You are on page 1of 66

ENGLISH FOR STUDENTS.

COM
Your First Lesson is on the Basic Units Of English Units Of English
How many parts are there in English? Parts of English
The three pillars of a language Subject-Object-Predicate
How is the Verb related to the Subject? Verb and Subject
How many types of Nouns are there? Noun-Types
What are the Nouns as per the Gender? Noun-Gender
Is the Nominative case the only case? Noun-Cases
Is the Noun sky singular or plural? Noun-Number
What are the functions that a Noun plays? Noun-Functions
How is a Pronoun related to a Noun? Pronoun
How many types of Verbs are there? Verbs
How is the verb BE special? Verb-BE
What is an Adjective meant for? Adjective
Why is an Adverb used in a sentence? Adverb
Is the word after a Conjunction or not? Conjunction
How is a Preposition used in a sentence? Preposition
How many Articles are there? Articles

What is a Gerund? Is a Gerund a Noun or not? Gerund


What is the difference between a Gerund and an Infinitive? Infinitive
Why is a Participle used in a sentence? Participle
What are the changes that Voice makes in a sentence? Voices
Why is the Passive Voice a special one? Passive Voice
How to compare one with another? Degrees of Comparison
What are the words used to express our emotions? Interjection

How many manners are there in which a verb can be used? Moods
What are the different types of Sentences? Sentences
How to differentiate the Tense-forms? Tenses
To know about the Present Tense Present Tense
To know about the Past Tense Past Tense
To know about the Future Tense Future Tense
This is your first lesson in your learning process.
Bring in a note-book and a pen. You may need them to take down notes for your future
reference.
Taking down notes will help you pay focused attention on what you learn.
It is strongly suggested that you had better take down notes of what you learn in every
lesson.
Let us start with the Units of English.
What is called a UNIT?
A Unit is a basic part, many of which bring out the whole.
Units make a word or a sentence complete.
How many Units are there in English?
There are FIVE UNITS.
1. Letter
2. Word
3. Phrase
4. Clause
5. Sentence
All these five Units make a sentence or a paragraph a meaningful one.
Let us see these Units of English individually.
1. Letter:
There are twenty six letters in English language.

They are:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z .
These letters have been written in Capital forms.
The same letters can also be written in Small forms.
They are:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y and z.
All these twenty-six letters are collectively called ALPHABET.
So the alphabet of English language has twenty-six letters.
These twenty-six letters can be classified into two groups.
They are:
I. Consonants
b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y and z. are calledCONSONANTS. That
means there are 21 consonants.
II. Vowels
a, e, i. o and u are called VOWELS. That means there are five vowels.
2.Word:
A word converts the group of letters into a meaningful one. A word plays a pivotal role in
the Units of English.
A word is a group of letters with a meaning.
Ball, nation, ocean, boy, courage, install, save and organization are words.
The word ball is having four letters b..a..l..l.
The word organization is having twelve letters o..r..g..a..n..i..s..a..t..i..o..n.
In this way all the words are collective forms of few letters.
Every word carries a meaning.
Let us see few more words which we use regularly in our daily lives.

Son, father, mother, daughter, wife, husband, school, college, milk, street, bus, car, train,
sky, moon, sun, note, book,university, love, language, skill, communication, motivation,
can, will, no, yes, carry, on, down, up, color, white, red, computer, profit, business and
knowledge are few of the words which we use in our day-to-day lives.
It is must for one to know at least 25,000 words to become a very good communicator in
English.
Till you master that much of words and the Basics of English language, you have to keep on
learning so that you language-skill will get sharpened day by day. Becoming thorough with
the Basics of English is a matter of practice.
Understanding the meaning of the words determines your progress.Among theUnits of
English, the unit word has its own place in understaning the Perfect English.The wordpower is indomitable. Rote learning of words will not take you to understand the Perfect
English.The meaning and the usages of every word should be understood. You should allot
more time to increase your word-power.TheseUnits of English will take you to the next level
of learning process.
3.Phrase:
This is another important Unit in the Units of English.
A phrase is a group of words without a subject and a predicate but with a meaning.
(What are meant by subject and predicate? Let us see later.)
The basics of English language should be understood in a comprehensive manner. keep on
reading till all the lessons in the basics are over. Then begin once again from this Units of
English, that will give you better understanding of the Basics of English language.
Let us see few phrases.
i. The leader of the group
ii. The red ball
iii. Your class-mates
iv. Our family-members
v. A very distant place
vi. Business people
vii. To make up
viii. To get away with
ix. To score more marks

x. To attain fame
If the most important word in a phrase is a noun (what is noun? Let us see later.), it is
called a Nominal phrase or a Noun phrase.
In the foloowing sections, you will understand these pharses very well.
In the examples given above, the first six phrases have nouns as the most important words.
The leader of the group has the noun leader as the most important word in that phrase.
The red ball has the noun ball as the most important word in that phrase.
So they are called Nominal phrase or Noun phrase.
Few more examples for Nominal phrases:
i. All the admitted students
ii. Tax-payers from that state
iii. The primary colors
iv. Safe web-sites
v. Only English teachers
If the most important word in the phrase is verb (what is verb? Let us see later.), that
phrase is called Verbal phrase.
In the above-mentioned examples, vii, viii, ix and x have the verbs make-up, get away,
score and attain as the most important words. So they are called Verbal Phrases.
Few more examples for Verbal phrases:
i. To cultivate the lands
ii. To study into night
iii. To go around the city
iv. To donate liberally
v. To be there in time
4.Clause:
A clause is a group of words, with a subject and a predicate having a meaning.

Note:
A phrase does not have a subject and a predicate. But a clause has both.
i. You are my best friend
ii. It is not possible for him to do that now
iii. When the train arrived
iv. If you are qualified
v. As the election is declared
If clause is conveying the complete meaning, it is called Main clause.
The clause You are my best friend conveys the complete meaning. So it is called
the Main clause.
Few more examples for main clauses:
i. His letter is full of eulogies.
ii. The magicians have not yet come.
iii. The school-hour is over.
iv. Red-colored cars have very good demand.
v. Indians are religious by nature.
If the meaning of the clause is incomplete, then that clause is called subordinate clause.
The clause mentioned above if you are qualified does not have a complete meaning.
So that clause is called subordinate clause .
Few more examples for subordinate clauses:
i. It is possible only when
ii. Unless you score high marks
iii. Since your age is below 21
iv. As the time is not ripe
v. Because of high blood-pressure
Subordinate clauses begin with words such as:
Who, whom, whose, which, that, unless, as, because, when, how, where, what, since, etc..
Note:

A. There can not be a sentence without a Main clause.


B. In few sentences, the subordinate clause may occur between two parts of a main clause.
5. Sentence:
A sentence is a group of clauses, conveying a complete meaning. A sentence is the form
which carries all the five Units of English by remaining one of the fiveUnits of English.
Examples:
i. It is possible only when all the members support this project. ( 1 main clause and 1
subordinate clause).
ii. Do not try to be smart ( 1 main clause).
iii. When you come to my house, please, bring that book. (1 main clause and 1 subordinate
clause).
iv. He is intelligent but he is lazy. (2 main clauses).
v. Since the students have not yet paid their fees, the exam was not conducted yesterday.
(1 subordinate clause and a main clause).
These are the basic Units of English. Here after you can enter the next area of Perfect
English.
So far we have clearly understood the following terms.
i. Units of English language
ii. Alphabet
iii. Consonant
iv. Vowel
v. Letter
vi. Word
vii. Nominal phrase or Noun phrase
viii. Verbal phrase
ix. Main clause
x. Sub-ordinate clause
xi. Sentence

These are the utter basics which constitute English language. From the first unit of the
five Units of English language, we have come to the unit of sentence.
Go through this page once again so as to understand all these
Units of English without any doubt. This slow-approach will give you strong foundation to go
ahead with your journey of learning of the Basics of English language.
NOTE:
Understanding the Basics of English(Grammar) very clearly will give you the strong
foundation needed to become a very good communicator.

