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RESEARCH REPORT

on
A Study of Pepsis Distribution Channel In NOIDA

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Index
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

07

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

08

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

09

METHODOLOGY

10-11

LIMITATIONS

12

CHAPTER 2 : PROFILE OF ORGANISATION


HISTORY OF PEPSI

13-25

ABOUT ORGANISATION

26

PRODUCT

27-29

THE SOFT DRINK MARKET

30-32

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

33

CHAPTER 3 : THEORETICAL FRAME WORK OF TOPIC


MEANING

34

IMPORTANCE

35

CLASSIFICATION

36

DETERMINANTS

37

ADVANTAGES

38

SAMPLE SIZE

39-40

REASERCH METHODOLOGY

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41-50

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS
INTERPROTATION

50-67

CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION

68-73

FINDING

70-71

SUGGESTION

72-73

BIBLIOGRAPHY

74

ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIERS

75-77

LIST OF TABLES
S.No

Table no

Title of table

Page no.

1.1

Types of outlet

42

1.2

Market share

43

1.3

Create sales/day

44

LIST OF CHARTS
S.No.

Table no

Title of table

Page no.

2.1

Pricing chart

32

2.2

Organization structure

33

LIST OF GRAPHS
S.No.

Table no

Title of Graph

Page no.

3.1

No. of outlets

42

3.2

Percent share

43

3.3

Percent share of equipment

45

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INTRODUCTION

A path through which goods and services flow in one direction (from vendor to the consumer), and the
payments

generated by them that flow in the opposite direction (from consumer to the vendor).

A distribution channel can be as short as being direct from the vendor to the consumer or may include
several interconnected intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, agents, retailers. Each intermediary
receives

the item at one pricing point and moves it to the next higher pricing point until it reaches

the final buyer. Also called channel of distribution.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The survey was conducted in Noida city in keeping following objectives in view: The survey was done to find out the present status of PEPSI, SLICE, MIRINDA, 7UP,
MOUNTAIN DEW, TROPICANA & AQUAFINA in the retail outlets.

To find the receptivity of the brand among the retailers and consumers particularly of
eating and drinking, grocery store, and convenience shops.

To study of distribution and marketing strategy of pepsi, slice, mirinda,7up, mountain


dew, Tropicana, the major competitor in this category.

To find out available opportunities in the market by finding gaps in competitors


penetration.

To collect data about the retailers that can be used for activating new channels and
merchandising opportunities.

To find out ways to increase the the sales of the new launches in different

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Scope of the study for PEPSI , by this study, the company will come to know: Through this study company can know about its growth.

This study will also help to the company to know about their new concepts position in
the market.

This study will also help to the company to know about its promotional activities.

Through this study company will know about the availability of its products in the
market.

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METHODOLOGY
SURVEY METHOD
Having decided to adopt a survey method to collect data for this study, the
next step is to decide on the type of survey consistence on resources like
time and money leads to the sample survey. The survey is classified into two
parts viz.

Exploratory study

Descriptive study

EXPLORATORY STUDY
The main objective of exploratory study is to get the feel of the market
products,

competitive

consumers.

This

information used for descriptive study.

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

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helps

in

gathering

primary

The exploratory study laid the foundation for the descriptive study and
paved a wag to systematic study there by eliminating objective of the
research study.
Segmenting the market based on the consumer income demography and
acceptation.
To study the usage pattern of the consumers
What is the level of awareness of the different types of soft drink in Greater
Noida .
To find the perception of the consumers about different brand of soft drink.
Compare different brands of soft drink based on the basis of their attributes
availability, packaging and effects of the advertisements.
To study the consumers preference in comparison to his/her brand of soft
drink.
A structured questionnaire was prepared which contained both open-ended
and close-ended questions.

TOOLS USING FOR COLLECTING DATA


Analysis and interpretation of data is based on the both the primary
and secondary data. Both primary and secondary data are explained below.
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PRIMARY DATA was collected by means of structured questionnaire


along with personal interviews, since few open-ended questions required
classifications.

SECONDARY DATA was collected from different books, magazines and


newspapers. The secondary data was also collected from the Internet.

LIMITATIONS
Every research has some limitation. The report should also point out
the main limitation of the research report therein. This will be helpful to
the reader who can form his own opinion as far as the result are reliable
the addition it will be useful to researcher to subsequently undertake a
study on the share our related theme.

The some of the limitation of this report as follow:


(i)

The research was conducted within the specific time duration.

(ii)

Area was specified.


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(iii)

Company did not provide any financial support.

(iv)

Summer month are the best period for sales of soft drink, so we
cannot analyze the actual annual demand and sales of soft drink in
market.

CHAPTER 2

HISTORY OF PEPSI

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In 1902, he launched the Pepsi-Cola Company in the back room of his pharmacy, and applied to
the U.S. Patent Office for a trademark. At first, he mixed the syrup himself and sold it
exclusively through soda fountains. But soon Caleb recognized that a greater opportunity
existed to bottle Pepsi so that people could drink it anywhere.
The business began to grow, and on June 16, 1903, "Pepsi-Cola" was officially registered with
the U.S. Patent Office. That year, Caleb sold 7,968 gallons of syrup, using the theme line
"Exhilarating, Invigorating, Aids Digestion." He also began awarding franchises to bottle Pepsi
to independent investors, whose number grew from just two in 1905, in the cities of Charlotte
and Durham, North Carolina, to 15 the following year, and 40 by 1907. By the end of 1910,
there were Pepsi-Cola franchises in 24 states.
Pepsi-Cola's first bottling line resulted from some less-than-sophisticated engineering in the
back room of Caleb's pharmacy. Building a strong franchise system was one of Caleb's greatest
achievements. Local Pepsi-Cola bottlers, entrepreneurial in spirit and dedicated to the product's
success, provided a sturdy foundation. They were the cornerstone of the Pepsi-Cola enterprise.
By 1907, the new company was selling more than 100,000 gallons of syrup per year.
Growth was phenomenal, and in 1909 Caleb erected a headquarters so spectacular that the town
of New Bern pictured it on a postcard. Famous racing car driver Barney Oldfield endorsed Pepsi
in newspaper ads as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race."
The previous year, Pepsi had been one of the first companies in the United States to switch from horsedrawn transport to motor vehicles, and Caleb's business expertise captured widespread attention. He was

