MATHS QUEST 12
Further
Mathematics
MATHS QUEST 12
Further
Mathematics
ANTHONY NOVAK  RUTH BAKOGIANIS  KYLIE BOUCHER
JENNIFER NOLAN  GEOFF PHILLIPS
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
ELENA IAMPOLSKY  MARK BARNES  STEPHEN HEAMES  ROBERT CAHN
JANET HEFFERNAN  CHRIS LONGHURST  NICK SIMPSON
SUPPORT MATERIAL
JOHN DOWSEY  DENNIS FITZGERALD  EMILY HUI  CAROLINE MEWS  VINOD NARAYAN
PETER SWAIN  DAVID TYNAN  IAN YOUNGER  WAYNE YOUNGS
SIMONE RICHARDSON  DINA ANTONIOU  NORRENE HILL
4T H EDITION
VCE M AT H EM AT I CS U N I T S 3 & 4
Contents
2G Calculating r and the coefficient of
Introduction ix
About eBookPLUS xi
Acknowledgements xii
Chapter 1
Univariate data
1A Types of data
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
1H
1I
1J
1
Exercise 1A 2
Stem plots 3
Exercise 1B 5
Dot plots, frequency histograms and
bar charts 7
Exercise 1C 10
Describing the shape of stem plots and
histograms 11
Exercise 1D 12
The median, the interquartile range, the
range and the mode 15
Exercise1E 18
Boxplots 19
Exercise 1F 23
The mean 24
Exercise 1G 27
Standard deviation 28
Exercise 1H 30
The 689599.7% rule and zscores 31
Exercise 1I 36
Populations and simple random
samples 40
Exercise 1J 42
determination 76
Exercise 2G 79
Summary 43
Chapter review 45
ICT activities 52
Answers 53
Chapter 3
Introduction to regression
2C
2D
2E
2F
Summary 120
Chapter review 122
ICT activities 125
Answers 126
Chapter 4
Time series
129
Exercise 4A
129
132
57
4C
2B
95
Chapter 2
Bivariate data
Summary 82
Chapter review 84
ICT activities 89
Answers 90
variables 57
Exercise 2A 58
Backtoback stem plots 59
Exercise 2B 61
Parallel boxplots 62
Exercise 2C 64
Twoway frequency tables and segmented bar
charts 65
Exercise 2D 67
Scatterplots 69
Exercise 2E 72
Pearsons productmoment correlation
coefficient 73
Exercise 2F 75
4D
4E
4F
Exercise 4B 135
Smoothing time series 137
Exercise 4C 140
Smoothing with an even number
of points 141
Exercise 4D 144
Median smoothing 145
Exercise 4E 147
Seasonal adjustment 148
Exercise 4F 153
Summary 156
Chapter review 157
ICT activities 163
Answers 164
ExAm PrACtICE 1
Based on Chapters 14
169
133
Chapter 5
171
171
5C
5D
5E
5F
5G
5H
5I
171
Exercise 5A 173
Finding the terms of an arithmetic
sequence 175
Exercise 5B 177
The sum of a given number of terms of an arithmetic
sequence 178
Exercise 5C 181
Recognition of geometric sequences 183
Exercise 5D 185
Finding the terms of a geometric
sequence 186
Exercise 5E 189
The sum of a given number of terms of
a geometric sequence 191
Exercise 5F 193
Applications of geometric sequences 194
Exercise 5G 197
Finding the sum of an infinite geometric
sequence 198
Exercise 5H 201
Contrasting arithmetic and geometric sequences
through graphs 202
Exercise 5I 204
Summary 206
Chapter review 208
ICT activities 212
Answers 213
ExAm PrACtICE 2
Based on Chapters 16
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
7G
6C
6D
6E
6F
6G
vi
Exercise 7A 256
Area and perimeter 258
Exercise 7B 261
Total surface area 263
Exercise 7C 266
Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres
Exercise 7D 272
Similar figures 275
Exercise 7E 277
Similar triangles 279
Exercise 7F 281
Area and volume scale factors 283
Exercise 7G 288
253
268
Summary 291
Chapter review 293
ICT activities 297
Answers 298
Trigonometry
301
301
8A Pythagoras theorem
301
Exercise 8A 303
8B Pythagorean triads 305
Exercise 8B 306
8C Threedimensional Pythagoras theorem
Exercise 8C 308
8D Trigonometric ratios 310
Exercise 8D 314
Introduction sine and cosine rules 316
8E The sine rule 317
Exercise 8E 320
8F Ambiguous case of the sine rule 322
Exercise 8F 324
8G The cosine rule 324
Exercise 8G 326
8H Special triangles 328
Exercise 8H 330
8I Area of triangles 331
Exercise 8I 333
215
215
Contents
253
Chapter 8
6B
253
Trigonometry
Difference equations
251
Chapter 7
Chapter 6
Introduction
Summary 242
Chapter review 244
ICT activities 247
Answers 248
Summary 336
Chapter review 338
ICT activities 343
Answers 344
307
11D Applications
Chapter 9
Exercise 11D
Introduction 347
347
Exercise 9A 350
9B Angles of elevation and depression 352
Exercise 9B 354
9C Bearings 356
Exercise 9C 360
9D Navigation and specification of locations 361
Exercise 9D 366
9E Triangulation cosine and sine rules 368
Exercise 9E 372
9F Triangulation similarity 375
Exercise 9F 376
9G Contour maps 378
Exercise 9G 382
9A Angles
399
Chapter 10
10B
10C
10D
10E
Summary 427
Chapter review 428
ICT activities 432
Answers 433
414
475
Summary 529
Chapter review 532
ICT activities 537
Answers 538
Chapter 13
Chapter 11
473
Chapter 12
ExAm PrACtICE 3
graphs 401
Exercise 10A 407
Line segments and step functions 409
Exercise 10B 411
Simultaneous equations and breakeven point
Exercise 10C 417
Interpreting nonlinear graphs 418
Exercise 10D 420
Constructing nonlinear relations and
graphs 422
Exercise 10E 424
Summary 462
Chapter review 463
ICT activities 467
Answers 468
ExAm PrACtICE 4
Summary 385
Chapter review 387
ICT activities 394
Answers 395
454
459
442
541
Exercise 13A 545
13B Financial computations 548
Exercise 13B 552
Depreciation 554
13C Flat rate (straight line) depreciation 555
Exercise 13C 557
13D Reducing balance depreciation 558
Exercise 13D 561
Contents
vii
563
647
Exercise 15D 652
15E Assignment problems and bipartite graphs
Exercise 15E 659
Summary 569
Chapter review 571
ICT activities 575
Answers 576
579
581
581
587
Summary 609
Chapter review 611
ICT activities 616
Answers 617
683
16C
16D
16F
621
networks 621
Exercise 15A 624
15B Critical path analysis 626
Exercise 15B 633
15C Critical path analysis with backward scanning and
crashing 634
Exercise 15C 643
683
687
16E
Contents
Matrices
Exercise 16A
Chapter 15
viii
681
Chapter 16
Chapter 14
Summary 663
Chapter review 665
ICT activities 673
Answers 674
ExAm PrACtICE 6
ExAm PrACtICE 5
654
matrices 688
Exercise 16B 694
Multiplying matrices 696
Exercise 16C 701
Multiplicative inverse and solving matrix
equations 704
Exercise 16D 707
Application of matrices to simultaneous
equations 709
Exercise 16E 712
Transition matrices 715
Exercise 16F 721
Summary 726
Chapter review 728
ICT activities 733
Answers 734
ExAm PrACtICE 7
Index
745
743
739
Introduction
Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics Fourth edition is specifically designed for the VCE Further
Mathematics course and based on the awardwinning Maths Quest series. The suite of resources for this
title include:
a student textbook with accompanying eBookPLUS
a TINspire CAS calculator companion
a Casio ClassPAD calculator companion
a Solutions Manual
Flexisaver versions of all print products
teacher support material available on the eGuidePLUS.
Student textbook
studyON icons provide links to Concept screens, See mores and Do mores for online study, revision and
exam practice.
Full colour is used throughout to produce clearer graphs and headings, to provide bright, stimulating
photos and to make navigation through the text easier.
Clear, concise theory sections contain worked examples and highlighted important text and remember
boxes.
Icons appear for the eBookPLUS to indicate that interactivities and eLessons are available online to help
with the teaching and learning of particular concepts.
Worked examples in a ThinkWrite format provide clear explanation of key steps and suggest
presentation of solutions. Many worked examples have eBookPLUS icons to indicate that a Tutorial is
available to elucidate the concepts being explained. Worked examples also have calculator icons that
indicate support in the Calculator Companion books, which contain comprehensive stepbystep CAS
calculator instructions, fully integrated into the examples, for the TINspire CAS and Casio ClassPad
calculators.
Exercises contain many carefully graded skills and application problems, including multiple choice
questions. Crossreferences to relevant worked examples appear with the first matching question
throughout the exercises.
A selection of questions are tagged as technologyfree to indicate to students that they should avoid
using their calculators or other technologies to assist them in finding a solution.
Exam practice sections contain examstyle questions, including time and mark allocations for each
question. Fully worked solutions are available on the eBookPLUS for students.
Each chapter concludes with a summary and chapter review exercise containing examinationstyle
questions (multiple choice, short answer and extended response), which help consolidate students learning
of new concepts. Also included are questions from past VCE exams along with relevant exam tips.
ix
eLesson icons link to videos or animations designed to elucidate concepts in ways that are more than
what the teacher can achieve in the classroom.
Tutorial icons link to oneway engagement activities which explain the worked examples in detail for
students to view at home or in the classroom.
Test Yourself tests are also available. Answers are provided for students to receive instant feedback.
Introduction
About eBookPLUS
Next generation teaching and learning
This book features eBookPLUS:
an electronic version of the
entire textbook and supporting
multimedia resources. It is
available for you online at the
JacarandaPLUS website
( www.jacplus.com.au ).
Minimum requirements
JacarandaPLUS requires you to use a supported
internet browser and version, otherwise you will
not be able to access your resources or view all
features and upgrades. Please view the complete
list of JacPLUS minimum system requirements
at http://jacplus.desk.com/customer/portal/
articles/463717.
Troubleshooting
Go to the JacarandaPLUS help page at
www.jacplus.com.au/jsp/help.jsp.
Contact John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Email: support@jacplus.com.au
Phone: 1800 JAC PLUS (1800 522 7587)
Once you have created your account, you can use the same
email address and password in the future to register any
JacarandaPLUS titles you own.
About eBookPLUS
5_61_17866_MQ12_FM_4E_Prelims.indd 11
xi
8/05/13 1:36 PM
Acknowledgements
The authors and publisher would like to thank the following copyright holders, organisations and
individuals for their assistance and for permission to reproduce copyright material in this book.
Images
Banana Stock: 29, 63 Brand X Pictures: 724 Corbis Royalty Free: 73, 209, 417, 453 Creatas
Images: 412 Design Pics Inc.: 223, 630 Digital Stock: 241, 301, 369, 373; 607, 714/Corbis
Corporation Digital Vision: 132, 176, 269, 276, 351, 454, 463, 503, 528; 228 (top)/Stephen Frink; 647/
Sunset Avenue Productions EyeWire Images: 592 Fancy: 494 Getty Images: 715/Science Photo
Library Image Source: 661, 700 Image 100: 141, 536 iStockphoto: 12/ DOUGBERRY; 25/
Andrey Popov; 113/ Anne Clark; 154/ Koray ISIK; 188/ Irina Behr; 730/ THEPALMER
John Foxx Images: 237 (top right) John Wiley & Sons Australia: 24, 174, 550/Photo by Renee Bryon;
145, 476, 511 (centre), 517, 556, 565, 582/Taken by KariAnn Tapp; 294 (bottom); 688/Jo Patterson
MAPgraphics Pty Ltd, Brisbane: 378 Newspix: 409/Glenn Miller Peter Storer: 237 (bottom right)
Photodisc: 17, 118, 153, 177, 186 (bottom right), 189, 197 (bottom), 201, 202, 225, 228 (bottom),
237 (centre right), 262, 264 (top), 267, 271, 275, 290, 295, 322, 364, 374, 384, 406, 410, 423, 425,
426, 445, 459 (bottom), 480, 483, 506, 511 (top), 533, 559, 634, 637, 644, 655, 671 (centre), 671 (left,
right), 702 (left, right), 711, 723 Pixland: 421 PureStock: 237 (top left) Radius Images: 95 (right)
Rubberball Productions: 41 Shutterstock: 5/ Darren Baker; 14/ Joyce Marrero; 28/ Attl Tibor;
31/ Tyler Olson; 37/ Subbotina Anna; 38/ thieury; 39/ mocagrande; 48/ Dimon; 50/ Andresr;
62/ AISPIX by Image Source; 64/ Jan Kratochvila; 71/ wavebreakmedia ltd; 77/ Neale Cousland;
80/ Serhiy Kobyakov; 81/ iodrakon; 86/ Dmitriy Shironosov; 87/ Ferenc Szelepcsenyi;
95 (centre)/ Blend Images; 95 (left)/ Monkey Business Images; 101/ Serhiy Kobyakov; 106 (top)/
Rphotos; 106 (bottom)/ Alexander Raths; 124/ Iraidka; 133/ Excellent backgrounds; 137/
Richard Peterson; 144/ Nikola Bilic; 155/ CyberEak; 157/ Irina Fischer; 161/ Losevsky Pavel;
162/ joyfull; 178/ Margo Harrison; 182/ Pshenichka; 190/ Fotokostic; 197 (top)/ mangostock;
210/ max blain; 227/ auremar; 246/ Stephen Aaron Rees; 264 (bottom)/ Swapan; 278/ Monkey
Business Images; 294 (top left)/ rook76; 316/ dani92026; 327/ perspectivestock; 339/ Valeria73;
368/ Jerry Zitterman; 391/ Wiktor Bubniak; 392/ Tischenko Irina; 393/ Anna Omelchenko;
429/ Valeriy Lebedev; 430/ Mayovskyy Andrew; 431/ Alistair Rennie; 456/ Mikhail Sergunin;
459 (top)/ Serhiy Shullye; 505/ Daniel Korzeniewski; 508/ CLM; 511 (bottom)/cobalt88; 526/
Yuri Arcurs; 527/ wavebreakmedia ltd; 543/ Tyler Olson; 549/ Gina Sanders; 562/ Adrian
Matthiassen; 573/ Ritu Manoj Jethani; 614/ Flashon Studio; 625/ muzsy; 672/ J. Helgason;
695/ Eric Issele; 696/ Neale Cousland; 703 (top)/ testing; 703 (bottom)/ Robert Davies; 720/
Aija Lehtonen Stockbyte: 3, 186 (top left, bottom left, centre left, centre, centre right, top right,
lower right), 237 (bottom left) Viewfinder Australia Photo Library: 60
text
Australian Bureau of Statistics: 9, 10/ABS 2010, Year book Australia 200910, cat. no. 1301.0; 11/
Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Australia, 200506. Cat No. 4177.0
Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of copyright material. Information that will enable the
publisher to rectify any error or omission in subsequent editions will be welcome. In such cases, please
contact the Permissions Section of John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
xii
Acknowledgements
ChapTer 1
Univariate data
diGiTal doC
doc9399
10 Quick Questions
ChapTer ConTenTS
1a
1B
1C
1d
1e
1F
1G
1h
1i
1J
Types of data
Stem plots
Dot plots, frequency histograms and bar charts
Describing the shape of stem plots and histograms
The median, the interquartile range, the range and the mode
Boxplots
The mean
Standard deviation
The 689599.7% rule and zscores
Populations and simple random samples
1a
Types of data
Univariate data are data that contain one variable. That is, the information deals with only
one quantity that changes. Therefore, the number of cars sold by a car salesman during one week
is an example of univariate data. Sets of data that contain two variables are called bivariate data and
those that contain more than two variables are called multivariate data. You will learn more about
bivariate data in chapter 2.
