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Lecture 4.

Wing Design
What we commonly refer to as the wing is the primary lifting surface of the airplane. Other
airplane surfaces, such as the horizontal stabilizer and vertical stabilizer, are categorized as
wings from an aerodynamic point of view, and embody similar design considerations as the
primary lifting surface.

Wing Definition

The characteristics that define wings are as follows:


Theoretical Wing Area (denoted by an uppercase S) = the total area of the plane bounded by the
leading edge, trailing edge and wing tips. The portion of the wing that may in fact be covered by
the fuselage is included in the theoretical wing area.
Wing Span (denoted by a lowercase b) = the distance between the wing tips, measured
perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the wing.
Aspect Ratio (denoted by an uppercase A) = the square of the wing span divided by the
theoretical wing area (b2/S).
Chord length (denoted by a lowercase c) = the distance between the leading and trailing edges,
measured parallel to the plane of symmetry, at any span-wise location.
Taper Ratio (denoted by ) = the ratio of the wing tip chord length to the theoretical chord
length at the plane of symmetry, called the root chord.
Sweep Angle (denoted by ) = the angle between a line perpendicular to the plane of symmetry
and any line that connects the theoretical root chord and the tip chord at the same percentage
of each (see Figure 5). A subscript is used to denote the fractional chord location. At zero
percentage of chord the sweep angle is called the leading edge sweep (LE) . At 100% of the
chord the sweep angle is called the trailing edge sweep (TE) . The sweep angle at the chord
(25%) commonly appears in aerodynamic calculations and is called the quarter chord sweep
(c/4). The sweep angle at the chord-wise location of maximum thickness is also used in some
calculations. This is denoted by (t/c)max.
Airfoil Section = the cross-sectional shape of the outside mold line (OML) obtained when the
wing is cut by a plane parallel to the plane of symmetry at any span-wise location. Airfoil
sections are characterized by their thickness ratio, the chord wise location of maximum
thickness, the percentage of camber and chord wise location of maximum camber (see Figure
1). Thickness ratio is the maximum thickness of the airfoil section divided by the chord length.
Camber is the percentage, referenced to the chord length, of the maximum difference in height
between the airfoil mean line and the chord line.

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Leading edge radius


fractional chord location of maximum thickness

Camber Line

Thickness form

maximum camber
fractional chord location of maximum camber
Final airfoil shape

Chord line

Figure 1. Airfoil Parameters


The NACA 4-digit, modified 4-digit, 5-digit, modified 5-digit, 63-, 64- 65- 66- and 63A, 64A and
65A series of airfoils are constructed using families of camber lines and thickness forms that are
combined by superimposing a thickness form over a camber line, as shown in Figure 1. The
chord line of the airfoil is always, by convention, the reference line for the airfoil angle of attack
(AoA). A wing does not necessarily have to use the same airfoil section from root to tip. For
example, many airplane wings use thinner sections (smaller thickness ratio) at the tip than at
the root to reduce parasite drag.
Twist: It is sometimes beneficial to rotate the airfoil sections of the wing at different span-wise
distances to different angles with respect to the root chord line. This is called twisting the wing.
Twist angle is denoted by the symbol , and is positive when the twisted section is at higher
angle than the root and negative when it is at a smaller angle than the root, as shown in Figure
2. Twisting the wing such that the number of degrees of twist per unit span is a constant is
called linear twist. Positive twist is called wash-in and negative twist is called wash-out.

Root airfoil section

Outboard airfoil section

Figure 2. Wing Twist (negative twist = washout is shown)


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When a wing is twisted, the airfoil sections are almost always rotated about the same constant
percentage of chord line at each span-wise station.
Aerodynamic Twist: Using different airfoil sections at the root and tip can have the same effect
as the geometric twist described above. If the tip airfoil has a smaller value of zero-lift angle of
attack (i.e., a more negative value) the effect is the same as washing out the wing with a twist
angle equal to the difference in zero-lift angles-of-attack, denoted 0L , of the root and tip. The
amount of camber determines the magnitude of 0L; i.e, more camber yields a larger negative
value.
Dihedral Angle = the angle between the horizontal plane (xy plane of the aircraft in aircraft fixed
coordinates) and the projection of the quarter chord sweep line. Dihedral is denoted using the
symbol and is positive as depicted in Figure 5 (wing tip chord higher than the wing root chord).
Negative dihedral angle is also referred to as anhedral.
Aileron = a moveable portion of the wing trailing edge that is used primarily for control of the
aircraft roll attitude. The aileron pivots about a hinge line that is usually at constant sweep
angle. The hinge line is typically at the 65% to 80% chord location.
Deceleron = a type of aileron, developed in the late 1940s by Northrop originally for use on the
F-89 Scorpion fighter aircraft. It is a two-part aileron that can be deflected as a unit to provide
roll control, or split open to act as an air brake. Decelerons are also used on the FairchildRepublic A-10, and the Northrop's B-2 Spirit bomber aircraft.
High lift device = an addition to the wing that increases its maximum lift coefficient. Examples
are leading and trailing edge flaps, slats and slots. The elevator on a horizontal stabilizer and the
rudder on a vertical stabilizer fall into the category of a particular type of flap known as a "plain"
flap. The Appendix to this lecture describes the most commonly used types of high lift devices.
Trim tab = an adjustable small portion of a larger control surface (rudder, elevator or aileron, as
shown in the illustration below) used to trim the controls, i.e. to counteract aerodynamic or
other unbalanced forces in the desired attitude without the need for the pilot to constantly
apply a control force. This is accomplished by adjusting the angle of the tab relative to the larger
surface.

Changing the setting of a trim tab adjusts the neutral or resting position of a control surface. As
the desired position of a control surface changes (corresponding mainly to different speeds or
migration of the airplane center of gravity), an adjustable trim tab will allow the operator to
reduce the manual force required to maintain that position (to zero, if used correctly). The trim
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tab angle relative to the main control surface stays locked in position (until it is adjusted again)
even when the control surface is deflected.
Flap = a moveable portion of the wing leading or trailing edge that increases the wing's
maximum lift coefficient.
Flaperon = A nearly full-span trailing edge flap that functions both as a high-lift device and a roll
control device (aileron).
Spoiler = a device intended to reduce lift. Spoilers are a portion of the top surface of a wing that
can pivot upward into the airflow. By so doing, the spoiler creates a controlled stall over the
portion of the wing behind it, greatly reducing the lift of that section of the wing. Spoilers differ
from airbrakes in that airbrakes are designed to increase drag without regard to the affect on
lift, while spoilers are intended to reduce lift (but will also increase drag). Spoilers are used by
nearly every glider (sailplane) to control their rate of descent and to achieve a controlled landing
at a desired spot. Spoilers are also used on large airliners to augment low speed roll control and
provide additional drag during the ground roll after landing.
Wing Glove = a tapered extension of the wing root that is added to the wing in close proximity
to the fuselage (see Figure 3). Wing gloves are sometimes incorporated in a design to provide
additional volume for landing gear retraction or fuel, or to provide additional structural strength
for main landing gear attachment in the case of a tail dragger (e.g., the Clutton-Tabenor EC 2).
Since the need for a glove will not be evidenced until other design considerations are addressed
it is generally not included in the initial layout of the baseline configuration. Hence, the glove is
not included in the theoretical wing area.