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even mentioned as a possible candidate for Governor. A 1913 editorial in the Greensboro Patriot praised
him for his "keen and energetic business sense."

Pepsi-Cola enjoyed 17 unbroken years of success. Caleb now


promoted Pepsi sales with the slogan, "Drink Pepsi-Cola. It will
satisfy you." Then came World War I, and the cost of doing
business increased drastically. Sugar prices see sawed between
record highs and disastrous lows, and so did the price of producing
Pepsi-Cola. Caleb was forced into a series of business gambles just to survive, until finally, after
three exhausting years, his luck ran out and he was bankrupted. By 1921, only two plants
remained open. It wasn't until a successful candy manufacturer, Charles G. Guth, appeared on
the scene that the future of Pepsi-Cola was assured. Guth was president of Loft Incorporated, a
large chain of candy stores and soda fountains along the eastern seaboard. He saw Pepsi-Cola as
an opportunity to discontinue an unsatisfactory business relationship with the Coca-Cola
Company, and at the same time to add an attractive drawing card to Loft's soda fountains. He
was right. After five owners and 15 unprofitable years, Pepsi-Cola was once again a thriving
national brand.
One oddity of the time, for a number of years, all of Pepsi-Cola's sales were actually
administered from a Baltimore building apparently owned by Coca-Cola, and named for its
president. Within two years, Pepsi would earn $1 million for its new owner. With the resurgence
came new confidence, a rarity in those days because the nation was in the early stages of a
severe economic decline that came to be known as the Great Depression.
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1898 Caleb Bradham, a New Bern, North


Carolina, pharmacist, renames "Brad's Drink," a
carbonated soft drink he created to serve his
drugstore's fountain customers. The new name,
Pepsi-Cola, is derived from two of the principal
ingredients, pepsin and kola nuts. It is first used
on August 28.
1902 Bradham applies to the U.S. Patent Office for a trademark for the Pepsi-Cola name.
1903 In keeping with its origin as a pharmacist's concoction, Bradham's advertising praises his
drink as "Exhilarating, invigorating, aids digestion."
1905 A new logo appears, the first change from the original created in 1898.
1906 The logo is redesigned and a new slogan added: "The original pure food drink." The
trademark is registered in Canada.
1907 The Pepsi trademark is registered in Mexico.
1909 Automobile racing pioneer Barney Oldfield becomes Pepsi's first celebrity endorser when
he appears in newspaper ads describing Pepsi-Cola as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating,
a fine bracer before a race." The theme "Delicious and Healthful" appears, and will be used
intermittently over the next two decades.
1920 Pepsi appeals to consumers with, "Drink Pepsi-Cola. It will satisfy you."
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1932 The trademark is registered in Argentina.


1934 Pepsi begins selling a 12-ounce bottle for five cents, the same price charged by its
competitors for six ounces.
1938 The trademark is registered in the Soviet Union.
1939 A newspaper cartoon strip, "Pepsi & Pete," introduces the theme "Twice as Much for a
Nickel" to increase consumer awareness of Pepsi's value advantage.
1940 Pepsi makes advertising history with the first advertising jingle ever broadcast nationwide.
"Nickel, Nickel" will eventually become a hit record and will be translated into 55 languages. A
new, more modern logo is adopted.
1941 In support of America's war effort, Pepsi changes the color of its bottle crowns to red,
white and blue. A Pepsi canteen in Times Square, New York, operates throughout the war,
enabling more than a million families to record messages for armed services personnel overseas.
1943 The "Twice as Much" advertising strategy expands to include the theme, "Bigger Drink,
Better Taste."
1949 "Why take less when Pepsi's best?" is added to "Twice as Much" advertising.
1950 "More Bounce to the Ounce" becomes Pepsi's new theme as changing soft drink
economics force Pepsi to raise prices to competitive levels. The logo is again updated.

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1953 Americans become more weight conscious, and a new strategy based on Pepsi's lower
caloric content is implemented with "The Light Refreshment" campaign.
1954 "The Light Refreshment" evolves to incorporate "Refreshing Without Filling."
1958 Pepsi struggles to enhance its brand image. Sometimes referred to as "the kitchen cola," as
a consequence of its long-time positioning as a bargain brand, Pepsi now identifies itself with
young, fashionable consumers with the "Be Sociable, Have a Pepsi" theme. A distinctive "swirl"
bottle replaces Pepsi's earlier straight-sided bottle.
1959 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon meet in the
soon-to-be-famous "kitchen debate" at an international trade fair. The meeting, over Pepsi, is
photo-captioned in the U.S. as "Khrushchev Gets Sociable."
1961 Pepsi further refines its target audience, recognizing the increasing importance of the
younger, post-war generation. "Now it's Pepsi, for Those who think Young" defines youth as a
state of mind as much as a chronological age, maintaining the brand's appeal to all market
segments.
1963 In one of the most significant demographic events in commercial history, the post-war
baby boom emerges as a social and marketplace phenomenon. Pepsi recognizes the change, and
positions Pepsi as the brand belonging to the new generation-The Pepsi Generation. "Come
alive! You're in the Pepsi Generation" makes advertising history. It is the first time a product is
identified, not so much by its attributes, as by its consumers' lifestyles and attitudes.
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1964 A new product, Diet Pepsi, is introduced into Pepsi-Cola advertising.


