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You are on page 1of 18

TEAM MEMBERS

Haftom Dessalegn

Kiki Mentan

David Agyeman

Table of contents

Introduction 1-6

Construction .3-4

Detail calculation6-8

Bibliography 9-0

The KD glider

Abstract

This report reflects our teams effort in building and testing a glider using the

requirements that were given for the Boeing Flight Competition. The objective of this project

was to design and build a glider that would fly the farthest of all other gliders.

The design process consisted of determining the glider dimensions and some analysis on

how to maximize range. The glider had to fit in a 3 inches by 36 inches area of balsa wood with a

thickness of between 1/8 to 1/4 of an inch. Our group did some trade studies of gliders and

calculations to determine what design would work best to meet our objective.

All parts of the glider were made using 1/8336 inches of balsa wood. We used a glue

gun to assemble the parts together, and there was a payload which the glider had to carry

consisting of 2 U.S. quarters. The wing was sanded to make it more aerodynamic and gave a

little bit of camber to it. Parameters such as center of gravity and tail position could be adjusted

using glider design books. The ability to make adjustments proved essential in allowing

successful flight.

We found the initial velocity of the glider that was generated from the rubber band. After

finding the spring constant of the rubber, we were able to get the initial velocity of the glider. To

obtain the final velocity used in our calculations, we performed ten flight tests which were we

recorded by the distance traveled and the time it took. Of the ten measurements, we took the

maximum distance and the time which we used and we were able to find the final velocity of the

glider. Using the initial and final velocity we were able to calculate the average velocity the

glider traveled.

By using the average velocity in drag equations, our team was able to predict the

maximum distance of the glider. The maximum distance we calculated for our glider

corresponded with our actual longest flight, providing the validity of our calculations. During

this project, our team was able to successfully build a glider and predict its action of flight.

Introduction

Our goal for this project was to design an aerodynamically efficient glider that would fly

the farthest. Our team decided to perform calculations of the lift, drag, and maximum range.

Upon doing so, it tested our knowledge of the effects of aerodynamic forces on flying objects.

We used some information from trade studies and personal knowledge of aircraft flight to create

the glider.

The parameter we were limited to working with the glider had to fit in a 3x36 inches area

and carry a payload of 2 U.S quarters. With this limitation, we had to achieve the farthest range

possible. Knowing the gliders maximum dimensions, the method of launching the glider and the

environment it would fly in, our team set out to design three gliders, and then pick the one of the

three with the most range.

Though two members of the team are in the Aerospace Engineering field, they didnt

have any experience building a glider, yet personal knowledge was a big contributing factor to

the glider design. Initially, we divided the project into three parts: Haftom was in charge of

design, Kiki was in charge of manufacturing, and David was in charge of documentation. All of

us were to do the testing and lunching together.

Our team first used information on glider designs and calculations to determine what

design will meet our objective the best. Once the design was finalized and built, test flights

where performed to determine which one of the three met our objective.

Design:

When we start working on this project each individual team member did a trade study.

One of the main things that every member of the group discovered was, in order for us to meet

our objective, we should make a glider that has the highest aspect ratio possible so as to have the

maximum possible lift over drag ratio and that will lead us to get maximum range. The second

thing that our group agreed on was to design and build three gliders with different aspect ratio as

well as different fuselage, wing and tail configuration. {fig (..), fig(..), fig(..)}.

We decided earlier on to have a highest aspect ratio (AR) with a wing span of 20 inches.

The debatable parameter of the wing was the chord. The chord would have to be wide enough to

maximize surface area to achieve the greatest lift, but short enough to reduce induced drag. We

knew that a taper wing can decrease the amount of induced drag so we decided that a good

compromise between the two would be a chord length of 2 inches at the fuselage and 1.75 inches

on the tip of the chord. This will give our glider an aspect ratio of 10.67. The tail of our glider

would be used to stabilize flight, but not to produce any additional lift. For the tail we chose a Ttail in order to reduce weight and keep the horizontal stabilizer out of the turbulent flow from the

wing.

Construction

Materials used in building were 1/8336 sheet balsa wood. We used hot glue since it

dries faster than traditional wood glue. We used a laser cut in order to have a more precise cut as

well as to better use every inch of the balsa wood. We also utilized CAD software (Solidworks)

to design our glider. The wing was sanded to make it smooth and give a camber feel to it in order

to get better aerodynamic efficiency. We put the two U.S. quarters in the nose of the glider in

order to find the center of gravity

Then after doing some fight tests, we found out that glider #3 with aspect ratio had a better range

that the other two. Not to mention the other two got broken during testing, so we decided to use

glider #3 for the competition.We used solidworks to design the parts of the glider, that way by

saving it as a .dwg file we can get the parts of the glider to be laser cut.