Wing Glove

Figure 3. Wing Glove


Yehudi = an extension of a section of the inboard wing trailing edge sometimes employed on
moderately swept wings to provide additional structure for main landing gear attachment on
low wing, tricycle gear configurations. This is illustrated in Figure 4.

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Yehudi

Figure 4. The Yehudi


Many commercial jet transports employ the Yehudi in order to achieve the required main
landing gear track (i.e., distance between the main landing gear wheels). The Boeing 747,
Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnel Douglas MD-80 are just a few examples. Since the need for a
Yehudi will not be evidenced until the landing gear is integrated with the design it is generally
not included in the initial layout of the baseline configuration. Hence, the Yehudi is not included
in the theoretical wing area.
Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC, denoted by c ) = the chord length of an "equivalent"
rectangular (constant chord) plan form that produces the same pitching moment as a wing with
a plan form of any arbitrary shape.

1
SC L

b / 2

2
c l c dy

b / 2

where

CL

1 b / 2
c l c dy
S b / 2

Wing tip = an aerodynamic fairing that provides a smooth, streamlined transition from the
upper to lower surfaces of the wing at the tip. Wing tips will always incorporate the right-of-way
running lights, a red light on the port side and a green light on the starboard side (this is the
same international convention used for boats and ships). The volume afforded by the wing tip
can also be used for other equipment if required. Wing tips can also take the form of winglets
which are sections of wing that extend vertically upwards (see for example the Gulfstream II).
Winglets can improve the span efficiency (reduce induced drag) but they also increase the zero
lift drag. Winglet design requires analysis using CFD codes and/or wind tunnel testing for
optimization.
Wing Incidence = the angle subtended by the wing root chord line and the aircraft horizontal
reference line (HRL). The HRL will be established by the designer when laying out the general
arrangement drawing of the airplane. It is the line to which the airplane AoA is measured and is
always parallel to the x-axis of the airplane-fixed (stability) axes system. Wing incidence is
usually incorporated to minimize the total airplane drag during the portion of the mission profile
that exhibits the highest fuel consumption (e.g., the cruise leg of a transport airplane's mission).

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Wing Geometries

Straight Tapered Wings:


Straight tapered wings have a symmetric plan form (top view) that has continuous straight
leading and trailing edges such that each half-panel forms a trapezoid, as shown in Figure 5. This
type of wing plan form is exhibited by the vast majority of aircraft flying today.

Figure 5. The Straight Tapered Wing


Straight tapered wing formulas
Taper Ratio:

ct
,
cr

cr the root chord length and ct the tip chord length

Wing Area:

S 12 (c r c t )b 12 c r (1 )b

Aspect Ratio:

b2
S

Mean aerodynamic chord: For preliminary airplane layouts the mean aerodynamic chord is
calculated under the assumption that cl = CL across the entire span.

1
c
SCL

b / 2

b / 2

1
2c

cl c dy
c 2 dy r 1

S b / 2
3
1
b / 2
2

Span-wise location of the MAC:


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yMAC

1 2 b

3(1 ) 2

For preliminary design the MAC and its span wise location are useful for a first cut estimate of
the wings aerodynamic center location. For straight tapered wings the chord length at yMAC will
be equal to the MAC. A first approximation to the location of the aerodynamic center of the
wing is the point at 25% of the MAC, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. First Estimate of the Wing Aerodynamic Center

Average chord:

cave

S 1
(ct cr ) 12 cr (1 )
b 2

Chord at any fractional span location:

c( ) cr 1 1 where y /(b / 2)
Sweep Conversion Formula:

tan p 2 tan p1

4(1 )
p2 p1
(1 ) A

where p1 = the fractional chord location of p1 and p2= the fractional chord location of p2. This
is a useful formula, since sweep angles at various percentages of the chord will appear in
formulas used to calculate aerodynamic coefficients.
Combined Straight Tapered Wings
Combined straight tapered wings, also called cranked wings, consist of two straight taper
wings joined at a common span-wise location but having different taper ratios and/or sweep
angles, as shown in Figure 7.

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Figure 7. Cranked Wing

Cranked wings are generally employed for subsonic-supersonic aerodynamic center


management or, in the case of a canard configuration, to achieve constructive interference
between the canards downwash and the wings upwash (e.g., the Saab Viggin).
Cranked planforms that exhibit a rectangular inboard section and a tapered section beyond
some span-wise location are often incorporated when additional volume is required for fuel
and/or to achieve better structural characteristics (thickness) at the wing root. The A-10 is an
example in which both additional strength and volume were required. There are many utility
aircraft that also exhibit such a planform (e.g., the Cessna Skylane and Robin R3140).
Combined Straight tapered wing formulas
The equations provided above for straight tapered wings are valid for each section of a
combined tapered wing. The total wing area is the sum of the areas of each section(S = S1 + S2).
The combined MAC is calculated using the following formula:

MAC

( MAC )1 S1 ( MAC ) 2 S2
S

The span-wise location of the MAC is given by;

y MGC

y1S1 y 2 S 2
S

where y is the distance to the MAC measured from the plane of symmetry of the wing. Cranked
wings are not characterized by a single taper ratio or sweep angle. The MAC will line up exactly
with the leading and trailing edges at the span-wise location yMAC for a straight tapered wing.
Hence, the MAC can be located precisely with respect to the wing planform and the wing
aerodynamic center can be determined at 25% of the MAC, as indicated above. This is not true
of cranked wings. The MAC will not line up exactly with the leading and trailing edges of the
wing at the calculated value of yMAC. The location of the aerodynamic center location must be
calculated. The formula is:

xac

( xac )1 S1 ( xac ) 2 S2
S

For convenience, values of xac are referenced to the wing vertex (i.e., at the LE of the inboard
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root chord). (xac)1 is the distance from the wing vertex to 25% of MAC1 and (xac)2 is the distance
from the wing vertex to 25% of MAC2. Thus, if d is the distance from the plane of symmetry to
the end of the first panel:

( xac )1 ( yMAC )1 tan( LE )1 0.25MAC1


( xac )1 d tan( LE )1 [( yMAC ) 2 d ] tan( LE ) 2 0.25MAC2
Curved Wings
Curved wings exhibit a planform having curvilinear leading and/or trailing edges. An elliptic wing
planform is one example of a curved wing. Curved wings are generally only used to achieve
optimum area ruling for supersonic cruise aircraft (e.g., the Concorde). The wing area and MAC
are evaluated using the integral relationships given above. For an elliptic planform the integrals
can be analytically evaluated yielding MAC = 0.85cr and yMAC = 0.53b/2 where cr is the minor axis
and b is the major axis. The aerodynamic center of a curved wing can be approximated by
breaking the wing down into trapezoidal elements such that the leading and trailing edges of
each trapezoid are closely aligned with the actual curved leading and trailing edges. An example
is shown below.