Grammar : Parts of Speech


This section on Parts of Speech is your second lesson. Remember the first lesson so that
this lesson will be very clear for understanding.
You saw in the first lesson that the words are very important in the formation of sentences.
The words constitute the Parts of Speech.
The words used in English are divided into eight parts accordingto the functions carried out
by those words in a sentence.
Those EIGHT PARTS are:
1. Noun
2. Verb
3. Adjective
4. Adverb
5. Pronoun
6. Preposition
7. Conjunction
8. Interjection
All these parts of speech have their own roles in the formation of sentences. In the following
lessons, we can see all these parts of speeches indepth. Now,let us see these eight parts
one by one briefly.
1.Noun:

A noun is a word used as a name of a person, place, thing,


state, quality, activity, action etc...
Examples:
Mr. John is our English teacher.
In this sentence the words Mr. John and teacher are nouns.
Harvard University is the oldest University.
In this sentence the words Harvard and University are nouns.
Lions live in forest.
In this sentence the words Lion and forest are nouns.
He is my best friend.
In this sentence, the words He and friend are nouns.
London, New Delhi, Himalaya, philosophy, beauty, car, road,
Management, science, school, students, books, Mrs. Raman, tree,
mango, fruits and flowers are few of the nouns.
Few other nouns are ball, town, bill, boy, child, hospital,
hotel, home, hall, fame, college, road, fruit, computer etc
The another part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Noun

b. Noun-Gender

c. Noun-Number
d. Noun-Functions
e. Noun-Cases

Grammar
Noun-Gender
The Noun-Gender tells us about the sex of the noun.
In Grammar-Nouns, there are FOUR GENDERS.
1. Masculine gender:
A noun is said to be in the Masculine gender if it refers to a male character or member of a
species.
Man, lion, hero, boy, king, horse and actor are nouns of masculine gender.
Example:
A boy is playing in the play-ground.
Hero of the movie is not a native of this country.
In these sentences the words boy and hero are masculine-gender nouns.
The next in the Noun-Gender is feminine gender.
2. Feminine gender:
A noun is said to be in the feminine gender if it refers to a female member of a species.
Woman, lioness, heroine, girl, mare, niece, empress, cow and actress are few of the
feminine-gender nouns that we use.
Example:
A girl is playing in the play-ground.
Heroine of the movie is not a native of this country.
In these sentences the words girl and heroine are feminine-gender nouns.
The next in the Noun-Gender is common gender.
3. Common gender:
A noun is said to be in Common gender if it refers to a member of species which can be a
male or a female.

Child, student, friend, applicant, candidate, servant, member,


parliamentarian and leader are few of the common-gender nouns.
Example:
A child is playing in the play-ground.
A Parliamentarian should have command over his language.
In these sentences the words, child and parliamentarian are nouns of common gender.
The next in the Noun-Gender is neuter gender.
4. Neuter gender:
A noun is said to be in the neuter gender if it refers to a member of a species which is
neither a male nor a female.
Normally nouns referring to lifeless objects are in neuter nouns.
Chair, table, tree, star, mountain, street, book, car, school,
paper, pencil and computer are few of the neuter nouns which We use regularly.
Example:

Computer has brought about drastic changes in our lives.


Tree is cleansing the air.
Stars are not visible in the day-time.
Books are our best friends.

In these sentences the words, computer, tree, stars and books are the neuter-gender
nouns.
NOTE:
a. Collective nouns, even if they refer to living-beings, are used as neuter-nouns.
Example:
i. The army is doing its task.
ii. The police are called to manage the situation.
In these sentences the nouns (army and police) refer to only living-beings. But they are
used only as neuter-nouns.
b.Objects noted for their power, strength, and violence are used as Masculine gender nouns.
The sun, summer, time, death etc are masculine-gender nouns.

Example:
i. The sun is so scorching now that we can not go out now to face him without anumbrella.
ii. The death is cruel. He is as certain as tomorrow.
In these sentences the words sun and death have been used as Masculine-gender
nouns.
c. Objects noted for their beauty, gentleness and grace are used as feminine-gender nouns.
The moon, the earth, spring, charity etc are feminine-gender nouns.
Example:
i. The moon is so bright at this time that she induces romantic mood in us.
ii. The earth is patient. Her beauty is spoiled day-by-day.
The masculine-genders and their respective feminine-genders have been given below for
your reference.
Masculine genders-----Feminine genders
1. Bachelor----- Spinster
2. Bachelor----- Maid
3. Bullock----- Heifer
4. Dog----- Bitch
5. Drone------ Bee
6. Horse----- Mare
7. Nephew----- Niece
8. Jew----- Jewess
9. Wizard----- Witch
10. Heir----- Heiress
11. Manager----- Manageress
12. Poet----- Poetess
13. Shepherd----- Shepherdess
14. Benefactor----- Benefactress

15. Hunter----- Huntress


16. Negro----- Negress
17. Emperor----- Empress
18. Traitor----- Traitress
19. Prince----- Princess
20. Lion----- Lioness
21. Bull----- Cow
22. Ox----- Cow
23. Mayor----- Mayoress
24. Tiger----- Tigress
25. Actor----- Actress
26. Host----- Hostress
27. Uncle----- Aunt
28. Monk----- Nun
29. Gentleman----- Lady
30. Duck----- Duchess
Take many pracitising exercises to become familiar with the Noun-Gender. As you read
books, note down the various gender- forms of nouns that you come across in those books.
That is the best method for you to know the difference among the Noun-Genters.

Grammar :
Noun-Cases
NOUN-CASES is another topic which comes under NOUN. The CASE of a noun tells us
about the position of that noun in a sentence. In English there are FIVE CASES.
They are:

Nominative case
Objective case (or Accusative case)
Dative case
Possessive case (or Genitive case)
Vocative case

All these five Cases have been explained in detail below.

Are you going as you wish in the process of learning Grammar?


Take a breath.
This section of Noun-Cases will simplify your process.
1. Nominative case:
A noun is said to be in the Nominative case if it is the subject of a verb. (SUBJECT is the
person or the thing who or which carries out the action of the verb in the sentence)
Examples:
Mr. Ram is an intelligent boy.
Mr. Ram is a proper noun in Nominative case.
The painter paints the portraits.
The painter is a common noun in Nominative case.
I am buying vegetables for my family.
I is a pronoun in Nominative case.
These examples carry another term "pronoun" which is a word used to represent a noun.
For example:
I, We, You, He, She, it and they are the seven pronouns.
There are only seven pronouns.
Only other variations of these seven pronouns are there.
Those variations can be used in place of the nouns.
The next one in the Noun-cases is:
2. Objective case (or Accusative case):
Nouns or pronouns are said to be in Objective cases if they are the direct objectsof verbs or
if they are the objects of preposition. (Direct object is the person or the thing upon whom or
upon which the action of the verb is carried out).
Examples:
I met your sister.
Your sister is in objective case.
The vendors sell mangoes.
Mangoes is in objective case.
The book is on the table.

