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PHYSICS

Class: O 1
Candidates answer on the Question Paper.
No Additional Materials are required.
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Section A
Answer all questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
Section B
Answer any two questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the Question Paper.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

Total Marks: 100

Total Time: 3 hrs

Section A

Marks: 25

Multiple Choice Questions

2
1

When there is no wind, the engines of an airship push it due north at 20 m / s.


The wind is blowing from the west at 12 m / s.
Which vector diagram correctly shows how the resultant velocity R of the airship is obtained?

B
N

W
20 m / s

20 m / s

12 m / s

12 m / s

20 m / s

12 m / s

20 m / s

12 m / s

3
2

A length of copper pipe, of uniform cross-section and several metres long, carries water to a tap.

2 cm

Measurements are taken to determine accurately the volume of copper in the pipe.
Which instruments are used?

calipers and micrometer

micrometer and rule

rule and tape

tape and calipers

An object moves from P to Q in 10 s with uniform acceleration.


velocity at P = 5 m / s
velocity at Q = 12 m / s
What is the acceleration?
A

0.5 m / s2

0.7 m / s2

1.2 m / s2

1.7 m / s2

A student kicks a ball horizontally along the ground. As he does so, his foot applies a force to the
ball.
At the same time, the ball applies a force to his foot.
How do these forces compare?
A

The force on the foot is equal to the force on the ball and in the opposite direction.

The force on the foot is equal to the force on the ball and in the same direction.

The force on the foot is smaller than the force on the ball and in the opposite direction.

The force on the foot is smaller than the force on the ball and in the same direction.

[Turn over

4
5

The diagram shows an aeroplane turning in a horizontal circle at constant speed.


In which direction is there a resultant force?
A

C
6

A spacecraft travels from the Earth to the Moon.


At a certain point in the journey, it has zero weight.
Why is the weight zero at this point?

The gravitational fields of the Earth and the Moon cancel each other.

The spacecraft leaves the Earths gravitational field.

The spacecraft stops moving.

There is no air resistance on the spacecraft.

A piece of uniform card is suspended freely from a horizontal pin.


Which point is its centre of mass?
pin
A

5
8

An extension-load graph is plotted to show the result of increasing the load on a spring.
Which point marks the limit of proportionality for this spring?

D
extension
C
B
A
0

load

Four different liquids are poured into identical measuring cylinders. The diagrams show the
depths of the liquids and their densities.
Which liquid causes the largest pressure on the base of its measuring cylinder?
A

40 cm
30 cm
20 cm
10 cm
2.0 g / cm3

1.6 g / cm3

1.2 g / cm3

0.7 g / cm3

[Turn over

6
10 A manometer is attached to a gas cylinder as shown.

25
16

gas
cylinder
water

5
cm

What is the pressure difference, in cm of water, shown by the manometer?


A

16

20

25

11 Three objects P, Q and R have different masses and different speeds as shown in the table.
mass
kg

speed
m/s

What is the order of increasing kinetic energy (smallest first) of the objects?
A

PQR

PRQ

RPQ

RQP

12 Which energy resource comes from hot rocks beneath the Earths surface?
A

geothermal energy

hydroelectric energy

solar energy

wind energy

7
13 On a cold afternoon, a house loses 54 MJ of thermal energy (heat) to its surroundings as shown.
thermal energy lost
through roof

thermal energy lost


through windows

thermal energy lost


through walls

thermal energy lost


through floor

The heating system must supply more than 54 MJ of thermal energy to keep the temperature of
the house constant.
Which statement explains this?
A

The extra thermal energy is lost from the house to the surroundings by other means.

The extra thermal energy keeps the house warmer than the surroundings.

The temperature of the surroundings decreases continuously during this period.

The thermal insulation of the roof is extremely ineffective.

14 The temperature shown by a mercury-in-glass thermometer increases.


Which of the following is constant?
A

the density of the mercury

the internal energy of the mercury

the mass of the mercury

the volume of the mercury

[Turn over

8
15 The diagram shows a clinical thermometer.
bulb

mercury

constriction

glass tube

Which factor affects the sensitivity of the thermometer?


