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Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous

Put each of the following verbs into either the present perfect or present perfect continuous.
1. Why are your hands dirty? - Oh I (work) in the garden.
2. It's nine o'clock. Jack (teach) for 4 hours tonight.
3. I (work) at this company for a long time.
4. Brad (think) poorly of Marsha for a long time.
5. Why are you shaking so? What (you/do)?
6. Lucky Susan she (visit) so many different countries!
7. I (live) in Seattle for 5 years.
8. (you/finish) your homework yet?
9. He (arrive) from Tokyo.
10. I (think) for a long time and I (decide) that you need to give up your job.
11. Nick (buy) a new house!
12. Some of my students (study) English for over 5 years.
13. It's a quarter to nine! I (wait) for over three hours!
14. (ever/drive) a Rolls Royce?
15. I would like to help you but I (just/eat) and I need to take a nap.

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Past Perfect:
There are two past tenses used to describe things that happen before another
point in time in the past. Use the past perfect to talk about an event which
had happened at some point in time before something took place.
o Tom had interviewed five times before he got his first job.
o She had already eaten by the time they arrived.
Past Perfect Continuous:
The past perfect continuous is used to express how long something had been
going on before something important happened in the past.
o Jane had been studying for four hours when he came home.
o Jack had been driving four over six hours when he finally pulled over to
have lunch.
Past Perfect Structure:
Positive
Subject + had + past participle
I, You, He, She, We, They had finished before I arrived.
Negative
Subject + had + not (hadn't) + past participle
I, You, He, She, We, They hadn't eaten before he finished the job.
Questions
Question word + had + subject + past participle
What -> had he, she, you, we, they thought before I asked the question?
Past Perfect Continuous Structure:
Positive
Subject + had + been + verb + ing
I, You, He, She, We, They had been working for two hours when she telephoned.
Negative
Subject + had + not (hadn't) + been + verb + ing
I, You, He, She, We, They hadn't been paying attention for long when he asked
the question.
Questions
Question word (often 'How long') + had + been + subject + verb + ing
How long -> had he, she, you, we, they been working before he arrived?
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Present Simple Every day - When do you get up? / Tom usually eats lunch at home.
Present Continuous Now - She's watching TV at the moment. / I'm not working, I'm
reading a newspaper.
Past Simple Yesterday - They went on vacation last July. / Where did you meet Tim?
Past Continuous Yesterday, at X o'clock They were watching TV at 5 o'clock
yesterday. / What were you doing when he came home?
Present Perfect Since / For - I've lived here a long time. / Have you ever seen that film?
Past Simple vs. Present Perfect I've lived here for many years. vs. I lived there before I
moved to New York.
Present Perfect Continuous Since / For + Time - We've been working since 8 this
morning. / What has she been doing recently?
Past Perfect Already - They had already eaten when she arrived. / Had you finished the
report by the time he asked for it?
Future with Will Tomorrow, Next week - We'll get together next week. / Will you be
able to come tomorrow?
Future with Going to Tomorrow, Next year, semester, etc. - They're going to study
Russian next semester. / Where are you going to stay?
Future Perfect By, By the time - I'll have finished by the time he arrives. / Will you have
done the work by six?
Future Continuous At X o'clock, This time next year, month, week / What will you be
doing this time next year? - She'll be working tomorrow at 10 o'clock.
Conditional Forms If questions - What would you do if you had enough time? / If she is
in town, she'll come to the meeting.
Alternate Conditional Forms
Modal Forms Asking Permission, Giving Advice, etc. - May I help you? / He should see a
doctor.
Modal Verbs of Probability Stating guesses - He must have stayed at home today. / She might
be downstairs.