Table is in objective case.


It is object of the preposition on.
This is one of my policies.
Policies is in objective case.
It is object of the preposition of.
The next one in the Noun-cases is:
3. Dative case:
A noun is said to be in dative case if it is the Indirect object of the verb. (Indirect object of
the verb is the noun for whom or for which the action of the verb is carried out). There
should not be a preposition before the indirect object because in that case it will be the
object of that preposition.
Examples:
The teacher gave the students few exercises.
Students is in dative case. It is the indirect object of the verb give.
The Postman brought me a letter.
Me is in dative case.
Get him a pen.
Him is in dative case.
The next one in the Noun-cases is:
4. Possessive case (Genitive case):
A noun is said to be in possessive case, if it denotes possession or ownership. A noun or
pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the noun that follows it.
Examples:
This is your pencil.
(Your is in possessive case.
It is our idea.
Our is in possessive case.
Johns sister has been hospitalized.
Johns is in possessive case.
The last one in the Noun-cases is:

5. Vocative case:
A noun or a pronoun is said to be in Vocative case if it is used to call (or to get the attention
of) a person or persons.
Examples:
Mr. Bill, students are waiting for you in the main hall.
Mr. Bill is in vocative case.
You there, stand up.
You is in vocative case.
Brother, a letter for you.
Brother is in vocative case.
Chairman, all the letters are posted two days ago.
Chairman is in vocative case
The nouns do not change their forms in the Nominative and Objective cases. But few
pronouns change their formsbetween Nominative and Objective cases.
Nominative case ________Objective case_________ Possessive case
1. I __________________ me__________________ my
2. We_________________us____________________our
3. You________________ You___________________your
4. He_________________ him____________________his
5. She_________________her_____________________her
6. It___________________it_______________________its
7. They_________________them______________________their

Grammar :
Noun-Number
There are two numbers in Noun-Number: Singular and Plural.
1. Singular:
When we speak about one person and one thing, we use the noun in singular form.
Single means one.

Plural means many.


Examples:
a. A man is smoking within the premises.
b. A group of cows is called Herd.
c. Joy is what we want in our lives.
d. Church is the worshipping-place of Christians.
e. This chair is made of plastic.
In these sentences, the nouns man, group, joy, church and chair are in singular forms.
Joy, run, wife, knife, army, hero, ox, life, loaf, baby, city and tooth are few singular-nouns
which we use. We have seen the singular form of Noun-Number.
The Noun has various dimention in its usages.
The same Noun can be used in different manner in different contexts.
Let us go to the next form of Noun-Number.
2. Plural:
When we speak about more than one person and one thing, we use the noun in plural form.
Examples:
a. Few men are standing in the foyer.
b. The groups of cows, coming back to their sheds, are not milch cows.
c. These chairs are made of plastic.
d. Children should be given proper guidance.
e. Keep the knives in a safe place.
In these sentences, the words men, groups, chairs, Children and knives are plural-nouns.
Joys, runs, wives, knives, armies, heroes, oxen, lives, loaves, babies, cities and teeth are
few singular-nouns which we use.

How to form plural from singular?


1. By suffixing s to the singular-noun.
Examples:
Joy-joys
Run-runs
Chair-chairs
Radio-radios
Canto-cantos
Momento-momentos
Dynamo-dynamos
Piano-pianos
2. By suffixing es to the singular-noun
Examples:
Glass-glasses
Bench-benches
Bush-bushes
Church-churches
Watch-watches
Buffalo-buffaloes
Negro-negroes
Hero-heroes
Echo-echoes
Mango-mangoes

Potato-potatoes
Noun-Number is another part under Noun.
3. By changing the last letter y into ies.
Examples:
Baby-babies
Lady-ladies
Story-stories
City-cities
Army-armies
Examples:

Man-men
Woman-women
Foot-feet
Tooth-teeth
Goose-geese
5. By suffixing en to the singular.
Examples:
Ox-oxen
Child-children
6. By changing f or fe into ves.
Examples:
Thief-thieves

Life-lives
Wife-wives
Calf-calves
Knife-knives
Wolf-wolves
Leaf-leaves
Shelf-shelves
Exceptions:
Chief-chiefs
Roof-roofs
Gulf-gulfs
Safe-safes
Proof-proofs
Hoof-hoofs

7. Singular-nouns from foreign languages retain their original plural.


Examples:
Erratum-errata
Index-indices
Radius-radii
Formula-formulae (or formulas)
Axis-axes
Basis-bases
Criterion-criteria

Memorandum-memoranda
Terminus-termini (or terminuses)
Hypothesis-hypotheses
Cherub-cherubim (or cherubs)
Parenthesis-parentheses
8. By suffixing s to the main word in a compound word.
Examples:
Commander-in-chief..commanders-in-chief
Son-in-lawsons-in-law
Step-sonstep-sons
Maid-servant.maid-servants
Passer-by..passers-by
Man-servant..men-servant
Man-servant..man-servants
9. Special cases.
a. Few nouns which end in s are used in singular form.
Examples:
News, Mathematics, Physics, politics, innings etc
b. Few collective nouns, though they are in singular forms, are used in plural forms.
Examples:
Poultry, Cattle, People, gentry etc
c. Few nouns have the same forms both in singular and plural forms.
Examples:

Sheep, deer, swine, cod etc


d. Few nouns are used only in the plural forms.
Examples:
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, drawers, thanks, billiards, draughts, annals, tidings etc
e. Few nouns have two different forms in plural. But the two forms have different meanings.
Examples:
Brother.Brothers (sons of same parents) Brethren (members of a society)
Cloth.....Cloths (pieces of cloth) Clothes (items of cloth)
FishFish (more than one of same variety)Fishes (of different varieties)
GeniusGeniuses (persons of great talent)Genii (spirits)
Index..Indexes (tables of contents)Indices (signs used in algebra)
10.Few nouns have different meanings in the singular and in the plural:
Examples:
Advice (counsel).advices (information)
Air (atmosphere).airs (artificial manners)
Good (morally correct)goods (merchandise)
Force (strength)...forces (troops)
Physic (medicine).physics (a branch of science)
Wood (portion of tree)woods (a grove of trees)
11.Few nouns have one meaning in singular but two or more meanings in plural
Examples:
Custom (habit)customs (habits & taxes collected on imports
Quarter (one fourth & a direction)quarters (fourth parts, living places &directions)

Effect (result)...effects (results & property)


12.Letters, numbers and other symbols form their plural by adding an apostrophe
ands.
Examples:
Write your is and ls clearly.
Add two 8s and six 4s.
These are various kinds of Noun-Number. That means a Noun can be classiffied by the
number of units that the Noun denotes.

Grammar :
Noun-Functions
A noun or a pronoun can perform five functions.
Those five noun-functions are:
1.It can be THE SUBJECT of a verb.
Examples:
Mr. Ram leads the team.
Mr. Ram is the subject of the verb leads.
He is writing.
He is the subject of the verb is writing.
The monkeys destroyed the garden.
The monkeys is the subject of the verb destroyed.
The children are playing joyfully.
The children is the subject of the verb are playing.
The second one in Noun-functions is:
2. A noun or a pronoun can be THE DIRECT or INDIRECT OBJECT of a verb.
Examples:
I took the book.
Book is the direct object of the verb took.
The Government will take the decision.
The decision is the direct object of the verb will take.

A herd of elephants is crossing the river.