Data can be numerical, categorical, discrete or continuous. The methods we use to display data
depend on the type of information we are dealing with.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with classification
of data.
Such categorical data, as the name suggests, have categories like masculine, feminine and neuter
for gender, or Christian, Islamic, Buddhist and so on for religious denomination, or 1st, 2nd, 3rd for
finishing position in the Melbourne Cup.
Note: Some numbers may look like numerical data, but are actually names or titles (for example,
ratings of 1 to 5 given to different samples of cake This ones a 4; the numbers on netball players
uniforms shes number 7). These titles are not countable; they place the subject in a category
(with a name), and so they are categorical.
exercise 1a
Types of data
continuous.
3 mC An example of a numerical variable is:
a
B
C
d
e
4 mC The weight of each truckload of woodchips delivered to the wharf during a onemonth period
diGiTal doC
doc9400
WorkSHEET 1.1
1B
Stem plots
Leaf
6
2 2 3
0 2 4 6
2 3 6 7
3 7
1
Worked example 1
The number of cars sold in a week at a large car dealership over a 20week period is given below.
16
19
12
11
8
6
7
15
26
32
32
18
15
43
51
31
29
23
45
23
Construct a stem plot to display the number of cars sold in a week at the dealership.
Think
WriTe
Lowest number = 6
Highest number = 51
Use stems from 0 to 5.
Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
Stem Leaf
0 6 7 8
1 1 2 5 5 6 8 9
2 3 3 6 9
3 1 2 2
4 3 5
5 1
Key: 23 = 23 cars
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Leaf
8 7 6
6 2 5 9 1 5 8
6 9 3 3
2 2 1
5 3
1
Worked example 2
The masses (in kilograms) of the members of an Under17 football squad are given below.
70.3
72.4
68.3
65.1
74.1
69.7
72.9
75.3
71.3
66.9
75.6
68.3
68.6
69.7
70.5
69.6
66.2
72.4
70.8
71.2
71.8
WriTe
Stem
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
Leaf
1
9 2
6
6
3
2
9
3
7
8
3
4
3
7
5
8
4
1
3 6
Stem Leaf
65 1
66 29
67
68 3 3 6
69 6 7 7
70 3 5 8
71 2 3 8
72 4 4 9
73
74 1
75 3 6
Key: 741 = 74.1 kg
Sometimes data which are very bunched make it difficult to get a clear idea about the data variation. To
overcome the problem, we can split the stems. Stems can be split into halves or fifths.
Worked example 3
A set of golf scores for a group of professional golfers trialling a new 18hole golf course is shown
on the following stem plot.
Stem Leaf
6 1 6 6 7 8 9 9 9
7 0 1 1 2 2 3 7
Key: 61 = 61
Produce another stem plot for these data by splitting the stems into:
a halves
b fifths.
4
Think
WriTe
a Stem
b Stem
exercise 1B
Leaf
6* 1
6* 6 6 7 8 9 9 9
7* 0 1 1 2 2 3
7* 7
Key: 61 = 61
Leaf
6 1
6
6
6 6 6 7
6 8 9 9 9
7 0 1 1
7 2 2 3
7
7 7
7
Key: 61 = 61
Stem plots
1 In each of the following, write down all the pieces of data shown on the stem plot.
a Stem Leaf
b Stem Leaf
0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*
3*
c Stem
10
11
12
13
14
15
1 2
5 8
2 3 3
6 6 7
1 3 4
5 5 6 7
0 2
Leaf
1 2
5 8
2 3 3
6 6 7
1 3 4
5 5 6 7
e Stem Leaf
0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*
1
5
0
6
1
5
4
8
2
9 9
1
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
3
0
1
5
2
1
3
5 9
2 7
d Stem Leaf
5
5
5
5
5
0
3
4
6
9
1
3
5 5
6 7
2 We1 The money (to the nearest dollar) earned each week
3 The ages of those attending an embroidery class are given below. Construct a stem plot for these data
68
49
51
52
57
61
63
58
51
59
37
49
Stem
0
1
2
3
4
42
53
4 10 27 28 29 31 34 36 41
14 10 27 28 29 29 31 34 36 41 41
4 22 27 28 29 29 30 31 34 36 41 41
14 22 27 28 29 30 30 31 34 36 41 41
4 2 27 28 29 29 30 31 34 36 41
Leaf
4
2 7 8 9 9
0 1 4 6
1 1
Key: 25 = 25
5 The ages of the mothers of a class of children attending an innercity kindergarten are given below.
Construct a stem plot for these data. Based on your display, comment on the statement Parents of
kindergarten children are very young.
32
28
37
30
29
33
19
34
29
28
32
35
25
35
38
29
39
33
32
30
6 The number of hit outs made by each of the principal ruckmen in each of the AFL teams for Round11
is recorded below. Construct a stem plot to display these data. Which teams had the three highest
scoring ruckmen?
Number of
hit outs
Team
Collingwood
Bulldogs
Kangaroos
Port Adelaide
Geelong
Sydney
Melbourne
Brisbane
Number of
hit outs
Team
19
41
29
24
21
31
40
25
32
34
31
26
29
22
33
28
Adelaide
St Kilda
Essendon
Carlton
West Coast
Fremantle
Hawthorn
Richmond
7 We2 The heights of members of a squad of basketballers are given below in metres. Construct a stem
1.85
2.03
2.03
2.09
2.21
2.05
2.17
2.01
1.89
1.96
1.99
1.97
1.87
1.91
8 The 2008 median house price of a number of Melbourne suburbs is given below. Construct a stem plot
Price
( $1000)
670
600
670
628
652
653
608
576
525
526
Suburb
Collingwood
Dancaster
Essendon
Highett
Huntingdale
Ivanhoe
Moonee Ponds
Newport
Oakleigh
Preston
Price
( $1000)
583
620
670
600
517
633
638
536
548
515
9 We3 The data below give the head circumference (to the nearest cm) of 16 fouryearold girls.
48
50
49
50
47
53
52
52
51
43
50
47
49
49
48
50
Units: 3 & 4
Dot plots, frequency histograms and bar charts display data in graphical form.
AOS: DA
dot plots
In picture graphs, a single picture represents each data value. Similarly, in dot plots, a single dot
represents each data value. Dot plots are used to display discrete data where values are not spread out
very much. They are also used to display categorical data.
Dot plots have a scaled horizontal axis and each data value is indicated by a dot above this scale. The
end result is a set of vertical lines of evenlyspaced dots.
10
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
12
Score
Worked example 4
The number of hours per week spent on art by 18 students is given below.
4
4
0
1
3
3
1
2
3
5
4
3
2
2
2
1
3
0
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
draW
Think
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Hours/week
Frequency histograms
A histogram is a useful way of displaying large data sets (say, over 50 observations). The vertical axis
on the histogram displays the frequency and the horizontal axis displays class intervals of the variable
(for example, height or income).
When data are given in raw form that is, just as a list of figures in no particular order it is
helpful to first construct a frequency table.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
Worked example 5
The data below show the distribution of masses (in kilograms) of 60 students in Year 7 at
Northwood Secondary College. Construct a frequency histogram to display the data more
clearly.
45.8
43.5
39.8
54.6
45.9
57.2
42.5
58.7
48.2
38.7
42.9
58.7
48.3
48.5
59.2
39.7
48.4
49.6
53.2
43.1
34.2
56.9
48.2
56.2
Think
1
52.4
43.8
36.2
43.0
52.3
58.3
47.2
56.3
51.8
52.4
46.7
62.3
45.7
54.3
58.7
46.3
56.8
48.6
53.1
52.4
56.3
53.7
52.1
61.2
60.2
58.7
54.3
48.2
44.2
57.6
51.3
58.3
WriTe/draW
Class interval
3034.9
3539.9
4044.9
4549.9
5054.9
5559.9
6064.9
Tally








  
 
 
Total
Frequency
45.7
53.8
45.7
51.9
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Frequency
1
4
7
16
15
14
3
60
30 3540 45 50 55 60 65
Mass (kg)
Worked example 6
The marks out of 20 received by 30 students for a bookreview assignment are given in the
frequency table below.
Mark
Frequency
12
2
13
7
14
6
15
5
16
4
17
2
18
3
draW
Frequency
Think
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
12 1314 15 16 17 18 19 20
Mark out of 20
19
0
20
1
Bar charts
2 4 6 8 10 12
Number of students
25
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
20
Topic:
15
Concept:
10
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
5
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number of children in family
Mark out of 20
Dog
Cat
Rabbit
Snake
Bird
Goldfish
Number of families
A bar chart is similar to a histogram. However, it consists of bars of equal width separated by small,
equal spaces and may be arranged either horizontally or vertically. Bar charts are often used to display
categorical data.
Do more
Interact
with bar charts.
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Frequency or number of students
Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
NSW
483
471
469
453
405
376
Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
NSW
539
522
518
500
435
397
NT
44
34
51
39
49
67
ACT
10
10
25
12
14
14
Aust.
1445
1458
1481
1456
1453
1342
NT
53
35
55
42
58
75
ACT
11
10
26
13
14
14
Aust.
1621
1596
1636
1601
1603
1464
diGiTal doC
doc9401
Spreadsheet
Segmented bar charts
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
segmented graphs.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Year book Australia 200910, cat. no. 1301.0, ABS, Canberra,
table 24.20, p. 638.
It is appropriate to represent the number of accidents involving fatalities in all states and territories
during 2008 as a segmented bar chart.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
First, we convert each states proportion of accidents out of the total to a percentage.
diGiTal doC
doc9402
SkillSHEET1.1
Converting a
fraction to a
percentage
State
Number of accidents
Percentage
NSW
376
Vic.
278
Qld
293
SA
87
WA
189
Tas.
38
NT
67
ACT
14
The segmented bar chart is drawn to scale. An appropriate scale would be constructed by drawing the
total bar 100 mm long, so that 1 mm represents 1%. That is, accidents in NSW would be represented by
a segment of 28 mm, those in Victoria by a segment of 20.7 mm and so on. Each segment is then labelled
directly, or a key may be used.
NSW 28%
Vic. 20.7%
QLD 21.8%
SA 6.5%
WA 14.1%
Tas. 2.8%
NT 5.0%
ACT 1.0%
diGiTal doC
doc9403
Spreadsheet
Frequency
histograms
1 We5
Construct a frequency table for each of the following sets of data.
a 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.2 3.6 2.5 4.3 2.5 3.7 4.5 6.3 1.3
b 11 13 15 15 16 18 20 21 22 21 18 19 20 16 18 20 16 10 23 24 25 27 28 30 35
28 27 26 29 30 31 24 28 29 20 30 32 33 29 30 31 33 34
c 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.6
2 Using the frequency tables from question 1, construct a histogram for each set of data.
3 Using a CAS calculator, construct a histogram for each of the sets of data given in question 1. Compare
this histogram with the one drawn for question 2.
4 We4 The data below represent the number of hours each week that 40 teenagers spent on household
2005.
Shortterm resident departures by major destinations
New Zealand
United States of America
United Kingdom
Indonesia
China (excluding Special
Administrative Regions
(SARs))
10
2004
( 1000)
2005
( 1000)
2006
( 1000)
2007
( 1000)
2008
( 1000)
815.8
376.1
375.1
335.1
182.0
835.4
426.3
404.2
319.7
235.1
864.7
440.3
412.8
194.9
251.0
902.1
479.1
428.5
282.6
284.3
921.1
492.3
420.3
380.7
277.3
2004
( 1000)
2005
( 1000)
2006
( 1000)
2007
( 1000)
2008
( 1000)
188.2
175.4
159.0
152.6
202.7
196.9
188.5
185.7
288.0
202.4
210.9
196.3
374.4
200.3
221.5
206.5
404.1
236.2
217.8
213.1
144.4
159.8
168.0
181.3
191.0
Thailand
Fiji
Singapore
Hong Kong (SAR of
China)
Malaysia
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Year book Australia 200910, cat. no. 1301.0, ABS, Canberra,
table 23.12, p. 621.
6 Presented below is information about adult participation in sport and physical activities in 200506.
Draw a segmented bar graph to compare the participation of all persons from various age groups.
Comment on the statement, Only young people participate in sport and physical activities.
Participation in sport and physical activities(a) 200506
Males
Females
Persons
Age
group
(years)
Number
( 1000)
Participation
rate
(%)
Number
( 1000)
Participation
rate
(%)
Number
( 1000)
Participation
rate
(%)
1824
735.2
73.3
671.3
71.8
1406.4
72.6
2534
1054.5
76.3
1033.9
74.0
2088.3
75.1
3544
975.4
66.7
1035.9
69.1
2011.2
68.0
4554
871.8
63.5
923.4
65.7
1795.2
64.6
5564
670.1
60.4
716.3
64.6
1386.5
62.5
65 and
over
591.0
50.8
652.9
48.2
1243.9
49.4
64.6
5033.7
64.4
9931.5
64.5
Total
4898
(a) Relates
to persons aged 18 years and over who participated in sport or physical activity as a player during the
12 months prior to interview.
Source: Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Australia, 200506 (4177.0). Viewed 10 October 2008
<http://abs.gov.au/Ausstats>
Symmetric distributions
Frequency
1d
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Leaf
7
2 3
2 4
0 2
4 7
2 7
1 3
5
3
8
8
7
6
9
9
8
9
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
11
Skewed distributions
Each of the histograms shown below are examples of skewed distributions.
The figure below left shows data which are negatively skewed. The data in this case peak to the right
and trail off to the left.
The figure below right shows positively skewed data. The data in this case peak to the left and trail off
to the right.