A

the constriction

the length of the glass tube

the thickness of the glass in the wall of the bulb

the volume of mercury in the thermometer

16 The length of mercury in the bore of a thermometer is 5.0 cm at 0 C and 11.0 cm at 60 C.


What is the length in the bore when the temperature is 10 C?
A

1.0 cm

4.0 cm

6.0 cm

10.0 cm

17 When a person climbs out of a warm swimming pool on a hot summer day, he feels cold.
Why does this happen?
A

The air has a high specific heat capacity.

The air is a better conductor of heat than water.

The water droplets increase his surface area.

The water takes heat from his body to evaporate.

18 Which row correctly describes the shape and volume of a gas?


shape

volume

fixed

fixed

fixed

not fixed

not fixed

fixed

not fixed

not fixed

9
19 A partially-inflated balloon is placed inside a bell jar. The bell jar is connected to an air pump.

bell jar
balloon

to air pump

The air pump is switched on and air is removed from the bell jar.
What happens to the pressure and to the volume of the gas inside the balloon?

20

21

pressure

volume

decreases

decreases

decreases

increases

increases

decreases

increases

increases

Which row correctly shows examples of a vector quantity and a scalar quantity?
vector

scalar

area

force

mass

density

velocity

acceleration

weight

volume

A reel of copper wire is labelled length 30 m and diameter 2 mm. A student calculates the
volume of the copper wire.
Which instruments does he use to measure accurately the length and the diameter of the wire?
length

diameter

rule

calipers

rule

micrometer

tape

calipers

tape

micrometer

10
22

A student drops a table-tennis ball in air.


What happens to the velocity and to the acceleration of the ball during the first few seconds after
release?
velocity
acceleration

23

decreases

decreases

decreases

increases

increases

decreases

increases

increases

The diagram shows a uniform balanced beam, pivoted about its centre.

P
2 cm

6 cm

2 cm

3N
What is the value of force P?
A

24

5N

4N

7N

10 N

13 N

The diagram shows four shapes, cut from the same piece of card.
Which shape has its centre of mass nearest to the base line?
A

base line

A metal wire, of initial length 1000 mm, extends by 4 mm when a load of 2 N is added to it.
25

What is the length of the wire when a further 3 N is added, assuming that the wire does not
extend beyond the limit of proportionality?
A

1006 mm

1008 mm

1010 mm

1012 mm

Theory Section

Marks: 55

11
Answer all the questions in this section. Answer in the spaces provided.

A swimming pool is filled with 450 m3 of water at 12 C.


The density of water is 1000 kg / m3 and its specific heat capacity is 4.2 J / (g C).
(a) Calculate the mass of water in the swimming pool.

mass = .................................................. [2]


(b) (i)

Calculate the thermal energy (heat) needed to raise the temperature of the water to
27 C.

thermal energy = .................................................. [3]


(ii)

Suggest one reason why the thermal energy supplied to the water by the heating
system, when raising the temperature of the water to 27 C, differs from the value
calculated in (i).
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

[Turn over

12

A girl of weight 550 N is playing on a see-saw with her brother. Fig. 2.1 shows her brother of
weight W sitting 1.1 m to the right of the balance point.
girl

brother

balance
point

550 N

1.1 m

0.86 m

W
Fig. 2.1 (not to scale)

The see-saw is balanced when the girl sits 0.86 m to the left of the balance point.
(a) Calculate W.

W = .................................................. [2]
The girl and her brother slide equal distances along the see-saw away from each other.
(b)

Describe and explain what happens.


..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................

[2]

13

A set of traffic lights hangs from the end of a metal cable. A horizontal chain pulls the traffic
lights to the right so that they are above the middle of the road. Fig. 3.1 shows the metal
cable inclined to the vertical.

metal cable

horizontal chain
traffic lights

Fig. 3.1
The weight of the traffic lights is 240 N.
(a) Two of the forces on the traffic lights are the tension in the horizontal chain and the
weight of the traffic lights.
On Fig. 1.1, mark
(i)

an arrow that represents the tension in the horizontal chain,

[1]

(ii)

an arrow that represents the weight of the traffic lights.

