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# NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF IN-CYLINDER

## PRESSURE CHARACTERISTIC OF PORT INJECTION

COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS ENGINE MODEL
Rosli Abu Bakar1 and Semin2
1

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang,

Tun Razak Highway, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Email: rosli@ump.edu.my
2
Department of Marine Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS)
ITS Campus, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Email: semin_ump@yahoo.com

Abstract
The numerical investigation of in-cylinder pressure performance profile of port injection compressed natural
gas (CNG) engine has been investigated using computational model simulation in this paper. In this research,
the computational model simulation and numerical investigation of engine model is using GT-POWER
software. The engine is running in variations engine speeds from 500 until 4000 rpm. The engine research is
focused in investigation the correlation of characteristic in-cylinder pressure performance profile in every
engine speed cases. The output data is collected from the results plots in post processing of the software. The
numerical in-cylinder pressure results of the CNG engine compared to diesel engine are shown in this paper.
The results are shown that the characters of pressure versus crank angle and in-cylinder pressure versus
engine speed of CNG engine is lower than base diesel engine.

## Keywords: CNG engine, GT-Power, In-cylinder pressure, Numerical investigation

1. Introduction
The computational model of CNG engine has been
developed in this research [1]. This research is
focuses in-cylinder pressure performance of single
cylinder four stroke port injection CNG engine
converted from direct injection diesel engine. The
aim is to give an insight into the CNG engine incylinder gas flow pressure performance using GTPOWER simulation model, how the engine model
developed and the components interact. To
determine port injection CNG engine pressure
performance in-cylinder the engine is the essence
of modeling at small intervals time. Appropriate
summation of these gas conditions over an engine
cycle then leads to an estimate in-cylinder engine
pressure performance.
In the port injection CNG engine, fuel is
injected by the gas fuel injection system via intake
port trans valve into the engine cylinder toward
the end of the compression stroke, just before the

## desired start of combustion [2, 3]. The gas fuel,

usually injected at high velocity as one or more
jets through small orifices or nozzles in injector
tip. The gas fuel mixes with high temperature and
high pressure in-cylinder air. Since the air
temperature and pressure are in the gas fuels
ignition point, spark ignition of portions of the
already-mixed fuel and after air a delay period of a
few crank angle degrees. The cylinder pressure
increases as combustion of the gas fuel-air mixture
occurs. The major problem in port injection CNG
engine combustion chamber design is achieving
sufficiently rapid mixing between the injected gas
fuel and the air in the cylinder to complete
combustion in the appropriate crank angle interval
close to top-center [3-8].
Cylinder pressure changes with crank angle as
a result of cylinder volume change, combustion,
heat transfer to chamber walls, flow into and out
of crevice regions and leakage. The effect of
volume change on the pressure can readily be

## accounted for combustion rate information from

accurate pressure data provided of model.
Cylinder pressure versus crank angle data over the
compression and expansion strokes of the engine
operating cycle can be used to obtain quantitative
information on the progress of combustion [9,10].
Suitable methods of analysis which yield the rate
of release of the fuels chemical energy, or rate of
the burning will be described in the paper. The
objective of this research is to investigate the
correlation of pressure characteristic in-cylinder of
port injection CNG engine model simulation
compare with base diesel engine based on engine
speeds.

## 2. Material and Methods

The specification of engine for this research is
presented in the Table 1.
Table 1: Specification of the engine
Engine Parameter

Diesel Engine

CNG Engine

Bore (mm)
Stroke (mm)
Displacement (cc)
Compression ratio
Ignition system
Fuel system
Fuel

86.0
70.0
407.0
20.28
Compression
Direct Injection
Diesel

86.0
70.0
407.0
14.5
Spark
Port Injection
CNG

## In the diesel engine and port injection CNG

engine model development using GT-POWER, a
typical engine is modeled using EngCylinder and
EngineCrankTrain component objects and
Valve*Conn and EngCylConn connection objects.
EngCylinder and EngineCranktrain are used to
define the basic geometry and characteristics of
engine. Both objects further refer to several
reference objects for more detailed modeling