Worked example 7
Think
TUTorial
eles1254
Worked example 7
WriTe
1 We7 For each of the following stem plots, describe the shape of the distribution of the data.
a Stem Leaf
0 1 3
1 2 4 7
2 3 4 4 7 8
3 2 5 7 9 9 9 9
4 1 3 6 7
5 0 4
6 4 7
7 1
Key: 1 2 = 12
12
b Stem Leaf
1 3
2 6
3 3 8
4 2 6 8 8 9
5 4 7 7 7 8 9 9
6 0 2 2 4 5
Key: 26 = 2.6
c Stem Leaf
2 3 5 5 6
3 0 2 2 3
4 2 2 4 5
5 0 3 3 5
6 2 4
7 5 9
8 2
9 7
10
Key: 104 = 104
7 8 9 9
4 6 6 7 8 8
6 6 6 7 9
6
d Stem Leaf
1*
1* 5
2* 1 4
2* 5 7 8 8 9
3* 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4
3* 5 5 5 6
4* 3 4
4*
Key: 24 = 24
e Stem Leaf
3
3 8 9
4 0 0 1 1 1
4 2 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 5 5 5
4 6 7
4 8
Key: 43 = 0.43
Stem Leaf
60 2 5 8
61 1 3 3 6 7 8 9
62 0 1 2 4 6 7 8 8 9
63 2 2 4 5 7 8
64 3 6 7
65 4 5 8
66 3 5
67 4
Key: 623 = 623
2 For each of the following histograms, describe the shape of the distribution of the data and comment
Frequency
f
Frequency
Frequency
e
Frequency
c
Frequency
b
Frequency
be described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed and symmetric
C positively skewed
d positively skewed and symmetric
e symmetric
Stem Leaf
0 1
0 2
0 4 4 5
0 6 6 6
0 8 8 8
1 0 0 0
1 2 2 2
1 4 4 5
1 6 7 7
1 8 9
Key: 18 = 18
7
8 9 9
1 1 1 1
3 3 3
5
Frequency
Frequency
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111213 1415
Number of enquiries
13
Stem
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Leaf
0 0 1
2 2 3
4 4 5
6 6 6
8 8 8
0 0 1
4 4
5 5
7
1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
5 5 5 5
6 7
9
Leaf
4
5 7 9
1 2 4 4
5 6 6 7 8 9
1 2 2 3
6 7
Key: 40 = 4 kg
8 The amount of pocket money (to the nearest 50 cents) received each week by students in a
Frequency
9 Statistics were collected over 3 AFL games on the number of goals kicked by forwards over 3 weeks.
Frequency
diGiTal doC
doc9404
WorkSHEET 1.2
14
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Number of goals
After displaying data using a histogram or stem plot, we can make even more sense of the data by
calculating what are called summary statistics. Summary statistics are used because they give us an idea
about:
1. where the centre of the distribution is
2. how the distribution is spread out.
We will look first at four summary statistics the median, the interquartile range, the range and the
mode which require that the data be in ordered form before they can be calculated.
inTeraCTiViTY
int0084
The median, the
interquartile range, the
range and the mode
Units: 3 & 4
The median
AOS: DA
The median is the midpoint of an ordered set of data. Half the data are less than or equal to the
median.
Consider the set of data: 2 5 6 8 11 12 15. These data are in ordered form (that is, from lowest to
highest). There are 7 observations. The median in this case is the middle or fourth score; that is, 8.
Consider the set of data: 1 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12. These data are in ordered form also; however, in
this case there is an even number of scores. The median of this set lies halfway between the 5th score (7)
7+8
and the 6th score (8). So the median is 7.5. (Alternatively, median = 2 = 7.5.)
n + 1
th pos ition.
When there are n records in a set of ordered data, the median can be located at the
2
Checking this against our previous example, we have n = 10; that is, there were
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
10 + 1
10 observations in the set. The median was located at the 2 = 5.5th position; that is, halfway between
the 5th and the 6th terms.
A stem plot provides a quick way of locating a median since the data in a stem plot are already
ordered.
Worked example 8
Consider the stem plot below which contains 22 observations. What is the median?
Stem
2*
2*
3*
3*
4*
4*
Leaf
3 3
5 7 9
1 3 3 4 4
5 8 9 9
0 2 2
6 8 8 8 9
Think
1
Key: 34 = 34
WriTe
n + 1
Median =
th position
2
22 + 1
=
th position
2
= 11.5th position
11th term = 35
12th term = 38
Median = 36.5
15
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
We have seen that the median divides a set of data in half. Similarly, quartiles divide a set of data in
quarters. The symbols used to refer to these quartiles are Q1, Q2 and Q3.
The middle quartile, Q2, is the median.
The interquartile range IQR = Q3 Q1.
The interquartile range gives us the range of the middle 50% of values in a set of data.
There are four steps to locating Q1 and Q3.
Step 1. Write down the data in ordered form from lowest to highest.
Step 2. Locate the median; that is, locate Q2.
Step 3. Now consider just the lower half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q1.
Step 4. Now consider just the upper half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q3.
The four cases given below illustrate this method.
Case 1
Consider data containing the 6 observations: 3 6 10 12 15 21.
The data are already ordered. The median is 11.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 3 6 10. The middle score is 6, so Q1 = 6.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 12 15 21. The middle score is 15, so Q3 = 15.
Case 2
Consider a set of data containing the 7 observations: 4 9 11 13 17 23 30.
The data are already ordered. The median is 13.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 4 9 11. The middle score is 9, so Q1 = 9.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 17 23 30. The middle score is 23, so Q3 = 23.
Case 3
Consider a set of data containing the 8 observations: 1 3 9 10 15 17 21 26.
The data are already ordered. The median is 12.5.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 1 3 9 10. The middle score is 6, so Q1 = 6.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 15 17 21 26. The middle score is 19, so Q3 = 19.
Case 4
Consider a set of data containing the 9 observations: 2 7 13 14 17 19 21 25 29.
The data are already ordered. The median is 17.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 2 7 13 14. The middle score is 10, so Q1 = 10.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 19 21 25 29. The middle score is 23, so Q3 = 23.
Worked example 9
3
62
19
27
21
81
42
23
59
19
2
25
17
5
17
73
58
69
TUTorial
eles1255
Worked example 9
16
WriTe
2 3 5 14 17 17 19 19 21 23
25 27 33 42 58 59 60 62 69 73 81
IQR = Q3 Q1
= 59.5 17
= 42.5
A CAS or graphics calculator can be a fast way of locating quartiles and hence finding the value of the
interquartile range.
Worked example 10
Think
WriTe
Q1 = 17 and Q3 = 23
So, IQR = Q3 Q1
= 23 17
=6
The range
The range of a set of data is the difference between the highest and lowest values in that set.
It is usually not too difficult to locate the highest and lowest values in a set of data. Only when there
is a very large number of observations might the job be made more difficult. In the previous worked
example, the minimum and maximum values were 11 and 37, respectively. The range, therefore, can be
calculated as:
Range = maxX minX
= 37 11
= 26.
While the range gives us some idea about the spread of the data, it is not very informative since it
gives us no idea of how the data are distributed between the highest and lowest values.
Now let us look at another measure of the centre of a set of data: the mode.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
17
The mode
The mode is the score that occurs most often; that is, it is the score with the highest frequency. If there is
more than one score with the highest frequency, then all scores with that frequency are the modes.
The mode is a weak measure of the centre of data because it may be a value that is close to the
extremes of the data. If we consider the set of data in Worked example 8, the mode is 48 since it occurs
three times and hence is the score with the highest frequency. In Worked example 9 there are two modes,
17 and 19, because they equally occur most frequently.
1 We8 Write the median, the range and the mode of the sets of data shown in the following stem plots.
diGiTal doC
doc9405
Spreadsheet
onevariable
statistics
a Stem Leaf
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
2
0
4
2
1
3
4
2
7
7
3
b Stem Leaf
5 7 9
3 6 8 8
8 9 9
8
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
2
4
6
8
0
3
5
7
d Stem Leaf
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
1
3
5
6
8
1
1
3
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
6 7
9
e Stem Leaf
1
6
8
0
2
4
6
9
0
2
4
6
8
0
3
5
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
9
0 1 1 1
2 3 3 3 3
5 5 5
7
2
1
0
2
3
4
3
4
5
3
1
2
6
5
5
c Stem Leaf
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8
4
6
8
0
2
4
7
9
5
6
8
0
2
5
7
7
8 9 9
1 1 1 1
3 3 3
5
8
3 6 7 8 9
2 4 6 7 8 8 9
4 5 7 8
7
8
2 For each of the following sets of data, write the median and the range.
a 2 4 6 7 9
b 12 15 17 19 21
c 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
d 3 5 7 8 12 13 15 16
e 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 23 24 26
f 3 8 4 2 1 6 5
g 16 21 14 28 23 15 11 19 25
h 7 4 3 4 9 5 10 4 2 11
i 29 23 22 33 26 18 37 22 16
3a
We9 The number of cars that used the drivein at a McBurger restaurant during each hour, from
7.00 am until 10.00 pm on a particular day, is shown below.
14 18 8 9 12 24 25 15 18 25 24 21 25 24 14
Find the interquartile range of this set of data.
b On the same day, the number of cars stopping during each hour that the nearby Kennys Fried
Chicken restaurant was open is shown below.
7 9 13 16 19 12 11 18 20 19 21 20 18 10 14
Find the interquartile range of these data.
c What do these values suggest about the two restaurants?
18
4 Write down a set of data for which n = 5, the median is 6 and the range is 7. Is this the only set of data
b IQR is zero?
a
B
C
d
e
7 We10 For each of the following sets of data find the median, the interquartile range, the range and the
mode.
a 16
19
b 22
23
c 1.2
6.1
12
11
25
25
2.3
3.7
8
6
27
21
4.1
5.4
7
15
36
19
2.4
3.7
26
32
31
29
1.5
5.2
32
18
32
28
3.7
3.8
15
43
39
31
6.1
6.3
51
31
29
27
2.4
7.1
29
23
20
22
3.6
4.9
45
23
30
29
1.2
8 For each set of data shown on the stem plots, find the median, the interquartile range, the range and the
1F
Boxplots
The five number summary statistics that we looked at in the previous section can be illustrated very
neatly in a special diagram known as a boxplot (or boxandwhisker diagram). Thediagram is made up
of a box with straight lines (whiskers) extending from opposite sides of the box.
A boxplot displays the minimum and maximum values of the data together with the quartiles and is
drawn with a labelled scale. The length of the box is given by the interquartile range. A boxplot gives us
a very clear visual display of how the data are spread out.
Minimum
value
Whisker
Q1
Q2
Median
Box
Maximum
value
Q3
Whisker
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about how to
construct boxplots.
25%
of data
25%
of data
25%
of data
25%
of data
A boxplot
19
Horizontal boxplot
Vertical boxplot
Worked example 11
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Parttime weekly earnings ($)
WriTe
Range = 90 20
= 70
Median = 50
Q1 = 40 and Q3 = 80
IQR = 80 40
= 40
Earlier, we noted three general types of shape for histograms and stem plots: symmetric, negatively
skewed and positively skewed. It is useful to compare the corresponding boxplots of distributions with
such shapes.
In the figures below, a symmetric distribution is represented in the histogram and in the boxplot. The
characteristics of this boxplot are that the whiskers are about the same length and the median is located
about halfway along the box.
Symmetric histogram
Symmetric boxplot
The figures below show a negatively skewed distribution. In such a distribution, the data peak to the
right on the histogram and trail off to the left.
In corresponding fashion on the boxplot, the bunching of the data to the right means that the lefthand
whisker is longer and the righthand whisker is shorter; that is, the lower 25% of data are sparse and
spread out whereas the top 25% of data are bunched up.
The median occurs further towards the right end of the box.
In the figures below, we have a positively skewed distribution. In such a distribution, the data peak to
the left on the histogram and trail off to the right.
In corresponding fashion on the boxplot, the bunching of the data to the left means that the lefthand
whisker is shorter and the righthand whisker is longer; that is, the upper 25% of data are sparse and
spread out whereas the lower 25% of data are bunched up.
The median occurs further towards the left end of the box.
Worked example 12
Explain whether or not the histogram and the boxplot shown below could represent the same data.
Think
WriTe
Worked example 13
The results (out of 20) of oral tests in a Year 12 Indonesian class are:
15
12
17
13
18
14
16
17
13
11
12
Display these data using a boxplot and discuss the shape obtained.
Think
1
TUTorial
eles1256
Worked example 13
WriTe/draW
8 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 18
The median score is 13.5.
The lower half of the scores are
8 11 12 12 13 13.
So, Q1 = 12
The upper half of the scores are
14 15 16 17 17 18.
So, Q3 = 16.5
The lowest score is 8.
The highest score is 18.
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Results
3
21
outliers
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Frequency
Units: 3 & 4
The times (in seconds) achieved by the 12 fastest runners in the 100m sprint at a school athletics
meeting are listed below.
11.2 12.3 11.5 11.0 11.6 11.4
11.9 11.2 12.7 11.3 11.2 11.3
Draw a boxplot to represent the data, describe the shape of the distribution and comment on the
existence of any outliers.
Think
WriTe/draW
11.011.211.211.211.311.311.411.5
11.611.912.312.7
Lowest score = 11.0
Highest s core = 12.7
Median = Q2 = 11.35
Q1 = 11.2
Q3 = 11.75
IQR = 11.75 11.2
= 0.55
22
12.0
Time (s)
13.0
exercise 1F
Boxplots
1 We11 For the boxplots shown, write down the range, the interquartile range and the median of the
diGiTal doC
doc9406
Spreadsheet
Boxplots
a
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
c
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
100
200
300
400
500
d
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110120 130 140
10 15 20 25 30 35
2 We12 Match each histogram below with the boxplot which could show the same distribution.
a
ii
iii
iv
the median is 30
the median is 45
the interquartile range is 10
the interquartile range is 30
the interquartile range is 60
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
5 The number of clients seen each day over a 15day period by a tax consultant is:
3 5 2 7 5 6 4 3 4 5 6 6 4 3 4
Represent these data on a boxplot.
6 The maximum daily temperatures (in C) for the month of October in Melbourne are:
18 26 28 23 16 19 21 27 31 23 24 26 21 18 26 27
23 21 24 20 19 25 27 32 29 21 16 19 23 25 27
Represent these data on a boxplot.
7 We14 The number of rides that 16 children had at the annual show are listed below.
8 5 9 4 9 0 8 7 9 2 8 7 9 6 7 8
Draw a boxplot to represent the data, describe the shape of the distribution and comment on
the existence of any outliers.
b Use a CAS calculator to draw a boxplot for these data.
a
23
8 A concentration test was carried out on 40 students in Year 12 across Australia. The test involved
the use of a computer mouse and the ability to recognise multiple images. The less time required to
complete the activity, the better the students ability to concentrate.
The data are shown by the parallel boxplots below.
Males
Females
20
40
60
Time (s)
100
a Identify two similar properties of the concentration spans for boys and girls.
b Find the interquartile range for boys and girls.
c Comment on the existence of an outlier in the boys data.
1G
Units: 3 & 4
The mean
The mean of a set of data is what is referred to in everyday language as the average.
For the set of data {4, 7, 9, 12, 18}:
4 + 7 + 9 + 12 + 18
5
= 10.
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
mean =
The symbol we use to represent the mean is x, that is, a lowercase x with a bar on top. So, in this
case, x = 10.
The formal definition of the mean is:
x=
x
n
where x represents the sum of all of the observations in the data set and n represents the number of
observations in the data set.
Note that the symbol, , is the Greek letter, sigma, which represents the sum of.
The mean is also referred to as a summary statistic and is a measure of the centre of a distribution.
The mean is the point about which the distribution balances.