The river is the object of the verb is crossing.
He gave me the news.
Me is the direct object and news is the indirect object of the verb gave.
The third one in Noun-functions is:
3. A noun or a pronoun can be THE OBJECT OF PREPOSITION.
Examples:
I saw him in his office.
Office is the object of preposition in.
The girl returns from school.
School is the object of prepositin from.
The meeting will be held at short notice.
Notice is the object of preposition at.
The children are shouting at the stray dogs.
Dogs is the object of preposition at.
The fourth one in Noun-functions is:

4. A noun or a pronoun can be DESCRIPTIVE OF ANOTHER NOUN OR A PRONOUN.


That means that the noun can be in apposition with another noun. The word apposition
means placed side by side Or placed parallel to
Examples:
I, the president of this association, will take the decision.
The President is in apposition with I.
Mr. Ram, the captain, scored only fifty points.
The captain is in apposition with Mr. Ram.
You, the eldest son of your parents, should assume all the responsibilities of your family.
Son is in apposition with You.
Everest, the highest peak in the world, is 29000 feet high.
Peak is in apposition with Everest'.
One of the most of US Presidents, Abraham Lincoln was known for his ready wit.
One of the most famous of US Presidents is said to be used in apposition with the subject
of the sentence Abraham Lincoln.

Mahatma Gandhi, father of the Indian nation, led a non-violent struggle to attain
independence from the British.
Father of the Indian nation is in apposition with Mahatma Gandhi.
Examples:
1. The House of Commons, The Mother of Parliamentarians, has been the scene of many
scintillating debates between leading orators.
2. The greatest playwright of all times, William Shakespeare wrote not only plays but also
sonnets and other poems.
Examples:
1. The office is closed.
Here, the noun office is used as the subject.
2. My friend is the manager of this company.
Here the noun manager is used as the object.
3. Pickwick-papers, a novel, was written by Charles Dickens.
Here the noun novel has been used in apposition With Pickwick-papers.
4. Mr. K.R.Narayanan, the ex-president of India, is a fine gentleman.
The noun-phrase the ex-president of India has been used in apposition with Mr.
K.R.Narayanan.
5. I met your friend yesterday.
The noun your friend has been used as object of the verb met.

2.Verb:
A verb is a word used to express an action or state.
Examples:
She wrote a letter.
In this sentence, the word wrote indicates what she did. So the word wrote (write) is a
verb.
New York is big city.
In this sentence, what is now the city New York is indicated by the word is. So the word
is is a verb.

The child played in the hall.


Here in this sentence, what the child did is indicated by the word played. So the word
played (play) is a verb.
Few other verbs are talk, walk, speak, kill, elect, eat, conclude, confess, convene, collect,
go, freeze, pass, communicate, learn etc
To know more about Verb
a. Verbs
b. Verb-Be

Grammar : Verbs
Verbs are the word denoting actions or states.
Examples:
Mr. Hales takes the class today morning.
What does Mr. Hales do today morning?
He takes the class.
The action he is doing is taking the class.
So the action is denoted by the word takes. In that case that word takes is the verb.
The Students write their examination in the Lawtey hall.
Here, the word write is the verb.
The university disqualified him.
Here, the word disqualified is the verb.
His friends refused to support him when he was in critical moments.
Here, the word refused is the verb.
The verbs can be classified in different methods.
There are four types of verbs.
1. Transitive verbs.

A transitive verb is the verb which takes an object.


2. Intransitive verb.
An intransitive verb is a verb which does not take an object.
3. Auxiliary verb:
A verb which helps another verb to form its tense, voice or mood is called anAuxiliary verb.
4. Modal verbs:
The following verbs are called Modal verbs:.
Shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must, ought and dare are called modal
verbs.
Let us see them individually.
1. Transitive verbs:
Examples:
Mr. Hales takes the class today morning.
By this sentence, Mr. Hales takes the class.
Here
The word Mr. Hales is the noun.
The word the class is the object.
The word takes is the verb.
Only when all the three words are there, the whole sentence becomes complete and
meaningful.
In case the object word is not there, the sentence Mr. Hales takes conveys no meaning
and
the sentence does not become complete. In that case what does Mr. Hales take? is
not clear.
So only when the verb takes gets an object, the meaning behind the verb takes
becomes complete.
That means the verb takes needs an object to make itself complete.
Such a verb which needs an object is called transitive verb.

That means the action of the verb is transmitted to another noun or another thing.
They brought the suitcase two days back.
Here the verb brought (bring) needs an object to become meaningful.
What was brought?
The suitcase was brought by them.
So the verb bring (brought) is a transitive verb.

My father has written a book which may interest you.


We are crossing the river by a boat.
The child is reading English poems clearly.
An uncivilized man killed John Kennedy.
She created this structure for our proposed-house.
My teacher gave me a pen before I entered the exam-hall.
They sell their properties.

In all the seven sentences given above, the respective verbs


write, cross, read, kill, create,give and sell
need their respective objects to make the sentences meaningful.
So, all these verbs are transitive verbs.
Few other Transitive verbs are: build, carry, begin, bear,
eat, choose, eat, find, forget, feed, drink, deal, cling, give,
grind, have, hold, make, ride, lend, know, learn, win, steal,
weave, shut, spread etc
2. Intransitive verbs.
As stated above, an intransitive verb is the verb that does not take an object.
Examples:
He laughed loudly.
In this sentence, the verb laughed does not need an object to complete the sentence.
So the verb laugh is an intransitive verb.
I daily wake up at 5am.
Here the verb wake does not need an object for completing itself.

So the verb wake is an intransitive verb.


The ball fell down.
The verb fell (fall) is an intransitive verb.
They are sitting on their cars.
The verb sitting (sit) is an intransitive verb.
The river is winding through the forest.
Here the verb winding (wind) is an intransitive verb.
Few verbs go, fall, die, sleep etc are exclusively intransitive.
Few more Intransitive verbs are: swim, stand, sit, sink, smite, shine, run, rise, lie, leave,
kneel, grow etc
Notes:
1. Many Transitive verbs can be used as Intransitive verbs as well.
Examples:
a. They fought their enemies. (Transitive verb).
They fought fiercely. (Intransitive verb).
b. He spoke the truth. (Transitive verb).
He spoke to me. (Intransitive verb).
c. The peon rings the bell. (Transitive verb).
The bell rings continuously. (Intransitive verb).
d. He walks. (Transitive verb).
The hostler walks the horse. (Intransitive verb).
e. Birds fly in the air. (Transitive verb).
The observatory flies balloon to study weather. (Intransitive verb).
f. The bulb broke. (Transitive verb).
The students broke the glass. (Intransitive verb).
Another type of verb is called Auxiliary verb.

3. Auxiliary verb:
A verb which helps another verb to form its tense, voice or mood is called anAuxiliary verb.
Have, be(am,are,was and were) and do are usually used as auxiliary verbs, they can be
used as Main verbs as well.
Examples:
I have few urgent works. (Main)
They have done very well in the examinations. (Auxiliary)
God is in Heaven. (Main)
He is liked by all. (Auxiliary)
The man does his work quietly. (Main)
Did he come here? (Main)
4. Modal verbs:
The following verbs are called Modal verbs.
Shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must, ought and dare are called modal
verbs.
SHALL:
When shall is used in the second or third person, it has the force of a command, a
promise,
a thread, determination, certainty
i. You shall not go out without my permission.
ii. He shall get my help.
iii. She shall be punished for his mistake.
iv. He shall apologize for his behavior.
v. No man shall take this way.
WILL:
When will is used in the first person, it can express (in addition to the future tense)
willingness,
a promise, a threat, determination

i. I will help you.


ii. I will be there in your wedding.
iii. I will not allow him to go.
iv. I will not miss this opportunity.
MAY:
May has the force of possibility and permission. In the past tense might is used.
i. He may come here.
ii. You may go now.
iii. I believed that he might be honest.
CAN:
Can has the force of ability and permission.
i. He can do this work easily.
ii. She can go home.
iii. Everyone can learn this subject.
MUST:
Must has the force of compulsion, necessity, determination, duty, certainty of belief,
inevitability
i. Everybody must attend this function.
ii. I must go urgently.
iii. I must have full freedom.
iv. A minister must be honest.
v. She must be made to talk like this.
vi. This building must be demolished in near future.
OUGHT:
Ought indicated duty or moral obligation.
i. You ought to be careful.
ii. As the secretary I ought to have attended that meeting.

