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# CE5101 Consolidation and Seepage

Lecture 6

## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

CE 5101 Lecture 6 1D
Consolidation
Sep 2010
Prof Harry Tan

Outline

Terzaghi Theory
U f l Elastic
Useful
El ti S
Solutions
l ti
Oedometer Tests
FEM Theory
FEM compared with Terzaghi
Consolidation of Realistic Soils
Example of Consolidation in Reclaimed Land
Secondary Compression and Creep
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## Terzaghi 1D Vertical Flow

Formulation of Theory
Useful Approximations
Elastic Solutions

1D CONSOLIDATION
soil is fully saturated
pore water is incompressible
Darcy's law is valid
isotropic (constant) permeability
linear elastic soil behaviour

applied instantaneously

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1D CONSOLIDATION
initial
ground surface

fully saturated

pw = pw, o

t=0

pw, t=o =

## consolidation takes place

settlement s

settlement st

pw = pw, o + pw, t

t=

pw = pw, o

pw, t = t

= +

0<t<

= + t

## rigid impermeable layer

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1D CONSOLIDATION
the change in pore pressure (pw) with time and
position within the layer can be expressed by the
partial differential equation

p w
2 p w
cv
t
z 2

with

cv

k E oed
w

cv . coefficient of consolidation

pw = 0
no flow
pw =
pw = 0

Ut 1

## at the top of layer (independent of t)

at bottom of layer
y
at t = 0 (independent of z)
at t = (independent of z)

Me

m 0

M 2 Tv

1
2m 1
2
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Lecture 6

## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION
Ut average degree of consolidation
Tv dimensionless time factor

Ut

p w ,o p w , t
p w , 0

s t
s

Tv

cv t
D

k E oed
t
w D2

NOTE:
D .... drainage
g p
path,, NOT thickness of layer
y !
U .... depends on Tv and boundary conditions
Tv ... depends on problem (pw, o - distribution)

1D CONSOLIDATION
t1: bottom of layer not yet influenced
by consolidation process

t=0

slope of Isochrones

t = t1 t = t2
t = t3

/ w
horizontal tangent > dv/dz = 0
(no flow) at bottom boundary

t=
clay layer
fully saturated

D
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impermeable

Lecture 6

## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION
permeable

Tv
D

permeable

degree of consolidation Ut
Isochrones: lines of excess pore pressures (pw, t) at a given time

Consolidation
For
Then

For

Then

Uv 2

cv is
i C
Coeficient
fi i t off
Consolidation

Tv

cv t
H2
k
cv v
mv w
Tv

## T v 0.2, i.e. U v 0.5

Uv 1

Tv is Time factor

2
Tv
4

1 e

Tv 0.21
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Lecture 6

## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

Drainage Boundaries

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Distributions

Case 0

Case 0

Case 0

Case 1

Case 0

Case 2

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## Superposition of Elastic Solutions

Case 1

Case 0

drained

A0

+
A1

undrained
For a given Tv, find U0 and U1
Combined U = U0(A0/A) + U1(A1/A)
What may produce this initial Excess PP??
Reclaimed Clay Fill self weight combined with
Imposed Sand Capping weight above reclaimed clay fill
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## Superposition of Elastic Solutions

Let ultimate settlement be SAf
S(A) S(A0) S(A1)

SAf
SAf
SAf
S ( A1)
S ( A0)
By definition:
;U
U
A0

Therefore:

U A U A0

S A0 f
S A0 f

S Af

A1

U A1

S A1 f
S A1 f

S Af

## Now the amount of settlement is proportional to the area under the

pore pressure isochrones. Thus the ultimate settlement is
proportional to the area of the initial excess PP isochrones:
S A0 f
S A1 f
A
A
A0 ;
A1

S Af
AA S Af
AA
Therefore,

U A U A0

AA0
A
U A1 A1
AA
AA
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## Void ratio corresponding to full consolidation for each load

increment is calculated backwards from final water content and

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## e vs P curve depends on stress history

deposition gives normal curve (Normally Consolidated Soils)
curve (Over-consolidated Soils)

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## Log-log Method for Determining Pc

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Determine Pc - Janbu
Pc

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## Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc

Sample Disturbance

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## Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc

Related to the influence of
secondary compression on
test results

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## Taylor Square root time Method for cv

Theory Curve

Experimental Curve

0 848
Tv90 = 0.848
Correction ratio
=0.9209/0.7976=
1.15

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## Casagrande Log time Method for cv

Correction for U0
based on parabolic
relation upto U50

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Example of
Use of Sqrt
time and log
time
methods

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## Rectangular Hyperbolic Method for cv

Sridharan and Prakash 1981,1985
T / U MT C

t/
mt c
t / Amt
Therefore ,
c
BmH 2
and cv
m( A 1 )
c
where

A 2.04 for t 60
A 1.35 for t 90
B 0.2972

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## Cv is one order larger in OC state

compare to NC state

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## Prof Harry Tan

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FEM Theory

Formulation
Stress Equilibrium Deformation Part
Continuity Equilibrium Hydraulic Part
Global Assembly
Step by step Integration (Implicit Method)
Output