Consider the masses of 7 potatoes, given in grams, in the photograph below.
160 g
170 g
145 g
130 g
190 g
100 g
120 g
The mean is 145 g. The observations 130 and 160 balance each other since they are each 15 g from
the mean. Similarly, the observations 120 and 170 balance each other since they are each 25 g from
the mean, as do the observations 100 and 190. Note that the median is also 145g. That is, for this set
of data the mean and the median give the same value for the centre. This is because the distribution is
symmetric.
Now consider two cases in which the distribution of data is not symmetric.
24
Case 1
Consider the masses of a different set of 7 potatoes, given in grams below.
100 105 110 115 120 160 200
The median of this distribution is 115 g and the mean is 130 g. There are 5 observations that are less
than the mean and only 2 that are more. In other words, the mean does not give us a good indication
of the centre of the distribution. However, there is still a balance between observations below the
mean and those above, in terms of the spread of all the observations from the mean. Therefore, the
mean is still useful to give a measure of the central tendency of the distribution but in cases where
the distribution is skewed, the median gives a better indication of the centre. For a positively skewed
distribution, as in the previous case, the mean will be greater than the median. For a negatively skewed
distribution the mean will be less than the median.
Case 2
Consider the data below, showing the weekly income (to the nearest $10) of 10 families living in a
suburban street.
$600 $1340 $1360 $1380 $1400 $1420 $1420 $1440 $1460 $1500
In this case, x =
13320
= $1332, and the median is $1410.
10
Worked example 15
WriTe
x
n
10 + 12 + 15 + 16 + 18 + 19 + 22 + 25 + 27 + 29
=
10
x = 19.3
x=
25
When data are presented in a frequency table with class intervals and we dont know what the
raw data are, we employ another method to find the mean of these grouped data. This other method
is shown in the example that follows and uses the midpoints of the class intervals to represent the
raw data.
Recall that the Greek letter sigma, , represents the sum of. So, f means the sum of the
frequencies and is the total of all the numbers in the frequency column.
To find the mean for grouped data,
x=
( f m)
f
where f represents the frequency of the data and m represents the midpoint of the class interval of the
grouped data.
Worked example 16
Frequency f
1
6
13
TUTorial
eles1257
Worked example 16
Frequency f
5059
6069
7079
6
3
1
26
WriTe
Age
(class
intervals)
2029
3039
4049
5059
6069
7079
Frequency
f
1
6
13
6
3
1
Midpoint of
class interval
m
24.5
34.5
44.5
54.5
64.5
74.5
f = 30
1405
30
46.8 (correct to 1 decimal place).
So, x =
fm
24.5
207
578.5
327
193.5
74.5
(f m)
= 1405
exercise 1G
The mean
Stem
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
Leaf
1
2
4 5
6 6 7
8 8 8 9
0 1 1
2 3
4 4
6
8
Stem
0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*
Leaf
4
7
2 4
5 5 6 7 8
1 2 4
7 7 7
6 For each of the following, write down whether the mean or the median would provide a better
interval
09
1019
2029
3039
4049
5059
f
1
3
6
17
12
5
Class
interval
04
59
1014
1519
2024
2529
Frequency,
f
2
5
7
13
8
6
27
Class
interval
049
5099
100149
150199
200249
250299
Frequency,
f
2
7
8
14
12
5
Class
interval
16
712
1318
1924
2530
3136
Frequency,
f
14
19
23
22
20
14
Age
1014
1519
2024
2529
3034
3539
4044
4549
1h
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Standard deviation
The standard deviation gives us a measure of how data are spread around the mean. For the set of data
{8, 10, 11, 12, 12, 13}, the mean, x = 11.
The amount that each observation deviates (that is, differs) from the mean is calculated and shown in
the table below.
Particular observation, x
8
10
11
12
12
13
8 11 = 3
10 11 = 1
11 11 = 0
12 11 = 1
12 11 = 1
13 11 = 2
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with standard
deviations.
The deviations from the mean are either positive or negative depending on whether the particular
observation is lower or higher in value than the mean. If we were to add all the deviations from the mean
we would obtain zero.
If we square the deviations from the mean we will overcome the problem of positive and negative
deviations cancelling each other out. With this in mind, a quantity known as sample variance (s2) is
defined:
( x x )2
s2 =
.
n 1
Technically, this formula for variance is used when the data set is a subset of a larger population.
Variance gives the average of the squared deviations and is also a measure of spread. A far more
useful measure of spread, however, is the standard deviation, which is the square root of variance (s).
One reason for it being more useful is that it takes the same unit as the observations (for example, cm
or number of people). Variance would square the units, for example, cm2 or number of people squared,
which is not very practical.
Other advantages of the standard deviation will be dealt with later in the chapter.
28
In summary,
s=
where
x
x
n
( x x )2
n 1
represents sample standard deviation
represents the sum of
represents an observation
represents the mean
represents the number of observations.
While some of the theory or formulas associated with standard deviation may look complex, the
calculation of this measure of spread is straightforward using a statistical, graphics or CAS calculator.
Manual computation of standard deviation is therefore rarely necessary.
Worked example 17
The price (in cents) per litre of petrol at a service station was recorded each Friday over a
15week period. The data are given below.
152.4
161.0
160.2
156.4
159.6
159.0
168.6
160.2
161.4
162.6
156.6
168.4
164.8
166.8
162.6
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data, correct to 2 decimal places.
Think
1
WriTe
Sx = 4.515 92
s = 4.52 cents/L
Worked example 18
Stem Leaf
0* 4
0* 8 8
1* 1 3 4
1* 5 6 8
2* 3
2* 5
Key: 14 = 14 students
29
Think
WriTe
SX = 6.363 25
s = 6.363 students
Frequency
Frequency
The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data from the mean. Consider the two sets of data
shown below.
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Score
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Score
Each set of data has a mean of 10. The set of data above left has a standard deviation of 1 and the set
of data above right has a standard deviation of 3.
As we can see, the larger the standard deviation, the more spread are the data from the mean.
exercise 1h
Standard deviation
1 We17 For each of the following sets of data, calculate the standard deviation correct
to 2decimal places.
3 4 4.7 5.1 6 6.2
7 9 10 10 11 13 13 14
12.9 17.2 17.9 20.2 26.4 28.9
41 43 44 45 45 46 47 49
0.30 0.32 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45
2 Firstquarter profit increases for 8 leading companies are given below as percentages.
2.3 0.8 1.6 2.1 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.9
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
a
b
c
d
e
1.8 1.95 1.87 1.77 1.75 1.79 1.81 1.83 1.76 1.80 1.92 1.87 1.85 1.83
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
Stem Leaf
4 We18 Times (to the nearest tenth of a second)
11 0
for the heats in the 100m sprint at the school sports
11 2 3
carnival are given at right.
11 4 4 5
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data
11 6 6
and express your answer correct to 2decimal places.
11 8 8 9
12 0 1
12 2 2 3
12 4 4
12 6
12 9
Key: 110 = 11.0 s
30
5 The number of outgoing phone calls from an office each day over a 4week period is shown on the
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
6 mC A new legal aid service has been operational for only 5weeks.
The number of people who have made use of the service each day during
this period is set out at right.
The standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) of these data is:
a 6.00
B 6.34
C 6.47
d 15.44
e 16.00
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Frequency
1i The 689599.7%
The 689599.7% rule
Stem Leaf
0* 2 4
0* 7 7 9
1* 0 1 4 4 4 4
1* 5 6 6 7 8 8 9
2* 1 2 2 3 3 3
2* 7
Key: 10 = 10 people
1*6 = 16 people
An astounding feature of this type of distribution is that we can predict what percentage of the
data lie 1, 2 or 3 standard deviations either side of the mean using what is termed the 689599.7%
rule.
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about normal
distributions.
31
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
68%
inTeraCTiViTY
int0182
The 689599.7%
rule and zscores
_
xs
_
x
99.7%
95%
_
x+ s
_
x 2s
_
x
_
x + 2s
_
x 3s
_
x
_
x + 3s
In figure 1 above, 68% of the data shown lie between the value which is 1 standard deviation
below the mean, that is x s, and the value which is 1 standard deviation above the mean, that
is, x + s.
In figure 2 above, 95% of the data shown lie between the value which is 2 standard deviations
below the mean, that is, x 2s, and the value which is 2 standard deviations above the mean, that
is x + 2s.
In figure 3 above, 99.7% of the data shown lie between the value which is 3 standard deviations
below the mean, that is, x 3s, and the value which is 3 standard deviations above the mean, that
is, x + 3s.
Frequency
Worked example 19
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
WriTe
Worked example 20
TUTorial
eles1258
Worked example 20
WriTe/draW
mean.
mean.
13.5%
250
255
2.35% 0.15%
260
265
Worked example 21
The number of matches in a box is not always the same. When a sample of boxes was studied it
was found that the number of matches in a box approximated a normal (bellshaped) distribution
with a mean number of matches of 50 and a standard deviation of 2. In a sample of 200 boxes,
how many would be expected to have more than 48 matches?
Think
WriTe
33
Standard zscores
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
In an IQ test, the mean IQ is 100 and the standard deviation is 15. Dales test results give an IQ
of 130. Calculate this as a zscore.
Think
WriTe
z=
xx
s
=2
130 100
15
Dales zscore is 2, meaning that his IQ is exactly two standard deviations above the mean.
Not all zscores will be whole numbers; in fact most will not be. A whole number indicates only that
the score is an exact number of standard deviations above or below the mean.
Using the previous example, an IQ of 88 would be represented by a zscore of 0.8, as shown below.
xx
s
88 100
=
15
= 0.8
z=
The negative value indicates that the IQ of 88 is below the mean but by less than one standard
deviation.
Worked example 23
To obtain the average number of hours of study done by Year 12 students per week, Kate surveys
20students and obtains the following results.
12 18 15 14
9 10 13 12 18 25
15 10
3 21 11 12 14 16 17 20
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation (correct to 2 decimal places).
b Robert studies for 16 hours each week. Express this as a zscore based on the above results.
(Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.)
Think
34
WriTe
x = 14.25
s = 4.88
b z=
xx
s
16 14.25
4.88
= 0.36
Comparing data
An important use of zscores is to compare scores from different data sets. Suppose that in your maths
exam your result was 74 and in English your result was 63. In which subject did you achieve the better
result?
At first glance, it may appear that the maths result is better, but this does not take into account the
difficulty of the test. A mark of 63 on a difficult English test may in fact be a better result than 74 if it
was an easy maths test.
The only way that we can fairly compare the results is by comparing each result with its mean and
standard deviation. This is done by converting each result to a zscore.
If, for maths, x = 60 and s = 12, then
xx
z=
s
74 60
12
= 1.17
=
z=
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with comparisons
of data values.
xx
s
63 50
8
= 1.625
The English result is better because the higher zscore shows that the 63 is higher in comparison to the
mean of each subject.
Worked example 24
Janine scored 82 in her physics exam and 78 in her chemistry exam. In physics, x = 62 and s = 10,
while in chemistry, x = 66 and s = 5.
a Write both results as a standardised score.
b Which is the better result? Explain your answer.
Think
WriTe
a Physics: z =
xx
s
82 62
10
=2
Chemistry: z =
=
xx
s
78 66
5
= 2.4
higher zscore.
In each example the circumstances must be analysed carefully to see whether a higher or lower zscore
is better. For example, if we were comparing times for runners over different distances, the lower zscore
would be the better one.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
35
exercise 1i
b
Frequency
d
Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
1 In each of the following, decide whether or not the distribution is approximately bellshaped.
f
Frequency
Frequency
2 Copy and complete the entries on the horizontal scale of the following distributions, given that x = 10
and s = 2.
b
68%
95%
10
10
c
99.7%
10
3 Copy and complete the entries on the horizontal scale of the following distributions, given that x = 5
and s = 1.3.
b
68%
95%
c
99.7%
5
4 We19 The concentration ability of a randomly selected group of adults is tested during a short task
Frequency
which they are asked to complete. The length of the concentration span of those involved during the
task is shown at right.
The mean, x , is 49 seconds and the standard
deviation, s, is 14 seconds.
Write down the values between which we would
expect approximately:
a 68% of the groups concentration spans to fall
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
b 95% of the groups concentration spans to fall
Concentration span (seconds)
c 99.7% of the groups concentration spans to fall.
36
Frequency
1
2
3
Growth per week (mm)
6 The force required to break metal fasteners has a distribution which is bellshaped. A large sample
of metal fasteners was tested and the mean breaking force required was 12 newtons with a standard
deviation of 0.3 newtons.
Write down the values between which approximately:
a 68% of the breaking forces would lie
b 95% of the breaking forces would lie
c 99.7% of the breaking forces would lie.
7 The heights of the seedlings sold in a nursery have a bellshaped distribution. The mean height is 7 cm
and the standard deviation is 2.
Write down the values between which approximately:
a 68% of seedling heights will lie
b 95% of seedling heights will lie
c 99.7% of seedling heights will lie.
8 mC A set of scores in a competition has a mean of 15 and a standard deviation of 3. The distribution
of the scores is known to be bellshaped. Which one of the following could be true?
a 68% of the scores lie between 3 and 15.
B 68% of the scores lie between 15 and 18.
C 68% of the scores lie between 12 and 15.
d 68% of the scores lie between 13.5 and 16.5.
e 68% of the scores lie between 12 and 18.
9 mC A distribution of scores is bellshaped and the mean score is 26. It is known that 95% of scores lie
large international company is bellshaped. The data have a mean of 160 cm and a standard deviation
of 10 cm.
Find the percentage of this group of employees who are:
a less than 170 cm tall
b less than 140 cm tall
c greater than 150 cm tall
d between 130 cm and 180 cm in height.
11 The number of days taken off in a year by employees of a large company has a distribution which is
approximately bellshaped. The mean and standard deviation of this data are shown below.
Mean = 9 days
Standard deviation = 2 days
Find the percentage of employees of this company who, in a year, take off:
a more than 15 days
b fewer than 5 days
c more than 7 days
d between 3 and 11 days
e between 7 and 13 days.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
37
12 mC The mean number of Droolmints in a packet is 48. The data have a standard deviation of 2. If
the number of mints in a packet can be approximated by normal distribution. The percentage of packets
which contain more than 50 Droolmints is:
a 0.15%
B 2.5%
C 16%
d 50%
e 84%
13 We21 The volume of fruit juice in
diGiTal doC
doc9407
SkillSHEET 1.2
percentages
lengths of the bolts is approximately bellshaped with a mean length of 2.5 cm and a standard deviation
of 1 mm.
a In a sample of 2000 bolts, how many would be expected to have a length:
i between 2.4 cm and 2.6 cm?
ii less than 2.7 cm?
iii between 2.6 cm and 2.8 cm?
b The manufacturer rejects bolts which have a length of less than 2.3 cm or a length of greater than
2.7 cm. In a sample of 2000 bolts, how many would the manufacturer expect to reject?
15 We22 In a maths exam, the mean score is 60 and the standard deviation is 12. Chifunes mark is 96.
b Maths 78
e Art 95
c Biology 61
20 We23 The length of bolts being produced by a machine needs to be measured. To do this, a sample of
20 bolts are taken and measured. The results (in mm) are given below.