1966 Diet Pepsi's first independent campaign, "Girlwatchers," focuses on the cosmetic benefits
of the low-calorie cola. The "Girlwatchers" musical theme becomes a Top 40 hit. Advertising
for another new product, Mountain Dew, a regional brand acquired in 1964, airs for the first
time, built around the instantly recognizable tag line, "Ya-Hoo, Mountain Dew!"
1967 When research indicates that consumers place a premium on Pepsi's superior taste when
chilled, "Taste that beats the others cold. Pepsi pours it on" emphasizes Pepsi's product
superiority. The campaign, while product-oriented, adheres closely to the energetic, youthful,
lifestyle imagery established in the initial Pepsi Generation campaign.
1969 "You've got a lot to live. Pepsi's got a lot to give" marks a shift in Pepsi Generation
advertising strategy. Youth and lifestyle are still the campaign's driving forces, but with
"Live/Give," a new awareness and a reflection of contemporary events and mood become
integral parts of the advertising's texture.
1973 Pepsi Generation advertising continues to evolve. "Join the Pepsi People, Feelin' Free"
captures the mood of a nation involved in massive social and political change. It pictures us the
way we are-one people, but many personalities.
1975 The Pepsi Challenge, a landmark marketing strategy, convinces millions of consumers that
Pepsi's taste is superior.

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1976 "Have a Pepsi Day" is the Pepsi Generation's upbeat reflection of an improving national
mood. "Puppies," a 30-second snapshot of an encounter between a very small boy and some
even smaller dogs, becomes an instant commercial classic.
1979 With the end of the '70s comes the end of a national malaise. Patriotism has been restored
by an exuberant celebration of the U.S. bicentennial, and Americans are looking to the future
with renewed optimism. "Catch that Pepsi Spirit!" catches the mood and the Pepsi Generation
carries it forward into the '80s.
1982 with all the evidence showing that Pepsi's taste is superior, the only question remaining is
how to add that message to Pepsi Generation advertising. The answer? "Pepsi's got your Taste
for Life!," a triumphant celebration of great times and great taste.
1983 The soft drink market grows more competitive, but for Pepsi drinkers, the battle is won.
The time is right and so is their soft drink. It's got to be "Pepsi Now!"
1984 A new generation has emerged-in the United States, around the world and in Pepsi
advertising, too. "Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation" announces the change, and the most
popular entertainer of the time, Michael Jackson, stars in the first two commercials of the new
campaign. The two spots quickly become "the most eagerly awaited advertising of all time."
1985 Lionel Richie leads a star-studded parade into "New Generation" advertising followed by
pop music icons Tina Turner and Gloria Estefan. Sports heroes Joe Montana and Dan Marino
are part of it, as are film and television stars Teri Garr and Billy Crystal. Geraldine Ferraro, the
first woman nominated to be vice president of the U.S., stars in a Diet Pepsi spot. And the
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irrepressible Michael J. Fox brings a special talent, style and spirit to a series of
Pepsi and Diet Pepsi commercials, including a classic, "Apartment 10G."
1987 After an absence of 27 years, Pepsi returns to Times Square, New York,
with a spectacular 850-square foot electronic display billboard declaring Pepsi to
be "America's Choice."
1988 Michael Jackson returns to "New Generation" advertising to star in a fourpart "episodic" commercial named "Chase." "Chase" airs during the Grammy
Awards program and is immediately hailed by the media as "the most-watched commercial in
advertising history."
1989 "The Choice of a New Generation" theme expands to categorize Pepsi users as "A
Generation Ahead!"
1990 Teen stars Fred Savage and Kirk Cameron join the "New Generation" campaign, and
football legend Joe Montana returns in a spot challenging other celebrities to taste test their
colas against Pepsi. Music legend Ray Charles stars in a new Diet Pepsi campaign, "You got the
right one baby."
1991 "You got the Right one Baby" is modified to "You got the Right one Baby, Uh-Huh!" The
"Uh-Huh Girls" join Ray Charles as back-up singers and a campaign soon to become the most
popular advertising in America is on its way. Supermodel Cindy Crawford stars in an awardwinning commercial made to introduce Pepsi's updated logo and package graphics.
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1992 Celebrities join consumers, declaring that they "Gotta Have It." The interim campaign
supplants "Choice of a New Generation" as work proceeds on new Pepsi advertising for the
'90s. Mountain Dew growth continues, supported by the antics of an outrageous new Dew Crew
whose claim to fame is that, except for the unique great taste of Dew, they've "Been there, Done
that, Tried that."
1993 "Be Young, Have fun, Drink Pepsi" advertising starring basketball superstar Shaquille
O'Neal is rated as best in U.S.
1994 New advertising introducing Diet Pepsi's freshness dating initiative features Pepsi CEO
Craig Weather up explaining the relationship between freshness and superior taste to consumers.
1995 In a new campaign, the company declares "Nothing else is a Pepsi" and takes top honors
in the year's national advertising championship.

In the modern urban culture consumption of soft drinks particularly among younger
generation has become very popular. Soft drinks in various flavors and tastes are widely
patronized by urbane population at various occasions like dinner parties, marriages,
social get together; birthday celebration etc. children of all ages and groups are
especially attracted by the mere mention of the word soft drinks.

