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Energy Conservation

in

Air Compressors &


Compressed Air System

Confederation Of Indian Industry


Energy Management Cell

Life Cycle Cost For A Compressor


Initial Cost
5%

Maintenance
Cost
5%

Energy Cost
90%

Air Compressors
Positive Displacement Type

Centrifugal Type

Reciprocating

Rotary

Vertical Type

Screw
(high speed)

(100-500 cfm)
Horizontal
Balance Opposed

Radial
Flow

> 12000 cfm

Advantage: Intake air


can also have some
moisture

(200-5000 cfm)

Axial
Flow

Disadvantage: Oil
carry over

Single Acting, Two Stage Reciprocating


*Filter
Dryer
Compressor

Motor starter

Inlet filter
After cooler

Valve

Inter cooler

Motor

Relief
valve
Trap
(Drain)

Trap
(Drain)

Pressure
switch
Receiver

Trap
(Drain)

Why Inter-cooler?
! Compressed air leaves cylinder at high
temperature
" Density is lower
" Volumetric decreases
! Inter cooling reduces temperature & volume
! Mass of air delivered increases
! Inter-cooler generally saves 7 %

Why After-Cooler?
How much is the energy savings?
A) Savings same as inter cooler - 7 %
b) Higher than inter cooler
c) Lesser than inter cooler

Why After-Cooler?
How much is the energy savings?
! At higher temperature moisture carry
over very high
! Condensed water moves with same
velocity of air
" Damage to instrument valves
" Makes instruments sluggish

! After-cooler saves energy higher when


air dryers are installed

Methodology for Energy Audit


# Is the correct type and size of compressor
being used?
# Is the system efficient?
# What is the required operating pressure?
# What is pressure drop between user and
compressor?
# Is correct type of dryer used?

Methodology for Energy Audit


# Is compressor cooling water monitored?
# Are auto drain valves provided?
# Can compressed air be substituted?
# Are valves provided at the user points?

Optimal Utilisation of Compressors


Background
37 kW compressor in
operation
At present loading - 30%
Unloading - 70%

Power consumption
Unload - 9 kW
Loading - 27 kW

Install 15 kW ON/OFF Air Compressor and Use


Existing 37 kW Air Compressor as Standby
Action
! Install 15 KW package air compressor
! Saves no-load power
! Use existing compressor as stand-by

Rs.

Rs.

Savings - Rs.59,000
Investment - Rs.50,000
Payback - 11 months

Optimal Utilisation of Compressors


# Air requirement - 100 cfm
normal running
# In case of yarn breakage,
sudden demand of 600 cfm
! Compressor

: Screw type

! Capacity

: 600 cfm

! Avg. loading : 17%


(during normal running)

Optimal Utilisation of Compressors


Action
# Installed new air compressor of 125 cfm
capacity for normal operation
# When pressure falls in receiver, screw
compressor to start automatically
Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

: Rs. 5.99 lakhs


: Rs. 1.50 lakhs
: 3 months

Manage Available Facility Optimally


Instrument Air
Compressor
(6.5 bar, 570 cfm)

Refrigerated
Receiver

type
dryer

Average loading:
Load power
Unload power

Brine Air
Compressor
(6.5 bar, 210 cfm)

60%
: 85.2 kW
: 43.5 kW

Receiver

Average loading: 55%


Load power
: 33.7 kW
Unload power
: 15.3 kW

Manage Available Facility Optimally


# Interconnect the two receivers
# Stop Brine compressor

Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

: Rs.4.28 lakhs
: Rs.0.02
: < 1 month

Utilise the Correct Type of Compressor


# Battery of screw & reciprocating
compressors 200 kW capacity
! 2 Screw Compressors
" One 100% Load
" Second 40% Load

! Reciprocating compressor
stand by

# Screw compressor operation


! Load power

= 180 kW (40%)

! Unload power = 60 kW (60 %)

Utilise the Correct Type of Compressor


# Reciprocating Compressor Operation
! Load power

= 165 kW (40%)

! Unload power = 25 kW (60%)

# Operate Reciprocating
Compressor on continuous basis
! Keep Screw as stand by

Annual Savings = Rs. 4.90 Lakhs

Capacity Test (Pumping Method)


Average Compressor Delivery =

P2 - P1
P

. VR .