20
17
19
17
18
21
21
20
20
17
17
19
19
18
21
22
22
22
21
20
C 0.5
d 1
e 0.75
22 mC In a normal distribution the mean is 58. A score of 70 corresponds to a standardised score of 1.5.
d 12
e 9
23 We24 Kens English mark was 75 and his maths mark was 72. In English, the mean was 65 with a
standard deviation of 8, while in maths the mean mark was 56 with a standard deviation of 12.
a Convert the mark in each subject to a zscore.
b In which subject did Ken perform better? Explain your answer.
24 In the first maths test of the year, the mean mark was 60 and the standard deviation was 12. In the
second test, the mean was 55 and the standard deviation was 15. Barbara scored 54 in the first test and
50 in the second test. In which test did Barbara do better? Explain your answer.
25 The table below shows the average number of eggs laid per week by a random sample of chickens with
3 different types of living conditions.
Number of eggs per week
Cage chickens
Barn chickens
5.0
4.8
4.2
4.9
4.6
3.8
5.5
4.3
4.1
5.4
4.7
4.0
5.1
4.2
4.1
5.8
3.9
4.4
5.6
4.9
4.3
5.2
4.1
4.2
4.7
4.0
4.3
4.9
4.4
3.9
5.0
4.5
3.9
5.1
4.6
4.0
5.4
4.1
4.1
5.5
4.2
4.1
a Copy and complete the following table by calculating the mean and standard deviation of barn
Free
Cage Barn range
Mean
5.2
Standard deviation
0.3
39
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
populations
A group of Year 12 students decide to base their statistical investigation for a maths project on what
their contemporaries that is, other Year 12 students spend per year on Christmas and birthday
presents for their family members. One of their early decisions is to decide what the population is
going to be for their investigation. That is, are they looking at Year 12 students in Australia or in
Victoria or in metropolitan Melbourne or in their suburb or just in their school? In practice, it is
difficult to look at a large population unless, of course, you have a lot of resources available to you!
The students decide that their population will be the Year 12 students at their school. This means that
any conclusions they draw as a result of their investigation can be generalised to Year 12 students at
their school but not beyond that.
Samples
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about simple
random samples.
Given that there are 95 students in Year 12 at the school, it would be too timeconsuming to interview
all of them. A smaller group known as a sample is therefore taken from the population. The way in
which this smaller group is chosen is of paramount importance. For the investigation to have credibility,
the sample should be a random selection from the population and every member of that population
should have an equal chance of being chosen in the sample. Also, the selection of one person from the
population should not affect whether or not another person is chosen; that is, the selections should be
independent. A simple random sample provides such a sample.
The students conducting the investigation decide to choose a sample of 12 fellow students. While it
would be simplest to choose 12 of their mates as the sample, this would introduce bias since they would
not be representative of the population as a whole.
The students obtain a list of names of the 95 students in Year 12. They then write next to the
name of each student a number from 1 to 95. Using a calculator, the students generate 12 random
numbers between 1 and 95. Alternatively, the students could have used a table of random numbers.
Any point on the table can be taken as the starting point. The students decide which direction to
move through the table; for example, across the table to the right or to the left or down. Once a
direction is chosen, they must stay with that movement and write down the 2digit numbers as they
go along.
The numbers chosen by the students are then matched to the numbers on the name list and the
students in their sample can be identified.
These 12 students are then asked what they spent in the last year on family presents.
The students conducting the investigation can then record the data.
Random numbers can also be generated with the aid of a CAS calculator.
Worked example 25
40
WriTe
Stem Leaf
2* 2
2* 5 5
3* 0 0 2 4
3* 5 5 8
4* 0 0
Key: 22 = 22 dollars
2*5 = 25 dollars
x = 32.2
s=6
Q1 = 27.5
median = 33
Q3 = 36.5
To measure the centre of the distribution, the median and the mean are used. Since there are no
outliers and the distribution is approximately symmetric, the mean is quite a good measure of the centre
of the distribution. Also, the mean and the median are quite close in value.
To measure the spread of the distribution, the standard deviation and the interquartile range are used.
Since s = 6, and since the distribution is approximately bellshaped, we would expect that approximately
95% of the data lie between 32.2+12 = 44.2 and 32.212 = 20.2. It is perhaps a little surprising
to think that 95% of students spend between $20.20 and $44.20 on family presents. One might have
expected there to be greater variation on what students spend. The data, in
that sense, are quite bunched.
The interquartile range is equal to 36.5 27.5 = 9. This means
that 50% of those in the sample spent within $9 of each other on
family presents. Again, one might have expected a greater variation
in what students spent. It would be interesting to know whether
students confer about what they spend and therefore whether they
tended to allocate about the same amount of money to spend.
At another school, the same investigation was undertaken and
the results are shown in the following stem plot.
Stem
2*
2*
3*
3*
4*
4*
5*
5*
6*
6*
7*
7*
Leaf
0
5 5
5
5
0
5
0
5
5
0
5
0
41
this might be that this school is in a higher socioeconomic area and students receive greater allowances, or
perhaps it is that at this school there is a higher proportion of students from cultures where spending more
money on family presents is usual.
The range of money spent on family presents at this school and at this particular year level is $55.
This is certainly much higher than at the other school. The interquartile range at this school is $25. That
is, the middle 50% of students spend within $25 of each other which is greater than the students at the
other school.
exercise 1J
1 mC Students are selecting a sample of students at their school to complete an investigation. Which of
42
Summary
Types of data
Univariate data are data with one variable. Sets of data that contain two variables are called
bivariate data and those that contain more than two variables are called multivariate data.
Numerical data involve quantities that are measurable or countable.
Categorical data, as the name suggests, are data that are divided into categories or groups.
Discrete data are produced when a variable can take only certain fixed values.
Continuous data are produced when a variable can take any value between two values.
Stem plots
A stemandleaf plot (or stem plot) is a useful way of displaying data containing up to about
50observations.
A stem plot is constructed by breaking the numerals of a record into two parts: a stem and
a leaf. The last digit is always the leaf and any preceding digits form the stem.
When asked to represent data using a stemandleaf plot, it is always assumed that the stemandleaf plot willbe ordered.
If data are bunched then it may be useful to break the stems into halves or even fifths.
dot plots,
frequency
histograms and
bar charts
On a frequency histogram, the vertical axis displays the frequency and the horizontal axis displays
the classintervals.
Data given in raw form should be summarised first in a frequency table.
When data are displayed in a histogram or a stem plot, we say that the distribution of those data is:
1. symmetric if there is a single peak and the data trail off on either side of this peak in roughly the
samefashion
2. negatively skewed if the data peak to the right and trail off to the left
3. positively skewed if the data peak to the left and trail off to the right.
The median is the midpoint of a set of data. Half the data are less than or equal to the median.
When there are n observations in a set of ordered data, the median can be located at the
Boxplots
n + 1
th position.
2
The interquartile range IQR = Q3 Q1.
The interquartile range gives us the range of the middle 50% of values in our set of data.
There are four steps to locating Q1 and Q3.
Step 1: Write down the set of data in ordered form from lowest to highest.
Step 2: Locate the median, that is, locate Q2.
Step 3: Now consider just the lower half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q1.
Step 4: Now consider just the upper half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q3.
The range of a set of data is the difference between the highest and lowest values in that set.
The mode is the score that occurs most often. If there is more than one score with the highest
frequency, then all scores with that frequency are the modes.
Box
25%
of data
A boxplot
Q3
Maximum
value
Whisker
25%
of data
43
3. positively skewed if the lefthand whisker is shorter than the righthand whisker and the median
occurs closer to the lefthand end of the box.
4. An outlier is a score, x, which lies outside the interval:
Q1 1.5 IQR x Q3 + 1.5 IQR
The mean
x
The mean is given by x = n where x represents the sum of all the observations in the data set
and n represents the number of observations in the data set.
The mean is calculated by using the values of the observations and because of this it becomes a
less reliable measure of the centre of the distribution when the distribution is skewed or contains an
outlier.
( f m )
where f represents the frequency of the data and
To find the mean for grouped data, x =
f
m represents the midpoint of the class interval of the grouped data.
The more symmetrical the distribution, the closer the value of the mean is to the median.
Standard deviation
The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data from the mean. The symbol for standard
deviation is s.
where: represents the sum of
( x x ) 2
x represents an observation
s=
n 1
x represents the mean
n represents the number of observations
The larger the standard deviation, the more spread are the data from the mean.
populations and
simple random
samples
44
A population, in statistics, is a group of people (or objects) to whom you can apply any
conclusions or generalisations that you reach in your investigation.
A sample, in statistics, is a smaller group of people (or objects) who have been chosen from the
population and are involved in the investigation.
A simple random sample is a random selection from the population such that every member of that
population has an equal chance of being chosen in the sample and the choice of one member does
not affect the choice of another member.
Chapter review
1 The best distances that a group of twenty 16yearold competitors achieved in the long jump event at an
m U lTip l e
C ho iC e
Stem Leaf
2* 0 0 1
2* 6 7 8 9 9
3* 0 1 1
3* 5
Key: 21 = 21
Stem Leaf
8 59
a seating capacity of 150, during the Australian Open Tennis Tournament are
9 2349
displayed in the stem plot at right. Which of the following statements is untrue
10 558
about the data?
11 01667
a The smallest number of people attending was 85.
12 47788
B Only during six sessions did attendance fall below 100.
13 5799
C The largest number of people attending was 140.
14 02
d On six occasions the number of people attending was more than 130.
e On one occasion the number of people attending was only eight less than the
Key: 92 = 92
seating capacity.
4 Which one of the following frequency tables accurately summarises the scores shown below?
3 The number of people attending 25 of the sessions at an outside court, which has
7
1
3
a
Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
3
2
5
2
4
6
3
2
Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
3
8
2
3
3
4
1
3
4
3
4
6
4
1
3
6
7
8
2
6
7
8
5
Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4
7
2
3
2
3
1
5
2
3
4
3
9
9
4
2
4
9
C
Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3
2
1
3
1
5
3
2
4
Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3
4
3
2
2
1
3
2
1
45
5 The distribution of data shown in the stem plot at right could best be
Frequency
described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed with one outlier
C positively skewed
d positively skewed with one outlier
e symmetric
6 The distribution of the data shown in the histogram below could best be
described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed with one outlier
C positively skewed
d positively skewed with one outlier
e symmetric
Stem Leaf
2* 3 4
2* 5 6 8
3* 0 1 2 3 4 4
3* 5 5 7 9 9
4* 0 1 3 3
4* 6 8 8
5* 0 1
5* 6
6*
6* 9
Key: 31 = 31
7 A set of data contains 7 observations and has a median of 5 and a range of 3. The set of data could be:
a 4 4 5 6 7
d 1 3 5 5 5 6 7
B 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
e 3 5 7
C 4 5 5 5 6 7 7
8 The median of the set of data shown in the stem plot below is:
a 5
Stem Leaf
1 2 3
2 0 4 5 7
3 1 2 5 9
4 1 3 6 7
5 2 9 9
6 3
Key: 24 = 24
C 9
B 7
d 9.5
e 37
the range is 35
the interquartile range is 10
the median is 20
the interquartile range is 25
the median is equal to the interquartile range
10 15 20 25 30 35
10 A distribution has a range of 80, an interquartile range of 30 and a median of 50. Which one of the
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 x
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
B 22.666666
C 22.7
d 23
e 24.222222
13 The ages of a group of students entering university for the first time is shown on the stem plot below.
Frequency
Stem Leaf
1
1* 5 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9
2 0 0 0 1 1
2* 6 8
3 1
3* 5
Key: 1*5 = 15 years
14 In which case below would you expect the mean to be greater than the median?
a
B Stem Leaf
1*
1* 5
2* 1 4
2* 5 7 8 8 9
3* 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4
3* 5 5 5 6
4* 3 4
4*
C The data:
d
11 13 16 17 18 18 19 20
Frequency
Key: 24 = 24
15 In which case in question 14 is the median not necessarily the better measure of the centre of the data?
16 The Millers obtained a number of quotes on the price of having their home painted. The quotes, to the
4200
5100
4700
4600
4800
5000
4700
4900
The standard deviation for this set of data, to the nearest whole dollar, is:
B 278
C 324
d 325
a 277
17 The number of Year 12 students who spent their spare periods studying
in the resource centre during each week of terms 3 and 4 is shown on the
stem plot at right.
The standard deviation for this set of data, to the nearest whole number is:
a 10
B 12
C 14
d 17
e 35
e 4750
Stem Leaf
0 8
1
2 5 6 6 7
3 0 2 3 6 9
4 7 9
5 6
6 1
Key: 25 = 25 students
18 The lifetime (in hours) of a particular type of battery is known to have a distribution which is bell
shaped. A large number of batteries of this type are sampled and are found to have a mean lifetime
of 1200 hours and a standard deviation of 10 hours. We would expect that approximately 95% of the
batteries in the sample would have a lifetime (in hours) between:
a 10 and 1200
B 1170 and 1230
C 1200 and 1210
d 1180 and 1220
e 1190 and 1210
ChapTer 1 Univariate data
47
19 A set of marks from a maths test has a mean of 45 and a standard deviation of 5. The distribution of
3cm. The percentage of broom handles, in this batch, which are shorter than 114 cm is:
a 0.15%
B 2.5%
C 13.5%
d 16%
e 34%
21 The mean birth weight of babies
at a hospital is 2.8 kg with a standard
deviation of 0.4 kg. The standardised score
for a weight of 3.3 kg would be:
a 0.73
B 1.25
C 1.04
d 1.25
e 1.04
Sh orT
anS Wer
ii continuous.
2 The money (rounded to the nearest whole dollar) raised by fifteen Year 12 students is shown below.
78
84
61
73
71
83
87
65
60
67
71
82
84
79
78
Frequency
3
5
6
7
9
10
9
10
8
5
3
4
2
Stem Leaf
0 8 9
1 2 3 4
2 1 2 2
3 0 1 4
4 3 5 6
5 1 3 5
6 4 6
7 6
Key: 08 = $8
5 Find the range, the median, the mode and the interquartile range of this set of data.
4 The money raised (to the nearest whole dollar) by each student
7
3 5 7 9
5 8
7
Stem Leaf
0
2
0* 5 6 6 8 9
1
0 2 2 4 4 4
1* 5 5 7 8 8 9
2
1 3
2* 6
Key: 14 = 14
6 a For the set of data below, construct a boxplot to display the distribution.
2
1
5
4
4
6
6
8
3
7
7
5
9
2
8
9
5
5
3
6
Frequency
4
6
11
16
23
18
10
2
component required each week varies. The amounts required (in mL) over the past 20 weeks are shown
in the stem plot below.
Calculate to 2 decimal places the standard deviation of the amounts used.
Stem
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
Leaf
1
2 2
4 4 4 5
6 6
8 8 9 9
0
2 2
4 5
6
8
49
9 The life spans of dogs of a particular breed follow a bellshaped distribution. A group of this particular
breed at a dog club was found to have a mean life span of 12 years with a standard deviation of
1.2years.
a For this group, write down the expected values between which the life spans of approximately:
i 68% of the dogs would lie
ii 95% of the dogs would lie
iii 99.7% of the dogs would lie.
b What does this information suggest about this breed?