The equations for a cranked wing are then generalized for the multiple panels thus obtained.
Hence;
n

S Si
i 1

MAC MACi Si / S
i 1

yMAC yMACi Si / S
i 1

xac xaci Si / S
i 1

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Wing Planform Design


At the conclusion of the first conceptual design phase, the wing is only characterized by its area
and aspect ratio. All other characteristics need to be defined for baseline configuration layout.
The step-by-step process used to determine those characteristics is described in the following
text.
1. If the airplane is a flying wing then the wing must have sufficient volume to carry all
fixed equipment, the propulsion system, fuel and payload. This will have a significant
impact on the wing layout and should be considered first. For example, flying wings will
usually require the use of fairly thick airfoil sections (20 to 25%) near the root with a
moderate to high taper ratio (0.6 to 0.3) to increase the root chord length. A moderate
amount of sweep is also required for longitudinal stability and control purposes.
2. If the airplane is not a flying wing, then decide on the wing/fuselage arrangement, i.e.;
high, mid or low wing. The operational scenario will generally have the most significant
influence on this decision and usually takes priority over all other considerations, as
discussed previously. Refer to the sketches generated at the end of the conceptual
design phase.
3. Decide whether or not the wing will be braced. Bracing the wing will lead to a lighter
wing structure and may allow one to use thinner airfoil sections, but bracing also results
in increased parasite and interference drag. Hence, braced wings are primarily used on
low speed airplanes. The tradeoff between wing weight and the additional drag incurred
with bracing is usually favorable below about 200 knots.
4. Select the quarter-chord sweep angle and the airfoil thickness ratio. Quarter-chord
sweep and airfoil thickness ratio can have a significant impact on the drag rise
associated with high subsonic and supersonic cruise speeds. If the airplane will cruise
above Mach 0.65, the wing will require moderate to high quarter-chord sweep and as
thin an airfoil as is practical. The cruise lift coefficient ( C L ) is also an important
Cruis e

factor. Use the value of CL

Cr uis e

determined during conceptual design. Figures 8a-c should

be used to determine the quarter-chord sweep required for the selected thickness ratio
and a critical Mach number that is at least 5% greater than the cruise Mach number.
Calculation of the airfoil critical Mach number when experimental airfoil data are
available is further elaborated upon in the Addenda to this lecture. If the wing has an
aspect ratio less than 6, use Figures 9a and 9b to correct the critical Mach number
obtained from Figures 8a-c. The drag divergence Mach number will be roughly 0.05
higher than the critical Mach number if conventional airfoils are used. If a supercritical
airfoil is used, the increment to the critical Mach number can be obtained from Figure
10. Historical data on airfoil thickness ratio and aspect ratio by airplane category is
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Typical Wing Average Thickness Ratio and Aspect Ratio

Airplane Category

Typical (t/c)

Homebuilt
Single Eng Piston-Prop
Twin Eng Piston-Prop
Business Jet
Regional Turboprop

12% - 15%
12% - 15%
15% - 18%
9% - 12%
15% - 18%

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Typical Aspect Ratio


3.8 9.0
6.2 7.5
7.2 9.5
5.5 9.2
8.6 12.3
Page 10

Jet Transport
Military Trainer
Fighter (Gound Attack)
Fighter (Air-to-Air)
Mil Bomber/Trnspt (TBP)
Mil Bomber/Trnspt (Jet)
Flying Boat
Supercruiser

10% - 12%
9% - 13%
13% - 15%
3% - 4.5%
13% - 15%
12% - 14%
15% - 18%
2.5% - 5%

6.9 9.2
5.4 9.3
5.0 7.0
2.0 3.8
7.6 12.0
6.2 9.4
6.4 10.0
1.6 4.0

1.0

(t/c)=0.04
0.06

0.9

0.08

MCR

0.10
0.12

0.8

CL= 0
A 6

0.14

0.7

10

20

30

40

50

60

(c/4) (degrees)

(8a) CL=0
1.0

(t/c)=0.04

0.9

0.06
0.08

MCR

0.10

0.8
0.12
CL= 0.2
A 6

0.14
0.7

10

20

30
40
(degrees)
(c/4)

50

60

(8b) CL=0.2

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1.00
0.95
0.90

(t/c)=0.04
0.06

0.85

MCR

0.08

0.80

0.10

0.75

0.12

0.70

0.14

0.65
0

10

CL= 0.4
A 6
20

30

40

50

60

(c/4) (degrees)

(8c) CL=0.4
Figure 8. Critical Mach No. vs. Quarter-chord Sweep and Airfoil Thickness Ratio
0.04
= 10

(c/4)

0.03

CL= 0.2

MCR
0.02
20

0.01
0

30
45

(9a) CL=0.2
0.03

0.02

CL= 0.4

MCR

= 10

(c/4)

0.01
20

0
2

45

(9b) CL=0.4
Figure 9. Critical Mach No. correction for A<6
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0.88
G 8050-046

CL= 0.5

0.84

0.80

State-of-the-Art
Supercritical
Airfoils

64A406

MDD
0.76
66-210

0.72

Conventional
Airfoils

0.68

NA Rockwell
NASA
NACA
Northrop

0.64
0.04

0.06

0.08

64A211
64A412

65-215

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

(t/c)

Figure 10. Drag Divergence Mach Number for Conventional and Supercritical Airfoils

5. Decide which airfoil to use. There are literally an infinite number of airfoils to choose
from. An excellent reference for NACA sections is a book by I.H. Abbot and A.E. von
Doenhoff entitled Theory of Wing Sections. A spreadsheet entitled "Airfoil
Coordinates Calculator" will calculate the coordinates of airfoils discussed in that
reference has been provided with the course material. In addition, there are modern
computational airfoil design tools (such as XFOIL) that can be used to design an airfoil
for a specific application. In selecting or designing an airfoil, the designer must consider
the following Important section characteristics:
a. Section drag coefficient at the section design lift coefficient
b. Section critical Mach number. As indicated above, the wing critical Mach
number will be less than the section critical Mach number when the wing is
swept. The values in Figures 8a-c at zero quarter-chord sweep are the section
critical Mach number.
c. Section pitching moment coefficient about the quarter-chord. In general, the
more camber an airfoil has the higher the pitching moment will be. Higher
values of airfoil pitching moment will result in higher zero lift drag coefficient
when the airplane is trimmed longitudinally (i.e., the pitching moment is zeroed
out). This increment to the drag coefficient is therefore known as the "trim
drag".
In addition, the airfoil selected for the wing should exhibit characteristics that are
consistent with the airplanes operational scenario and mission profile. Airfoil
characteristics should be evaluated at the Reynolds and Mach numbers consistent with
the speed and altitude that are driving the design (i.e., mission segments that consume
the most fuel). Table 2 is a guide to the desired airfoil characteristics based upon the
design driver.