1
t

P1 = Initial pressure in receiver


P2 = Final pressure in receiver
P

= Atmospheric pressure

VR = Volume of air receiver


t = Time taken for charging the receiver
from P1 to P2

Comparison of Specific Power


Consumption

Reciprocating Centrifugal
FAD

Screw

112 m3/min (3950 cfm)

KW

549

521

650

Specific Power
(kW/m3/min)

4.9

4.65

5.8

Replacement of Inefficient Compressors


# Compressor Pneumatic Conveying
# Design Specifications
! Capacity (FAD) = 20 m3/min
! Pressure

= 7.0 kg/cm2

! Motor

= 120 kW

# 10 year Old Compressor


! Re-boring carried out
! Overhauling done

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Replacement of Inefficient Compressors


# Capacity Test Conducted
! Actual volume (FAD) = 14.6 m3/min
! Volumetric Efficiency = 73%
! Operating Pressure

= 7.0 ksc

! Specific Power

= 6.56 kW per m3/min

# Specific Power Norm - 4.9 kW/m3/min for 7.0 ksc

Replacement of Inefficient Compressors


# Energy Saving potential : 25%
# Replaced with New Reciprocating
Compressor
Annual savings
Investment
Payback period

= Rs. 4.03 Lakhs


= Rs.8.00 Lakhs
= 24 months

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Segregate High-Pressure & Low-Pressure


Compressed Air Users
# Reciprocating Compressors
! 2700 m3/h x 5 nos.

# Compressed Air Generation


! 7000 m3/h @ 7.4 ksc at generation
! Pressure at Receiver 6.0 ksc

# Major users Interlacers & Instrumentation


# Requirement
! 4400 m3/h @ 4.5 ksc for interlacer
! 2600 m3/h @ 6.5 ksc for instrumentation

Segregate High-Pressure & Low-Pressure


Compressed Air Users
# At interlacers PRVs installed
! After PRV pressure 2.2 ksc

# Higher volume required at lower pressure


! Total volume at higher pressure
# Energy Inefficient Method - loss due to PRVs
# Power Consumption Operating Pressure
# Excellent Potential to Segregate Generation

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Segregate High-Pressure & Low-Pressure


Compressed Air Users
# Dedicate 2 compressors for interlacer reqmt.
! Operate at 4.5 ksc
! About 34% pressure reduction

# Dedicate 1 compressor for instrumentation


! Operate at the same existing pressure

# Separate lines laid with PLC control system


Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

: Rs.31.86 lakhs
: Rs.8.25 lakhs
: 4 months

VFD - A New Concept


Advantages
# Operates at Lower Avg. Pressure
! Proportional Savings
# No Unloading
# Less Leakages
! Lower Pressure
# Better Motor Efficiency

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Concept - Conventional Control

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Upper Limit
7.0

Average Pr.
6.5

Ksc

6.0

Lower Limit - Reqd. Pr.

Time

Concept - VFD Control


P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Ksc
6.5
6.1
6.0

Savings Due to
Pressure
Reduction

With VFD
Reqd. Pr.