[1]

(b) The tension in the horizontal chain is 140 N. Use a scale diagram to determine the size
of the resultant of the weight and the tension in the chain. State the scale used for the
diagram.

scale = ......................................................
resultant force = ......................................................
[3]

[Turn over

14

Fig. 4.1 shows a boy moving a water container in a wheelbarrow.

water container

Fig. 4.1
The container has a volume of 0.15 m3 and is filled with water of density 1000 kg / m3.
(a) Calculate the mass of water in the container when it is full.

mass = .................................................. [2]

(b)

It is harder to stop the wheelbarrow when the container is full than when it is empty.
Explain this.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

II-B

15

Attempt any four. But Q#7 is compulsory


5

A farmer uses a hydraulic system to operate machinery that is pulled behind a tractor.
Two cylinders and the flexible pipe that joins them contain oil. Two pistons keep the oil in the
cylinders. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 5.1.
flexible pipe
oil

smaller piston

smaller cylinder

larger
piston

larger cylinder
Fig. 5.1

The cross-sectional area of the smaller cylinder is 0.048 m2.


The cross-sectional area of the larger cylinder is 0.14 m2.
The smaller piston exerts a force of 12 000 N on the oil.
(a) Calculate
(i)

the pressure in the oil,


pressure = .................................................. [2]

(ii)

the force exerted by the oil on the larger piston.

force = .................................................. [1]


(b) Suggest why the resultant force on the larger piston is less than the value obtained in
(a)(ii).
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) The smaller piston moves a distance of 0.065 m into the cylinder.
Calculate the work done on the oil by the smaller piston.

work done = .................................................. [2]


(d) Suggest one advantage of using oil rather than air in the system.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Turn over

16

A large test-tube contains wax above its melting point. It is placed in a cool room.
Fig. 6.1 shows how the temperature T of the wax changes in a time of 30 minutes.
80
70

T / C
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24 26 28
time / minutes

Fig. 6.1
(a) Determine the melting point of the wax.
melting point = .................................................. [1]

(b) The test-tube contains 110 g of wax that has a specific latent heat of fusion of 210 J / g.
Calculate the thermal energy transferred from the wax between 3 and 16 minutes.

energy = .................................................. [2]


(c) (i)

State what happens to the wax between 3 and 16 minutes.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Between 3 and 16 minutes, the temperature of the wax is above room temperature
and energy is lost to the room.
Explain, in terms of molecules, why the temperature of the wax remains constant.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

17

Fig. 7.1 shows an electric train of mass 5.5 10

5 kg.

Fig. 7.1
The train is initially at rest. The electric motor exerts a constant force and the train accelerates.
Its acceleration decreases until the train reaches a speed of 40 m / s.
The train then continues at this constant speed.
(a) (i)

On the axes in Fig. 7.2, sketch a speed-time graph for the train.

speed

0
0

time
Fig. 7.2
[3]

Describe how the speed-time graph for the train is used to determine the distance
travelled by the train when it is accelerating.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

[Turn over

18

(b) Explain, in terms of the forces acting,


(i)

why the acceleration of the train decreases,


..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

why the train eventually reaches constant speed.


..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) (i)

Calculate the kinetic energy of the train when it is travelling at a speed of 40 m / s.

kinetic energy = .................................................. [3]


(ii)

As the train accelerates to 40 m / s, electrical energy supplied to the motor is


converted into kinetic energy of the train. The efficiency of this process is 0.40
(40 %).
Calculate the electrical energy supplied to the motor.

energy = .................................................. [2]


(iii)

The electrical energy is generated in an oil-fired power station. Chemical energy in


oil is converted into the electrical energy supplied to the motor.
Suggest two places where energy is lost as heat in this process.
1. ...............................................................................................................................
2. ...............................................................................................................................
[2]

19

Fig. 8.1 shows a skydiver, of mass 70 kg, falling towards the Earth at constant speed, a long
time after jumping from an aeroplane.