With the growing popularity of soft drinks, the technology of its production,
preservation, transportation and or marketing in the recent years has witnessed
phenomenal changes.

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The so-called competition for this product in the market is from different other brands.
Mass media, particularly the emergence of television, has contribute to a large extent of
the ever growing demand for soft drinks the attractive jingles and sport make the large
audience remember this product at all times.

It is expected that with the sort of mass advertising, reaching almost the entire country
and offering various varieties annual demand for the product is expected to rise sharply
in the times to come.

In any marketing situation, the behavioral / environmental variables relating to


consumers, competition and environment are constantly influx. The competitors in a
given industry may be making many tactical maneuvers in market all
the time. The may introduce or initiate an aggressive promotion
campaign or announce a price reduction. The marketing man of the
firm has to meet all these maneuver and care of competitive position
of his firm and his brand in the market. The only route open to him for
achieving this is the manipulation of his marketing tactics.

In todays highly competitive market place, three players have


dominated the industry; The New York based Pepsi Company Inc. The
Atlanta based coca- cola and U.K. based Cadbury Schweppes.

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Through the globe, these major players have been battling it out for a
bigger chunk of the ever growing soft drink market. Now this battle
has been evolved up to India too with the arrival of these three giants.

Soft drink industry is on amazing growth; ultimately these are only


one person who will determine their fortunes. The Indian consumer.
The real War to quench their thirst has just begun.

HISTORY OF SOFT DRINK IN NCR


The soft drink market in India is quite wide. The production of soft drink was started on
27th march, 1967 with the installation of a Coca-Cola bottling plant in Jamshedpur under the
auspicious guidance of late industrialist Mr. Dhram Chand Kamani which was named as Steal
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City Beverages Pvt. Ltd.The company controlled the lions share in the soft drink market for
nearly 10 years. Parle also en tere d this feeding NCR with the installation all bottling it in
collaboration with Mr. Rajendra Poddar in the name of Orient Beverages Ltd.In 1997 with the
advent of Janta Party Government it created trouble for Coca-Cola which let to the withdraw its
operation from India. After the withdraw of Coca-Cola from India, the parle monopolize the soft
drink market I NCR and took a lions share of the project from the industry even after McDowell pure drinks and local drinks entered into the market.
They could not compete with Parle. Once again with the liberalization of economy in
1991, Pepsi Foods Ltd. entered in the Indian market. It shared its bottling of products in NCR
by
Steel City Beverages Company on the 24th march, 1991 owned by Kamanis in
collaboration with the Birla Group which was once the bottling plant for Coca-Cola. Though
Parle range of the products still capture a large share of NCRs soft drink market. Yet Pepsi
range of product is giving a rough competition in all flavors i.e. Cola, Orange and Lemon.

HISTORY OF PEPSI IN INDIA

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As an MNC on the globe, Pepsi Foods Ltd. is one of the largest soft drink company at the world
with its head quarter in New York.
Pepsi entered in the Indian soft drink market in 1988 and began its production in May,
1990 and soon it was giving the local contenders the run for their market. It came out with
dazzling marketing innovation that rocked the cola market line selling the product through
functional Pepsi outlets.
Pepsi success in creating a brand almost from scratch. In India it is the stuff that
marketing case studies are made given the problems of doing over advai1tage it entered before
coke returned was considerable reduced by the onerous export obligation slapped on the
company. Yet right from the beginning Pepsi demonstrated a far more focused approach while it
entered
The market like any other MNC, it was quick to adopt. It realize that consumer
particularly the youth to whom it consciously reached out would identify better with a brand
that they see as global yet India Pepsi was built as desi brand. Hence its deliberate attempt to
build ad-campaign using the popular Hinglish, in the process slogans like yehi hai right choice
baby Aha and yeh dil mange more become a part of Indias popular consciousness. When
Pepsi lost the bidding battle to sponsor a cricket tournament to coke, the loss was turned into a
triumph with the catch line Nothing official about it. Two, it cashed in on the untapped
consumer aspiration in smaller towns; thesis head quarters and hinter-land of metropolitan
cities. Three, it showed a rare ability to not only survive, but grow through Indias tortuous
policy twist and turns which threw many other MNCs off balance. And four its top

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management teams did not suffer from frequent changes seen at rivals, Coke consequently it
was able to pursue it chosen policy with for greater zeal and dedication.
Unlike Coke which paid enormous prices to buy established local brands. Pepsi brought it own
stuff over and pushed those aggressively wittl dealers, retailers and consumer. Right now, it can
bark in its outstanding success inbuil, dinga brand that has become synonymous with soft drinks
across the length and breadth of the country.

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ABOUT THE ORGANISATION


With the liberalization of economy in 1991 about 13 years after the exit of Coca-Cola from
Indian scene. An MNC globally known as Pepsi Foods Ltd. starting bottling products in NCR .
Late D. N. Kamini installed this very bottling unit in 1969. the company entered the soft drink
with the introduction of Coca-Cola and used to cater the market of Delhi U.P. Bihar, Bengal,
Orissa and Nepal. The company was pioneer of soft drink in NCR.
Due to urbanization and behavioral changes the number of soft drink consumers increased. The
industrial city NOIDA was unable to meet the demand of supply as per the seasonally graph in
NOIDA due to increase in the number of consumer. To fulfill the demand in that very PFL
established plant in Industrial Area, In NOIDA.
It is one of those bottling units of PFL which comes under FOBO (franchise Owned Bottling
Operation).This plant was installed with and initials investment of RS.25crore.It started
producing with its full capacity i.e 600 bottles per minute and it is the first plant in NOIDA
producing with such capacity.