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Table 2. Guide to Airfoil Selection


Desired Airfoil Characteristic Suggested for initial selection

Design Driver
High aerobatic capability
Long Range Propeller driven
Long Range - Jet

Low drag, symmetrical lift curve


High L/D

Long Endurance
Propeller driven
Long Endurance
Jet
High Speed

High L /D

High Maneuverability

Low zero lift drag coef. High


max. lift coef.

1/2

High L /D
3/2

High L/D

Symmetrical 5-digit or 6-series


Moderate camber
4 or 5-digit or 6-series
Low camber
4- or 5-digit or 6-series
High camber 4-digit or 6-series
Moderate camber
4-or 5-digit or 6-series
Thin section with little or no
camber
6-series with moderate camber

Low zero lift drag coef.

6. Decide on the wing taper ratio. The primary considerations are span (Oswalds)
efficiency, the span wise location at which the wing begins to stall and the wing's
structural weight. Span efficiency can be improved with taper down to a value of 0.35 or
less, depending on the amount of sweep. From a structural point of view, consider the
span loadings shown in Figure 11. Note that taper causes the wing loading to shift
toward the root, which is beneficial since this reduces the root bending moment and the
amount of structure required at the root.
1.4

1.2

clc/cave CL

0.8
Taper=1.0

0.6

Taper=0.3

0.4
0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

y/(b/2)

Figure 11. Effect of taper on wing loading

On the negative side, more taper results in lower tip Reynolds number that could result
in the flow near the wing tip stalling first. This is very undesirable since this is where the
aileron, the primary roll control surface, will be located. Figure 12 illustrates the effect
of taper on the span wise distribution of lift coefficient. Note that taper causes the local
lift coefficient to peak out at around 80% of the span. Hence, this is where the wing will
begin to stall first. This location is likely to be in the vicinity of the aileron and the onset
of stall at this location is therefore highly undesirable.

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1.4

1.2
1

cl

0.8
Taper=1.0

0.6

Taper=0.3

0.4
0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

y/(b/2)

Figure 12. Effect of taper on the spanwise distribution of lift coefficient

One can favorably augment the span loading and the distribution of lift coefficient by
twisting the wing so that the tip section is at lower incidence than the root (negative
twist angle = wash out). This is illustrated in Figure 13.
Effect of Washout on Wing Loading

Effect of Washoiut on Local Lift Coefficient

1.6

1.2

1.4

1
0.8

1
0.8

cl

clc/caveCL

1.2

Washout=0

0.6

Washout=3

0.4

0.6

Washout=0

0.4

Washout=3

0.2

0.2

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6
y/(b/2)

0.8

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

y/(b/2)

Figure 13. Effect of washout on span loading and lift coefficient

Washout further shifts the wing loading toward the root and shifts the location of
maximum local lift coefficient toward the root (away from the aileron) as well. Note
however that wash out also increases the wings zero lift drag.
The data in Table 3 can be used as a guide for the initial selection of taper ratio.
Table 3. Taper Ratio Distribution by Airplane Category
% with Taper Ratio in the range
Airplane Category
0 to .2 .21 to .4 .41 to .6 .61 to 1.0
Homebuilt
0
0
38
62
Single engine prop
0
0
33
67
Twin engine prop
0
35
24
41
Business Jets
0
82
18
0
Regional Turboprops
0
20
70
10
Jet transports
12
88
0
0
Military Trainers
6
18
71
6
Fighters
24
53
12
12
Military Bomber/transport
0
67
33
0
Flying Boat/Amphibious
0
31
31
38
Supersonic Cruise
67
33
0
0
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7. The wing planform can now be laid out. Calculate the wing span and the root and tip
chords using the equations presented previously. Also calculate the leading edge sweep
using the sweep conversion formula with p2 = 0 and p1 = .25:

4(1 )
0 0.25) arctan tan (c / 4) (1 )
LE arctan tan ( c / 4 )
(1 )A
(1 )A

The procedure for laying out the wing planform is illustrated in Figure 14, where lines
are numbered to indicate the sequence.
1) Draw a vertical line equal in length to the root chord.
2) Draw a line parallel to the root chord at a distance b/2 from it.
3) Draw a line at the leading edge sweep angle starting at the leading edge of the
root chord line. Alternatively one can locate the point on line 2 that is a
distance (b/2)tanLE aft of the root leading edge and connect the root leading
edge and this point.
4) Locate a point on the second line a distance equal the tip chord aft from the
intersection of the leading edge (line 3) and line 2.
5) Draw the final line (the trailing edge) by connecting the trailing edge of the tip
chord and the trailing edge of the root chord.
6) Trim line 2 at the leading and trailing edges.
7) Mirror the lines about the root chord.

Figure 14. Wing Layout Illustration

8. Verify the clean wing maximum lift coefficient. The sizing analysis performed during
conceptual design required that the clean airplane CLmax be specified. Now that the wing
geometry and airfoil section have been selected the clean wing value of the maximum
lift coefficient can be calculated.
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 16

The maximum lift coefficient of the unswept wing can be approximated using the
following equation:

C
L max

W Unswept

c l
k

max

root

c l
2

max

tip

k = 0.95 for = 1 and 0.88 for tapered wings. Note that the lower case c in the above
formula implies airfoil section maximum lift coefficient. Airfoil section maximum lift
coefficient is strongly dependent upon the Reynolds number. Unfortunately, there is no
analytic or empirical method that will reliably predict an airfoils maximum lift
coefficient. Hence, experimental data is the only truly reliable source for this parameter.
If airfoil data is available at the root and tip Reynolds numbers, then that data should
be used. If data is not available, Figures 15 and 16 can be used (maximum lift
coefficients for NACA airfoils up to 22% thick at Reynolds numbers between 3 and 9
million).

1.8

Rn=9M
Rn=6M
Rn=9M

1.6

Rn=6M

Rn=3M

Rn=3M

1.4

c l max

1.2
=6-series
=4 and 5 digit
1.0

Symmetrical Airfoils

0.8
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

(t/c)
Figure 15. Airfoil Maximum Lift Coefficient vs. Reynold's No. and (t/c) for Symmetrical Airfoils

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 17

2.0
Rn=9M

Rn=6M

1.8

Rn=3M

Rn=3M
Rn=6M
Rn=9M

1.6
c l max
1.4

=4 and 5 digit
=6-series
1.2
Cambered Airfoils
1.0

10

12

(t/c)

14

16

18

20

22

Figure 16. Airfoil Maximum Lift Coefficient vs. Reynold's No. and (t/c) for Cambered Airfoils

If the airfoil is not in one of the families corresponding or Figures 15 and 16 or the Reynolds
number is outside the specified range, CFD can be used to estimate clmax. A program known as
XFOIL, developed at MIT by Dr. Dreyla, is one of the better codes available for predicting airfoil
characteristics.
For swept wings having a quarter-chord sweep angle between 0 and 35 the effect of sweep on
the maximum lift coefficient can be calculate using:

Lmax W Swept

CLmax

W Unswept

cos c / 4

Finally, since the total airplane CLmax represents a trimmed value and to achieve trim a
conventional tail will produce a down-load, the wing must be capable of a higher maximum lift
coefficient than the total airplane. In the case of a canard configuration, the interference effect
of the canard up-load and the requirement that the canard stall before the wing will also require
a higher wing maximum lift coefficient than the total airplane. It is conservative in the early
phases of preliminary design to assume:

Lmax W

1.1CL CL CL
max

max

max

/ 1.1

The calculated value of CLmax should now be compared to the value used for conceptual sizing
calculations at the takeoff and landing Reynolds numbers and any flight condition that requires
flight at CLsafe = CLmax/1.44. If the calculated value is less than the assumed value it could be
necessary to resize the airplane using the calculated value. Before deciding to do this, however,
the flap design should be carried out. Flaps will be designed after the ailerons are sized and
incorporated in the wing design.
9. Determine the amount of twist. Precisely how much washout will be required to insure
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 18

that the wing stalls inboard of the aileron requires detailed analysis that is beyond the
scope of this course. More highly tapered wings will require some amount of washout
and if the wing is swept additional washout may be necessary, although that
determination would require aero elastic analysis. For initial design it is advisable to
incorporate some washout based upon taper ratio and rely on future detailed design to
determine the final value. Use the following formula for initial layout:

4(1 ) degrees
10. Determine the aileron size and location. The following data is presented as an aid in
selecting a value of aileron area/wing area (Sa/S) for the initial layout.
Airplane Category
Homebuilt
Single Engine Prop
Twin Engine Prop
Business Jet
Regional TBP
Jet Transport
Military Jet Trainer
Military TBP Trainer
Fighter
Military Jet
Bomber/Transport
Military TBP
Bomber/Transport
Supercruiser

Aileron area/wing area (Sa/S)


Minimum Average
Maximum
0.063
0.095
0.140
0.060
0.080
0.110
0.044
0.062
0.087
0.012
0.050
0.096
0.027
0.060
0.085
0.021
0.036
0.051
0.059
0.074
0.100
0.063
0.092
0.130
0.031
0.063
0.140
0.022

0.046

0.058

0.040

0.059

0.077

0.014

0.057

0.120

For the initial layout, the average values can be used. Final aileron size will be
determined based upon roll acceleration, which is inversely proportional to the roll
inertia. For designs that will have additional masses (such as stores, tip tanks and
outriggers) mounted to the wings, use a value closer to the maximum in the above
table.
Sa/S can be calculated for a straight taper wing using the following equation:

Sa 2(1 n ) 1

1
(0 i )(0 i )

S
1
2

n = the fractional chord location of the aileron hinge line


o = yo/(b/2) the non-dimensional span location of the outboard end of the aileron
i = yi/(b/2) the non-dimensional span location of the inboard end of the aileron
= the taper ratio
Typical values of n range between 0.70 and 0.80, typical values of i range between 0.50
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 19

and 0.75, and typical values of o range between 0.90 and 1.00.
In order to lay out the aileron, first select a value of n, then select a value of o and
calculate the value of i based upon the desired Sa/S. Solving the equation for Sa/S for i
yields:

1 1 2(1 )12 (1 )(Sa / S ) /(1 n) o 12 (1 )o2


(1 )

Draw the corresponding percent chord line between the corresponding aileron inboard
and outboard aileron ends on the wing planform drawing.
11. Determine the increment to the wing maximum lift coefficient produced by high lift
devices. A description of the various types of high lift devices and their effect of upon
the airplane lift curve is presented in the Appendix to this lecture.
For plain flaps assume that the flap and aileron hinge lines will lie on the same
percentage chord line. For split flaps, fowler or slotted flaps assume that the flap leading
edge will coincide with the same percentage chord line as the aileron leading edge. This
is highly desirable from structural and fabrication points of view. The offset between the
aileron hinge line and aileron leading edge can be estimated using the data of Figure 24.
The increment to the wing maximum lift coefficient due to flap deflection is related to
the increment to the airfoil with flap deflected using the following formula:

Lmax W

S
K wf
S

cl

max

K [1 .08 cos 2 ( c / 4) ] cos 0.75 ( c / 4)


In the above equation Swf is the area of the portion of the wing in the region bounded by
the flap, as shown in Figure 17.

1
2

S wf

i =2yi /b

b/2

1
2

S wf

o=2yo/b

Figure 17. Definition of Swf

For straight tapered wings, the flap area ratio can be calculated using the following
formula:
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 20

2 (1 )(o i )
Swf
(o i )
S
1
The inboard and outboard non-dimensional span stations (i and 0) are illustrated in
Figure 17. The values of o and i should be selected to yield the largest flap possible for
the first iteration. Since the fuselage will limit the value of i, and the fuselage design
has not yet been initiated at this point, assume i = 0.1. The value of o cannot be larger
than that afforded by the inboard aileron location, so assume that the flap will end at
that location; i.e., (o)flap = (i)aileron.
The value of clmax depends upon the particular type of flap. The methods used to
calculate clmax for various flap types are presented next.
12. Compute the incremental section lift maximum lift coefficient (clmax) corresponding to
the type of flap, flap angle and flap chord ratio. Refer to the Appendix to this lecture for
the definition of flap types and corresponding geometric parameters.
The increment to the section lift coefficient and the increment to the maximum lift
coefficient clmax for trailing edge flaps are illustrated in Figure 18.
cl

c l max

cl

Figure 18. Section Lift Increment and Section Maximum Lift Increment with TE Flaps

For preliminary design it is conservative to use the following formula for this relationship:

c l Kc l
max

where the quantity K depends upon the type of flap and the flap chord ratio cf/c, and is
determined using Figure 19.

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 21

Fowler and
Double Slotted Flap

Single Slotted Flap

c lmax
cl
Plain and
Split Flap

cf /c

Figure 19. Effect of Flap Type and Chord Ratio on K

Note that the flap chord is equal to the portion of the total chord between the hinge line and
the trailing edge for split and plain flaps. For fowler and slotted flaps the flap chord is the total
flap length.
The magnitude of the increment to the section lift coefficient with the flap deployed depends
upon the type of flap, the flap chord ratio and the flap deflection angle. For initial calculations
the following deflection angles should be used for the takeoff and landing configurations:
Takeoff:
Landing:

Flap deflection = 12
Flap deflection = 60
Flap deflection = 50
Flap deflection = 40

All flap types


Split and plain flaps
Slotted flaps
Fowler flaps

Equations for computing the value of cl for four different types of flaps are presented next.
Plain Flaps: c l c l f K

The value of cl is obtained from Figure 20 and the value of K is obtained from
Figure 21.

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 22

.15
.12
.10
.08
.06
.04
.02
0

Cl

t/c

4
f

2
0

0.1

0.2

cf /c

0.3

0.4

0.5

Figure 20. Effect of Thickness Ratio and Flap Chord Ratio on cl

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
K'
0.6

cf /c

.10
.15
.20

0.5

.25
.30
.40
.50

0.4
0.3

10

20
30
40
Flap Deflection, f

50

60

Figure 21. K' vs. Flap Deflection and Flap Chord Ratio

Split Flaps: c l k f (c l ) ( c
Values of kf and (c l ) ( c

ENAE482 Lecture 4

/ c ) 0.2

/ c ) 0.2

are obtained from the charts in Figure 22.