This verb ought must be followed by to.


DARE:
Dare conveys the force of challenge or the courage to do a thing.
i. He dare not oppose me.
ii. The prime Minister dared the opposition to prove the charge.
NEED:
Need has the force of necessity or obligation.
When this verb need is used to mean obligation in the negative or interrogative form,
s is not added to need in the third person singular(present tense).
i. She need not come here.
ii. It need not be white in the Shirt.
iii. He need not have educational qualifications.
For you attention please:
The list of verbs is long one.
Every sentence will have a noun and a verb(predicate as well).
For your kind attention, few verbs have been given below.
1. arise
2. bear
3. beat
4. behold
5. bid
6. bite
7. blow
8. break
9. begin
10. become

11. bind
12. bleed
13. build
14. burn
15. carry
16. catch
17. cling
18. come
19. deal
20. creep
21. do
22. draw
23. drink
24. eat
25. fall
26. feed
27. feel
28. fight
29. find
30. fling
31. flee
32. forbid
33. forget
34. forsake
35. freeze
36. get

37. give
38. grind
39. have
40. hold
41. kneel
42. know
43. lay
44. lead
45. learn
46. leave
47. lend
48. lie
49. loose
50. make
51. mean
52. meet
53. pay
54. read
55. rid
56. ride
57. ring
58. run
59. rise
60. see
61. set
62. shoot
63. sling

64. slit
65. speak
66. slay
67. shake
68. shed
69. slide
70. spin
71. split
72. spring
73. stand
74. wed
75. write

Grammar : The Verb Be


The Verb Be is a very important but peculiar verb in English.
The Verb Be can be used as a main verb as well as an auxiliary verb.
Examples:
I am in London.
In this sentence, the verb am has been used as a main verb.
I am a qualified candidate.
In this sentence, the verb 'am' has been used as an auxiliart verb.Whereas the main verb is
qualify.
It has other forms when it is used as an indicator of tense of the verb.
They are:
Is, was, am, are and were.
Examples:
He is a teacher. (main verb)

He was sent out of the meeting hall for his ill-behaviors. ( was is auxiliary verb and the
main verb is send)
The Verb Be is a very important but peculiar verb in English. It takes the following forms in
the Principal forms.
Present tense .Past tense..Past Participle
Be................................................................Been
Am.......................................was.................
Is.......................................was.................
Are......................................were................
So, be, been, is, was, are and were are the only different forms of the verb be.
Examples:
Many forms of the Verb-Be have beed used here. i. Be careful.
ii. Be kind to others.
iii. I am the secretary of the association.
iv. He is a kind man.
v. They are social workers.
vi. She was a good companion.
vii. The books were available.
viii. She has been the secretary for two years.
ix. You are not a member of this organization.
You can form your own sentences using the various forms of the Verb-Be.
Note:
The Verb Be can be used as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb.
Main verb:
Examples:
i. The child is very cute.
ii. It was six oclock.
iii. There were many people.

iv. They are the people whom we are looking after.


v. I am a student of that college.
vi. Be careful.
Auxiliary verb:
Examples:
The Verb Be is used as auxiliary verb as follows.
i. I am working here.
ii. She is doing her work quietly.
iii. The train was running late.
iv. The women were working in the field.
Note:
Unlike the other verbs, the verb be can not be split in the interrogative and negatve forms
of sentences. We use it as follows.

Negative:
Examples:
i. I am not your enemy.
ii. He was not responsible for the accident.
iii. The people were not excited.
Interrogative:
Examples:
i. Where is the building?
ii. How was the film?
iii. Were all the materials available?
Note:
The verbs do and have can be used as main verb and auxiliary verb.
Main verb:

Examples:
i. I do a lot of exercises.
ii. He does his work rather carelessly.
iii. I have no difficulty.
iv. They had a solution to this problem.
v. She has no compassion for others.
Auxiliary verb:
Examples:
i. I do not know anybody here.
ii. She does not love him.
iii. I have seen this film.
iv. A plan has been prepared.
Examples:
i. I do not have an answer to your question. (auxiliary verb)
ii. The committee has submitted the report. (auxiliary verb)
iii. They are investigating into the matter. (auxiliary verb)
iv. The matter is urgent. ( main verb)
v. He has done a lot of research. (auxiliary verb)
vi. All the candidates were present. ( main verb)
vii. She does all the work herself. ( main verb)
viii. The boy did not bring his book. (auxiliary verb)
ix. I had applied for the job. (auxiliary verb)
x. Our manager has been ill for quite some time. (auxiliary verb)

3.Adjective:
An adjective is word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.

Examples:
He is a brave boy.
In this sentence, what kind of boy is he is answered by the
word brave. So the word brave is an adjective.
They are perfect people.
In this sentence, what kinds of people are they is answered by
the word perfect. So the word perfect is an adjective.
Few other adjectives are beautiful, tall, shy, courteous, ugly, short, long, lengthy, costly,
calm, nice etc
To know more about Adjectives

Adjective
An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun.
A noun may have many attributes.
Boy is a noun.
That boy may be tall or short, intelligent or fool, educated or uneducated, rich or poor.
What is the quality of that boy?
In order to express the quality of that boy, we have to use an adjective.
"That boy is a rich boy".
In this sentence, the word rich indicates that the boy is a rich boy.
That means that the boy has a lot of money.
Those words which tell us about the quality of the nouns (which might have been
used either as the subject or the object) are called adjectives.
America is a country.
America is a rich country. (rich is an adjective)
Nile is a river.
Nile is a long river.(long is an adjective)
Harvard is the name of a university.
Harvard is the name of the oldest university. (Oldest is an adjective)
She is a student.
She is a beautiful student. (Beautiful is an adjective)

Water is an element.
Water is one of the essential elements. (essential is an adjective)
Other sentences written with adjectives:
London is a large city.
Jacob is an honest man.
We have had enough exercises.
There has not been sufficient rain this year.
The hand has five fingers.
Most boys like cricket.

An adjective will come before a noun.


It will not come before a verb.

1. Adjectives of quality:
Good, honest, old, big etc
Examples :
Their good performance in their final examinations gave them what they expected.
Mr. Antonio is an honest policeman.
Our Chairman is an old man.
The big temple might have been constructed a long time back.
Their excellent presentation bagged them the first prize.

2. Adjectives of quantity:
Little, some, much, enough etc
Examples :
I know little about music.

Adding some sugar will make the coffee tastier.