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IRREGULAR VERBS

be - was/were
become - became
begin - began
break - broke
bring - brought
build - built
buy - bought
come - came
cost - cost
cut - cut
do - did
drink - drank
eat - ate
find - found
fly - flew
get - got
give - gave
go - went
have - had

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keep - kept
know - knew
leave - left
make - made
meet - met
pay - paid
put - put
read - read
say - said
see - saw
sell - sold
send - sent
speak - spoke
spend - spent
take - took
teach - taught
tell - told
think - thought

PRONOUNS
Subject Pronouns - I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they function as the subject of a sentence:

I live in New York.


Do you like playing tennis?
He doesn't want to come this evening.
She works in London.
It won't be easy.
We are studying pronouns at the moment.
You went to Paris last year, didn't you?
They bought a new car last month.

Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them serve as the object of a verb.

Give me the book.


He told you to come tonight.
She asked him to help.
They visited her when they came to New York.
She bought it at the store.
He picked us up at the airport.
The teacher asked you to finish your homework.
I invited them to a party.

Possessive Pronouns - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs show that something
belongs to someone. That house is mine.

This is yours.
I'm sorry, that's his.
Those books are hers.
Those students are ours.
Look over there, those seats are yours.
Theirs will be green.

Demonstrative Pronouns - this, that, these, those refer to things. 'this' and 'these' refer to
something that is near. 'that' and 'those' refer to things that are farther away.

This is my house.
That is our car over there.
These are my colleagues in this room.
Those are beautiful flowers in the next field.

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Possessive adjectives - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their are often confused with
possessive pronouns. The possessive adjective modifies the noun following it in order to
show possession.
I'll get my books.
Is that your car over there?
That is his teacher, Mr Jones.
I want to go to her store.
Its color is red.
Can we bring our children?
You are welcome to invite your husbands.

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PREPOSITIONS OF TIME ( IN / AT / ON )
IN
Use 'in' months and years and periods of time:

in January
in 1978
in the twenties

Use 'in' a period of time in the future:

in a few weeks
in a couple of days

AT
Use 'at' with precise time:

at six o'clock
at 10.30
at two p.m.

ON
Use 'on' with days of the week:

on Monday
on Fridays

Use 'on' with specific calendar days:

on Christmas day
on October 22nd

IMPORTANT NOTES
in the morning / afternoon / evening - at night
We say in the morning, afternoon or evening BUT we say 'at night'

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GERUNDS VS INFINITIVE
Verb + 'ing' OR Verb + Infinitive
When two verbs are used together, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing) or the
infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular
verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes.
Common Verbs + 'ing'

go
enjoy
quit
discuss
mind
can't stand
suggest

Examples:
They go jogging on Saturdays.
I don't mind helping you.
They can't stand driving in traffic jams.
Common Verbs + Infinitive

promise
plan
refuse
want
need
decide
hope

Examples:
I promised to help him.
Alice needs to start that task.
He decided to quit his job.

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MODALS ( SHOULD, MAY, CAN, MUST )


Positive
Subject + Modal + Base Form of Verb + Objects
Examples

He can play the piano.


I must leave soon.

Negative
Subject + Modal + Not + Base Form of Verb + Objects
Examples

They can't visit next week.


You shouldn't go to that film.

Question
Modal + Subject + Base Form of Verb + Objects
Examples

Can you help me?


What should I do?

Giving Advice with Should


'Should' is used when asking for or giving advice. It is also used when asking for
suggestions.
Examples

I think you should see a doctor.


What type of job should I get?

Expressing Ability with Can


'Can' is used to speak abilities.

Asking for Permission with May

Examples

'May' is used to ask for permission.

He can speak Japanese.


Can you play golf?

Examples

May I help you?


May I visit you this afternoon?

NOTE: In spoken English, 'Can I ...?' is often used instead of 'May I ...?'

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MUCH / MANY/ A LOT / A FEW


Countable and Uncountable
Uncountable
Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns. Use both 'some' and any' with
uncountable nouns when speaking about specific objects.
Examples

Do you have any butter?


There is some juice in the bottle.

If you are speaking in general, do not use a modifier.


Examples

Do you drink coca cola?