Page 23

1.8

t/c
0.22

Up

pe
rL

im

it

1.6

1.4

0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12

1.2

1.4

1.0

Cl

cf /c = 0.2

0.10

1.2

0.8

k f 1.0

0.6

tP

a
Fl

0.2

)
al
ic

et

0.4
la

te

Th
(

r
eo

0.6
0.1

40

20

0.8

0.2

cf /c

0.3

0.4

60

Figure 22. Split Flap Parameters

Single Slotted Flaps: c l (c l ) flapped f

is obtained from Figure 23. The flapped section lift curve slope (cl) can be
obtained from;

(c l ) flapped (c l )(c / c)

Where cl is the lift curve slope of the airfoil with the flap retracted, obtained from
airfoil data or, if not available, assume 6.0 per radian (0.104 per degree). The
parameter c/c will only be greater than one if there is some aft translation
associated with deployment of the flap. This will vary from installation to installation
but for initial layout a value of 1.05 can be assumed.
0.6
cf /c

0.40

0.30

0.4

0.25
0.20
0.15

0.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Figure 23. Section Lift Effectiveness Parameter vs. Flap Deflection and Flap Chord Ratio

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 24

80

Fowler Flaps:

c l (c l ) flapped f (same equation as single slotted)

Where (c l ) flapped (c l )(1 c f / c) assumes full translation of the flap.

The above four flap types are all trailing edge devices. In some cases it may be necessary
to also employ leading edge devices as well. Wherever possible it is preferable to use
experimental data to estimate the lift coefficient increment with a leading edge device.
In the absence of such data, the following approximation can be used:
clmax with LE device = (c/c)(clmax without LE device)
where c is the distance between the forward-most point on the flap or slat and the
airfoil trailing edge (i.e., the effective chord length).
Use the calculated values of clmax for takeoff and landing configurations to calculate
CLmax for those configurations as described above.
Finally, since there will be an additional amount of trim required to overcome the
additional pitching moment generated when the flap is deployed, the corresponding
increment to the airplanes maximum lift coefficient will be about 95% of the increment
to the wings maximum lift coefficient:

Lmax TO / Land

0.95 CL

max

W TO / Land

13. Decide whether or not the flap/wing design meets the assumed takeoff and landing
parameters. Note that for takeoff and landing the significant quantity is the total
maximum lift coefficient with flaps deployed. Hence, even if the assumed clean CLmax is
greater than that calculated in step 8, the sum of the calculated clean CLmax and
calculated flap increments to CLmax for takeoff and landing could achieve or exceed the
values of (CLmax)TO and (CLmax)Land that were assumed for sizing. If this is the case, there is
no need to resize the airplane. If either value is not achieved, however, the airplane
should be resized at this point based upon the calculated values.
14. Locate and incorporate the fore and aft spars on the planform drawing. If a torque box,
semi-monocoque or monocoque structure will be used for the wing the forward spar
will typically be located on the 10-15% chord line. For wings without leading edge
devices use 10%. If leading edge devices are used, use 15%. The location of the aft spar
will depend upon the type of flap, flap chord ratio, and airfoil thickness. For split, slotted
and fowler flaps the forward spar can be very close to the flap leading edge. For plain
flaps the data shown in Figure 24 can be used to estimate the fractional chord offset
between the hinge line and the aft spar.

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 25

Spar Offset (fraction of chord)

0.07
0.06
0.05

Airfoil t/c
0.04

10%

0.03

12%

0.02

15%

18%

0.01
0
0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Flap chord ratio (cf/c)

Figure 24. Rear Spar Offset from Plain Flap Hinge Line

For fowler flaps the aft spar is located .005c ahead of the flap leading edge.
15. Calculate the required fuel volume. The conceptual design yields the required fuel in
pounds. This must be converted to a volume requirement using fuel density. Two types
of fuel must be considered, depending upon the propulsion system type. ICEs use Avgas
100LL, which has a density of 6.01 lbs/gal at STP. Turboprop and jet engines use Jet A-1
(the military equivalent of JP-8), which has a density of 6.71 lbs/gal at STP. Fuel will
sometimes be pumped into the airplane at a temperature higher than standard day
(59F=15C), so these densities are be decreased to take this into consideration. At 95F
the density of Avgas is reduced to 5.89 lbs/gal and the density of Jet A-1 is 6.57 lbs/gal.
Hence,
Vreq'd = pounds of fuel required/5.89 U.S. gallons for Avgas
Vreq'd = pounds of fuel required/6.57 U.S. gallons for Jet A-1
Multiplying the result in gallons by 231 yields cubic inches.
A fuel tank will be integrated with the torque box formed by the wing skins and forward
and aft spars. The volume of a section of the torque box can be approximated using the
formula

( yo yi )
A0 Ai Ao Ai
3

where subscripts o and i correspond to the outboard and inboard locations of the ends
of the tank and A0 and Ai are the cross-sectional areas at locations y0 and yi. The crosssections are bounded by the airfoil OML and the forward and aft spars. It is necessary to
allocate 4% of this volume to accommodate material thickness and any internal
plumbing. Hence,

V fuel 0.96

( yo yi )
A0 Ai Ao Ai 0.32( yo yi ) A0 Ai Ao Ai
3

where Ao and Ai can be computed to the OML of the airfoil section and spars.
Maximum wing tank volume: Fuel is not carried beyond the 85% span point. This is to
minimize the probability that lightning strikes (which are most likely to hit the airplane
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 26

extremities) will initiate a fire. On the inboard end, eliminate the first 10% of the span to
accommodate the fuselage. Since the fuselage has not been designed at this point,
some adjustment to the inboard end may be required after integrating the wing with
the fuselage. The resulting maximum tank size is illustrated in Figure 25.

Figure 25. Maximum Wing Tank Fuel Volume Allocation

The maximum tank volume (includes both port and starboard tanks) can be
approximated using the formula given previously:

fuel max

0.24b A10 A85 A10 A85

A10 and A85 are the cross-sectional areas of the torque box. These areas are obtained
from section cuts through the torque box parallel to the plane of symmetry. If the wing
tank volume is not sufficiently large to carry all of the required fuel volume then
additional tanks will have to be integrated with the fuselage when it is designed. If the
wing tank capacity exceeds the required fuel volume, then the portion of the torque box
used for fuel will be shortened. Determine where the outboard end of the tank should
be using trial and error (the binomial search method will work just fine).
When there will be engines or stores attached to the wing the fuel tank will be
interrupted by a dry bay at those locations. There will therefore be several individual
tanks inboard and outboard of the dry bays. The total fuel volume will be the sum of the
individual tank volumes.
For dry bays at engine locations the width of the dry bay is equal to the width of the
engine and is centered on the engine centerline. At pylon locations used for stores or
engine mounting pylons a dry bay width equal to twice the pylon width is usually
sufficient.
15. Decide on the wing dihedral angle. The primary reason for incorporating wing dihedral is to
improve the lateral stability of the aircraft. Lateral stability implies that the aircraft should
return to the original wings level flight condition if disturbed by a gust that rolls the airplane
from level orientation. The lateral static stability is primarily represented by a stability derivative
called aircraft dihedral effect, defined as the change in aircraft rolling moment coefficient (Cl)
due to a change in aircraft sideslip angle (); i.e., Cl/, abbreviated Cl . If a disturbance causes
an aircraft to roll away from wings level orientation the aircraft will begin to move somewhat
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 27

