You are on page 1of 38

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage

Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

CE 5101 Lecture 6 1D
Consolidation
Sep 2010
Prof Harry Tan

Outline

Terzaghi Theory
U f l Elastic
Useful
El ti S
Solutions
l ti
Oedometer Tests
FEM Theory
FEM compared with Terzaghi
Consolidation of Realistic Soils
Example of Consolidation in Reclaimed Land
Secondary Compression and Creep
2

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Terzaghi 1D Vertical Flow


Formulation of Theory
Useful Approximations
Elastic Solutions

1D CONSOLIDATION
Assumptions made:
soil is fully saturated
pore water is incompressible
Darcy's law is valid
isotropic (constant) permeability
linear elastic soil behaviour
load

applied instantaneously

one-dimensional problem (length of applied load > )

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION
initial
ground surface

apply surcharge load rapidly

soft clay layer


fully saturated

pw = pw, o

pw = pw, o + pw, t=o

t=0

pw, t=o =

rigid impermeable layer

rigid impermeable layer

consolidation process completed

consolidation takes place

settlement s

settlement st

pw = pw, o + pw, t

t=

pw = pw, o

pw, t = t

= +

0<t<

= + t

rigid impermeable layer

rigid impermeable layer


5

1D CONSOLIDATION
the change in pore pressure (pw) with time and
position within the layer can be expressed by the
partial differential equation

p w
2 p w
cv
t
z 2

with

cv

k E oed
w

cv . coefficient of consolidation

with boundary conditions:


pw = 0
no flow
pw =
pw = 0

Ut 1

at the top of layer (independent of t)


at bottom of layer
y
at t = 0 (independent of z)
at t = (independent of z)

Me

m 0

M 2 Tv

1
2m 1
2
6

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION
Ut average degree of consolidation
Tv dimensionless time factor

Ut

p w ,o p w , t
p w , 0

s t
s

Tv

cv t
D

k E oed
t
w D2

NOTE:
D .... drainage
g p
path,, NOT thickness of layer
y !
U .... depends on Tv and boundary conditions
Tv ... depends on problem (pw, o - distribution)

1D CONSOLIDATION
t1: bottom of layer not yet influenced
by consolidation process

surcharge load

t=0

slope of Isochrones
> hydraulic gradient

t = t1 t = t2
t = t3

/ w
horizontal tangent > dv/dz = 0
(no flow) at bottom boundary

t=
clay layer
fully saturated

D
45

impermeable

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION
permeable

Tv
D

permeable

degree of consolidation Ut
Isochrones: lines of excess pore pressures (pw, t) at a given time

Terzaghi 1D Vertical Flow


Consolidation
For
Then

For

Then

T v 0.2, i.e. U v 0.5


Uv 2

cv is
i C
Coeficient
fi i t off
Consolidation

Tv

cv t
H2
k
cv v
mv w
Tv

T v 0.2, i.e. U v 0.5

Uv 1

Tv is Time factor

2
Tv
4

1 e

Tv 0.21
4

10

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Drainage Boundaries

When k is 2 orders smaller it behaves like an impermeable boundary eg


11

k=1e-8 m/s is an impermeable boundary to sand of k=1e-6 m/s

Initial Excess Pore Pressures


Distributions

Case 0

Case 0

Case 0

Case 1

Case 0

Case 2

12

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Initial Excess PP Distributions

13

Initial Excess PP Distributions

14

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Initial Excess PP Distributions

15

Superposition of Elastic Solutions

Case 1

Case 0

drained

A0

+
A1

undrained
For a given Tv, find U0 and U1
Combined U = U0(A0/A) + U1(A1/A)
What may produce this initial Excess PP??
Reclaimed Clay Fill self weight combined with
Imposed Sand Capping weight above reclaimed clay fill
16

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Superposition of Elastic Solutions


Let ultimate settlement be SAf
S(A) S(A0) S(A1)

Then degree of consolidation for A is: UA


SAf
SAf
SAf
S ( A1)
S ( A0)
By definition:
;U
U
A0

Therefore:

U A U A0

S A0 f
S A0 f

S Af

A1

U A1

S A1 f
S A1 f

S Af

Now the amount of settlement is proportional to the area under the


pore pressure isochrones. Thus the ultimate settlement is
proportional to the area of the initial excess PP isochrones:
S A0 f
S A1 f
A
A
A0 ;
A1

S Af
AA S Af
AA
Therefore,

U A U A0

AA0
A
U A1 A1
AA
AA
17

1D Consolidation Test (Oedometer Test)

Void ratio corresponding to full consolidation for each load


increment is calculated backwards from final water content and
final thickness readings

18

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

e vs P curve depends on stress history


deposition gives normal curve (Normally Consolidated Soils)
unloading by erosion or removal of soil load gives swelling
curve (Over-consolidated Soils)

19

By Eye Method for Determining Pc

20

10

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Casagrande Method for Determining Pc

21

EX Casagrande Method for Determining Pc

22

11

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Log-log Method for Determining Pc

23

Determine Pc - Janbu
Pc

24

12

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Idealized 1D Consolidation e-logP Curve

25

Correction to get Field Curve for NC Clays

26

13

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Correction to get Field Curve for OC Clays

27

Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc

Sample Disturbance

Load Increment Ratio


28

14

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc


Load Increment Duration
Related to the influence of
secondary compression on
test results

29

Taylor Square root time Method for cv


Theory Curve

Experimental Curve

0 848
Tv90 = 0.848
Correction ratio
=0.9209/0.7976=
1.15

30

15

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Casagrande Log time Method for cv

Correction for U0
based on parabolic
relation upto U50

31

Example of
Use of Sqrt
time and log
time
methods

32

16

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Rectangular Hyperbolic Method for cv


Sridharan and Prakash 1981,1985
T / U MT C

t/
mt c
t / Amt
Therefore ,
c
BmH 2
and cv
m( A 1 )
c
where

A 2.04 for t 60
A 1.35 for t 90
B 0.2972

33

Example of Hyperbolic Method

34

17

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

What is a high quality test?

35

Cv is one order larger in OC state


compare to NC state

36

18

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

FEM Theory

Formulation
Stress Equilibrium Deformation Part
Continuity Equilibrium Hydraulic Part
Global Assembly
Step by step Integration (Implicit Method)
Output

37

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (1)

Effective stresses

Constitutive law

Discretization

In terms of excess pore pressure


same shape functions for
displacements and pore pressures
38

19

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (2)

Mechanical problem: equilibrium equation

Stiffness matrix
Coupling matrix
Incremental load vector
39

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (2)

Hydraulic (flow) problem: continuity equation

Flow matrix
Coupling matrix
Water compressibility matrix
40

20

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (3)

Global system of equations

Step-by-step integration procedure

0 < < 1 ; Generally, fully implicit)

41

FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (4)

Time step
Automatic time stepping is required
Critical time step

H2
80cv

H2
40cv

Consolidation analysis
Prescribed time
Maximum excess pore pressure

42

21

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

FEM compare Terzaghi

43

Plaxis Model at 1 day


Load = 100 kPa

44

22

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

FEM compare Terzaghi

Terzhagi theory
Plaxis Ver 9.0

45

FEM compare Terzaghi

Terzhagi theory
Plaxis

46

23

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Fully Coupled with Unsaturated


Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

47

Fully Coupled with Unsaturated


Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

48

24

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Fully Coupled with Unsaturated


Soil Model - Plaxis 2010
Results for Terzaghis 1D Consolidation Test

49

Real Soils Consolidation


Cv is not constant with consolidation
process
Both kv and mv (or Eoed) are varied as
consolidation progress
Cv is one order larger for OC state
compared to NC state

50

25

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
applied load = 100 kPa
soil layer 2D = 10 m
drainage at top and bottom

Investigate influence of:


compressibility of pore water
(by means of B-value)

permeability depending on void ratio


elastic-plastic soil behaviour
(by means of changing constitutive model)

51

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
0

reference elastic
pore water compressible
((B=0.85))
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model

settlement [mm]

20

40

60

80

100
0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]
52

26

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
exces
ss pore pressure [k
kPa]

-100

-80
80

-60

-40

reference elastic
pore water compressible
p
p
(B=0.85)
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model

