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# Length overall

Length overall, often abbreviated as (LOA, o/a, o.a. or oa) refers to the maximum length of a
vessel from the two points on the hull measured perpendicular to the waterline.
Length overall is commonly used to indicate maximum length of a vessel. LOA is the most
commonly-used way of expressing the size of a boat, and is also used for calculating the cost of a
marina berth[1] (for example, 2.50 per metre LOA).
As said, LOA often means length of the hull.[2] For sailing ships this may exclude the bowsprit
and other fittings added to the hull. This is how some racing boats and tall ships use the term
LOA.[3] However, other sources may include bowsprits in LOA.[4][5][6] Confusingly, LOA has
different meanings.[7][8] "Sparred length", "Total length including bowsprit", "Mooring length"
and "LOA including bowsprit" are other expressions that might indicate the full length of a
sailing ship.

## Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars, often abbreviated as p/p, p.p., pp, LPP, LBP or Length BPP
is a term describing the length of a ship. LBP refers to the length of a vessel along the waterline
from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of
the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. This was believed to give a reasonable idea of
the ship's carrying capacity, as it excluded the small, often unusable volume contained in her
overhanging ends. On some types of vessels this is, for all practical purposes, a waterline
measurement. In a ship with raked stems, naturally that length changes as the draught of the ship
changes, therefore it is measured from a defined loaded condition.

## the transverse distance extending from the most outboard point on

one side to the most outboard point on the other side of a ship's
hull including any projections on the ship's side; this dimension
determines the maximum space occupied by the ship when used
with length overall

## the transverse distance between the moulded or inboard surfaces

of the side shell plating measured at the widest portion of a ship's
hull; used in calculations

DEPTH
The depth of a vessel involves several very important vertical dimensions. They involve terms like freeboard, draft,
draft marks, and load lines. The vessels depth is measured vertically from the lowest point of the hull, ordinarily from
the bottom of the keel, to the side of any deck that you may choose as a reference point. Therefore, it has to be
stated in specific terms such as depth to upper deck amidships. It is impractical to measure depth in any other way,
since it varies considerably from one point to another on many ships. For example, the depth is greater at the stern
than amidships.
The term "depth" is where the measurement is taken from the bottom--from the keel upward. Ordinarily, if such a
measurement were being made in a room of a building, taken from the floor to the ceiling, it would be called height.

## PROCEDURE FOR READING DRAFT MARKS

Draft marks are numbers marked on each side of the bow and stern of the vessel. Draft marks show the distance
from the bottom of the keel to the waterline.

## Draft Marks on Bow and Stern of Vessel

The draft numbers shown in the figure are 6 inches high and 6 inches apart. The bottom of each number shows the
foot draft mark.

Angle of loll

Angle of loll is a term used to describe the state of a ship which is unstable when upright (ie: has
a negative metacentric height, GMt) and therefore takes on an angle of heel to either port or
starboard.
When a vessel has negative GM i.e., is in unstable equilibrium, any external force, if applied the
vessel, will cause it to start heeling. As it heels, its the waterline's moment of inertia increases,
which increases the vessel's BM (distance from the center of buoyancy to the metacenter). Since
there is no change in KB (distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy) of the vessel, the KM
(distance from keel to the metacenter) of the vessel increases.
At some angle of heel (say 10), KM will increase sufficiently equal to KG (distance from the
keel to the center of gravity), thus making GM of vessel equal to zero. When this occurs, the
vessel goes to neutral equibrium, and the angle of heel at which it happens is called angle of loll,
In other words, when an unstable vessel heels over towards a progressively increasing angle of
heel, at a certain angle of heel, the center of buoyancy (B) may fall vertically below the center of
gravity (G). Note that Angle of List should not be confused with angle of loll. Angle of List is
caused by unequal loading on either side of center line of vessel.
Although vessel at angle of loll does display features of stable equilibrium, it is an extremely
dangerous situation, timely remedial action is required to prevent the vessel from capsizing.
It is often caused by the influence of a large free surface or the loss of stability due to damaged
compartments. It is different from list in that the vessel is not induced to heel to one side or the
other by the distribution of weight, it is merely incapable of maintaining a zero heel attitude.