5.7.3.3.2 LRFD)

Check2 "PASS" if Mn Mu

"FAIL" if Mn Mu

c
Check3 "PASS" if 0.42

"FAIL" if 0.42 c
d

(5.7.3.3.1 LRFD)

Check4 "PASS" if As As_min

"FAIL" if As As_min

Check1 "PASS"

Check2 "PASS"

Check3 "PASS"

Check4 "PASS"

44

APPENDIX 1.8: CALCULATIONS FOR THE NEGATIVE GIRDER DESIGN


Critical Negative Moment Case:
Assuming No.4 Stirrup and No.11 Flexural Rebar to get a rough As (design)
and a strength reduction factor of 0.9

fc 38MPa

fy 414MPa

be 750mm

dclear 50mm db 35.81mm

dstr 12.7mm

db
d 1000mm dclear dstr
919.395mm

Mu 3295kNm
a1

fy

.9

2 .85 fc be

3 1

3.538 10

b b 2 4 a c
1
1 1
2
1
As_design1
96918mm

2 a
1

smin 50.8mm

bw 3950mm

Mu
c1
3661kN
m

1
b1 fy d 380630 kN
m

MPa

b b 2 4 a c
1
1 1
2
1
As_design2
10678mm

2 a1

dNo9 28.65mm
2

A No9 645mm

dNo10 32.26mm
2

A No10 819mm

dNo11 35.81mm
2

A No11 1006mm

Assuming Number 4 stirrup Max number of flexural rebar and Max areas.

NNo9

bw 2 dstr

NNo10

NNo11

2 d clear s min

48.778

d No9 s min

bw 2 dstr

2 d clear s min

d No10 s min

bw 2 dstr

2 d clear s min

d No11 s min

A No9_max 48 A No9 30960mm

46.658

A No10_max 46 A No10 37674mm

44.745

A No11_max 44 A No11 44264mm

NNo.9design

A s_design2
A No9

16.556

Use 17 No.9 bars for critical negative moment

45

Critical Negative Moment Girder - Flexure Check


fc 38MPa

fy 414MPa

hf 200mm

h 1000mm

db9 28.7mm
bw 750mm

d 923mm

c 240mm Mu 3295kN m

be 3950mm
1 0.85 0.05

( 38 28)
7

0.779

a 1c 186.857mm

db9
As 17
1.1 104 mm2
2

0.25 38MPa b d 2.577 103 mm2


w
fy

As_min

Cracking Moment of Section


6

fr 0.625 38MPa 3.853 10 Pa

fr Ig
3
1.616 10 kN m
yt

yt 299mm

Ig 0.1254m

Mcr

Internal Compressive and Tensile Forces


6

C 0.85 fc 1 c b w 4.527 10 N
6

T A s fy 4.553 10 N

Error 2

100 0.582

C T
CT

Moment Carrying Capacity of Section


a
3
Mn T d 3.777 10 kN m
2

( d c)
c

.003 0.009

s 0.005

c 0.42
d

d
c
0.65 0.15 1 if 0.375 0.42
c
d
c
0 if 0.42 otherwise
d

Tensile Dominated Section

0.9 if

0.9
3

M n 3.399 10 kN m

(5.5.4.2.1 LRFD)

46

AASHTO Code Checks

M min min 1.22M cr 1.33M u 1.971 10 kN m

Check1 "PASS" if Mn Mmin

"FAIL" if Mn Mmin

(5.7.3.3.2 LRFD)

Check2 "PASS" if Mn Mu

"FAIL" if Mn Mu

c
Check3 "PASS" if 0.42

"FAIL" if 0.42 c
d

(5.7.3.3.1 LRFD)

Check4 "PASS" if As As_min

"FAIL" if As As_min

Check1 "PASS"

Check2 "PASS"

Check3 "PASS"

Check4 "PASS"

47

APPENDIX 1.9: CALCULATIONS FOR THE SHEAR DESIGN SLAB SECTION

bw 1000mm d 144mm

Vu 28kN

fc 38MPa

1
Vc

6 38MPa bw d 147.946kN

Vc

Case "Case 1 - No Required Reinforcement" if Vu


2

Vc
"Needs Reinforcement" if Vu
2

Case "Case 1 - No Required Reinforcement"

0.75

48

APPENDIX 2.0: CALCULATIONS FOR THE SHEAR DESIGN GIRDER SECTION

Shear Design per ACI-318


bw 750mm

fc 38MPa

d 919mm

fy 414MPa

0.75

1
Vc

6 38MPa bw d 708.137kN

Case1max

Vc
2

Due To seismic loads native to California


Case 1 will be ignored and considered Case2

265.551kN

Case2max Vc 531.103kN

Case3 max 3 Vc 1.593 10 kN


3

Case4 max 5 Vc 2.656 10 kN

567kN
5
Vul
( 6.677m d ) 4.89 10 N

6.677m
kN
5
Vur 918
(10.810m d ) 8.4 10 N
10.810m

Case 2: Minimum Shear Reinforcement


s 2max min

600mm 0.46m

s 2 400mm

bw s 2 38MPa bw s 2
2

279.185mm

( 3 414)

16 fy

Av_min max

Design using 4#3 @ 400mm o.c.

db3 9.525mm

db3
2
Av2 4
285.023mm

Case 3: Shear Reinforcement


s 3max min

600mm 0.46m

s 3 135mm

3 Vc
1 s 3
2
Vc 502.534mm

f
d

A v3min

Design using 4#4 @ 400mm o.c.