Time

14

Savings in Unload Power

1500

# Compressors Designed to
meet Fluctuating Load

C
F 1400
M

# Fluctuating Load Leads to


Load / Unload

R 1300
e
q
1200
d

# Lean Time - Unload


# Unload power 15 - 40%

1100

# No useful work

12

24

Time

# VSD Avoids Unloading of


Compressors

Case Study
PIC

6.0 KSC to 7.0 KSC


M
Compressor 1

VSD

Power In

Users

Receiver

M
Compressor 2

M
Compressor 3

4 Compressors in
Operation

Compressor 4

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Install VFD for One Compressor

# VFD For One Compressor


# Constant Pressure of 6.0 ksc
# 4% Savings in all compressors
Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

= Rs.12.00 Lakhs
= Rs. 12.00 Lakhs
= 12 Months

Precautions
Reciprocating Compressors
# Lubrication Oil Pump Connected to
the same shaft

# Lubrication Pump Output Depends


on the Speed
# More than 30% Speed Reduction
Leads to Mechanical Problems

Alternative
# Install Separate Lubrication Pump
# Complicated
# Details to be Studied

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Compressed Air Utilisation in a


Conventional System
Artificial Demand, 20%
System Losses, 20%

Poor Practices, 10%

Production, 50%

Compressed Air System


C
F
Artificial Demand
(rkVA)

Base Demand
(kW)

Total Demand
(kVA)
Time

Reduce Artificial Demand to reduce Total Demand

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PSIG

Compressed Air Pressure


Real Time Data
82
80
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
11:05

12:15

13:37

14:36

15:58

Time

The problem with fluctuating Air


Pressure
$ Higher Energy Consumption
$ Increased maintenance costs
$ Higher operating costs
$ Interruptions in production schedules

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Air In

On Load

Air Out

PSIG

On Load

Air Out

Air In

C/A Bypassed

Air In

On Load

Air Out

Unloaded

Air Out

Air In

C/A Online

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Case Study: Manufacturing Industry


Before Control System
$ Energy Consumed =
11,760 kWh/day
$ Main Header Pressure Variances
= +/- 13 psig

!
!
!
!

Total Project Cost


Energy Cost Savings
Energy Savings
Simple Payback period

After Control System


$ Energy Consumed =
10,329 kWh/day
$ Main Header Pressure
Variances = +/- 1.5 psig

= 20 Lakhs
= Rs. 29 Lakhs per annum.
= 2392 kWh/day ( ~ 19 % )
= Less than 9 months

Install Smart Controller for


Air Compressors
Before
1768 kW/Day average consumption

105

95

85

160 kW
160 kW
160 kW

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Install Smart Controller for


Air Compressors
After
SMART
CONTROLLER

1429 kW/Day average consumption

105

95

160 kW

85

160 kW
160 kW

Install Smart Controller for


Air Compressors
# Energy Savings of @340 kWh/day
# Optimized Pressure of 82 +/-2psig supplied

to the plant
# Full automation of the present Compressor

System
# 18% Energy Savings Achieved

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Install Smart Controller for


Air compressors
Advantages
" Steady operating pressure low bandwidth
" Lesser leakages
" No standby compressor for peak requirement

Install Smart Controller for


Air compressors

Annual savings
Investment
Payback period

Rs 12.58 Lakhs
Rs 15.0 Lakhs
14 Months

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Minimise Leakages
! Common in all industries
! Tricky
! Quantification

God has given abundant air, which is free!!


But compressed air is not free!!

Quantification
! Allow compressor to run normally
! Allow compressed air to flow in the system
! Close all the user points
! Measure the loading and unloading time
! Percentage of loading time is percentage of
leakages

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Leakage Test
# Close all user points
# Charge the lines
# Note: On-load time of compressor (T)
Off-load time of compressor (t)
# Q : Capacity of compressor
Air leakage : L =
% air leakage =

T
T+t

.Q

Air leakage
Compressor capacity

x 100

Cost Of Leakage At 7kg/cm2

Power
Orifice dia Air Leakage
Annual Savings
Wasted
(mm)
(cfm)
@ Rs.3.50/kWh.
(kW)
1.6
6.5
1.26
Rs.35,000
3.2
26.0
5.04
Rs.1,40,000
6.4
104.0
20.19 Rs.4,25,000

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Compressed Air for Calendar Cooling