10 Ricardo scored 85 on an entrance test for a job. The test has a mean score of 78 and a standard
deviation of 8. Kory sits a similar test and scores 27. In this test, the mean is 18 and the standard
deviation is 6. Based on this test, who is the better candidate for the job? Explain your answer.
e x Tended
r e S p onS e
1 Mr Fahey gives the same test to the two Year 10 classes that he teaches, 10C and 10E. The test is out of
7
14
17
7
14
18
9
15
18
9
15
18
10
15
19
10
16
19
11
17
12
17
8
13
14
9
13
15
10
13
15
11
13
15
11
14
16
12
14
16
12
14
19
12
14
13
14
50
3 A hatch of Atlantic salmon has been reared in a coastal environment over a period of 12 months. The
lengths (to the nearest cm) of a sample of 20, out of the total number of 10 000 fish, are shown below.
13 16 17 14 16 19 15 17 16 15
16 18 16 13 17 14 18 15 19 16
a Describe the type of data that the variable produces.
b Construct an appropriate stem plot from these data and use it to describe the shape of the distribution.
c Using your stem plot, calculate the five number summary statistics and then draw a boxplot.
d Describe the shape of the distribution from the boxplot.
e Does the stem plot or boxplot give a better indication of the distributions shape?
f For a symmetric distribution the mean is the same as the median. Is that the case here?
g Given that the distribution is symmetric, the whole population of these salmon would form a normal
or bellshaped distribution. Find the standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) for this sample and use
it, along with the mean, to find the number of fish with lengths greater than 17.75 cm.
The same number of salmon was reared in a river environment over the same period of time. The
lengths of 20fish in a sample are shown below.
18 20 17 19 16 19 19 17 16 18
19 18 12 18 17 14 18 15 19 17
h Use an appropriate method to help you describe the shape of this distribution.
i Determine how many of this population of 10 000 salmon would have a length greater than
19.25 cm (calculate the standard deviation to 2 decimal places).
j Comment on the growth of each hatch of salmon over the 12 months.
4 The birth weights (in kg) of 50 of the 220 babies that were born at a hospital during a onemonth period
are listed below.
2.9 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.6 3.2 4.1
2.3 2.8 2.4 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.2
3.4 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.9 3.4 3.1 2.3 3.5
3.1 3.0 2.9 3.6 3.1 2.7 2.6 1.8 1.9 3.6
2.0 3.4 3.5 2.4 3.5 3.0 2.2 2.8 3.5 3.1
a Construct a frequency histogram for the data using class intervals of 1.51.9, 2.02.4, 2.52.9 and
so on.
b Comment on the shape of the distribution.
c It has been said that the mean birth weight of babies is 3 kg. Using the data given, comment on
this statement.
d Using the mean and standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) for this sample of 50 birth weights,
determine how many of the 220 babies born at the hospital had weights:
i between 2.35 kg and 3.43 kg
ii between 3.43 kg and 3.97 kg
iii greater than 3.97 kg.
diGiTal doC
doc9408
Test Yourself
Chapter 1
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
DA
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
51
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9399: Warm up with a quick quiz on
univariate data. (page 1)
1a
Types of data
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 1.1 doc9400: Apply your knowledge of univariate data
to construct and analyse stem plots. (page 2)
1C
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc9401: Create a segmented bar chart. (page 9)
SkillSHEET 1.1 doc9402: Practise converting a fraction into a
percentage. (page 10)
Spreadsheet doc9403: Conduct a survey and plot your results on a
histogram. (page 10)
inTeraCTiViTY
Measures of centre int0084: Use the interactivity to calculate the
mean, median and mode of a set of univariate data. (page 15)
1F
Boxplots
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc9406: Conduct a survey and use a spreadsheet to
study the effect of uniformly spread data. (page 23)
TUTorial
We13 eles1256: Learn how to construct a boxplot using a CAS
calculator. (page 21)
1G
The mean
TUTorial
We16 eles1257: Watch a tutorial on calculating the mean using
data in a frequency table. (page 26)
1i
diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 1.2 doc9407: Refine your knowledge of percentages.
(page 38)
TUTorial
We20 eles1258: See how normal distributions can be used to
determine percentages above or below a certain mass. (page 33)
inTeraCTiViTY
The 689599.7% rule and zscores int0182: Use the interactivity
to consolidate your understanding of the normal distribution and
confidence intervals. (page 32)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc9405: Conduct a survey and find the median of a
set of data. (page 18)
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9408: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 51)
TUTorial
We9 eles1255: Discover how to calculate the interquartile range
of a set of univariate data. (page 16)
52
Answers CHAPTER 1
exercise 1B
Stem plots
2
5
8 12 13 13 16
17 21 23 24 25 25 26
30 32
11 23 23 30 35 39 41
47 55 62
102 115 118 122 123
136 136 137 141 143
155 155 156 157
51 53 53 54 55 55 56
57 59
4 5 8 10 12 16 19 19
21 25 29
Leaf
5
1 8 9
3 7 9
1 2 5 6 7 9
1 2 3 5
2
Key: 50 = $5
Buskers earnings are inconsistent.
Stem Leaf
3 7 9
4 2 9 9
5 1 1 2 3 7 8 9
6 1 3 3 8
Key: 73 = 37 years
It seems to be an activity for older people.
C
Stem Leaf
1* 9
2
2* 5 8 8 9 9 9
3 0 0 2 2 2 3 3 4
3* 5 5 7 8 9
Key: 52 = 25 years
Ages are spread considerably; not all
parents are young.
Stem Leaf
1* 9
2 1 2 4
2* 5 6 8 9 9
3 1 1 2 3 4
3*
4 0 1
Key: 12 = 21 hit outs
Bulldogs, Melbourne, St Kilda
Stem Leaf
18 5 7 9
19 1 5 6 6 7 9
20 1 3 3 5 9
21 7
22 1
Key: 18
5 = 1.85 m
1
16
27
b 10
42
c 101
123
144
d 50
56
e 1
21
2 Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
1 a
4
5
6
3
Stem
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
0 8
3 8
1 a
0 0 0
Key: 51
5 = $515 000
There are two groups, one with house
prices between $510 000 and $550 000 and
the other with prices between $580 000
and $670 000.
b
9 a Stem
Leaf
4 3 7 7 8 8 9 9 9
5 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3
Leaf
4 3
4* 7 7 8 8 9 9 9
5 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3
5*
7
9 9
1 1 1
3
11.9
22.9
33.9
44.9
55.9
66.9
1
2
2
6
5
1
Class interval
Frequency
1014
1519
2024
2529
3034
3539
3
9
10
10
10
1
Key: 34 = 43 cm
Leaf
3
7
8 9 9 9
0 0 0 1
2 3
2 a
Key: 34 = 43 cm
10 a Stem
Leaf
1 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9
2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
Key: 51 = 15 mm
b Stem
7
9
0
3
Frequency
b Stem
7
8
0
2
7
9
0
3
Class
Key: 34 = 43 cm
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
8
0
2
2 3
c Stem
Leaf
Key: 51 = 15 mm
Values are bunched together; they vary
little.
0 0 8
Frequency
Types of data
1 Numerical a, b, c, g, h
Categorical d, e, f, i, j, k, l, m
2 Discrete c, g, m
Continuous a, b, h
3 C
4C
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
Score
Frequency
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
01 2 3 4 5 6 7
Score
b
Frequency
exercise 1a
Leaf
5 7
5 6
6
8
8 Stem
10
8
6
4
2
0 10 1520 25 303540
Leaf
1
1* 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9
2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
2*
Key: 51 = 15 mm
Score
Frequency
UniVariaTe daTa
2
1
00.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Score
53
Number of students
3 4 5 6 7
Number of hours
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Hours/week
5 a NZ
US
UK
India
China
Thailand
Fiji
Singapore
HK
Malaysia
26.5%
13.5%
12.8%
10.1%
7.5%
6.4%
6.2%
6.0%
5.9%
5.1%
1
a
b
c
d
e
2
UK 12.8%
Thailand 6.4%
HK 5.9%
6 Participation in activities
Range
56
17
18
18
72
Median
6
17
6
10
18.5
4
19
4.5
23
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
NZ 26.5%
US 13.5%
India 10.1%
China 7.5%
Fiji 6.2%
Singapore 6.0%
Malaysia 5.1%
Median
37
5
11
42.5
628
Mode
38, 49
5
8, 11
43
613, 628, 632
Range
7
9
6
13
14
7
17
9
21
54
21
27.5
3.7
a
b
c
8
18
8
3
45
20
5.9
42
32
21
7
91
30
Median
12
7
350
100
20
6
2
100
30
10
8
5
250
65
25
a
b
c
d
e
b iv
c i
d ii
2 a iii
3 The boxplots should show the following:
Minimum
value
Q1
Median
Q3
3
3
4.3
11
0.4
6
5
4.6
15.5
0.7
8.5
7
5
18
0.9
14
9
5.4
20
1.1
a
b
c
d
e
Maximum
value
18
12
5.6
22
1.3
4 D
5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Number of clients seen in a day
2
4
6
8
Number of rides
10
Mode
15, 23, 32
29
3.7
Interquartile
Median
range
Range Mode
a
b
Interquartile
range
7 a
Interquartile
range
Range
Range
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Temperature (C)
Median
Boxplots
3 a 10
b 8
c The IQRs (middle 50%) are similar
1824 years 14.2%
2534 years 21.1%
3544 years 20.3%
exercise 1F
46
34
exercise 1G
The mean
b 7.125
c 4.9875
..
.
d 16.7 .
e 0.8818
a 1.0783 No, because of the outlier.
b 17 Yes
c 30.875 Yes
d 15.57 No, because of the outlier.
12
4 D
5 A
a Median
b Mean
c Median
d Median
a 36.09
b 16.63
c 168.25
d 18.55
a x = 24.4
b median = 22
The distribution is positively skewed
confirmed by the table and the boxplot.
1 a 7.2
2
3
6
7
8
Standard deviation
2.36
c 6.01
0.06
0.06 m
1 a 1.21
b
d 2.45
e
2 0.48%
3
4 0.51 seconds
5 15.49
6
exercise 1i
zscores
1 a Yes
d No
Cage
5.15
Barn
4.35
FR
4.1
ii It could be concluded that the more
space a chicken has, the fewer eggs it
lays because the median is greatest for
cage eggs.
C
The 689599.7% rule and
b Yes
e No
c No
f Yes
2 a 8 and 12
b 6 and 14
c 4 and 16
3 a 3.7 and 6.3
b 2.4 and 7.6
c 1.1 and 8.9
4 a 35 s and 63 s
b 21 s and 77 s
c 7 s and 91 s
5 a 1.3 mm a nd 2.5 mm
b 0.7 mm a nd 3. 1 mm
c 0.1 mm a nd 3. 7 mm
6 a 11.7 N and 12.3 N
b 11.4 N and 12.6 N
c 11.1 N and 12.9 N
7 a 5 and 9
b 3 and 11
c 1 and 13
8E
9C
10 a 84%
b 2.5%
c 84%
d 97.35%
11 a 0.15%
b 2.5%
c 84%
d 83.85%
e 81.5%
12 C
13 a 336
b 10
c 380
14 a i 1360
ii 1950
iii 317
b 100
15 3
16 2
17 0.27
18 1.5
19 a 0.48
b 1.44
c 0.08
d 2.24
e 2.8
20 a x = 19.55, s = 1.76
b 1.68
21 B
22 B
23 a English 1.25, Maths 1.33
b Maths mark is better as it has a higher
1
2
3
4
mUlTiple ChoiCe
B
A
D
B
D
4.7
3.9
3.8
Q1
4.1
med
5.15
4.35
4.1
Q3
5.5
4.6
4.2
Xmax
5.8
4.9
4.4
4
9
14
19
D
E
A
C
5
10
15
20
C
B
B
B
b Stem
Leaf
6 0 1
6* 5 7
7 1 1 3
7* 8 8 9
8 2 3 4 4
8* 7
Key: 60 = $6
C
E
D
D
6 0 1 5 7
7 1 1 3 8 8 9
8 2 3 4 4 7
Key: 60 = $6
25 a Barn x = 4.4
3
8
13
18
zscore.
Cage
D
C
C
C
ShorT anSWer
2
7
12
17
1 2
ChapTer reVieW
1
6
11
16
21
6 a
Stem Leaf
6 0 1
6
6 5
6 7
6
7 1 1
7 3
7
7
7 8 8 9
8
8 2 3
8 4 4
8 7
8
Key: 60 = $6
3 a
3 4
6 7
8 9 10
b Approximately symmetric
7 60.4 years
8 0.05 mL
9 a i 10.8 and 13.2 years
ii 9.6 and 14.4 years
iii 8.4 and 15.6 years
b There is a large range of life spans for
Class Median
10C
10E
Interquartile
range
Range Mode
15
13
7
2.5
15
11
17
14
iii 10E
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
10C
exercise 1h
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
10
8
6
4
2
iv
Class
0 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76
Speed (km/h)
10C
10E
Mean
13.64
13.2
Standard
deviation
4.24
2.35
55
Median
IQR
Range
Mode
c
Office workers
Sports
instructors
121.5 beats/min
19.5 beats/min
58 beats/min
130 beats/min
73 beats/min
14 beats/min
46 beats/min
68, 72 beats/min
Office workers
70
80
Sports instructors
60
70
80 90 100
Beats per minute
Office workers
110
Sports instructors
56
bellshaped.
f Office workers: Pulse rates are generally
very high, clustered around 120130
beats/min. Also, there is one person
whose rate was much lower than the
rest. This outlier (76) produces a large
range and makes the mean slightly lower
than the median. As a result the median
is a more appropriate measure of the
centre of the data rather than the mean.
Sports instructors: Pulse rates are
generally low, clustered around
6070beats/min, although there are
a few people with rates much higher,
which makes the mean slightly higher
than the median and also produces quite
a large range. As a result of the skewed
distribution the median is the more
appropriate measure of the centre of the
data rather than the mean, although there
is little difference between these values.
3 a Discrete, numerical data
b Stem Leaf
1
1 3 3
1 4 4 5 5 5
1 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
1 8 8 9 9
Key: 13 = 13 cm
Looks to be slightly negatively skewed.
c Q2 = 16 cm
Q1 = 15 cm
Q3 = 17 cm
Lowest score = 13 cm
Highest score = 19 cm
14 16 18 20
Fish length (cm)
d
e
f
g
h
Symmetric
Given the data itself, the boxplot does.
Mean = 16 cm = median
s = 1.75 cm, 1600
12
14 16 18 20
Fish length (cm)
4 a
Class
interval
Tally
1.51.9
1.7
2.02.4
2.2
2.52.9
17
2.7
16
3.2
Frequency Midpoint
3.03.4
3.53.9
3.7
4.04.4
4.2
Frequency
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
Birth weight (kg)
positively skewed
ChapTer 2
Bivariate data
diGiTal doC
doc9409
10 Quick Questions
ChapTer ConTenTS
2a
2B
2C
2d
2e
2F
2G
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Dependent variable
In this chapter we will study sets of data that contain two variables. These are known as bivariate data.