PRODUCT RANGE OF PEPSICO

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There are Eight brands of Pepsi in India and they are differ in taste, flavor and also in their
colours.

1.PEPSI
Pepsi is considered to be cold drink. It is generally preferred by all sections of consumer.
This is a case cow brand for the company in terms of sales revenue.

2.MIRINDA
Mirinda is considered to be lemony in taste, and comes under the light drink.

3.7UP
7up is a good product at Pepsi and contains at lemon flavor.

4.MOUNTAIN DEW
Mountain dew is also consider to be a cold drink. It is light comperision to pepsi. It is preferred
by all section of consumer but especially to teen-age. It is big source of company to cash its
publicity

5.SLICE
SLICE MANGO, in slice cold drink no gas only based on juice. It is a non-aerated soft drink. It
is preferred mostly Children & Women.

6.Tropicana
In Minute maid pupply orange cold drink no gas only based on orange juice. It is a non-aerated
soft drink.

7.Eversses Soda
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This is soda drink. It has no colour and no flavor. It is generally used with alcohol and used by
adults.

8.Aquafina water
It is miniral water.

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PRICE CHART

PRICING CHART

Out let Rate

C. Rate

Pack Size

Pcs

Rate

Per Pec Rate

Rate

Per Pec Rate

200ML

24

168

192

300ML

24

214

240

10

600ML

24

454

19

480

20

2000ML

459

51

495

55

250ML

24

214

240

10

500ML

24

498

21

552

23

1200ML

12

532

44

576

48

200ML Slice

30

285

10

360

12

My Can

24

330

14

360

15

Pepsi D

24

564

23.50

600

25

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ORGANISATION STRUCTER
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CHAPTER 3
THEORETICAL FRAME WORK OF TOPIC
MEANING

A path through which goods and services flow in one direction (from vendor to the consumer), and the
payments

generated by them that flow in the opposite direction (from consumer to the vendor).

A distribution channel can be as short as being direct from the vendor to the consumer or may include
several interconnected intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, agents, retailers. Each intermediary
receives

the item at one pricing point and moves it to the next higher pricing point until it reaches

the final buyer. Also called channel of distribution.

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IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The title of the project is MARKETING SURVEY OF THE PRODUCT AND FLAVOUR
PENETRATION AMONG DIFFERENT TYPE EATERY GROSSERY. The study brings
the response of the customers. Their complaints, suggestions and requirements can be known by
doing this project. The company will get information about the customers needs. So they can
improve their products according to the customers needs.
This study helps the organization to point out their weak points and to improve them. The
company can improve their production and delivery. They should do the advertisement of their
products very carefully as compare to their competitors.

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CLASSIFICATION

The study of productivity in marketing has received much attention from


researchers for many years. Productivity can be defined as the ratio of
output to input. However, the definition of what constitutes channel output
has been given various interpretations. This has created some confusion in
the literature as to the true underlying meaning of channel output. This
paper serves to eliminate the confusion by reviewing the literature on
channel output. I classify channel output into physical units, sales or dollar
value, value added, gross margin and distribution services. For each
classification, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Major
applications in the marketing literature are noted. Suggestions for future
research are provided.

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DETERMINANTS
3. AN EXPLORATION OF CHANNEL
CHOICE DETERMINATION

From the analysis of existing research in the field of e- Government and related,
relevant, fields, we can draw two major conclusions. First, we lack understanding of
what factors are relevant in the e-Government context. Second, we dont know how the
different factors interact. Although the relationships between the determinants is just as
important as the factors itself, we decided to first explore the possible factors of this
decision making process in the context of governmental services. The main question we
tried to answer in this study is:
What factors exist that determine the choice of a channel by a citizen for
consultation or conversation purposes with governmental organizations?
In this study we limit ourselves to consultation and conversation for two reasons.
First, these are the modes in which citizens take the initiative for the interaction and
second, in these modes citizens have a choice option for a certain channel, as
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opposed to other interaction modes, such as allocution, where the organization is the
initiator and controller of the channel

ADVANTAGE

More than 100,000 technology resellers and solution providers rely on distributors in the United
States alone, according to research compiled by the Global Technology Distribution Council.
Distributors ship more than 2.5 million orders each month, often directly to users, while
retaining the reseller's or solution provider's brand identity.
The monthly communication between distributors and their channel customers involves
approximately 1.5 million inbound and outbound phone calls. Millions of additional
transactions take place over the Web, including order placement and round-the-clock
information access. Distributors also handle approximately 200,000 technical support calls per
month for channel sales. And the credit services we offer keep product flowing.
For all we do for our business partners, distributors garner gross margins of around 5 percent
and net pre-tax margins between one and two pointsan equation that clearly points to the
incredible efficiency of the IT distribution business model. Manufacturers considering whether
to bypass distribution would do well to ponder these efficiencies and myriad services before
"insourcing" the many complex jobs we perform.
Are you ready to handle a hundred times more orders? Is your credit department prepared to
manage a diverse portfolio of sub-prime receivables? Are you ready to field scores of new sales
representatives, support engineers, and customer service staff?

Page 37

These roles have been deftly managed by distributors as part of our natural evolution over the
past two decades. Such services are core to our business model, which has withstood not only
the test of time but also dramatic economic fluctuations and new competitive challenges. From
the torrid pace of the '80s and '90s to the more moderate IT industry growth rates of today,
distributors have proficiently adjusted costs and infrastructure based on changing conditions.