-20

0
0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]
53

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL SIMULATION

elastic

Hardening Soil model

distribution of excess pore pressures at 50% consolidation along centre line

54

27

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

influence of parameters in HS-model

vertica
al displacements [mm]

-20

-40

-60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <

-80

E50 >
Ko_nc >

-100

Ko_nc <

-120
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
55

influence of parameters in HS-model

excess
s pore pressure [kPa]

-100

-80

-60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <

-40

E50 >
Eoed <

-20

Ko_nc >
Ko_nc <
0
0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
56

28

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

influence of parameters in HS-model

degree
e of consolidation [%
%]

20

40

60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <
E50 >

80

Eoed >
Ko_nc >
Ko_nc <

100
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
57

Consolidation Modeling in a
Reclaimed Land
Why a Mohr-Coulomb Model is
grossly incorrect ?

58

29

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Consider a Reclaimed Land


Sand Loading in 365 days

10m Reclaim Sand


Sea Bed

15m Marine Clay


Closed
consolidation
boundaries all
round

59

Soil Parameters

Equivalent Oedometer Parameters in HS Model:


Cc=1.0 Cs=0.1 eo=2.0 and m=1.0 for logarithmic compression response

60

30

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

HS Model can produce results very close to Oedometer Test Data

61

Compare Settlements of seabed

MC = 400 mm in 2500 days

Which Model is Correct ?


HS = 4,350
4 350 mm in 12
12,700
700 days

62

31

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Amount of Settlement
Single layer 1-D compression Estimate:
Cc=1.0, eo=2.0, Ho=15m
Po = 7.5m*5 = 37.5 kPa
P_inc = 10m*18 = 180 kPa
Pf = Po+P_inc = 217.5 kPa
Sett = Ho*Cc/(1+eo)*log(Pf/Po) = 15000*0.254 = 3,817 mm
g layer
y computation
p
and it g
grossly
y under-estimate
This is a single
amount of settlements; but 3,817 mm >> 400 mm by MC Model, and
is much closer to 4,330 mm by HS Model
Thus HS Model gave realistic answer and MC Model is grossly
incorrect
63

Compare with Program UniSettle


Using same oedometer
parameters of Cc=1.0,
eo=2.0;;
UniSettle = 4428 mm
HS = 4350 mm
UniSettle 15-layer
computation gave same
results as Plaxis HS model

64

32

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Conclusions
MC Model cannot be used for consolidation
analysis of soft soils
The linear elastic model in MC cannot predict
both the rate and amount of consolidation
settlements of highly nonlinear soft clays
The HS Model with equivalent oedometer
parameters will give very good predictions of
both rate and amount of consolidation
settlements
65

Secondary Compression - Creep Effects,


continued settlements under constant
effective stress

66

33

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Definition of Secondary Compression Index

e
log t

e ep

t
log
t
p
where t p time at

end of primary consolidation

67

Bjerrum data on Secondary Compression in 1D


Oedometer Test

Apparent Pc

68

34

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Relation between Instantaneous and delayed


compression (a) for different thickness (b) for
given thickness

Secondary compression index is independent of soil


thickness for most cases

69

Effect of Magnitude of Stress Increment: ratio of


secondary to primary compression is largest when
stress increment to initial stress is small

70

35

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Effects of Pre-consolidation Pressure on cv


and C

71

Typical values for C


NC Clays 00.005-0.02
005 0 02

Values of C/ Cc

Organic Clays, highly


plastic >0.03

Organic Silts 0.035-0.06

OCR>2 <0.001

Canadian Muskeg 0.09-0.1

Peats 0.035-0.085
Singapore MC 0.04-0.06
SF Baymud 0.04-0.06
Leda Clay 0.03-0.06
72

36

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Creep Settlements by Janbu


Can identify 3 different phases for 3
different mechanisms of settlements:

Immediate is Elastic Undrained


Compression
Consolidation is Drained (elastic
plus plastic) Cap Compression
Creep is time-dependent secondary
compression at constant effective
stress
73

Creep Settlements by Janbu

74

37

CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage


Lecture 6

Prof Harry Tan


SEP 2010

Creep Settlements by Janbu

75

38