He doesn't eat meat.

Countable
Use the plural form of the verb with countable nouns. Use both 'some' and 'any' with
countable nouns when speaking about specific objects.
Examples

There are some magazines on the table.


Has he got any friends?

If you are speaking in general, use the plural form of the noun.
Examples

They love books by Hemingway.


She doesn't eat apples.

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Expressions for Use with Countable and Uncountable Nouns


Use the following expressions with uncountable nouns.

most
much, lots of, a lot of
some
a little, little

Examples
There is lots of interest in the project.
She's got some money left in the bank.
There's little time to finish.
Use the following expressions with countable nouns.

many, lots of, a lot of


several
some
not many, only a few, few

Examples

There are a lot of pictures on the wall.


We have several friends in Chicago.
She bought some envelopes this afternoon.
There are only a few people in the restaurant.

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COMPARATIVE
One Syllable Adjectives
add '-er' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel)
remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'ier'
Example: cheap - cheaper / hot - hotter / high - higher
Example Sentences
Yesterday was hotter than today.
This book is cheaper than that book.
Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y'
Example: happy - happier / funny - funnier
Example Sentences
I am happier than you.
That joke was funnier than his joke.
Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives
place 'more' before the adjective
Example: interesting - more interesting / difficult - more difficult
Example Sentences
London is more expensive than Madrid.
This test is more difficult than the last test.
IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS
There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important
exceptions:
good
good - adjective

bad

better - comparative

bad - adjective

Example Sentences

worse - comparative

This book is better than that one.


I am better at tennis than my sister.

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Example Sentences
His French is worse than mine.
His singing is worse than Tom's.

Writing Storms
The best thing to happen to me today
The worst thing to happen to me today
Something funny that happened to me this week
What I really hate!
What I really like!
My favorite thing
A surprise I had
A landscape
A building
A monument
A museum
A memory from childhood
My best friend
My boss
What is friendship?
A problem I have
My favorite TV show
My son
My daughter
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My favorite grandparent
Use of the Passive
The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an
action. Generally, more emphasis is given to the beginning of a sentence. By
using a passive sentence, we emphasize by showing what happens to something
rather than who or what does something.
Example:
Reports are expected by the end of the week.
In this example, attention is called to what is expected of students (reports).
Inversion
Invert the word order by placing a prepositional phrase or other expression (at
no time, suddenly into, little, seldom, never, etc.) at the beginning of the
sentence followed by inverted word order.
Examples:
At no time did I say you couldn't come.
Hardly had I arrived when he started complaining.
Little did I understand what was happening.
Seldom have I felt so alone.
Note that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject which is followed by
the main verb.
Expressing Annoyance
Use the continuous form modified by 'always', 'forever', etc. to express
annoyance at another person's action. This form is considered an exception as it
used to express a routine rather than an action occurring at a particular moment
in time.
Examples:
Martha is always getting into trouble.
Peter is forever asking tricky questions.
George was always being reprimanded by his teachers.
Note that this form is generally used with the present or past continuous (he is
always doing, they were always doing).
Cleft Sentences: It

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Sentences introduced by 'It is' or 'It was' are often used to emphasize a specific
subject or object. The introductory clause is then followed by a relative
pronoun.
Examples:
It was I who received the promotion.
It is the awful weather that drives him crazy.
Cleft Sentences: What
Sentences introduced by a clause beginning with 'What' are also used to
emphasize a specific subject or object. The clause introduced by 'What' is
employed as the subject of the sentence as is followed by the verb 'to be'.
Examples:
What we need is a good long shower.
What he thinks isn't necessarily true.
Exceptional Use of 'Do' or 'Did'
You have probably learned that the auxiliary verbs 'do' and 'did' are not used in
positive sentences - for example: He went to the store. NOT He did go to the
store. However, in order to emphasize something we feel strongly these
auxiliary verbs can be used as an exception to the rule.
Examples:
No that's not true. John did speak to Mary.
I do believe that you should think twice about this situation.
Note this form is often used to express something contrary to what another
person believes.