We will look at ways of displaying the data and of measuring relationships between the two variables.
The methods we employ to do this depend on the type of variables we are dealing with; that is, they
depend on whether the data are numerical or categorical.
We will discuss the ways of measuring the relationship between the following pairs of variables:
1. a numerical variable and a categorical variable (for example, height and nationality)
2. two categorical variables (for example, gender and religious denomination)
3. two numerical variables (for example, height and weight).
In a relationship involving two variables, if the values of one variable depend on the values of
another variable, then the former variable is referred to as the dependent variable and the latter variable
is referred to as the independent variable.
When a relationship between two sets of variables is being examined, it is important to know which
one of the two variables depends on the other. Most often we can make a judgement about this, although
sometimes it may not be possible.
Consider the case where a study compared the heights of company employees against their annual
salaries. Common sense would suggest that the height of a company employee would not depend on the
persons annual salary nor would the annual salary of a company employee depend on the persons
height. In this case, it is not appropriate to designate one variable as independent and one as dependent.
In the case where the ages of company employees are compared with
their annual salaries, you might reasonably expect that the annual salary of
an employee would depend on the persons age. In this case, the age of the
employee is the independent variable and the salary of the employee is the
dependent variable.
It is useful to identify the independent and dependent variables where
possible, since it is the usual practice when displaying data on a graph to
place the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent
Independent variable
variable on the vertical axis.
57
Worked example 1
For each of the following pairs of variables, identify the independent variable and the dependent
variable. If it is not possible to identify this, then write not appropriate.
a The number of visitors at a local swimming pool and the daily temperature
b The blood group of a person and his or her favourite TV channel
Think
WriTe
exercise 2a
1 We1 For each of the following pairs of variables, identify the independent variable and the dependent
mother got per night during the first month following the birth of her baby. The dependent variable
would most likely have been:
a the number of times (per night) the baby woke up for a feed
B the blood pressure of the baby
C the mothers reaction time (in seconds) to a certain stimulus
d the level of alertness of the baby
e the amount of time (in hours) spent by the mother on reading
3 mC A paediatrician investigated the relationship between the amount of time children aged two to five
spend outdoors and the annual number of visits to his clinic. Which one of the following statements is
not true?
a When graphed, the amount of time spent outdoors should be shown on the horizontal axis.
B The annual number of visits to the paediatric clinic is the dependent variable.
C It is impossible to identify the independent variable in this case.
d The amount of time spent outdoors is the independent variable.
e The annual number of visits to the paediatric clinic should be shown on the vertical axis.
4 mC Alex works as a personal trainer at the local gym. He wishes to analyse the relationship between
the number of weekly training sessions and the weekly weight loss of his clients. Which one of the
following statements is correct?
a When graphed, the number of weekly training sessions should be shown on the vertical axis, as it
is the dependent variable.
B When graphed, the weekly weight loss should be shown on the vertical axis, as it is the
independent variable.
58
C When graphed, the weekly weight loss should be shown on the horizontal axis, as it is the
independent variable.
d When graphed, the number of weekly training sessions should be shown on the horizontal axis, as
2B
In chapter 1, we saw how to construct a stem plot for a set of univariate data. We can also extend a
stem plot so that it displays bivariate data. Specifically, we shall create a stem plot that displays the
relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable. We shall limit ourselves in this
section to categorical variables with just two categories, for example, gender. The two categories are
used to provide two backtoback leaves of a stem plot.
A backtoback stem plot is used to display bivariate data, involving a numerical variable and a
categorical variable with 2 categories.
Worked example 2
The girls and boys in Grade 4 at Kingston Primary School submitted projects
on the Olympic Games. The marks they obtained out of 20 are given below.
Girls marks
16
17
19
15
12
16
17
19
19
16
Boys marks
14
15
16
13
12
13
14
13
15
14
TUTorial
eles1259
Worked example 2
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
WriTe
Highest score = 19
Lowest score = 12
Use a stem of 1, divided into fifths.
Leaf
Boys
3 2 3 3
4 5 4 54
6
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Stem Leaf
Girls
1
1
2
1
5
1
6 7 6 7 6
1
9 9 9
See more
Watch
a video about
constructing backtoback stem plots.
Key: 1 2 = 12
3
Leaf
Boys
3 3 3 2
5 5 4 44
6
Stem Leaf
Girls
1
2
1
5
1
6 6 6 7 7
1
9 9 9
Key: 1 2 = 12
The backtoback stem plot allows us to make some visual comparisons of the two distributions.In the
previous example, the centre of the distribution for the girls is higher than the centre of the distribution
for the boys. The spread of each of the distributions seems to be about the same. For the boys, the scores
are grouped around the 1215 mark; for the girls, they are grouped around the 1619 mark. On the
whole, we can conclude that the girls obtained better scores than the boys did.
ChapTer 2 Bivariate data
59
To get a more precise picture of the centre and spread of each of the distributions, we can use the
summary statistics discussed in chapter 1. Specifically, we are interested in:
1. the mean and the median (to measure the centre of the distributions), and
2. the interquartile range and the standard deviation (to measure the spread of the distributions).
We saw in chapter 1 that the calculation of these summary statistics is very straightforward and rapid
using a CAS calculator.
Worked example 3
The number of how to vote cards handed out by various Australian Labor Party and Liberal
Party volunteers during the course of a polling day is shown below.
Labor
Liberal
180
193
204
287
233
202
215
273
246
210
226
266
252
222
253
233
263
257
263
244
270
247
272
250
229
234
285
261
238
226
245
272
226
214
267
280
211
204
275
279
Display the data using a backtoback stem plot and use this, together with summary statistics,
to compare the distributions of the number of cards handed out by the Labor and Liberal
volunteers.
Think
1
60
WriTe
Leaf
Labor
0
3
4 2
4 1 0
9 6 6 2
8 4 3
7 6
7 2
3
0
Stem
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Leaf
Liberal
4
5
6
3
4
0
1
2
0
Liberal
Mean
227.9
257.5
Median
227.5
264.5
IQR
36
29.5
Standard deviation
23.9
23.4
exercise 2B
1 We2 The marks out of 50 obtained for the endofterm test by the students in German and French
classes are given below. Display the data on a backtoback stem plot.
German
20 38 45 21 30 39 41 22 27 33 30 21 25 32 37 42 26 31 25 37
French
23 25 36 46 44 39 38 24 25 42 38 34 28 31 44 30 35 48 43 34
2 The birth masses of 10 boys and 10 girls (in kilograms, to the nearest 100 grams) are recorded in the
3.4
3.0
5.0
2.7
4.2
3.7
3.7
3.3
4.9
4.0
3.4
3.1
3.8
2.6
4.8
3.2
3.6
3.6
4.3
3.1
3 We3 The number of delivery trucks making deliveries to a supermarket each day over a 2week period
was recorded for two neighbouring supermarkets supermarket A and supermarket B. The data are
shown below.
A
B
11
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
12
30
16
35
21
16
27
31
16
32
17
21
17
23
22
26
23
28
24
29
Females
Males
12
10
13
12
14
13
14
14
15
14
15
15
16
17
17
19
marks for 2011 and for the same students in 2012 are shown below.
2011
2012
30
22
31
26
35
27
37
28
39
30
41
31
41
31
42
33
43
34
46
36
61
6 The age and gender of a group of people attending a fitness class are recorded below.
Female
Male
23
22
24
25
25
30
26
31
27
36
28
37
30
42
31
46
7 The scores on a board game for a group of kindergarten children and for a group of children in a
3
5
13
12
14
17
25
25
28
27
32
32
36
35
41
44
47
46
50
52
the height of a student and the number of people in the students household
the time put into completing an assignment and a pass or fail score on the assignment
the weight of a businessman and his age
the religion of an adult and the persons head circumference
the income of an employee and the time the employee has worked for the company
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
62
the proximity to markets in kilometres and the cost of fresh foods on average per kilogram
height and head circumference
age and attitude to gambling (for or against)
weight and age
the money spent during a day of shopping and the number of shops visited on that day
2C
parallel boxplots
We saw in the previous section that we could display relationships between a numerical variable and a
categorical variable with just two categories, using a backtoback stem plot.
When we want to display a relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable with
two or more categories, a parallel boxplot can be used.
A parallel boxplot is obtained by constructing individual boxplots for each distribution and
positioning them on a common scale.
Construction of individual boxplots was discussed in detail in chapter 1 on univariate data. In this
section we concentrate on comparing distributions represented by a number of boxplots (that is, on the
interpretation of parallel boxplots).
Worked example 4
The four Year 7 classes at Western Secondary College complete the same endofyear maths test.
Themarks, expressed as percentages for the four classes, are given below.
7A
7B
7C
7D
40
60
50
40
43
62
51
42
45
63
53
43
47
64
55
45
50
70
57
50
52
73
60
53
53
74
63
55
54
76
65
59
57
77
67
60
60
77
69
61
69
78
70
69
63
82
72
73
63
85
73
74
68
87
74
75
70
89
76
80
75
90
80
81
80
92
82
82
85
95
82
83
89
97
85
84
90
97
89
90
Display the data using a parallel boxplot and use this to describe any similarities or differences in
the distributions of the marks between the four classes.
Think
1
WriTe/draW
Min
Q1
Median = Q2
Q3
Max
7A
40
51
61.5
7B
60
71.5
77.5
7C
50
58.5
69.5
7D
40
51.5
65
72.5
90
89.5
97
78
89
80.5
90
7D
7C
7B
7A
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Maths mark (%)
Class 7B had the highest median mark and the range of the
distribution was only 37. The lowest mark in 7B was 60.
We notice that the median of 7As marks is 61.5. So, 50% of
students in 7A received less than 61.5. This means that about
half of 7A had scores that were less than the lowest score in 7B.
The range of marks in 7A was the same as that of 7D with
the highest scores in each equal (90), and the lowest scores in
each equal (40). However, the median mark in 7D (65) was
slightly higher than the median mark in 7A (61.5) so, despite a
similar range, more students in 7D received a higher mark than
in 7A.
While 7D had a top score that was higher than that of 7C,
the median score in 7C (69.5) was higher than that of 7D and
almost 25% of scores in 7D were less than the lowest score
in 7C. In summary, 7B did best, followed by 7C, then 7D and
finally 7A.
63
exercise 2C
parallel boxplots
1 We4 The heights (in cm) of students in 9A, 10A and 11A were recorded and are shown in the table below.
9A 120 126 131 138 140 143 146 147 150 156 157 158 158 160 162 164 165 170
10A 140 143 146 147 149 151 153 156 162 164 165 167 168 170 173 175 176 180
11A 151 153 154 158 160 163 164 166 167 169 169 172 175 180 187 189 193 199
diGiTal doC
doc9410
Spreadsheet
parallel boxplots
2 000 3 100 5 000 5 500 6 200 6 500 6 700 7 000 9 200 10 000
4 000 5 200 6 000 6 300 6 800 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 300 12 000
10 000 11 200 12 000 13 300 13 500 13 700 13 900 14 000 14 300 15 000
below.
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Multivitamins
5
10
8
12
6
10
8
13
7
11
9
13
7
12
9
15
8
14
9
16
8
15
10
16
9
15
11
17
11
15
12
19
13
17
12
19
14
19
13
20
Construct a parallel boxplot to display the data and use it to compare the distributions of sales for the
4 types of vitamin.
4 The daily share price of two companies was recorded over a period of one month. The results are
70
75 80 85 90 95 100 105
Price per share (cents)
64
950
850
900
750
800
700
600
650
550
500
450
400
Orlando
a Which of the two productions proved to be more popular with the public, assuming Areserve
B 5%
e 75%
C 20%
diGiTal doC
doc9411
WorkSHEET 2.1
When we are examining the relationship between two categorical variables, the twoway frequency table
is an excellent tool. Consider the following example.
Worked example 5
At a local shopping centre, 34 females and 23 males were asked which of the two major political
parties they preferred. Eighteen females and 12 males preferred Labor. Display these data in a
twoway frequency table.
Think
1
WriTe
Male
Total
Male
12
Total
30
23
57
Male
12
11
23
Total
30
27
57
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with segmented
graphs.
65
In Worked example 5, we have a very clear breakdown of data. We know how many females preferred
Labor, how many females preferred the Liberals, how many males preferred Labor and how many males
preferred the Liberals.
If we wish to compare the number of females who prefer Labor with the number of males who prefer
Labor, we must be careful. While 12 males preferred Labor compared to 18 females, there were fewer males
than females being asked. That is, only 23 males were asked for their opinion, compared to 34 females.
To overcome this problem, we can express the figures in the table as percentages.
Worked example 6
Male
12
11
23
Total
30
27
57
WriTe
Party preference
Labor
Liberal
Total
Female
52.9
47.1
100.0
Male
52.2
47.8
100.0
We could have calculated percentages from the table rows, rather than columns. To do that we would, for
example, have divided the number of females who preferred Labor (18) by the total number of people
who preferred labor (30) and so on. The table below shows this:
Party preference
Labor
Liberal
Female
60.0
59.3
Male
40.0
40.7
Total
100
100
By doing this we have obtained the percentage of people who were female and preferred Labor (60%),
and the percentage of people who were male and preferred Labor (40%), andso on. This highlights facts
different from those shown in the previous table. In other words, different results can be obtained by
calculating percentages from a table in different ways.
As a general rule, when the independent variable (in this case the respondents gender) is placed
in the columns of the table, the percentages should be calculated in columns.
Comparing percentages in each row of a twoway table allows us to establish whether a
relationship exists between the two categorical variables that are being examined. As we can see
from the table in Worked example 6, the percentage of females who preferred Labor is about the
same as that of males. Likewise, the percentage of females and males preferring the Liberal Party
are almost equal. This indicates that for the group of people participating in the survey, party
preference is not related to gender.
Percentage
Party
preference
Liberal
Labor
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Female Male
Gender
Worked example 7
Sixtyseven primary and 47 secondary school students were asked about their
attitude to the number of school holidays which should be given. They were
TUTorial
eles1260
asked whether there should be fewer, the same number, or more school
Worked example 7
holidays. Five primary students and 2 secondary students wanted fewer
holidays, 29 primary and 9 secondary students thought they had enough holidays (that is, they
chose the same number) and the rest thought they needed to be given more holidays.
Present these data in percentage form in a twoway frequency table and a segmented bar
chart. Compare the opinions of the primary and the secondary students.
Think
1
WriTe/draW
Attitude
Primary
Secondary
Fewer
Same
29
38
More
33
36
69
Total
67
47
114
Attitude
Primary
Total
Secondary
Fewer
7.5
4.3
Same
43.3
19.1
More
49.2
76.6
Total
100.0
100.0
5
That is, 67
100% = 7.5%.