SAMPLE DESIGN
SAMPLE SIZE
The number of respondents selected for the survey was 100.this
was because of the time consistent.
METHOD OF SAMPLING FIELD WORK
The sample size was 100 people.
The direction of the fieldwork was for 15to20 days.
The

respondents

took

approx.

15-20

min

to

fill

up

the

questionnaire.
Each respondent was personally met.
PLAN OF ANALYSIS
The raw data collected directly from the respondents was first transcribed on a
master analysis register. From the master analysis register the data was tabulated
Page 38

question wise, using simple mathematical and statistical techniques like addition,
mean, frequency and percentage calculation.
Ranking of factor in selection of the product and decision making process was also
carried out using simple statistical techniques. By this method of the various
objectives of the study could be thoroughly analyzed. Based on the analysis of the
data collected from the respondents the findings of the study were interpreted and
recommendations were given.

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


STRENGHT

WEAKNESS

Higher sales

Economies of scale

Goodwill

Monopoly

Steady Demand

Wastage of national resources

Launching new product

Employment generation

Support to press

Customer education

Research and Development

Higher prices
Artificial living

Misleading customers

Page 39

Art and Culture

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is a common language refers to a search of knowledge. Research is


scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic, infect
research is an art of scientific investigation. Research Methodology is a scientific
way to solve research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how
research is dont scientifically. In it we study various steps that are generally
adopted by researchers in studying their research problem. It is necessary for
researchers to know not only know research method techniques but also
technology.

The scope of Research Methodology is wider than that of research methods.


The research problem consists of series of closely related activities. At times, the
first step determines the native of the last step to be undertaken. Why a research
has been defined, what data has been collected and what a particular methods
Page 40

have been adopted and a host of similar other questions are usually answered
when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.
The project is a study where focus is on the following points:

Types of outlet

Sr. No.
1
2
3

Sales
Convenience shop
Groceries shop
Eaters

Page 41

No. of Outlets
64
160
26

Interpretation: the maximum number of Outlets in the region surveyed is of convenience


shops which includes kirana shops, departmental stores etc. it is followed by Groceries
and then by eateries. The most striking features is that there is a great lag between the
numbers of different kinds of outlets. So the distributors should distribute the products
segment wise accordingly.

MARKET SHARE
Product

% Share

Page 42

Pepsi-Cola

42%

Coca-Cola

51%

Others

7%

Total

100%

Interpretation : There is dominancy of Coca-Cola in the soft drinks market. Pepsi is its
chief competitor.

CREATE SALES PER DAY

Page 43

Sales Per day

% Share

One Crates

57.78

Two Crates

18.67

Three Crates

12.44

More than three 11.11


Crates
Total
100%

Interpretation : Huge amount of retailers sale 1 crate per day and goes on decreasing with
increasing number of crates sales per day, which is clearly depicted by above graph.

PERCENTAGE SHARE OF CHILLING EQUIPMENT :

Page 44

Product

% Share

Pepsi-Cola

42%

Coca-cola

51%

Others

7%

Totals

100%

COOLING EQUIPMENT
Page 45

VISICOOLERS

Company

Qty.

%age

Pepsi

86

34.45

Coca-Cola

132

60.55

Own

00

00

Interpretation : Pepsis visi coolers with retailers is in quit dooming situation. the visi
cooler hold of Coca-Cola is far more dominating as depicted by above graph.

FRIDGE

Company

Qty.

%age
Page 46

Pepsi

02

2.53

Coca-Cola

12

15.19

Own

65

82.28

SALES EFFECTING MEDIA

MEDIA
TELEVISION
AGAZINES/NEWSPAPER
S
DISPLAY BOARD
WALL
PAINTINGES/HOLDING
OTHER

%AGE
65%
10%
15%
10%
5%

Page 47

INTERPRETATION; A NUMBER OF RETAILERS AGREED THAT TELEVISION IS AN


EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ADVERTISEMENT OF THE PRODUCTS FOLLCWED BY
DISPLAY BOARDS AND WALL PAINTING ETC. AS IS CLEARLY DEPICTED BY
ABOVE GRAPH.

Page 48

SERVEY METHODOLOGY

This research involved a study, which was descriptive as well as explorative in nature it
basically aims at gathering data about how the Pepsi scheme playing in mind of
shopkeepers consumer.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF DATA

1. Primary data
2. Secondary data
1. Primary data collection:Primary data can be collected by three methods.
(a) Observation
(b) experiment
(c) Survey
But there, only surveys method of data collection is preferred which is very suitable to
reach the researcher motto.

Page 49

A. Servey instrument: Printed Questionnaire was used as the research instrument to


collect the required information.
B. Area of surveys: The survey was conducted in different location of patna city.
Sampling Plan: Sampling plan consists of:

Sampling unit: The retailer of grocery shop, general store, betel shop, and
medicine store was selected from different place of Patna.

Sampling size: 150 0utlet.

Sampling procedure: Simple random sampling procedure was followed

Sampling method:
Data were collect by retailer survey. The retailer is directly
contacted and interviewed qt there retail counter.

(2) Secondary data collection:


As secondary data were not available with shopkeepers as wall as stockiest, so these were
collected from company record.

SWOT ANALYSIS

Page 50

STRENGTHS

1. Improved quality control.


2. Latest technology
3. Heavy investment in both infrastructure and sales promotion campaigns.
4. Modified and attractive packaging.
5. Strong advertising network.
WEEKNESS
1. Entire infrastructure needs a face-lift.
2. Unskilled labour.
3. Tight case policy.
4. Fear of retrenchment among the workers.