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Fill in the blank with the correct answer


Name:
1. What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm studying.
do you do
are you doing
did you do
2. ____________ you always ____________ (get up) at 7 o'clock?
Do you always get up
Are you always getting up
Do always you get up
3. ____________ John ____________ (have, got) a motorbike?
Does John have got
Has John got
Have John got
4. At the moment he ____________ (have) lunch.
is having
having
has
5. John doesn't like playing football, but he ____________ (love) playing tennis.
is loving
love
loves
6. Last winter he ____________ (go) by train from Rome to Paris.
goed
has gone
went
7. Mary ____________ (not, be) at work at the moment. She's at home.
isn't being
isn't
doesn't be
8. Next Tuesday my brother ____________ (go) to Rome.
went
goes
is going
9. They ____________ (take) their children to Spain last year.
did take
took
taked
10. What time ____________ he ____________ (arrive) home last Tuesday?
did he arrives
did he arrive
does he arrive

11. He ____________ (work) on the computer at the moment.


is working
works
does work
12. What ____________ they ____________ (do)? They're sleeping.
is they doing
are they doing
do they do
13. When ____________ you ____________ (go) to Rome last year?
you went
did you go
did you went
14. ____________ you ____________ (have, got) any brothers or sisters?
Has you got
Do you have got
Have you got
15. John doesn't like going to the beach, but he ____________ (love) going to the park.
loves
doesn't love
is loving
16. Next Saturday John ____________ (come) to visit his friends.
comes
is coming
will come
17. Peter ____________ (be) on holiday now. He isn't at home.
will be
is
is going to be
18. She ____________ (teach) her husband cooking last winter.
did teach
teached
taught
19. ____________ he always ____________ (have) dinner at 7 o'clock?
Is he always having
Does he always has
Does he always have
20. Last winter she ____________ (drive) to Germany.
drove
drived
did drive
21. ____________ you ____________ (have, got) a good job?
Do you got
Have you got
Has you got
22. Where ____________ she ____________ (study) English last year?

did she study


did she studied
has she studied
23. Mary likes visiting friends, but she ____________ (like) talking on the telephone.
doesn't like
likes
isn't liking
24. She ____________ (watch) a video at the moment.
watched
watches
is watching
25. He ____________ (take) his friend to the theater last week.
tooked
has taken
took
26. Mary ____________ (not, be) on holiday now. She's at home.
isn't
won't be
isn't being
27. What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm playing the piano.
is you doing
do you do
are you doing
28. Next Thursday my sister ____________ (visit) the new museum.
will visit
visits
is going to visit
29. ____________ you always ____________ (finish) work at 5 o'clock?
Do you always finish
Are you always finishing
Did you always finished
30. They ____________ (ride) the train to Sweden last summer.
did ride
rode
have ridden
31. What ____________ you ____________ (do) this evening? I'm doing my homework.
will you do
do you do
are you doing
32. ____________ she often ____________ (telephone) in the evening?
Does she often telephone
Is she often telephoning
Will she often telephones

33. ____________ they ____________ (have, got) a car?


Have they got
Do they have got
Has they got
34. At the moment they ____________ (read) a book.
are going to read
reads
are reading
35. I ____________ (teach) my students about the USA yesterday.
taughted
taught
have taught
36. Jennifer doesn't like working in the office, but she ____________ (love) working at
home.
loves
doesn't love
isn't loving
37. Next Wednesday my brother ____________ (have) dinner at that new restaurant.
is going to have
will have
has
38. She ____________ (fly) to the USA last winter.
flied
has flown
flew
39. Thomas ____________ (not, be) at the office tomorrow. He's on holiday.
isn't going to be
won't been
isn't
40. What ____________ she ____________ (do) yesterday afternoon?
did she do
does she do
is she doing
41. ____________ Thomas ____________ (have, got) a television?
Have Thomas got
Has Thomas got
Does Thomas has got
42. Where ____________ they ____________ (go) on holiday last summer?
did they went
have they gone
did they go