Fig. 8.1
At time t = 0, he receives a radio signal. He opens his parachute 12 s later. Fig. 8.2 is the
speed-time graph for the skydiver.
60
speed
m/s
40

20

10

15

25

20

30

time / s
Fig. 8.2
State the difference between speed and velocity.
(a) ..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
The gravitational field strength g is 10 N / kg.
(b)

Calculate the weight of the skydiver.


(i)

weight = .................................................. [2]

State the size of the air resistance acting on the skydiver between t = 0 and t = 12 s.
(ii)

air resistance = .................................................. [2]

For the period between t = 0 and t = 12 s, determine


(c)

the speed of the skydiver,


(i)

speed = .................................................. [2]

20

Alternative to Practical
1

Marks: 20

A student investigates a wooden sphere rolling down a plastic channel and falling to the floor.
The channel is set up at the end of a bench.
The sphere is initially held in the channel at the position shown in Fig. 1.1.
plastic
channel
sphere

bench

floor

Fig. 1.1 (not to scale)


(a) (i)

On Fig. 1.1, mark and label the height h of the sphere above the bench before it is
released.
[1]

(ii)

Describe how the student ensures that the sphere is released from the same point
each time.

..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(b) The sphere is released, rolls down the channel and lands on the floor.
When the sphere leaves the end of the channel, it is travelling horizontally.
On Fig. 1.1,
(i)

draw a possible path of the sphere after it leaves the channel and until it hits the
floor,
[1]

(ii)

mark and label the horizontal distance d travelled by the sphere after it leaves the
channel and until it hits the floor.
[1]

(c) Suggest a method for finding the point where the sphere hits the floor.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

21

(d) With h set at 30 cm, the student repeats the experiment and measures d six times.
The student obtains the following values of d in cm.
68.5

64.0

67.0

66.5

65.0

64.5

Calculate the average distance dav.


Give your answer to a suitable number of significant figures.

dav = ....................................cm [2]


(e) The student repeats the experiment with different values of h. The results obtained for h
and dav are recorded in Fig. 1.2.
h / cm

dav / cm

14

22

10

33

15

45

20

54

25

60

30
Fig. 1.2
On Fig. 1.2, write your value for dav from (d).
(i)

By considering the experimental arrangement, suggest, with a reason, whether


dav = 0 when h = 0.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

22

(ii)

On Fig. 1.3, plot the graph of dav / cm on the y-axis against h / cm on the x-axis.
Start your axes from the origin. Draw a smooth curve of best fit.

[4]

0
Fig. 1.3

(iii)

Another student suggests that dav is directly proportional to h.


Use your graph to explain whether this student is correct.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

23

A student investigates the frictional force on a block of wood sliding along a bench.
The block of wood has sides of length 15 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm and has a hook attached, as shown
in Fig. 2.1.
block of wood
bench

Fig 2.1

Fig. 2.2 is a list of apparatus available to the student.

List of apparatus
block of wood with hook
newton meters with different ranges
1 N, 0.5 N, 0.1 N weights and hangers
thin string
pulley
stands, clamps and bosses

Fig 2.2

24

(a) (i)

The student measures the force needed to make the block of wood just start moving
along the bench. Choosing apparatus from Fig. 2.2, describe a procedure that the student
can use.

...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) Describe one way to make the experiment more accurate.


...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The student now repeats the experiment, varying the surface area of the block of wood in
contact with the bench. State how the student does this with the same block of wood.
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]

Water at a temperature of 16 C enters an ice-making machine and emerges as ice cubes at a


temperature of 5 C. The melting point of ice is 0 C.
(a) Calculate the total energy removed from 1.0 kg of water as it cools from 16 C, changes into
ice, and then cools to 5 C.
specific heat capacity of liquid water = 4.2 103 J / (kg C)
specific latent heat of fusion of water = 3.4 105 J / kg
specific heat capacity of ice
= 2.1 103 J / (kg C)

energy = .......................................................... [3]


(b) Using ideas about molecules,
(i)

explain why energy is needed to change ice into water,

...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
suggest why less energy is needed to change ice into water than to change the same
mass of water into steam.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]