Fig (.) This is how our glider parts fit on a 1:1 scale to the 3 by 36 inches balsa wood

requirement

Fig

(..)

by using this CAD file we laser cut the parts of the glider

Fig(..) now using this parts we can start sanding the wing, the fuselage and the tail to make the

glider more aerodynamic.

Fig (...) here you see part of the glider sanded and ready to assemble.

Fig(..) this is the assembly portion where we used a hot glue gun to put our glider together.

Fig(..) we put the two quarters in the nose of the glider, inside the fuselage to give a better

aerodynamic efficiency to the glider.

Fig(..) by attaching the wing to the fuselage using a rubber band we checked to see if the center

of gravity you selected previously, is the right place. It helps a hassle.

Fig(.) after assembly, a fishing line was used to hang the glider from a ceiling in order to balance

the center of gravity.

Fig(..) this is the finished product of the glider using solidworks software.

Detail calculations:

Data taken from table 1, at the maximum distance the glider flew;

Xmax=76.5ft

tmax=4.3 sec

where a= ma=-D

1

X max Vt at 2

2

X max 1

at

t

2

Giving data:

Solve for V

2.23769 10 3

V 20.2

slugs

ft 3

ft

s

S 0.2604 ft 2

L W

3.73 10 9

slugs

ft.s

AR 10.67

h 2.5 ft

Dynamic Pressure

1

1

lb

2

V2 2.2377 103 20.20 0.45 2

2

2

ft

Lift coefficient

CL

L

0.1124

0.95

q S 0.45 0.2604

Friction drag

D Lf

1.328q L

V S

5.335 10 6 lb

0.1124 20.20 0.2604

3.73 10 9

C Lf

D Lf

q S

5.335 10 6

4.55 10 4

0.45 0.2604

CL2

0.95

0.0269

3.14 AR 3.14 10.67

2

CDi

Induced drag

Di q SC Di 0.45 0.2604 0.0269 0.00315lb

Total drag

Range (max)

L

Rmax h

max

0.1124

2.5

89.05 ft

0.003155

Conclusion

Some of the assumptions we made as predicted values, were not the same as the max

range of the actual value but were close(76.5ft). This was the best distance that we of our ten

trials. We are glad that we got that far but we are sure our glider can do better since the actual

distance we measured is less than what we are supposed to get.

We needed to find the spring constant (k) of our rubber band in order to find the initial

velocity of our glider. Since the spring constant is different with different types of rubber bands

we decided to find the spring constant of two different types of rubber bands and we called them

rubber band 1 and 2.

Fig ...: Finding the length change (5.25 in)off of Rubber band 1 after applied a weight (0.65 lb) to fing the spring

constant(K1)

Fig ...: Finding the length change(2.5 in) off of Rubber band 2 after applied a weight (0.65 lb) to fing the

constant(K2)

(Vi )

Now using the kinetic enregy equation we can solve for initial velocity

Ke

1

mVi 2

2

Ke

and

1

2

Kxi

2

xi

when launching the glider.

xi

Fig(..) determining the value of

F Kx

where

F ma

spring

x

m

Where is the weight of the glider (0.1124 lb), a is the gravitational constant (32.2) and

is

how long the rubber band stretched when weight is applied to find the spring constant.

K

ma

x

Where

K1

x 1 5.25in

x 2 2.5in

and

0.65lb 32.2

K2

5.25

ft

12

K 1 47.84

0.65lb 32.2

2 .5

ft

12

K 2 100.5

Now we can solve the initial velocity of the glider using two different rubber bands.

1

1

2

2

Ke Kxi mVi

2

2

Vi

Kxi

m

We know that

xi1 19in

Now the initial velocity for the two different types of rubber bands, where

xi 2 15.5in

will be

Vi1

Vi1

K 1 xi1

m

47.8419 / 12 2

0.1124

Vi 2

Vi 2

K 2 xi 2

m

and

100.515.5 / 12 2

0.1124

Vi 2 38.6 ft / sec

Since the initial velocity from rubber band 2 higher than rubber band 1, we decided to use rubber

band 2 to launch our glider with.

ma D

Where

glider

D q SC D

2ARL2

V f2

is the weight of the glider (0.1124 lb), D drag and a is the acceleration

but it is going to be constant this time since the lift from the wing on the

comes into play.

q

1

V f2

2

CD

C L2

3.14 AR

Where

CL

and

L

q S

slugs

ft 3

2ARL2

a

m V f2

X max Vi t

1 2

at

2

Where Xmax =76.5ft is the maximam distance the glider flew, and t=4.3 sec is the time it took to

fly Xmax.

1 2ARL2

X max Vi t

2 m V f2

t2

(Vi )

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