43. Alice loves walking in the countryside, and she ____________ (like) going to the
gym.
doesn't like
like
likes
44. At the moment she ____________ (listen) to some music.
listens
is listening
has listened
45. ____________ he always ____________ (play) tennis on Saturdays?
Do he always play
Does he always plays
Does he always play
46. Mary isn't at work at the moment. She ____________ (be) at home.
is
will be
has been
47. What ____________ he ____________ (do)? He's washing up.
does he do
is he doing
has she done
48. They ____________ (fly) to Mexico last summer.
has flown
flew
did fly
49. She ____________ (ask) her husband to help her yesterday evening.
asked
did ask
has asked
50. Next Saturday my friend ____________ (come) to have lunch with us.
is coming
comes
will comes

Tense
Present

Subject

Helping Verb

Main Verb

Objects / Time / Place

(String)
eat

breakfast at 8 in the morning.

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

am

eat
eats
eats
eats
eat
eat
eat
learning

breakfast at 8 in the morning.


breakfast at 8 in the morning.
breakfast at 8 in the morning.
breakfast at 8 in the morning.
breakfast at 8 in the morning.
breakfast at 8 in the morning.
breakfast at 8 in the morning.
English online right now.

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

are
is
is
is
are
are
are
was

learning
learning
learning
learning
learning
learning
learning
went
went
went
went
went
went
went
went
cooking

English online right now.


English online right now.
English online right now.
English online right now.
English online right now.
English online right now.
English online right now.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
to the store yesterday.
dinner when you came home

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home

Simple

Present
Continuous

Past Simple

Past
Continuous

You
He
She

were
was
was

It

was

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home

We

were

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home

You

were

cooking

yesterday.
dinner when you came home
yesterday.

Future with

They

were

cooking

dinner when you came home

will

come

yesterday.
to class tomorrow

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

will
will
will
will
will
will
will
am going to

come
come
come
come
come
come
come
fly

to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to class tomorrow
to New York next week.

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

are going to
is going to
is going to
is going to
are going to
are going to
are going to
will be

fly
fly
fly
fly
fly
fly
fly
working

to New York next week.


to New York next week.
to New York next week.
to New York next week.
to New York next week.
to New York next week.
to New York next week.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

will be
will be
will be
will be
will be
will be
will be
have

working
working
working
working
working
working
working
taught

at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
at 5 pm tomorrow evening.
English for many years.

You
He
She
It
We
You
They
I

have
has
has
has
have
have
have
have been

taught
taught
taught
taught
taught
taught
taught
watching

English for many years.


English for many years.
English for many years.
English for many years.
English for many years.
English for many years.
English for many years.
TV for three hours.

You
He
She

have been
has been
has been

watching
watching
watching

TV for three hours.


TV for three hours.
TV for three hours.

Will

Future with
Going to

Future
Continuous

Present
Perfect

Present
Perfect
Continuous

Past Perfect

It
We
You
They
I

has been
have been
have been
have been
had

watching
watching
watching
watching
eaten

TV for three hours.


TV for three hours.
TV for three hours.
TV for three hours.
lunch before you came home

You

had

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

He
She
It
We

Past Perfect

had
had
had
had

You

had

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

They

had

eaten

yesterday.
lunch before you came home

had been

working

yesterday.
for three hours before he

You

had been

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

Continuous

He
She
It
We

Future

had been
had been
had been
had been

You

had been

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

They

had been

working

arrived.
for three hours before he

will have

finished

arrived.
the report by three o'clock

You

will have

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

Perfect

He
She
It
We
You
They
Future

will have
will have
will have
will have
will have
will have
will have been

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

finished

tomorrow afternoon.
the report by three o'clock

studying

tomorrow afternoon.
English for five hours by four

Perfect

o'clock this afternoon.