OPPORTUNITIES
1. Wide market.
2. Good rural market.
3. Direct distribution.
THREATS

1. Stiff competition.
2. Illegal distribution done by some distributers.

3. Changing of consumer preference.

Page 51

CHAPTER-IV

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Q1. Do you drink soft drinks regularly?

1) Yes

2) No

Page 52

Yes

No

70

30

Q2. Which flavor do you generally prefer?

Cola
Orange
Lemon
Others

Page 53

Cola

Orange

Lemon

Other

30

20

30

10

Q3.If Cola, which particular brand you like?

Pepsi
Thums up
Coco-cola

Page 54

Pepsi

Thums up

Coca-cola

54

30

16

Q4. If Orange, which particular brand you like?

Miranda
Fanta

Page 55

Fanta

Miranda

35

65

Q5. If Lemon, which particular brand you like?

Dew
Nimbooz
Limca
7up
Sprite

Page 56

Dew

Nimbooz

Limca

7up

Spite

35

28

12

20

Q6. Why do you prefer a particular brand?

Taste
More Gas
Refreshing
Page 57

Advertisement

40

35

30

25

20
Taste

More Gas

21

37

15

Refreshing37
26

Advertisement
16

26
Q7. On which occasions21
you normally have soft drinks?

10

At Parties
Market

Cinema Hall

School/Colleges

Taste

More Gas

Page 58

Refreshing

At Party

Market

Cinema Hall

10

52

Q8. Are you Brand loyal?

Yes
No

Page 59

School/Colleg
e
33

36%

Yes

No

64%

36%
64%

Q9. Do you prefer Pet bottles?

Yes
No

Page 60

60

50

40

30

Yes

20

No

57%

43%
10

0
Yes

Page 61

No

Q10. If yes, then why?

Take away bottles


Economical
More capacity
Reusable

Take away bottles

More capacity

Reusable

70

22

Page 62

SHARE OF PEPSI BRANDS IN COMPARISON TO


COCO-COLA BRANDS

PEPSI V/S COCO COLA/ THUMSUP

Pepsi

52%

Coca-Cola/Thumsup

Others

40%

63

SPRITE V/S 7UP

Sprite

7up

62%

38%

64

MIRINDA V/S FANTA

Miranda

Fanta

65%

35%

65

7UP/LEMON V/S LIMCA

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

7up/Lemon
17%

20

Limca
83%

10

0
7up/lemon

66

limca

Slice v/s Mazza

Slice

Mazza

54%

46%

67

AQUAFINA V/S KINLEY

Aquafina

Kinley

45%

55%

68

CONCLUSION

The business of Soft Drink industry is significantly based upon the impulse
buying, so it is very necessary to Merchandise products of PEPSI efficiently
and present them in such a manner so that it can motivate the consumer and
generate a thirst in consumer to consummate it.
Though, PEPSI has a strong position in NOIDA with the support of its
efficient distribution network, aggressive marketing efforts and advertisements
along with attractive schemes but there still exists potential market in Ghaziabad
to be exploited and a suitable Weak Area Programme or the Strong Area
Programme has to be formulated to improve its market share depending upon the
area under consideration.
Soft drink businesss behavior is not governed by brand loyalty so the
emphasis is not only on creating the market but also on retaining it. The

69

availability of the right brand and flavor pack, at the right place, at the right time
is a key for winning the customer in soft drink business. Keeping these facts in
mind it becomes very important to treat the retailers with concern and satisfy them
by
various measures and so that they are loyal towards PEPSI. Public relation
is also critically important in this industry.

FINDING
70

THE MOST POPULAR FLAVOURIN THE MARKET IS PEPSI.


PEPSI

IS MARKET LEADER AND COCA-COLA IS THE MARKET

CHALLENGER IN THE WHOLE MARKET WHERE I HAVE SURVEYED.


FROM

THE

PEPSICO

PRODUCTS

PEPSI

AND

THE

COCA-COLA

PRODUCTS THUMS UP IS THE HIGHEST SELLING IN THE MARKET.


PEPSI IS THE MARKET LEADER IN OVERALL MARKET.
IN SOME AREAS LIKE KHATAN MARKET THE SUPPLY OF COCA-COLA IS
BETTER THAN PEPSI.
IN THE CASE OF MINERAL KINLEY IS SELLING MORE THAN AQUAFINA.
I HAVE FOUND THAT A RETAILER GIVES MORE PREFENCE TO THE
PEPSICO PRODUCTS LIKE PEPSI, MOUNTAIN DEW, SLICE, MIRINDA,
TROPICANA, 7UP.
SALES HAVE INCREASED AFTER LOCATING VISI COOLER OUTSIDE OF
OUTLET.
THE COMPANY NEW CONCEPT PRE-SALE GOT THE GOOD RESPONSE
MEANS THE CONCEPT OF PRE-SALE PREFERS BY THE RETAILERS.
ACCORDING TO THIS SURVEY IN 80% OUTLETS PRE-SALE RESPONDED
WELL WHILE IN 20% OUTLETS RESPONDS WAS LOW.