We have enough study-materials for the forth-coming examinations.
3. Definitive numeral adjectives:
One, two, three, four, five, six, seven etc..
Examples :
One student came forward to become a leader of this class.
Two children make a perfect family.
Four subjects of Management Studies are very difficult.
Ten employees have resigned their jobs.
4. Indefinite numeral adjectives:
All, no, many, few, several etc
Examples :
All the employees have to be here by 10am tomorrow.
No one will be exempted from paying the monthly due.
Few birds have become extinct.
It rained several days continuously.
5. Distributive numeral adjectives:
Each, every, either, neither etc
Examples :
Each one of you should support this cause.
I mean that every employee has stake in the growth of this company.
Either of you should take care of your child.
Neither of you can go away from other.

6. Demonstrative adjectives:
This, that, these, those, such etc
Examples :
This dog is ours.
That gentleman donated his fortunes to a charitable trust.
These flowers are not for sales.
7. Interrogative adjectives :
What, which, whose, when etc
Examples :
What happened after I came out of the house is not known to me.
Which team won the match is not our problem.
Whose child is this is a mystery.
8. Adjectival Phrase:
Sometimes a phrase may be used as an adjective. In that case the phrase is called
adjectival phrase.
Very often this adjectival phrase appears after the noun that it qualifies.
In the following sentences, the adjectival phrases are colored blue.
Examples :
The chief lived in house built-of-stone.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
He was a student of great promise.
9. Adjectival Clause:
Often a full-clause may add meaning to a noun in which case it is known as an adjectival

clause.
In the following sentences the adjectival clauses are colored blue.
Examples :
Nehru was a statesman whom everyone responded.
The house which caught fire is in the street.
John is the boy who broke the window
4.Adverb:

An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or


another adverb.
Examples:
He worked the sum quickly.
Here, whether he worked the sum slow or quickly is answered by the word quickly. So the
word, quickly is an adverb.
This flower is very beautiful.
Here the word very is used to add more meaning to the word beautiful. That means the
flower is more beautiful.So the word very is an adverb.
She pronounced the word quite correctly.
Here the word quite is used to add meaning to the word correctly. So the word quite is
an adverb.
Few other adverbs are wonderfully, nicely, fast, beautifully, honestly, freely, slightly,
healthily, calmly etc
Many of the adverbs end with -ly as stated above.
But it is not a condition.
The next part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Adverbs

Adverb

An Adverb will modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.


Examples:
The deer runs very fast. (The word fast is an adverb which modifies the verb run)
The mango is a very sweet fruit. (The word very is an adverb which modifies the
adjective sweet)
Philips speaks quite clearly. (The word quite is an adverb which modifies the adverb
clearly)
He runs fast. (The adverb fast modifies the verb run)
I write slowly. (The adverb slowly modifies the verb write)
The boy speaks clearly. (The adverb clearly modifies the verb speaks)
The most common adverbs are those which answer the questions when, where, how, and
why.
1. Adverbs may indicate time.
Examples:
Now, before, soon, yesterday, never, formerly etc

2. Adverbs may indicate frequency.


Examples:
Often, twice, again, frequently, seldom etc

3. Adverbs may indicate place.


Examples:
Here, there, everywhere, up, backward etc

4. Adverbs may indicate manner.


Clearly, hard, soundly, slowly, sadly etc

Note-1:
If the work of the adverb is performed by a phrase, that adverb (phrase) is called adverbial
phrase.
Examples:
He lived in this house for nearly twenty years.
I stood on the bridge at midnight.
They sat for a while on the bench.
I thank you with all my heart.

Note-2:
A full-clause may also do the job of an adverb. In that case such a clause is called adverbial
clause.
Examples:
When you finish the work, you may go home.
Before you go, bring me some water.
I have left the book where I can find it again.
Since you were not there, I spoke to your brother.
If it rains, we shall stay at home.
Unless you work hard, you will fail in the test.
Emma is older than she looks.
He had come while I was out.
If he were rich, he would probably help us.
The sum is so simple that everyone can solve it.
Though he is poor, he is honest.

The earth is bigger than the moon.

5.Pronoun:
A pronoun is word used instead of a noun.
Examples:
Raman is boy. He is going to school.
Of these sentences, in the second sentence, the word he is used to indicate Raman. So
the word he is a pronoun.
The students refuse to take their meals. They want to meet the warden.
Of these sentences, in the second sentence, the word they is used to indicate the
students. So the word they is a pronoun.
There are only seven pronouns. They are he, she, it, I, we, they and you. Other pronouns
are their variations.

Grammar : Pronoun
A pronoun is a word that is used to represent a noun.
Pronoun means for-a-noun.
Example-1:
Ramu is not a member of this organization.
In this sentence the word Ramu is the name of a person. So Ramu is a noun. When we
write about the same person in the following sentence, we use the wordHe.
So, he could not attend the meeting meant only for the members.
In this sentence the word he represents Ramu.
He is a pronoun.
Example-2:
Sri Lanka is a big island. It has many tourist-attractions.
In these sentences, Sri Lanka is a noun. It is a pronoun.
Example-3:
I do not know why he did not continue his studies. It is a mystery for many of us.

In these sentences, the phrase why he did not continue his studies is noun but in
phrase form. It is a pronoun.
Example-4:
Oxygen is essential for life on earth. It is a purifying element.
In these sentences, the word oxygen is a noun. The word it is pronoun.
There are seven types of pronouns.
They are:
1. Personal
2. Reflexive
3. Demonstrative
4. Indefinite
5. Distributive
6. Relative
7. Interrogative
Let us see one by one.
1. Personal :
There are only seven personal pronouns.
They are He, She, It, They, You, We and I.
Here we use the word you to indicate both the singular and plural forms.
Here we use the pronoun they to indicate the plural form of both neuter gender and
masculine or feminine gender.
SINGULAR PRONOUNS:
I, He, She, It and You.
PLURAL PRONOUNS:
We, They and You.
Examples:
Mr. Gandhi, why not you seek his help?

Here the word you is used to indicate only Mr. Gandhi (singular).
See another sentence.
Students, you have to be assembled at the Lawtey hall by 11pm.
Here the word you has been used to indicate the students (plural).
Examples:
Mr. Clinton is the Chairman of this company. He has gone to Paris to attend a meeting.
Here, Mr. Clinton is noun and he is pronoun.

Mrs. Clinton is the author of the book Why not you?. She has been nominated to the
Nobel Prize for her book.
Here Mrs. Clinton is noun whereas the word she is pronoun.
This University was founded in 1907. Then it had only 75 students.
Here the University is noun whereas it is pronoun.
The students of this university participated in the foot-ball competition. They have won
the competition.
Here, the students of this university is noun whereas They is pronoun.
Mr. John, why can not you take more training in this field?
Here Mr. John is noun whereas you is pronoun.
We, the natives of England, will support you for your humanitarian approach.
Here, the natives of England, is noun whereas we is pronoun.
I, the father of the child, will attend the parents-meet scheduled to be held on 13th of this
month.
Here the father of this child is noun whereas I is pronoun.
The pronoun it is used to indicate only the neuter gender.
Tree, lion, river, sky, book, car, computer and language can be denoted by the pronoun it.
Al these seven Personal Pronouns as such are called Nominative forms of Personal
Pronouns.
All these seven Personal Pronouns have their own Possessive forms of Personal
Pronouns.

Mine( I ), ours(we), his(he), hers(she), its(it), yours(you) and theirs(they).


