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Power Source

Load on Driven Machine


Uniform
Moderate Shock
Heavy Shock

Uniform

1.00

1.25

1,75 or higher

Moderate Shock

1.25

1.50

2,00 or higher

Heavy Shock

1.50

1.75

2,25 or higher

2 in. Face and under


Helical

9 in face
Spur

Helical

Spur

Helical

16 in. Face and over


Spur

Helical

Face Width
Conditin of Support
Accurate mounting,
low bearing clearance
minimum elastic defletion
precision gear
Less rigid mountings,
less accurate gears,
contact across full face
Accuracy and mounting
such that less full face
contact exists

2 in face
and under

6 in face

9 in face

16 in Face
and under

Spur

Helical

Spur

Helical

Spur

Helical

Spur

Helical

1.3

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

1.7

1.6

1.8

1.7

2.0

2.0

Over 2,0

Number
of
Cycles
Up to 1000
10,000
100,000
1 million
10 million
100 million and over

160
BHN
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.1
1.0

Spur, Helical and


Bevel Gear
250
450
Case
Case
BHN
BHN Carbuized Carbuized
2.4
3.4
2.7
4.6
1.9
2.4
2.0
1.4
1.7
1.5
2.1
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.4
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Requirement of Application
High Reliability
Fewer than 1 failure in 100
Fewer than 1 failure in 3

Requirement of Application
High Reliability

KR
1,50 or higher
1.00
0.70

KR
1,50 or higher

Fewer than 1 failure in 100

1.00

Fewer than 1 failure in 3

0.70

Requirement of Application

KR

High Reliability

3,00 or higher

Normal Design

1.33

Surface Hardness
min.

Sac
psi.

Throught hardned

Steel

180 Bhn

85-95.000

240 Bhn

105-115.000

300 Bhn

120-135.000

360 Bhn

145-160.000

440 Bhn

170-190.000

Case carburized
55 Rc

180-200.000

60 Rc

200-225.000

Flame or inductin hardened


50 Rc
Cast iron
AGMA grade 20
AGMA grade 30
AGMA grade 40
Nodular iron
Annealed
Normalized
Oil quench & Temper
Bronze
Tin Bronze AGMA 2C
(10 - 12% Tin)
Al-Bronze ASTM B
148-52 (Alloy 9C-H.T)

170-190.000

175 Bhn
200 Bhn
165 Bhn
210 Bhn
255 Bhn
UTS min, psi

50-60.000
65-75.000
75-85.000
90-100% of the
Sac value of
steel with the
same hardness
Sac, psi

40.000.

30.000.

90.000.

60.000.

Ratio of b/d

1.0 or less

Contact

Cm

95 % face width contact obtained at one-third torque

1.4 at 1/3 torque

95 % face width contact obtained at full torque

1.1 at full torque

75 % face width contact obtained at one-third torque

1.8 at 1/3 torque

95 % face width contact obtained at fulltorque

1.3 at full torque

35 % face width contact obtained at one-third torque

2.5 at 1/3 torque

95 % face width contact obtained at fulltorque

1.9 at full torque

20 % face width contact obtained at one-third torque

4.0 at 1/3 torque

95 % face width contact obtained at fulltorque

2.5 at full torque

Teeth are crowned


20 % face width contact obtained at one-third torque

2.5 at 1/3 torque

95 % face width contact obtained at fulltorque

1.7 at full torque

Caculated combined twist and bending of pinion not


over 0.001" over entire face
Pinion not over 250 BHN Hardness
75 % contact obtained at one-third torque

2.0 at 1/3 torque

95 % contact obtained at full torque

1.4 at full torque

Over 1

Caculated combined twist and bending of pinion not

but less

over 0.0007" over entire face

than 2

Pinion not over 350 BHN Hardness


75 % contact obtained at one-third torque

2.0 at 1/3 torque

95 % contact obtained at full torque

1.4 at full torque

75 % contact obtained at one-third torque

4.0 at 1/3 torque

95 % contact obtained at full torque

3.0 at full torque


Calculated effects of
deflection and either
adjust helix angle to

Twist and bending exceeds 0.001" over entire face

compensate for deflection


or increase Cm to allow
for both alignment errors
and deflection

Pinion Material
and Modulus of
Elasticity
Steel
300000
Cast Iron
190000
Al Bronze
175000
Tin Bronze 160000

Gear material and Modulus Elasticity


Steel
Cast Iron Al Bronze Tin Bronze
300000
190000
175000
160000
2300
2000
1950
1900
2000
1800
1800
1750
1950
1800
1750
1700
1900
1750
1700
1650