# Calendar - Maintain at Uniform Temp.
! Cool Air (Chilled Water Cooled) Blown
! Additionally, Compressed Air Used

# Compressed Air - Header at 6.0 kg/cm2


! 8 nozzles of size
! Estimated Quantity - 2000 cfm

# Compressor Rating - 1040 cfm x 2 nos.


! Power Drawn - 140 kW each

Compressed Air for Calendar Cooling


Cool AIr

Calendar

8 Points each of dia hose


Compressed air from Mill air header at 6.0 ksc

Blower
AIr

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Compressed Air for Calendar Cooling


# For cooling operation
! Volume is the Criteria
! Not Operating Pressure!!

# Compressed air Energy Intensive


# Specific Power Comparison
! Compressed air = 15 kW/100 cfm
! Blower air

= 4 kW/100 cfm

Compressed Air for Calendar Cooling


# Replaced Compd. Air with Blower Air
! New Blower
" Rating - 6000 cfm, 600 mm WC, 15 kW

! Increase Nozzle Size to 2


! Increase Number of Nozzles 8 to 16
Annual Savings= Rs.80.00 Lakhs
Investment
= Rs.2.00 Lakhs
Simple Payback= 1 month

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Replace Compressed Air with Blower


Air for Agitation in ETP
# ETP Agitation Very Important
# Compressed air used in several industries
! Highly energy intensive
# 7 ksc pressure utilised for 8 depth tank
! Required pressure 0.5 ksc only
! Quantity consumed 120 cfm
# For Agitation - Quantity is Criteria, Not Pressure!!

Replace Compressed Air with Blower


Air for Agitation in ETP
# Specific Power Comparison
! Compd. air : 15 kW per 100 cfm

ETP

! Blower air : 5 kW per 100 cfm

# Replaced with 7.5 kW blower


! Capacity - 150 cfm
! Head

- 0.5 ksc
Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

Compressed Air Line

: Rs.3.36 lakhs
: Rs.0.50 lakhs
: 2 months

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Replace Pneumatic Tools With Electric Tools


Background
# Compressed air costlier
! Theoretically - 25% more
# In practice much more than that
# 40 pneumatic grinders in a plant

Action
# Replaced 40 pneumatic grinders
Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

- Rs. 6.50 lakhs


- Rs. 11.00 lakhs
- 21 months

Use Transvector Nozzle In Air Hose


# Sucks atmospheric air along with air jet
# Reduces air consumption by 50%

# Compressed air used for cleaning the burrs


# Provided transvector nozzles at the end users
Atmospheric
Air

Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

- Rs. 0.48 Lakhs


- Rs.0.25 Lakhs
- 6 months

Atmospheric
Air

Compressed Air
@ 7.0 KSC

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Install Ball Valves At The User Point To


Avoid Compressed Air Wastage
Background

Existing ball
valve
New ball valve to
be provided

Compressed air
header

Nozzle pipe

$ Compressed air used for cleaning


$ After every 2 minutes operator has to walk 10 to 15 feet to close
valve

Action
$ Provide a ball valve at the end of the pipe
Savings - Rs. 3.6 lakhs

Compressed Air Dryers


Adsorption Type

Dessicant
Heatless Type

Dessicant
Heated Type

Refrigeration Type

Dessicant Heat of
Compression Type

Why Air Dryer?


! Water carryover damaging instruments
! Possible corrosion of receiver and air lines

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Heat of Compression (HOC) Air Dryer


AC2
After-filter

Dry Air (-40oC


atmospheric
dew point)

100%
Service

Saturated Air

Heating

AC1

Heat Of Compression (HOC) Air Dryer


AC2

Dry air (-40oC


After-filter atmospheric
dew point)