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## FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (1)

Effective stresses

Constitutive law

Discretization

## In terms of excess pore pressure

same shape functions for
displacements and pore pressures
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Stiffness matrix
Coupling matrix
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## Hydraulic (flow) problem: continuity equation

Flow matrix
Coupling matrix
Water compressibility matrix
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## FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (4)

Time step
Automatic time stepping is required
Critical time step

H2
80cv

H2
40cv

Consolidation analysis
Prescribed time
Maximum excess pore pressure

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Terzhagi theory
Plaxis Ver 9.0

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Terzhagi theory
Plaxis

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## Fully Coupled with Unsaturated

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

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## Fully Coupled with Unsaturated

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010

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## Fully Coupled with Unsaturated

Soil Model - Plaxis 2010
Results for Terzaghis 1D Consolidation Test

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## Real Soils Consolidation

Cv is not constant with consolidation
process
Both kv and mv (or Eoed) are varied as
consolidation progress
Cv is one order larger for OC state
compared to NC state

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## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
soil layer 2D = 10 m
drainage at top and bottom

## Investigate influence of:

compressibility of pore water
(by means of B-value)

## permeability depending on void ratio

elastic-plastic soil behaviour
(by means of changing constitutive model)

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1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
0

reference elastic
pore water compressible
((B=0.85))
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model

settlement [mm]

20

40

60

80

100
0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]
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## Prof Harry Tan

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1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
exces
ss pore pressure [k
kPa]

-100

-80
80

-60

-40

reference elastic
pore water compressible
p
p
(B=0.85)
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model

-20

0
0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

time [days]
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elastic

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## influence of parameters in HS-model

vertica
al displacements [mm]

-20

-40

-60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <

-80

E50 >
Ko_nc >

-100

Ko_nc <

-120
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
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## influence of parameters in HS-model

excess
s pore pressure [kPa]

-100

-80

-60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <

-40

E50 >
Eoed <

-20

Ko_nc >
Ko_nc <
0
0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
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## influence of parameters in HS-model

degree
e of consolidation [%
%]

20

40

60

HS_ref
B=0.85
E50 <
E50 >

80

Eoed >
Ko_nc >
Ko_nc <

100
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

time [days]
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Consolidation Modeling in a
Reclaimed Land
Why a Mohr-Coulomb Model is
grossly incorrect ?

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Sea Bed

Closed
consolidation
boundaries all
round

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Soil Parameters

## Equivalent Oedometer Parameters in HS Model:

Cc=1.0 Cs=0.1 eo=2.0 and m=1.0 for logarithmic compression response

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HS = 4,350
4 350 mm in 12
12,700
700 days

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## Prof Harry Tan

SEP 2010

Amount of Settlement
Single layer 1-D compression Estimate:
Cc=1.0, eo=2.0, Ho=15m
Po = 7.5m*5 = 37.5 kPa
P_inc = 10m*18 = 180 kPa
Pf = Po+P_inc = 217.5 kPa
Sett = Ho*Cc/(1+eo)*log(Pf/Po) = 15000*0.254 = 3,817 mm
g layer
y computation
p
and it g
grossly
y under-estimate
This is a single
amount of settlements; but 3,817 mm >> 400 mm by MC Model, and
is much closer to 4,330 mm by HS Model
Thus HS Model gave realistic answer and MC Model is grossly
incorrect
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## Compare with Program UniSettle

Using same oedometer
parameters of Cc=1.0,
eo=2.0;;
UniSettle = 4428 mm
HS = 4350 mm
UniSettle 15-layer
computation gave same
results as Plaxis HS model

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## Prof Harry Tan

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Conclusions
MC Model cannot be used for consolidation
analysis of soft soils
The linear elastic model in MC cannot predict
both the rate and amount of consolidation
settlements of highly nonlinear soft clays
The HS Model with equivalent oedometer
parameters will give very good predictions of
both rate and amount of consolidation
settlements
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## Secondary Compression - Creep Effects,

continued settlements under constant
effective stress

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## Definition of Secondary Compression Index

e
log t

e ep

t
log
t
p
where t p time at

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Oedometer Test

Apparent Pc

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## Relation between Instantaneous and delayed

compression (a) for different thickness (b) for
given thickness

## Secondary compression index is independent of soil

thickness for most cases

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## Effect of Magnitude of Stress Increment: ratio of

secondary to primary compression is largest when
stress increment to initial stress is small

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and C

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## Typical values for C

NC Clays 00.005-0.02
005 0 02

Values of C/ Cc

plastic >0.03

## Organic Silts 0.035-0.06

OCR>2 <0.001

Peats 0.035-0.085
Singapore MC 0.04-0.06
SF Baymud 0.04-0.06
Leda Clay 0.03-0.06
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## Creep Settlements by Janbu

Can identify 3 different phases for 3
different mechanisms of settlements:

## Immediate is Elastic Undrained

Compression
Consolidation is Drained (elastic
plus plastic) Cap Compression
Creep is time-dependent secondary
compression at constant effective
stress
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