Examples:
This book is not mine.
That house of hers is beautiful.
That is the college of ours.
This book is his.
All these seven Personal Pronouns have their own Accusative forms of Personal
Pronouns.
Me( I ), us(we), you(you), him(he), her(she), it(it) and them(they).
Examples:
He gave a book to me.
The presents are meant for you and her.
The Dean warned all of them.
He gave us his house to stay for ten days as he went to Tokyo.
I, we, you, he, she, it and they are the seven personal pronouns. Because, they stand for
the three-persons.
i. The person speaking
ii. The person spoken to
iii. The person spoken of
The pronouns I and we, which denote the person or persons speaking, are said to be
Personal Pronouns of the FIRST PERSON.
The pronoun you, which denotes the person or persons spoken to, is said to be a Personal
Pronoun of SECOND PERSON.
YOU is used both in the singular and in the plural.
The pronouns, he, she, it, and they which denotes the person or persons spoken of, are said
to be Personal Pronouns of THIRD PERSON..
The following are the different forms of the personal pronouns.
A.FIRST PERSON:
I and We are First Persons.
Nominative forms:

I will come to your house today evening.


We will do our best to get the job.
Possessive forms:
That book is mine.
That University is ours.
Accusative forms:
He gave me a five-rupee note.
He called on us.
B.SECOND PERSON:
You is the only SECOND PERSON.
Nominative Form:
You are our best friend.
You are welcome.
Possessive form:
That suitcase in brown cover is yours.
Accusative form:
We gave you your room-key.
C. THIRD PERSON:
He, She, They and It are THIRD PERSONS.
Nominative forms:

He is a student of this University.


She is learning French.
They are from Japan.
It is my home-town.

Possessive forms:

That book
That book
That book
Japan is a

is his.
is hers.
is ours.
workaholic country. The growth that it has attained is its.

Accusative forms:

They gave him an award.


They praised her for her splendid performance.
People voted us to power. We thanked them.
A cow is giving us ten liters of milk a day. We feed it properly.

These are the only seven pronouns. The pronouns that you are going to see under other
different-types of Pronouns as mentioned below are various forms of these seven pronouns
only.
2. Reflexive (or Emphatic pronouns):
The pronouns which are used to reflect upon the person or persons or thing or things which
the pronouns represent are called reflexive pronouns.
Himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself, yourselves, ourselves and myself are the
reflexive pronouns.
Examples:
Mr. John himself called on us two days back.
Mrs. Clinton herself came forward to contest the election to the post of Presidency of this
association.
Students themselves went out of the class-room in protest against the increases in the
admission fees.
You yourself can not cut you hair.
You yourselves can organize a meeting to seek the opinions of all the students.
We ourselves will come to your seeking your support.
I motivated myself.
The singular form of the pronoun you has its reflexive form yourself.
The plural form of the pronoun you has its reflexive form yourselves.
3. Demonstrative :
This, that, those, and these are the demonstrative pronouns.
Examples:
I want only this book.
Those incidents changed his mind drastically.
These people are not qualified to attend the training program.

That train is not the one for which we are waiting.


4. Indefinite :
These pronouns refer to persons or things in general.
One, many, all, some, somebody, someone, few, many, others, nobody,everybody etc are
the indefinite pronouns.
Examples:
Somebody crossed the road.
Nobody came forward to assume responsibilities.
Few candidates did not attend the interview.
All are welcome.
One has to be wise enough to live peacefully.
Anybody can do that.
In these sentences the indefinite forms have been used only in general. Those forms do not
represent anybody in particular.
5. Distributive :
The pronouns which are used to indicate all the members of the representative group are
called distributive forms.
Each, everyone, either and neither are the distributive forms.
Examples:
Each one of you will be given a chance.
Everyone, present here, should take their dinner.
Either of you can take the matter to the chairman.
Neither of you is qualified to attend the final.
6. Relative :
The pronouns which are used as conjunctions are called relative pronouns.
Who, what, that, which and where are relative pronouns.
Examples:
The pronouns which are used as conjunctions are called relative pronouns.

In this sentence, the word which has been used to represent those pronouns used as
conjunctions.
That which is in relative form.
The University which gave me admission is a very good University.
Mr. Kobe who is a native of London is not the owner of this car.
What you did is my problem.
A grove of trees that is at the outskirts of the city is for sales.
7. Interrogative :
The interrogative forms of the pronouns are used here.
Whom, which, whose, what and that are interrogative pronouns.
Examples:
Mr. Kodak whom we are searching for is a native of Japan.
Mrs. Goosd whose son is studying in Harvard has been hospitalized.

6.Preposition:
A preposition is word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing
denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.
Examples:
There is cow in the garden.
Here the word in is preposition.
He is in the play-ground.
Here the word in is a preposition.
They are coming to your office.
Here, the word to is a preposition.
The fruits are behind the leaves.
Here the word behind is preposition.

Few other prepositions are away, from, on, towards, till, until, unless, under, of etc
The next part in the parts of speech is
To know more about Prepositions

Grammar : Preposition
Preposition
is a word that is used with a noun or a pronoun or
a verb to explain their relation with another noun or pronoun.
There are two types.
1. Simple prepositions:
Examples:
1. A bird is on the tree.
2. I am fond of music.
3. The man was standing under the tree.
4. He runs after money.
5. I have to go to London to meet him.
6. Do not look at Sun at noon.
7. He is from your office.
8. One of you has to attend the meeting.
9. Go out.
10. You have to study English till you become a master of it.
11. He, with his friends, has gone to hotel to celebrate his birthday.
In the above sentences, the simple ones are colored red.
Few others are:
By, in, of, off, on, through, up, with, from, after, about, above,
across, amidst, among, around, before, behind,
below, within, between, inside, outside, without, beside, etc
2. Phrasal prepositions:

A phrasal verb is formed by combining a verb with a preposition.


According to, agreeable to, along with, away from, in addition to,
in course of, in favor of, in honor of, in order to,
in spite of, with reference to, with regard etc
Nouns, verbs, adjectives and participles are often combined with
prepositions such as Noun + Preposition, Verb + Preposition,
Adjective + Preposition, and Participle + Preposition.
Each combination has a separate meaning, sometimes totally different from the meaning of
the main verb.
Examples:
1. Every citizen should abide by the laws of his country.
2. This lake abounds in fish.
3. Rajeev Gandhi started his Prime Ministership with abundance of goodwill of Indians.
4. Why were you absent from class yester day?
5. When I entered the room, I found my grandfather absorbed in deep thought.
6. The Judge refused to accede to the request of the accused to release him on bail.
7. I regret that your proposal is acceptable to me.
8. Gupta is well-known to politicians and has a ready access to a number of ministers.
9. The Engineer was accused of taking a bribe from the contractor.
10. Are you acquainted with this neighborhood?
11. The accused was acquitted of the charge of perjury?
12. You have to adapt yourself to changing times.
The Phrasal ones in the above sentences are colored blue.
(Quite often as in this case-12, the main verb and the preposition may be separated by
other intervening words)

NOTE:

One can give thousands of examples. There is no grammatical rule to describe why a
particular preposition is used along with a particular word to convey a particular meaning.
These combinations have come out of mere conventions and usages.
You would yourself be using such phrases in your writings and speeches without your even
being aware of them.
There are two ways, a preposition can be used.
The first is as in the following phrases:
Examples:
1. On the table
2. In the year
3. With his friend
4. From the village
5. At the post office
6. Between the books
7. Underneath the tables
In sentences such as mentioned above, the preposition is written before the noun that
governs it.
That is why it is called pre-position.
Few prepositions are in the forms of two-words, three-words, four-words.
According to, in addition to,
The second way in which a preposition is used is after a verb, adjective oradverb.
Few are followed by or preceded by a certain words to provide a fixed meaning.
Examples:
1. Go after
2. Endow with
3. Participate in
4. Divide into
5. Confine to