71

THE NEW PRODUCT OF PEPSI, MINUTE MAID HAS A BIG FLOP IN THE
NOIDA CITY.
THE COMPANY HAS INTRODUCED A 1.25 LTR PACK FOR THE LOWER
CLASS FAMILY.
THE STORE IS CATEGORISED ON THE BASIS OF THEIR, IT MEANS
DIAMOND, GOLD, SILVER.
IN THE CASE OF THE SCHEME COCA-COLA IS PROVIDING MORE
SCHEMES THAN THE PEPSI.
RETAILERS DO NOT GET THE COMPANYS ACTUAL SCHEME.
SOME AGENCIES MAKE FAKE BILLS BY WHICH THEY TRY TO EARN
PROFIT WHILE IT IS ILLEGAL.
PRODUCTS ARE SOLD OUT OF ARES BY DISTRIBUTOR TO SAVE THE
SCHEMES.
IF RETAILERS COMPLAINTS REGARDING DISCOUNTING & TRADE
SCHEME THAN HE IS NOT RESPONDED PROPERLY.
DISTRIBUTORS HAVE NOT MAINTAINED PROPER STOCK SO THAT
RETAILERS DO NOT GET ALL THE PRODUCTS BY WHICH SALE,
DISCOUNTING & TRADE SCHEMES ARE EFFECTED.

72

THERE IS COMMUNICATION GAP IN DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL SO


RETAILERS ARE NOT GETTING ADVANTAGES OF DISCOUNTING &
TRADE SCHME.
IN OFF SEASON, WHEN SALE OF COKE PRODUCTS IS REDUCED IN
COMPARISON OF SEASON. THEN RETAILERS WANT MORE SCHEMES.

Suggestions

73

The above study elicits the fact that sales department of NOIDA Beverages Pvt. Ltd.
Should introduce some changes in its marketing activities to make it more rational.

1. As the most of the dealers have complaints that the salesman does not tell them
about schemes. For this before launching any scheme company should advertise it
by distributing pamphlets to the dealers mentioning the period of the scheme &
time-to-time proper check is required.
2. Exclusive outlets are loosing because of irresponsible salesmen and their improper
behavior.
3. Grievances of dealers & consumers often do not reach to the concern authority.
4. The number of visicooler & signage should be increased.
5. The number of vans should be increased so that total outlets, might be covered
properly.
6. A healthy relationship should be developed by the companys executives with the
dealers.
7. Company should develop policy, so that the soft drinks are made available at all the
outlets during the peak seasons & not let the opportunity pass by.
8. Company Should make fridge available at maximum outlets, so the chilled soft
drinks could be provided to the customers, because in the soft drink market brand
74

loyalty fails if chilled soft drink is not made available to the customers in spite the
customer goes in for any other brand, which is chilled.
9. New policy of the company should be introduced before the competitors launch
those policies.
10. Hoardings bills & wall paintings should be display in the inner part of urban areas
has more growth potential in terms of sales.
11. The distributors should keep literate & experienced salesman, because they can
convince to retailers easily and sold out product in the market.

75

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Malhotra, Naresh K. Marketing research and applied orientation, (2010), Prentice Hall,
New Delhi, Vol.5, pp.613-623, pp.468.
2. Kotler, Philip and Armstrong, Gary, Principles of marketing, Pearson Publication.
3. Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational Behavior, (2006), Pearson Publication.
Website:
1. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21528450/Pepsico-Final-Ppt
2.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/21528551/SURVEY-OF-VISI-PURITY-CHARGING

3.

www.rjcorp.in

4.

www.pepsiindia.com

5.

www.pepsizone.com

6.

http://www.ics.purdue.edu/~pbawa/421/pepsi%20cola%20pest%20case%20study.htm

CHAPTER -7 QUESTIONNAIRE

76

NAME OF THE SHOP/OUTLET: -----------------------ADRESS/LOCATION : --------------------------------Types of Outlet :


(a) Convenience Shop

( )

(b) Groceries Shop

( )

(C) Eateries

( )

Q1. Which brand of soft drinks you deal in


(a)Pepsi

( )

(b)Coca Cola

( )

(c)Other

( )

(d)Mix

( )

(Q)2 Which brand of coke provides you better facility ?


(a) Pepsi

( )

(b) Coca Cola

( )

(C) Both

( )

(Q)3 How many crates of Pepsi you sell /day ?


(a)1crate

( )

(b)2 crate

( )

(c) 3 crate

( )

(d) more than 3

( )

77

(Q)4 Which companys signage you have in your outlet ?


(a)Pepsi

( )

(b) Coca-cola

( )

(c) both

( )

(d) no signage

( )

(Q)5 Which companys visi cooler you have in your outlet?


(a)Pepsi

( )

(b)Coca-cola

( )

(c)Both

( )

(d)Own

( )

(e)Mixed

( )

Q6 Which medium effects the sales most ?


(a) Television
(b) Magazines/newspaper
(c) Display
(d) Wall painting/hoardings

Q7 Do you think that aggressive advertising further increase the sale volume ofof pepsi

78

(a) Yes
(b) No
(Q)what kinds of promotional activities effect sales mostly
(a)free bottle scheme
(b)prize
(c)Discount rate
(d) other
Q9.Your recommendations for further sales mostly
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
(Q)10. Any suggestion for batterment of pepsi.
_______________________________________________________________

Thank You.

REFERENCES

AGRAWAL P.K. MARKETING MANAGEMENT BY, PRAGATI.

79

KOTLER PHILIP,MARKETING MANAGEMENT,13TH EDITION, PRENTICE HALL


OF INDIA PVT.LTD.
.RONALD S. RUBIN DAVID J. LUCK, MARKETING RESEARCH.
PUBLICATION,MEERUT.
NEWS PAPER &MAGAZINES
.ECONOMIC TIMES
.BUSINESS STANDARD
.BUSINESS WORLD
.BROCHURES &PAMPHLETS
. VISUL ADS OF PEPSI.
.PRODUCT CATALOGUE
.ANNUAL REPORT OF PEPSICO
WEBSITES: WWW.PEPSIINDIA.COM

80