100%
Service

Saturated Air

Cooling

AC1

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Comparison of Air Dryers

Type of Dryer (cfm) Capital Cost


Dessicant Heatless
Dessicant Heated
Dessicant HOC
Refrigeration Dryer

Running Atmospheric Pressure Best Suitable


Cost Dew Point oC Drop
for

Low
High
High Medium
High Very Low
Medium Low

-40
-40
-40
-20

Medium
High
High
Low

150
100-750
>500
100

Replace Dessicant Heater Dryer With


HOC Dryer
# Plant had 5 Reciprocating Compressors
! Used for Instrumentation

# Drying by Dessicant Heater dryer


# Dry air requirement - 50 m3/min
# Heater capacity

- 32 kW

# Purge air loss

- 10% ~ 5m3/min

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Replace Dessicant Heater Dryer With


HOC Dryer
Benefits of Replacement
# Heaters eliminated
# No purge air losses
# Required dew point achieved
Annual Savings
Investment
Payback period

: Rs. 7.20 lakhs


: Rs. 14.75 lakhs
: 25 months

List Of Energy Saving Ideas In


Compressed Air System
! Select correct size air compressor
! Operate compressor at required
pressure
! Install VFD
! Minimise system losses - Proper line
sizing
! Replace compressed air with blower air
for agitation
! Replace pneumatic tools with electric
tools

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List Of Energy Saving Ideas In


Compressed Air System
! Provide ball valves at the user point to
avoid compressed air wastage
! Use transvector nozzles in air hoses
! Cool inlet air to the compressor
! Provide sensors to sense unloading
and switch off
! Replace inefficient compressors
! Install high efficiency dryers

Confederation Of Indian Industry


Energy Management Cell

33

Compressor Layout
Loop header most efficient
! Pressure losses are lesser
! Easier to add/delete user points

Compressor Layout
Loop

Unit loop

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Compressor Layout..
Grid

Unit grid

Factors in Distribution System


Pressure drop in supply line
Pipe Normal Pressure Drop
Bore (mm) (Bar) per 100m

Equivalent
power loss
(kw)

40

1.80

9.5

50

0.65

3.4

65

0.22

1.2

85

0.04

0.2

100

0.02

0.1

Air velocity : 6-9 m/s and same flow

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Factors In Distribution System

# Type of valve
! Globe Valves - Very high pressure drop
! Butterfly valve, Gate, Ball valves - Low
pressure drop

# Number of bends & joints to be minimal

Compressed Air Dryers


Adsorption Type

Dessicant
Heatless Type

Refrigeration Type

Dessicant
Heated Type

Dessicant Heat of
Compression Type

Why Air Dryer?


$Water carryover damaging instruments
$Possible corrosion of receiver and air lines
Confederation of Indian Industry

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Air Dryer - Dessicant Heatless Type


Dry air (to process)
Purge air
(12-15%)
(to atmosphere)
in
Service

in
Regeneration

100% saturated air


(from compressor)

Air Dryer - Dessicant Heated Type


Dry air (to process)
Purge air
(2%)
(to atmosphere)
in
Service

in
Regeneration

Purge
Heater
Blower
100% saturated air
(from compressor)

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Refrigeration Dryer
Dry air
15oC
Air, 100%
saturated 7
kg/cm2,
28oC

17oC

2oC
Drain
Refrigeration
Unit

Heat of Compression (HOC) Air Dryer


AC2
After-filter

Dry Air (-40oC


atmospheric
dew point)

100%
Service

Saturated Air

Heating

AC1

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Heat Of Compression (HOC) Air Dryer


AC2

Dry air (-40oC


After-filter atmospheric
dew point)

100%
Service

Saturated Air

Cooling

AC1

Comparison of Air Dryers


Atmospheric Dew
Pressure Drop Best Suitable for
Point oC
High
-40
Medium
150
Medium
-40
High
100-750
Very Low
-40
High
>500
Low
-20
Low
100

Type of Dryer (cfm) Capital Cost Running Cost


Dessicant Heatless Low
Dessicant Heated
High
Dessicant HOC
High
Refrigeration Dryer Medium

Confederation of Indian Industry

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