## information on such attributes as combustion and

heat transfer. Cylinder must be connected to the
engine with EngCylConn part made from the
predefined object which available in the template
library. While EngCylConn parts have no user
defined attributes, the global cylinder number for
cylinder is assigned by the port number where the
EngCylConn connection is attached to the engine.
Cylinder are connected to intake and exhaust ports
with Valve*Conn connections. Many Valve*Conn
connection templates are available to define
different types of valve and their characteristics.
To develop of single-cylinder four-stroke port
injection CNG engine model using GT-POWER
software is step by step, the first step is open all of
the selected diesel engine components to measure
the engine components part size. To create the GTPOWER model, select window and then tile with
template library from the menu. This will place
the GT-POWER template library on the left hand
side of the screen. The template library contains
all of the available templates that can be used in
GT-POWER. Some of these templates those that
will be needed in the project need to be copied
into the project before they can be used to create
objects and parts. For the purpose of this model,
click on the icons listed and drag them from the
template library into the project library. Some of
these are templates and some are objects that have
already been defined and included in the GTPOWER template library. Then, the engine
components size data input to the GT-POWER
library of the all engine components data. All of
the parameters in the model will be listed
automatically in the case setup and each one must
be defined for first case of the simulation. Diesel
engine convert to port injection CNG engine
model is shown in Figure 1.

## In the Figure 1, 1 is intake environment, 2 is

intake pipe1, 3 is air cleaner, 4 is intake pipe2, 5 is
throttle, 6 is intake pipe3, 7 is intake runner, 8 is
fuel injector, 9 is intake port, 10 is intake valve, 11
is engine cylinder, 12 is engine crank train, 13 is
exhaust valve, 14 is exhaust port, 15 is exhaust
runner, 16 is muffler, 17 is exhaust pipe and 18 is
exhaust environment. Components 1 to 10 are
intake system, components 11 to 12 are engine,
and components 13 to 18 are exhaust system.
In the GT-POWER, characterization of incylinder pressure performance are pressure versus
crank angle, P-V diagram, IMEP, pump MEP,
maximum pressure, crank angle of maximum
pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise,
maximum temperature, average intake pressure
and average exhaust pressure. The solver of GTPOWER determines the main performance of an
engine simulation based on engine speed mode in
the EngineCrankTrain object in this research.
Speed mode is the most commonly used mode of
engine simulation, especially for steady states
cases [11]. In the research imposes the engine
speed as either constant or by a dependency
reference object. This method typically provides
steady-state results very quickly because the speed
of the engine is imposed from the start of the
simulation, thus eliminating the relatively long
period of time that a loaded engine requires for the
The idealized P-V diagram used to determine
the cylinder pressure [11]. The area of this curve
must match the specified indicated output at the
engine operating condition. The transition point in
the figure marks the transition between the
combustion and expansion segments of the power
stroke. The slope is defined by the following
equation:
V

P Pmax TDC
V

(1)

(2)

## where, P is instantaneous cylinder pressure

between top dead center (TDC) and the transition
point, Pmax is maximum cylinder pressure or
pressure at TDC, VTDC is cylinder volume at TDC,

## V is instantaneous cylinder volume between TDC

and the transition point, m is slope of P-V curve
after TDC, PIVC is cylinder pressure at IVC, Rc is
cylinder compression ratio, is specific heat ratio
and Pcomb is pressure rise due to combustion.
If the P is instantaneous cylinder pressure
(bar) and Vdisp is cylinder displacement volume
(m3), the indicated mean effective pressure (imep),
pumping mean effective pressure (pmep) and
intersection pumping integral (ipmep) in-cylinder
engine is formulated in equation (3), (4) and (5).
imep

PdV

(3)

Vdisp

180

pmep

PdV

180

(4)

Vdisp
Inter sec t

ipmep

PdV

Inter sec t

(5)

Vdisp

## The average intake pressure in the cylinder is

pressure from the first subvolume upstream of the
cylinder, typically the last subvolume of the
component representing the intake port. The
upstream component is attached to the valve that
has the most flow rate into the cylinder when
comparing the mass flow rate of all valves
attached to the cylinder. The value reported in this
research should be identical to the RLT variable
for average pressure in the component adjacent to
the cylinder.
Average exhaust pressure in the cylinder is
pressure from the first subvolume downstream of
the cylinder, typically the first subvolume of the
component representing the exhaust port. The
downstream component is attached to the valve
that has the most flow rate out from the cylinder
when comparing the mass flow rate of all valves
attached to the cylinder. The value reported should
be identical to the RLT variable for average
pressure in the component adjacent to the cylinder.