sideways toward the lower wing. The airplane's flight path starts to move toward the left while
the nose of the airplane is still pointing in the original direction. This means that the oncoming
air is arriving somewhat from the left of the nose (negative sideslip angle). The airplane
therefore experiences a sideslip angle in addition to the bank angle. In order to return to the
wings level orientation a positive rolling moment is required. This leads to the requirement that
Cl should be negative to insure lateral stability. Incorporating dihedral in the wing increases the
angle of attack of the low wing and decreases the angle of attack of the higher wing when the
airplane sideslips and this yields the required negative value of this derivative. Note that at the
same time the angle of sideslip is building up, the vertical fin is trying to turn the nose back into
the wind, much like a weathervane, minimizing the amount of sideslip that can be present. If
there is less sideslip there is less restoring rolling moment due to dihedral effect. Hence, the
directional stability fights the tendency for dihedral effect to roll the wings back level by not
letting as much sideslip develop. There are three possible dynamic modes that can result,
depending upon the relative amounts of directional and lateral stability inherent in the design.
These are illustrated in Figure 26.

Figure 26. Lateral-directional dynamic modes

With insufficient dihedral effect per unit of directional stability the airplane continues to roll in
the direction of the initial disturbance. This is known as spiral instability. With just the right
amounts of dihedral effect and directional stability the airplane will return to wings level and
continue flying in the original direction. This is known as spiral stability. With too much dihedral
or not enough directional stability the airplane will oscillate from left to right in roll and
direction. This is called a Dutch roll (named after the ice skating maneuver that looks very
similar). Spiral stability is not a hard requirement, and most aircraft are in fact spirally unstable.
Level flight is achieved either by pilot or autopilot intervention to restore wings level attitude.
Other Factors affecting dihedral effect:
Wing sweepback increases dihedral effect. This is one reason why aircraft with high sweep angle
sometimes exhibit anhedral, even on low-wing aircraft such as the Tu-134 and Tu-154.
The longitudinal location of the CG is of primary importance for longitudinal stability of
the aircraft, but the vertical location is also important. The vertical location of the CG
with respect to the wing location changes the amount of dihedral effect. This is
sometimes referred to as the pendulum or "keel" effect. On high wing airplanes the
dihedral effect is increased while on low wing airplanes the result is to decrease the
dihedral effect. An extreme example of this is a paraglider. Hence, low wing airplanes
generally require more wing dihedral than high wing airplanes. The dihedral effect
ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 28

created by a very low vertical CG in combination with a highly swept wing is so


significant that an appreciable amount of negative wing dihedral (anhedral) is
sometimes required to achieve the correct overall dihedral effect. The data of Table 4
can be used as a guide in selecting the initial value for wing dihedral. A good rule of
thumb is to start with 6 for low wing and 3 for high wing and then deduct 1 for every
10 of leading edge sweep. Future lateral-directional stability analysis will refine this
initial estimate.
Table 4 Wing Dihedral Angle for Some Airplanes
Type
Wing position

Aircraft
Pilatus PC-9
MD-11
Cessna 750 Citation X
Kawasaki T-4
Boeing 767
Falcon 900 B
C-130 Hercules
Antonov An-74
Cessna 208
Boeing 747
Airbus 310
F-16 Fighting Falcon
BAE Sea Harrier
MD/BAe Harrier II
F-15J Eagle
Fairchild SA227
Fokker 50
AVRO RJ
MIG-29

Turboprop Trainer
Jet Transport
Business Jet
Jet Trainer
Jet Transport
Business Jet
Turboprop Cargo
Jet STOL Transport
Piston Engine GA
Jet Transport
Jet Transport
Fighter
V/STOL Fighter
V/STOL Close Support
Fighter
Turboprop Commuter
Turboprop Transport
Jet Transport
Fighter

Dihedral (deg)

Low-wing
Low-wing
Low-wing
High-wing
Low-wing
Low-wing
High-wing
High-wing
High-wing
Low-wing
Low-wing
Mid-wing
High-wing
High-wing
High-wing
Low-wing
High-wing
High-wing
Mid-wing

7 (outboard)
6
3
-7
o
4 15'
o
0 30'
o
2 30'
-10
3
7
o
11 8'
0
-12
-14.6
-2.4
4.7
3.5
-3
-2

Wing Weight

Following the guidelines for weight estimates presented previously, Class I Wing weight
estimates for preliminary design will rely on historical data. Historical data is presented in the
following tables for specific airplanes in each category. Weights are pounds and wing areas are
square feet.
Single Engine Propeller Driven Airplanes
TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Cessna
150

Cessna
172

Cessna
175

Cessna
180

Cessna
182

L-19A

Cessna
210A

Beech
J-35

Saab
Safir

Rockwell
112TCA

Cessna
210J

1500
216
0.144
160

2200
226
0.103
175

2350
227
0.097
175

2650
235
0.089
175

2650
235
0.089
175

2100
238
0.113
174

2900
261
0.090
176

2900
379
0.131
178

2660
276
0.104
146

2954
334
0.113
152

3400
335
0.099
176

Twin Engine Propeller Driven Airplanes


TOGW
Wing wgt

Beech
65 QA

Beech
E-18S

Beech
G-50 TB

Beech
95 TA

Cessna
310C

Cessna
404-3

Cessna
414A

Cessna
TP-441

Rockwell
690B

7468
670

9700
874

7150
656

4000
458

4830
453

8400
860

6785
638

9925
873

10205
1001

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 29

WWing/WTO
Wing Area

0.090
277

0.090
361

0.092
277

0.115
194

0.094
175

0.102
242

0.094
226

0.088
254

0.098
266

Business Jets

TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Morane
Saulnier
760 Paris

Lockheed
Jetstar

Gates-Lear
25D

Gates-Lear
28

Cessna
Citation II

Rockwell
JC-1121

HawkerSiddeley
125

GulfstreamAmerican
GII

7650
897
0.117
194

30680
2827
0.092
521

15000
1467
0.098
232

15000
1939
0.129
265

13500
1288
0.095
279

20500
1322
0.064
303

23300
1968
0.084
353

64800
6372
0.098
794

Regional Turboprop Airplanes


TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Grumman
G-I

Fokker
F-27-100

Nord
262

Embraer
110-P2

Fokker
F-27-200

Fokker
F-27-500

Short
Skyvan

DeHavilland
DHC7-102

DeHavilland
DHC6-300

35100
3735
0.106
610

37500
4408
0.118
754

22930
2698
0.118
592

12500
1502
0.120
313

43500
4505
0.104
754

45000
4510
0.100
754

12500
1220
0.098
373

44000
4888
0.111
860

12500
1263
0.101
420

Commercial Jet Transports


McDD
DC-930

TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

10800
0
2
11400
0.106
1001

McDD
MD-80

Douglas
DC-1010

Douglas
DC-1030

Boeing
737-200

Boeing
727-100

Boeing
747-100

Airbus
A300B2

Boeing
707-121

Boeing
707-320

140000

430000

555000

115500

160000

710000

302000

246000

311000

2
15560
0.111
1270

3
48990
0.114
3861

3
58859
0.106
3958

2
10613
0.092
980

3
17764
0.111
1700

4
86402
0.122
5500

2
44131
0.146
2799

4
24024
0.098
2433

4
29762
0.096
2892

Boeing
707320C

33000
0
4
32255
0.098
3050

Commercial Jet Transports (Continued)

TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Boeing
720-022

Boeing
707-321

McDD
DC-8

McDD
DC-9-10

HawkerSiddeley
121-IC

VFWFokker 614

Fokker
F-281000

BAC
1-11/300

Sud-Aero
Caravelle

203000
4
22850
0.113
2433

302000
4
28647
0.095
2892

215000
4
27556
0.128
2773

91500
2
9470
0.103
934

115000
3
12600
0.110
1358

40981
2
5767
0.141
689

65000
2
7330
0.113
822

87000
2
9643
0.111
1003

110230
2
14735
0.134
1579

Military Trainers
Northrop T-38A

Rockwell T-39A

Cessna T-37A

Fouga Magister

Canadair CL-41

2
11651
765
0.066
170

2
16316
1753
0.107
342

2
6228
531
0.085
135

2
6280
1089
0.173
186

2
11288
892
0.079
220

No. Eng.
TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Jet Fighters (USAF)


NAA

McDD

ENAE482 Lecture 4

RF

Gen Dyn

Gen Dyn

Republic

Gen Dyn

North

Page 30

North

TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

F-100F

F101B

101C

F-102A

F-16

F105B

F-106A

American
F-107A

American
F-86H

29391
1
3896
0.133
400

39800
2
3507
0.088
368

37000
2
3680
0.099
368

25500
1
3000
0.118
698

23235
1
1699
0.073
300

31392
1
3409
0.109
385

30590
1
3302
0.108
698

29524
1
3787
0.128
395

19012
1
2702
0.142
313

Jet Fighters (USN)


TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Vaught
F8U-3

McDD
F4H

30578
1
4128
0.135
462

34851
2
4343
0.125
530

No. Eng.
TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Grumman
F11F

Grumman
F9F-5

Grumman
A6

17500
14900
34815
1
1
2
2180
2294
4733
0.125
0.154
0.136
255
250
520
Jet Fighters (USAF and USN)

McDD
F3H-2

NAA
A3J

Vaught
F7U-1

26000
2
4314
0.166
516

46028
2
5072
0.110
700

19310
1
3583
0.186
507

MCDD F-4E

McDD F-15C

McDD F/A-18A

2
37500
5226
0.139
548

2
37400
3642
0.097
599

2
32357
3798
0.117
400

McDD AV-8B

1
22950
1443
0.063
230

Military Transports

TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Boeing
KC135

Jet
Lockheed
C-141B

Lockheed
C-5A

AW
Argosy

Turboprop
Douglas
Lockheed
C-133A
C-130H

Breguet
941

297000
4
25251
0.085
2435

314200
4
35272
0.112
3228

769000
4
100015
0.130
6200

82000
4
10800
0.132
1458

275000
4
27403
0.100
2673

58421
4
4096
0.070
902

155000
4
13950
0.090
1745

Piston/Prop Military Transports


TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Beech
L-23F

Chase
C-123B

DeHavilland
Caribou

Fairchild
C-119B

Douglas
C-124C

Boeing
C-97C

Lockheed
C-69

Lockheed
C-121A

7368
2
692
0.094
277

54000
2
6153
0.114
1223

26000
2
2925
0.113
912

64000
2
7226
0.113
1447

185000
4
18135
0.098
2506

150000
4
15389
0.103
1769

82000
4
9466
0.115
1650

132000
4
11184
0.085
1650

Military Patrol Airplanes


No. Eng.
TOGW
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Grumman S2F-1

Lockheed P2V-4

Lockheed U2

2 (Piston/prop)
23180
2902
0.125
485

2 (Piston/prop)
67500
7498
0.111
1000

1 (Jet)
17000
2034
0.120
600

Supersonic Cruise Airplanes


AST-100*

ENAE482 Lecture 4

SSXJET**

Supercruiser***

Page 31

No. Eng.
4
2
2
TOGW
718000
35720
37144
Wing wgt
85914
3599
3962
WWing/WTO
0.120
0.101
0.107
Wing Area
9969
965
371
* M=2.2 Large passenger transport (NASA TM X-73936)
** M=2.2 Executive Jet (NASA TM 74055)
*** M=2.6 Military missile carrying supercruiser (NASA TM 78811)
NASA X Airplanes
MCDD
XF-88A

Convair
XF-92A

NAA
YF-93A

Convair
XFY-1

Lockheed
XV-4A

Lockheed
XV-4B

Ryan
XV-5A

Bell
X-22A

20098
1
2048
0.102
350

11600
2
1694
0.146
425

21846
2
2640
0.121
306

14250
1
1877
0.132
355

7200
1
350
0.049
104

12000
1
395
0.033
104

9200
1
1059
0.115
260

14700
1
789
0.054
160

Ryan
X-13

North Amer
X-15

Hiller
X-18

Bell
XV-15

Bell
X-2

Bell
X-5

Northrop YP16

Bell
XP-77

7000
1 (Jet)
515
0.074
191

13592
1 (Rocket)
1144
0.084
105

33000
2 (TBP)
3483
0.106
528

13226
2 (TBP)
946
0.072
169

25627
1 (Rocket)
2856
0.111
260

8737
1 (Jet)
1683
0.193
175

27813
2 (Pist/prop)
3969
0.143
664

3632
2 (Pist/prop)
463
0.127
100

TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

NASA X Airplanes (Continued)


TOGW
No. Eng.
Wing wgt
WWing/WTO
Wing Area

Wing Structure
The primary wing structure is of a torque box formed by the front and
rear spars and the upper and lower skins (as shown in Figure 21). The
torque box is semi-monocoque, having an appropriate number of internal
ribs to retain the shape of the wing. To these ribs an appropriate number
of stringers are attached to prevent buckling of the skins under load and to
resist the internal-external pressure differential. The leading edge is
attached to the torque box using nose ribs and a pre-formed skin.
Similarly, trailing edge fairings are attached to the aft spar in the absence
of flaps or ailerons. Flaps and ailerons are hinged to the aft spar. A typical
wing structure (minus skins) is illustrated in Figure 22.

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 32

Figure 22. Typical Wing Structure

ENAE482 Lecture 4

Page 33