6. Abstain from
7. Conform to
8. Affection for
9. Pity towards
10. Alliance with
11. Acquaintance with
12. Distrust of
13. Result of
14. Access to
15. Opposition to
16. Incidental to
17. Deficient in
18. Acquainted with
19. Delighted with
20. Accused of
21. Fond of
22. Anxious about
23. Grateful for
24. Tantamount to
25. Sympathy for
26. Sure of
27. Surrender to
28. Suspect of
29. Stick to
30. Ready for

'In', 'at', and 'on' have similar meanings, but there are conventions about their usages.
IN is used before large places such as a country, state or city.
Examples:
1. In India
2. In Texas
3. In New York
ON is used before middle sized places such as a road, train, plane, ship etc
Examples:
1. On Mount road
2. On Parliament road
3. On the East coast
AT is used to denote an exact spot.
Examples:
1. At the door
2. At 7 Oclock
IN is also used to denote a very small place
I was staying in a room at Door No.43 on Anderson Street in Boston on East coast in
Massachusetts State in USA.
There are three conventional uses of these three ones in regard to time also.
IN is used before the year and month.
ON is used before the day and date.
AT is used before actual time.
That accident happened at 7.30pm on 7th March in 1989.
The correct phrasal forms to denote specific times of the day are:
Examples:
1. At dawn
2. In the morning

3. At noon
4. In the afternoon
5. At dusk
6. At night
The preposition between must be used when referring to two things or persons.
Examples:
1. The problem between Jack and Jill was solved by their parents.
2. This train is playing between New York and Chicago.
When more than two things or persons are involved, the correct preposition to be used is
among.
Examples:
1. Among all the students in this class, John is the most intelligent.
2. He dose not show partiality among his three children
3. There is not a good understanding among the Parliamentarians of the ruling party.
Examples:
1. Buttercups are avoided by the grazing animals because of the bitter juices.
2. By the time Columbus arrived at America in 1492, other Europeans had already reached
the New York.
3. In times of war, people must take precautions against not only actual violence but also
acts of sabotage.
4. Between Stephen and his sister, the latter is the taller one.
5. Despite the road block, the police allowed us to enter the restricted area to search for our
friends.

7.Conjunction:
A conjunction is word used to join words or sentences.
Examples:
Ram is a student. John is a student. Ram and John are students.

Here the word and is used to join the two words Ram & John. So the word and is a
conjunction.
I ran fast, but missed the train.
The word but is a conjunction.
Few other conjunctions are or, eitheror, not only, so that, still, else, since, so, after etc
To know more about Conjunctions

Conjunction
Conjunction
is word or a phrase which connects two words or two phrases or two clauses or two
sentences.
The Conjuctions are....
1. and
2. or
3. either...or...
4. for
5. but
6. also
7. neither...nor...
8. only
9. after
10. because
11. if
12. so...that...
13. that
14. as
15. when

16. while
17. till
Examples:
You and he should attend the function. (The word and is connecting two other words you
& he)
He and I are good friends. (The word and is connecting two other words HE& I)
Pay the fees or you will not be admitted. (The word or is connecting two sentences Pay
the fees & You will not be admitted)
1. A preposition may connect two words:
Examples:
Jack and Jill come up the hill.
We bought a book as well as a pen.
You could find clean air not in the city but in the village.
He will conduct either you or me.
They offer not only coffee but also tea.
You should be here when our Chairman arrives.
I will not attend mobile-phone calls while driving my car.
He has to study till he becomes thorough in the subject.
We are waiting here for you only.
Not only Shirts but also pants are sold here.
2. A preposition may connect two phrases:
Examples:
The police have to find out not only who committed this crime but also how this crime was
executed in this day-light.

A big-lorry in blue color as well as a car in white color went into this village one by one.
3. A preposition may connect two main clauses:
Examples:
The 1973 oil-price adjustment checked the runaway consumption trend, but it was the
1979-increase that reversed it.
J.W.Jeffrey, a retired University of London professor, conducted a thorough economic
assessment of British nuclear plants and concluded that nuclear plant is considerably more
expensive than coal-fired power.
My father spent ten years to create a chemical solution, which, if used in agricultural
lands, will give very high yields, but he expired before he started manufacturing in bigscale.

4. A preposition may connect a main and a subordinate clause:


Examples:
If our generation persists in mining the soil so that we may eat, many of our children and
their children may go hungry as a result.
Whereas the 60% of the trees in France had been affected by acid rain in 1982, 75% of
them were suffering in 1983.
Because the last bus already left, we had to take a taxi.
If the business goes on losing money, we will have to close it down.
I shall get my air ticket to USA as soon as I receive the visa.
What do you propose to do after you complete your graduation?
The plane will not take off until the fog clears.
5. Coordinating conjunctions:
The conjunctions which coordinate two words are called coordinating conjunctions.
The following conjunctions are called Coordinating conjunctions:
1.and

2. but
3. for
4. or
5. nor
6. also
7. only
8. till
Examples:
Mr. John and Mr. Rams are the only invitees to meet the Prime Minister.
The whole country is waiting for the results of this international-tournament.
We have to be here in London till we are acquainted by the court.
6. Subordinating conjunctions:
A word introducing a subordinate clause is called subordinating clause.
The following conjunctions are called subordinating conjunctions:
1. after
2. because
3. if
4. that
5. though
6. although
7. till
8. before
9. unless

10. as
11. when
12. while
13. how
14. until
Examples:
You can come to the function after you finished your work.
They have scored low marks in English because she did not study well.
All of you are welcome if you have the entrance-tickets.
It is not known how he bought this car at this rate.
Your father has got you a motor-bike that is eight-year-old.
He was not admitted to that college though he has scored very high marks in the
entrance.
Her boy-friend postponed her marriage-proposal till he started his own business.
You can not get a new telephone connection before 1st of next month.
7. Compound conjunctions:
There will be few words in every conjunction of this type.
1. in order that
2. in order to
3. on condition that
4. even if
5. so that
6. provided that

7. as though
8. in as much as
9. as well as
10. as if
Examples:
He comes to this function on condition that we should leave him by 8pm.
London is so big that you can not go by walk to reach your office.
You as well as your father can go by the train.
You will not catch your train even if you take a taxi now.

8.Interjection:
An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feelings.
Examples:
Hurrah! I have own the game.
Alas! She is dead.
In these sentences, the words hurrah and alas are used to express the sudden feelings
of those who use these sentences.
These are the only eight parts of speech.We have seen these parts of speeches only briefly.
We can see individually one by one in the following pages.

Interjection
An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotions.
Examples:
Hello! What are you doing here?
Alas! He is dead.

Hurrah! We have own the game.


Ah! Have they gone?
Oh! I got such a fright.
Hush! Do not make a noise. Mt child is sleeping.
Such words Hello, Alas, Hurrah, Ah, Oh and Hush are used to express the emotions or
sudden feelings.
The words of Interjection may be used to express joy, grief, surprise or approval.
In case of Joy the following words are used.
Hurrah, Huzza etc
In case of Grief, the following words are used.
Alas, Oh my god etc
In case of Surprise, the following words are used.
Ha, What etc
In case of Approval, the following words are used.
Bravo, Your goodness etc
These words are used only to express the sudden feelings. They will be noticed that they
are not grammatically related to the other parts of the sentence.
Few other groups of words are also used to express the sudden feelings.
Ah me, for shame, Well done, Good gracious etc