## In the simulation investigation using GT-POWER,

the results of the engine performance are viewed
from GT-Post plot and casesRLT. The GT-Post
plots results are in-cylinder pressure versus crank
angle and P-V diagram in every cases engine
speed. GT-Post plots results shown in Figure 2
Figure 5. The GT-Post casesRLT results are shows
the pressure performance versus engine speed
cases. The GT-Post casesRLT in-cylinder pressure
results are IMEP, pumping MEP, intersection
pumping integral, maximum pressure, average
intake pressure and average exhaust
pressure.
GT-Post casesRLT in-cylinder pressures are shown
in Figure 6 Figure 11.
Figure 2 shows in-cylinder pressure of port
injection CNG engine simulation investigation
results. The results are shown, that increasing
engine speed will be decrease pressure maximum
in-cylinder for all engine speed operation from
1000 4000 rpm. Figure 3 shows that, the highest
in-cylinder pressure maximum in combustion
process is 71.44 bar in the lowest engine speed in
1000 rpm and the lowest in-cylinder pressure
maximum in combustion pressure is in 4000 rpm
engine speed in 21.05 bar, because in this case the
combustion is in rapidly so the combustion
process is not excellent and unburned fuel is
highest, this phenomenon will be decrease the incylinder engine pressure. In the operating
condition in 1000 rpm engine speed, the
combustion process is most excellent than the
other condition, in the engine speed condition is
not higher and not lower for the combustion of
port injection CNG engine spark ignition. Burned
gas fuel rate in 1000 rpm is most excellent than
the other engine speed and the effect is can be
product higher pressure.
Figure 3 shows in-cylinder pressure versus
crank angle of diesel engine. The lowest incylinder pressure maximum in combustion
pressure is in 4000 rpm engine speed and the
nominal is 72.82 bar, because in this case the
combustion is in rapidly so the combustion
process is not excellent and unburned fuel is
highest, this phenomenon will be decrease the incylinder engine pressure. The highest pressure
maximum in combustion process is 84.0 bar, when
the engine is operated in 1500 rpm engine speed.
In this operating condition, the combustion
process is most excellent than the other condition,
in the engine speed condition is not higher and not

## lower for the combustion of compression ignition

engine. Burned fuel rate in 1500 rpm is most
excellent and product the higher pressure. Incylinder pressure profile of compression ignition
engine is higher than the port injection CNG
engine. This is caused the compression ratio of
port injection CNG engine is lower than
compression ignition engine, where the
compression ratio of compression ignition engine
is 20.28:1 and compression ration of port injection
CNG engine is reduced to 14.5:1. Both of the
engines the pressure in compression ignition is
higher than the pressure in expansion strokes for
exhaust gas from combustion and for air intake
needed to combustion.

Fig. 2:

Fig. 3:

Fig. 4:

Fig. 5:

## Figure 4 shows the P-V diagram in

combustion process of port injection CNG engine.
In the CNG engine, increasing the in-cylinder
pressure will be decrease the in-cylinder volume
and the decreasing the in-cylinder pressure will be
increase the in-cylinder volume. P-V diagram
results are shown that increasing engine speed will
be decrease pressure in-cylinder. From the Figure
4 shows that, the lowest pressure of P-V diagram
in combustion pressure is in 4000 rpm engine
speed, because in this case the combustion is in
rapidly so the combustion process is not excellent
and unburned gas fuel is highest, this phenomenon
will be decrease the in-cylinder engine pressure of
P-V diagram. The highest pressure of P-V diagram
in combustion process is if the engine operated in
1000 rpm engine speed, the combustion process is
most excellent than the other. Burned gas fuel rate
in 1000 rpm is most excellent and the effect is
product the highest pressure and power.