Continuous
You

will have been

studying

English for five hours by four

He

will have been

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

She

will have been

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

studying

o'clock this afternoon.


English for five hours by four

It
We
You
They

will have been


will have been
will have been
will have been

o'clock this afternoon.

Prepositions "With", "Over", and "By"


With
Used to indicate being together or being involved:

I ordered a sandwich with a drink.


He was with his friend when he saw me.
She has been working with her sister at the nail shop.
The manager will be with you shortly.

Used to indicate "having":

I met a guy with green eyes.


Were you the one talking with an accent?
People with a lot of money are not always happy.

Used to indicate "using":

I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.


This is the soup that I made with rice and barley.
He cut my hair with his gold scissors.

Used to indicate feeling:

I am emailing you with my sincere apology.


He came to the front stage with confidence.

Used to indicate agreement or understanding:

Are you with me?


Yes, I am completely with you.
She agrees with me.

Over
Used to indicate movement from one place to another:

Come over to my house for dinner sometime.


Could you roll over?
They sent over a gift for his promotion.

Used to indicate movement downward:

The big tree fell over on the road.


Can you bend over and get the dish for me?

He pushed it over the edge.

Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount:

This amount is over our prediction.


Kids twelve and over can watch this movie.
The phone rang for over a minute.

Used to indicate a period of time:

I worked there over a year.


She did not sleep there over this past month.

By
Used to indicate proximity:

Can I sit by you?


He was standing by me.
The post office is by the bank.

Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence:

The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.


The flowers were delivered by a postman.
The branch office was closed by the head office.

Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose:

You can pass the exam by preparing for it.


I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter.
She finally broke the record by pure effort.

Used to indicate a mean or method:

Please send this package to Russia by airmail.


I came here by subway.

Choose the correct preposition in each sentence.


1) If she left at 4 p.m., she should be here
2) Go
3)

(with, over, by) now.

(with, over, by) there and catch my ball.


(With, Over, By) your determination, you will be able to achieve your dream.

4) I just found it! It was


5) I knocked him
6) She was

(with, over, by) the radio on my desk.


(with, over, by) accidentally.
(with, over, by) me when the accident occurred.

It's important to study the passive voice to place the focus on the object of an action, rather
than than the person doing that action. English students should learn how to use the passive
voice for explaining processes and for business situations. Here are some examples:
Somebody made my car in Detroit. -> My car was made in Detroit.
Somebody painted this beautiful picture. -> This picture was painted by George Smith.
A number of people in company ZYZ have designed this recorder. -> This recorder was
designed by the ZYZ Company.
Study the passive voice below and then practice your writing skills by changing active
sentences to passive sentences. Teachers can use this lesson plan on recognizing the
differences between active and passive sentences.
Passive Voice Grammar
The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action.
The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Particple
The house was built in 1989.
It is often used in business when the object of the action is more important than those who
perform the action.
For Example:
We have produced over 20 different models in the past two years. Changes to: Over 20
different models have been produced in the past two years.
If the agent is important (the person, company or thing that does the action) , use "by"
For Example: Tim Wilson wrote "The Flight to Brunnswick" in 1987. Changes to:"The Flight
to Brunnswick" was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive voice.
Passive Voice StructureActive Voice Passive Voice
They make Fords in Cologne.Fords are made in Cologne.

Present Simple
Susan is cooking dinner.

Dinner is being cooked by Susan

Present Continuous
James Joyce wrote "Dubliners".

"Dubliners" was written by James Joyce.

Past Simple
They were painting the house when I arrived.

The house was being painted when I

arrived.
Past Continuous
They have produced over 20 models in the past two years. Over 20 models have been
produced in the past two years.
Present Perfect
They are going to build a new factory in Portland.

A new factory is going to be built in

Portland.
Future Intention with Going to
I will finish it tomorrow.
Future Simple

It will be finished tomorrow.