2

db4
2
506.707mm

Av3 4

db4 12.7mm

49

Case 4&5: Shear Reinforcement


Does not occur in Design

Locations and # Sets for Cases in Girder


Per the Shear Envelope - Designing for Critical Case 3 and Using Case 2 everywhere else.
x3min

( 531kN 10.810m 918kN 10.810m)


918kN

4557.157mm

Case 3 must be designed for at 4557m from the column or more.


n3min

( 4557mm 50mm)
135mm

1 34.385

Use 35 sets of Case 3 - Stirrups

n3 35

x3 50mm n3 1 135mm 4640mm

Case 2 - starting at 50mm of clear cover from the end of the girder at the support
n2max

( 17375mm 2 50mm 4640mm)


400mm

1 32.587

Use 32 sets of Case 2 - Stirrups

n2 32

x2 50mm n2 1 400mm 12450mm

dx 17375mm 250mm x2 x3 185mm

50

APPENDIX 2.1: BAR DEVELOPMENT GIRDER CALCULATIONS

Bar Development per ACI-318


1450
Vu_neg ( x) 918
x kN
17.075

1450 2

Mu_neg ( x)
x 918x 3295 kN m
34.15

1453 x 824 kN
17.075

1453 2

Mu_pos ( x)
x 824x 1684 kN m
34.15

Vu_pos ( x)

fc 38 MPa

fy 414MPa

bw 750mm d max(919mm923mm)

Bar Cutoff per ACI-318

A s_min max 0.25 fc MPa1.4MPa

bw d
fy

2.577 10 mm

lr 17.075m

(10.5.1 ACI)

Development Length
t_top 1.3 t_bottom 1.0 e 1.0
1

db11 35.81mm

s 1

db9 28.65mm

12 fy t_top e
d 1.501m
20 fc MPa b9

ld_neg

12 fy t_bottom e
d
1.443m
20 fc MPa b11

ld_pos

Top Bars: Negative Moment

Bottom Bars: Positive Moment

(1) Negative Bar Cutoff


Bars Cutting off 11#9 bars- 10 in the flanges and one in the web
2

db9
AsA1 6
3.868 10 3 m2
2

2

db9
AsB1 11
7.091 10 3 m2
2

Mn A1 1283kN m Determined Via MATLAB
xtrB1 2.475m

Extrapolated From Graph

xrB1 max xtrB1 max d 12db9 ld_neg 3.398m


5

Vu_neg ( 3.398) 6.294 10 N

51

1
5
Vc fc MPa bw d 7.112 10 N
6

A v2 279.185m m

A v3 502.534m m

s 2 400mm

s 3 135mm

d
5
Vs2 Av2 fy 2.667 10 N
s 2
V n( x)

0.75 Vc Vs2
0.75 Vc Vs3

d
6
Vs3 Av3 fy 1.422 10 N
s 3

if x 4.690
if x 4.690

V n ( 3.398) 1.6 10 N

Check1neg

Check2neg

"PASS" if AsA1 As_min

(10.5.1 ACI)

"FAIL" if AsA1 As_min

Check1neg "PASS"

"PASS" if A sA1
"FAIL" if A sA1

Check3neg

"PASS" if

"FAIL" if

AsA1 AsB1
3

(12.12.3 ACI)

Check2neg "PASS"

AsA1 AsB1

Vu_neg ( 3.398)
V n ( 3.398)
Vu_neg ( 3.398)
V n ( 3.398)

2
3

(12.10.51 ACI)

Check3neg "PASS"

Negative moment ends @ xp1r

xpir 4.54m
lr

xrAmin max xpir max d 12 db9 xpir ld_neg 6.041m


16

52

(2) Positive Bar Cutoff


Bars Cutting off 3#11 bars, every very other in the in the web
2

db11
AsA2 4
4.029 10 3 m2
2
2

db11
AsB2 3
3.021 10 3 m2
2
Mn A2 1371kN m

Determined Via MATLAB

xtl2 4.9967m

Extrapolated From Graph

xlB2 max xtl2 max d 12 db11 ld_pos 5.92m


5

Vu_pos ( 5.623) 3.455 10 N

V n ( 9.7 5.623) 1.6 10 N

Check1pos

Check2pos

"PASS" if AsA2 As_min

(10.5.1 ACI)

"FAIL" if AsA2 As_min

Check1pos "PASS"

"PASS" if A sA2
"FAIL" if A sA2

Check3pos

"PASS" if

"FAIL" if

AsA2 AsB2
3

(12.12.3 ACI)

Check2pos "PASS"

AsA2 AsB2

Vu_neg ( 5.623)
V n ( 5.623)
Vu_neg ( 5.623)
V n ( 5.623)

2
3
2
3

(12.10.51 ACI)

Check3pos "PASS"

By Symmetry: x.l2 will pass the same checks so no calculations shown.