## Figure 5 shows the P-V diagram in

combustion process of diesel engine. The results
are shown that increasing engine speed until 1500
rpm will be increase pressure in-cylinder and
increasing engine speed more than 1500 rpm will
be decrease pressure in-cylinder. The lowest
pressure of P-V diagram in combustion pressure is
in 4000 rpm engine speed, because in this case the
combustion is in rapidly so the combustion
process is not excellent and unburned fuel is
highest, this phenomenon will be decrease the incylinder engine pressure of P-V diagram. The
highest pressure of P-V diagram in combustion
process is in 1500 rpm engine speed, the
combustion process is most excellent than the
other. Burned fuel rate in 1500 rpm is most
excellent than the other.

## Figure 6: Cylinder IMEP

Figure 6 shows the in-cylinder indicated
mean effective pressure performance versus
engine speed profile of CNG engine compare with
base diesel engine. The highest IMEP of CNG
engine is 6.35 bar in 2000 rpm engine speed and
minimum is 2.93 bar in 4000 rpm engine speed.
For the base diesel engine the highest IMEP is
7.52 bar in 3000 rpm engine speed and minimum
is 6.30 bar in 4000 rpm engine speed. The IMEP
in CNG engine is decrease because the reducing
of compression ratio and substitution of diesel fuel
to natural gas fuel for CNG engine from base
diesel engine will be reduce IMEP.

## highest intersection pumping intergral is -0.201

bar in 1000 rpm and minimum is -.0.51 bar in
4000 rpm engine speed. Intersection pumping
integral of CNG engine is higher than diesel
engine, reducing of compression ratio and
substitution of diesel fuel to natural gas fuel for
CNG engine will be increase the intersection
pumping integral.

## Figure 7: Pumping MEP

Pumping Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)
performance of CNG engine compare with base
diesel engine is shown in Figure 7. The highest
pumping MEP for CNG engine is -0.285 bar in
1000 rpm engine speed and minimum is -0.72 bar
in 4000 rpm engine speed. For the base diesel
engine the highest pumping MEP is -0.275 bar in
1000 rpm engine speed and minimum is -.0.74 bar
in 4000 rpm engine speed. Pumping MEP in CNG
engine is higher than diesel engine. The pumping
MEP in CNG engine is increase because the
reducing of compression ratio and substitution of
diesel fuel to natural gas fuel for CNG engine will
be increase the pumping MEP.

## Figure 9: Maximum Pressure

Maximum pressure performance of CNG
engine compare with base diesel engine is shown
in Figure 9. The highest maximum pressure for
CNG engine is lower than the base diesel engine.
It caused compression ratio of CNG engine is
lower than the base diesel engine and the
combustion of diesel fuel is produced highest
power than the natural gas fuel.

## Figure 8: Intersection pumping integral

Figure 8 shows that, the highest intersection
pumping integral for CNG engine is -0.166 bar in
1000 rpm engine speed and minimum is -0.423
bar in 4000 rpm engine speed. Diesel engine

## Average intake pressure of CNG engine

compare with base diesel engine is shown in
Figure 10. The average intake pressure in-cylinder
of CNG engine is higher than diesel engine,
because the natural gas fuel for CNG is injected
via intake port, the effect is increase the average
intake pressure in CNG engine.

References
[1].

## Bakar, R.A., Semin., Ismail, A.R., Ali, I,

Computational Modeling of Compressed
Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for
Diesel Engines, Proceeding 2nd ANGVA
Conference, November 27-29, Bangkok,
Thailand, 2007.

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## Cho, H. M., He, Bang-Quan, Spark Ignition

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[3].

[4].

[5].
Figure 11: Average exhaust pressure
Average exhaust pressure of CNG engine
compare with base diesel engine is shown in
Figure 11. The average exhaust pressure incylinder of CNG engine is lower than base diesel
engine, because the natural gas fuel for CNG
operate in 20.28 bar. The combustion of diesel fuel
in engine is produce higher power and pressure
than engine fueled using natural gas fuel.

[6].

[7].
[8].

[9].

Conclusions
The simulation investigation results are shown
that the highest in-cylinder pressure of CNG
engine is produced in the 1000 rpm engine speed
mode compared with the other engine speed. The
lowest in-cylinder pressure and temperature is
produced in the 4000 rpm engine speed mode
compared with the other engine speed. The
investigation result is shown that the in-cylinder
engine pressure as a function of crank angle
degree for the different engine speed. Base on the
engine speed, the pressure performance
characteristics in-cylinder of CNG engine is lower
than the base diesel engine.

[10].

[11].