Bars A per (10.5.1-ACI) & (12.11.1-ACI) need to be embedded 150mm into column.

53

APPENDIX 2.2 : COLUMN DESIGN SAMPLE CALCULATION


Using AASHTO code for Design:
Column Schematic (Idealized version):

h 850mm
b 850mm
gh h 2 5 12

32.3
2

(Calculation of the distance from L1 fiber to L3 fiber)

gh 693.7mm
g .01

Column Analysis (Case 1):

Ast g Ag

Pn Ast fy Ag Ast .85fprime_c


Mn 0MN
Strength Reduction Factor

g .04
2

7225mm

28900mm

26.09MN

34.37MN

0MN

0MN

.65

.65

Column Analysis (Case 2):

Pn Ast fy

2.99MN

Mn 0MN

0MN

0MN

.90

.90

Strength Reduction Factor

11.96MN

Column Analysis (Case 3):

ccolumn .23h

Assumed the value of c at .23*h of the column

a 1 c .779(195.5.5
mm)

.90 since the yield s1 is less greater than .005

a 195.5mm

c
c

1.535 10

h
2

( 1 g) 772mm

54

Layer (1)

s1 (d c) .0085

s1 0fs1 min Es s1 fy

fs1 414MPa

fs2 414MPa

Layer (2):
s2

c .0035

s2 0fs2 min Es s2 fy
Layer (3):

h
s3 ( 1 g) c .0018
2

s3 0a

h
2

( 1 g) c

fs3 max s3 fy 0.85fprime_c


Summing the Forces:

fs 3 327.7MPa
g .01

g .04

1122kN

4487kN

748kN

2991kN

3
Fs1 Ast fs1
8
2
Fs2 Ast fs2
8
3
Fs3 Ast fs3
8

Cc .85fprime_cab
P n

889kN

3551kN

4181kN

4181kN

3200kN

253kN

Summing the Moments:

Mn Fs1 x1 Fs3 x3 Cc xc
gh
x1
3.468
2

gh
x3
3.468
2

h
a
xc 348.9
2 2

2.01MN m

3.73MN m

55

Results with Reduction Factors

P n M n

(2.88MN1.81MN m)

(.2MN3.36MN m)

Column Analysis (Case 4):


3
ccolumn d 289.43mm
8

a 1 c 194.3mm

.003
289.43

1.037 10

The Calculations for these cases


is similar to Case 3.

Column Analysis (Case 5):


ccolumn

cu

cu y

d 463.2mm

a 1 c 360.83mm
b

.003
463.2

APPENDIX 2.3: MATLAB PROGRAM USED FOR LINEAR INTERPOLATION

The linear interpolation of the actual graph was determined through the use of MATLAB code.
clc;
clear;
y1 = input ('y1 value=');
y0 = input ('y0 value=');
x1 = input ('x1 value=');
x0 = input ('x0 value=');
y = input ('y value=');
% x = input ('x value=');
x = x0+(y-y0)*((x1-x0)/(y1-y0))
% y = y0+(x-x0)*((y1-y0)/(x1-x0))

56

XI. HOURS SPENT PER STUDENT


Hours Spent
Luke
Robinson

Alvin
Aguelo

1. References
0

0.5

1
1
1

1
1
1

0
1
1
1

0
1
1
1

2
2
2

2
2
2

0
1
1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

0
0.25

4
0

1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0

2. Dimensions & Section Properties


a. Slab
b. Girder
c. Column
3. Design Loads
a. slab
i. Dead Load
ii. Superimposed Dead Load
iii. Live Load
b. Girder
i. Dead Load
ii. Superimposed Dead Load
iii. Live Load
4. Structural Analysis
a. Slab
i. Model
ii. Load Combinations
iii. Bending Moment Diagrams of Load Combinations
iv. Shear Force Diagrams of Load Combinations
v. Design Envelopes
b. Girder
i. Model
ii. Load Combinations and Factors
iii. Bending Moment Diagrams of Load Combinations
iv. Shear Force Diagrams of Load Combinations
v. Design Envelopes
5. Slab Design
a. Flexure Design of Critical Section
b. Design for Shear
6. Girder Design
a. Flexure Design of Critical Section
i. Negative Moment
ii. Positive Moment
b. Design for Shear

57

7. Development of Longitudinal Reinforcement and Miscellaneous Requirements


a. Slab reinforcement
i. Longitudinal Bar Development
ii. Shrinkage and Temperature
iii. Cross Section Sketches
b. Girder Reinforcement
i. Longitudinal Bar Development
ii. Cross Section Sketches
8. Column Design
a. Interaction diagrams
b. Pn, Mu combinations
c. Design for Shear
d. Longitudinal Bar Development
9. Handrail Base Design

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

2
2
2
2

15

25

10. Drawings
10. Editing/Formatting Report
Total Hours Spent
Luke Robinson
59.25
Alvin Aguelo
58.5