Attitude
More
Same
Fewer
100
90
80
70
Percentage
60
50
40
30
20
10
Primary
Secondary
School level
4
1 We5 In a survey, 139 women and 102 men were asked whether they approved or disapproved of
a proposed freeway. Thirtyseven women and 79 men approved of the freeway. Display these data in
a twoway table (not as percentages).
diGiTal doC
doc9413
Spreadsheet
Twoway frequency
table
67
2 Students at a secondary school were asked whether the length of lessons should be 45 minutes or
1hour. Ninetythree senior students (Years 1012) were asked and it was found 60 preferred 1hour
lessons, whereas of the 86 junior students (Years 79), 36 preferred 1hour lessons. Display these data
in a twoway table (not as percentages).
3 For each of the following twoway frequency tables, complete the missing entries.
a Attitude
b Attitude
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
For
25
For
47
i
i
ii
21
Against
Against
ii
iii
iv
iii
Total
51
92
Total
30
v
v
c
Party preference
Labor
Liberal
Total
Female
i
Total
21
iv
63
Male
42%
53%
ii
iv
iii
4 We6 Sixty single men and women were asked whether they prefer to rent by themselves, or to share
Preference
Rent by themselves
Share with friends
Total
Men
12
9
21
Women
23
16
39
Total
35
25
60
7 We7 Delegates at the respective Liberal Party and Australian Labor Party conferences were surveyed
on whether or not they believed that marijuana should be legalised. Sixtytwo Liberal delegates were
surveyed and 40 of them were against legalisation. Seventyone Labor delegates were surveyed and
43were against legalisation.
Present the data in percentage form in a twoway frequency table and a segmented bar chart.
Comment on any differences between the reactions of the Liberal and Labor delegates.
8 mC The amount of waste recycled by 100 townships across Australia was rated as low, medium or
68
Small
6
8
5
Type of town
Midsized
7
31
16
Large
4
5
18
a The percentage of midsized towns rated as having a high level of waste recycling is closest to:
a 41%
B 25%
C 30%
d 17%
e 50%
b The variables, Amount of waste recycled and Type of town, as used in this rating are:
a both categorical variables
C numerical and categorical respectively
e neither categorical nor numerical variables
2e
Scatterplots
We often want to know if there is a relationship between two numerical variables. A scatterplot, which
gives a visual display of the relationship between two variables, provides a good starting point.
Consider the data obtained from last years 12B class at Northbank Secondary College. Each
student in this class of 29 students was asked to give an estimate of the average number of hours they
studied per week during Year 12. They were also asked for the ATAR score they obtained.
Average hours
of study
14
17
14
19
20
10
28
25
18
19
ATAR
score
54
72
63
72
58
47
85
75
63
61
Average hours
of study
17
16
14
29
30
30
23
26
22
ATAR
score
59
76
59
89
93
96
82
35
78
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
100
90
ATAR score
ATAR
score
59
67
74
90
62
89
71
60
84
98
80
70
60
50
40
(26, 35)
5 10 15 20 25 30
Average number of hours
of study per week
100
90
ATAR score
Average hours
of study
18
16
22
27
15
28
18
19
22
30
Units: 3 & 4
80
70
60
50
40
0
5 10 15 20 25 30
Average number of hours
of study per week
69
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Weak, positive
linear relationship
Moderate, positive
linear relationship
Strong, positive
linear relationship
Weak, negative
linear relationship
Moderate, negative
linear relationship
Strong, negative
linear relationship
Perfect, negative
linear relationship
No relationship
Perfect, positive
linear relationship
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Think
70
WriTe
Worked example 8
25
20
15
10
5
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Hours worked
Worked example 9
Data showing the average weekly number of hours studied by each student in
12B at Northbank Secondary College and the corresponding height of each
student (to the nearest tenth of a metre) are given in the table below.
TUTorial
eles1261
Worked example 9
18 16 22 27 15 28 18 20 10 28 25 18 19 17
1.5 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.1
19
22
30
14
17
14
19
16
14
29
30
30
23
22
2.0 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.5 2.1
Construct a scatterplot for the data and use it to comment on the direction, form and strength of
any relationship between the number of hours studied and the height of the students.
Think
WriTe
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
0
71
Draw a conclusion.
Scatterplots
exercise 2e
1 For each of the following pairs of variables, write down whether or not you would reasonably expect a
c
Fitness level (s)
20 40 60 80
Age
120
100
80
60
0
10
20
Cigarettes smoked
e
25
20
15
10
5
0
5 10 15 20
Hours spent
gardening per week
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2 4 6 8 1012 1416
100
80
60
40
20
0
4 8 12 16
Weekly hours of study
14
12
10
8
0
Weekly expenditure on
gardening magazines ($)
Haemoglobin
count (g/dl)
relationship to exist between the pair and, if so, comment on whether it would be a positive or negative
association.
a Time spent in a supermarket and money spent
b Income and value of car driven
c Number of children living in a house and time spent cleaning the house
d Age and number of hours of competitive sport played per week
e Amount spent on petrol each week and distance travelled by car each week
f Number of hours spent in front of a computer each week and time spent playing the piano each
week
g Amount spent on weekly groceries and time spent gardening each week
2 We8 For each of the scatterplots below, describe whether or not a relationship exists between the
variables and, if it does, comment on whether it is positive or negative, whether it is weak, moderate
or strong and whether or not it has a linear form.
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5 10 15 20 25
Age
Hours spent
cooking per week
observe that:
a as the value of x increases, the value of y increases
B as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases
C as the value of x increases, the value of y remains the same
d as the value of x remains the same, the value of y increases
e there is no relationship between x and y
72
4 We9 The population of a municipality (to the nearest ten thousand) together with the number of
110
130
130
140
150
160
170
170
180
180
190
diGiTal doC
doc9414
Spreadsheet
Scatterplot
Construct a scatterplot for the data and use it to comment on the direction, form and strength of any
relationship between the population and the number of primary schools.
5 The table below contains data for the time taken to do a paving job and the cost of the job.
Construct a scatterplot for the data. Comment on whether a relationship exists between the time
taken and the cost. If there is a relationship, describe it.
Time taken
(hours)
5
7
5
8
10
13
15
20
18
25
33
Cost of job
($)
1000
1000
1500
1200
2000
2500
2800
3200
2800
4000
3000
6 The table below shows the time of booking (how many days in advance) of the tickets for a musical
Row
number
Time of
booking
Row
number
Time of
booking
Row
number
15
14
12
25
15
14
10
28
15
17
11
29
14
20
10
29
14
21
30
11
13
22
31
13
13
24
Construct a scatterplot for the data. Comment on whether a relationship exists between the time
of booking and the number of the row and, if there is a relationship, describe it.
pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
2F
In the previous section, we estimated the strength of association by looking at a scatterplot and forming
a judgment about whether the correlation between the variables was positive or negative and whether the
correlation was weak, moderate or strong.
A more precise tool for measuring correlation between two variables is Pearsons
productmoment correlation coefficient. This coefficient is used to measure the strength of linear
relationships between variables.
inTeraCTiViTY
int0183
pearsons
productmoment
correlation coefficient
73
The symbol for Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient is r. The value of r ranges
from 1 to 1; that is, 1 r 1.
Following is a gallery of scatterplots with the corresponding value of r for each.
r=1
r = 1
r = 0.7
r = 0.5
r = 0.9
r = 0.8
r = 0.3
r = 0.2
r=0
Value of r
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
No linear association
Worked example 10
74
TUTorial
eles1262
Worked example 10
Think
WriTe
relationship.
a i r 0.9
Note that the symbol means approximately equal to. We use it instead of the = sign to emphasise that
the value (in this case r) is only an estimate.
In completing the worked example above, we notice that estimating the value of r from a scatterplot is
rather like making an informed guess. In the next section of work, we will see how to obtain the actual
value of r.
pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
exercise 2F
1 What type of linear relationship does each of the following values of r suggest?
a 0.21
b 0.65
c 1
d 0.78
e 1
f 0.9
g 0.34
h 0.1
2 We10 For each of the following:
i Estimate the value of Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient (r), from the scatterplot.
ii Use this to comment on the strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables.
a
75
3 mC A set of data relating the variables x and y is found to have an r value of 0.62. The scatterplot that
diGiTal doC
doc9415
WorkSHEET 2.2
A set of data relating the variables x and y is found to have an r value of 0.45. A true statement
about the relationship between x and y is:
a There is a strong linear relationship between x and y and when the xvalues increase, the yvalues
tend to increase also.
B There is a moderate linear relationship between x and y and when the xvalues increase, the
yvalues tend to increase also.
C There is a moderate linear relationship between x and y and when the xvalues increase, the
yvalues tend to decrease.
d There is a weak linear relationship between x and y and when the xvalues increase, the yvalues
tend to increase also.
e There is a weak linear relationship between x and y and when the xvalues increase, the yvalues
tend to decrease.
mC
Units: 3 & 4
Topic:
Concept:
AOS: DA
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
with r.
Do more
Interact
r=
1 n xi x yi y
n 1 i = 1 sx s y
76
With those two provisos, it is good practice to draw a scatterplot for a set of data to check for a linear
form and an absence of outliers before r is calculated. Having a scatterplot in front of you is also useful
because it enables you to estimate what the value of r might be as you did in the previous exercise,
and thus you can check that your workings on the calculator are correct.
Worked example 11
The heights (in centimetres) of 21 football players were recorded against the
number of marks they took in a game of football. The data are shown in the
following table.
TUTorial
eles1244
Worked example 11
c Calculate r and use it to comment on the relationship between the heights of players and the
Height (cm)
184
194
185
175
186
183
174
200
188
184
188
Height (cm)
182
185
183
191
177
184
178
190
193
204
Think
WriTe/draW
14
12
Mark
10
8
6
4
2
0
77
of moderate strength.
We might expect r 0.8.
c
r = 0.859 311 . . .
0.86
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
correlation and
causation.
In Worked example 11 we saw that r = 0.86. While we are entitled to say that there is a strong
association between the height of a footballer and the number of marks he takes, we cannot assert that
the height of a footballer causes him to take a lot of marks. Being tall might assist in taking marks, but
there will be many other factors which come into play; for example, skill level, accuracy of passes from
teammates, abilities of the opposing team, and so on.
So, while establishing a high degree of correlation between two variables may be interesting and can
often flag the need for further, more detailed investigation, it in no way gives us any basis to comment
on whether or not one variable causes particular values in another variable.
Worked example 12
A set of data giving the number of police traffic patrols on duty and the number
of fatalities for the region was recorded and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.8
was found. Calculate the coefficient of determination and interpret its value.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Think
1
Coefficient of determination = r 2
= (0.8)2
= 0.64
Concept: 10
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
78
WriTe
TUTorial
eles1263
Worked example 12
Note: In the previous worked example, 64% of the variation in the number of fatalities was due to the
variation in the number of police cars on duty and 36% was due to other factors; for example, days of
the week or hour of the day.
1 We11 The yearly salary ( $1000) and the number of votes polled in the Brownlow medal count are
180
200
160
250
190
210
170
150
140
180
24
15
33
10
16
23
14
21
31
28
diGiTal doC
doc9416
Spreadsheet
pearsons
productmoment
correlation
votes.
2 We12 A set of data, obtained from 40 smokers, gives the number of cigarettes smoked per
day and the number of visits per year to the doctor. The Pearsons correlation coefficient for
these data was found to be 0.87. Calculate the coefficient of determination for the data and
interpret its value.
3 Data giving the annual advertising budgets ( $1000) and the yearly profit increases (%) of
11
14
2.2
15
2.2
17
3.2
20
4.6
25
5.7
25
6.9
27
7.9
9.3
4 Data showing the number of tourists visiting a small country in a month and the corresponding average
monthly exchange rate for the countrys currency against the American dollar are given below.
Number of tourists
( 1000)
Exchange rate
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
10
0.6
estimate of r.
c Calculate r.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination.
e Write the proportion of the variation in the number of tourists that can be explained by the
exchange rate.
5 Data showing the number of people in 9 households against weekly grocery costs are given below.
60
180
210
120
150
160
65
200
90
79
c Calculate r.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination.
e Write the proportion of the variation in the weekly grocery costs that can be explained by the
below.
Number of people
on committee
Annual funds
raised ($)
4500
8500
6100
12 500
7200
10 000
4700
8800
in the number of people on the fundraising committee causes the increase in the amount of funds
raised?
e Calculate the coefficient of determination.
f Write the proportion of the variation in the funds raised that can be explained by the variation in
the number of people on a committee.
The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. A set of data was obtained from a large group of
women with children under 5 years of age. They were asked the number of hours they worked per week
and the amount of money they spent on child care. The results were recorded and the value of Pearsons
correlation coefficient was found to be 0.92.
7 mC Which of the following is not true?
a The relationship between the number of
0.85.
B The number of working hours is the major
9 An investigation is undertaken with people following the Certain Slim diet to explore the link between
weeks of dieting and total weight loss. The data are shown below.
Total weight
loss (kg)
Number of
weeks on the diet
1.5
4.5
3.5
6.5
8.5
10
6.5
10
2.5
81
Summary
dependent and
independent variables
Backtoback stem
plots
A backtoback stem plot displays bivariate data involving a numerical variable and a categorical
variable with two categories.
Together with summary statistics, backtoback stem plots can be used to compare the
two distributions.
parallel boxplots
To display a relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable with two or more
categories, we can use a parallel boxplot.
A parallel boxplot is obtained by constructing individual boxplots for each distribution and
positioning them on a common scale.
Twoway frequency
tables and segmented
bar charts
The twoway frequency table is a tool for examining the relationship between two categorical
variables.
If the total number of scores in each of the two categories is unequal, percentages should be
calculated to analyse the table properly.
When the independent variable is placed in the columns of the table, the numbers in each column
should be expressed as a percentage of that columns total.
The data in a twoway frequency table in percentage form can be represented graphically as a
segmented bar chart.
The columns in a segmented bar chart match the columns in a twoway frequency table. Each
segment corresponds to each cell in the table.
Scatterplots
A scatterplot gives a visual display of the relationship between two numerical variables.
In analysing the scatterplot we look for a pattern in the way the points lie. Certain patterns tell us
that certain relationships exist between the two variables. This is referred to as a correlation. We
look at what type of correlation exists and how strong it is.
When describing the relationship between two variables displayed on a scatterplot, we need to
comment on:
(a) the direction whether it is positive or negative
(b) the form whether it is linear or nonlinear
(c) the strength whether it is strong, moderate or weak
(d) possible outliers.
pearsons product
moment correlation
coefficient
82
1
0.75
Value of r
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1 n xi x yi y
n 1 i = 1 sx s y
83
Chapter review
m U lT ip l e
C h oiCe
1 In a study on the effectiveness of vitamin C, a researcher asked a group of people with cold and flu
symptoms to record the number of days these symptoms persisted and their daily dosage (in mg) of
vitamin C. If the researcher wishes to represent these data graphically, which of the following should
she do?
a Show the number of days the symptoms persisted on the xaxis, as this is the independent variable
and the daily dosage of vitamin C on the yaxis, as this is the dependent variable.
B Show the daily dosage of vitamin C on the xaxis, as this is the dependent variable and the
number of days the symptoms persisted on the yaxis, as this is the independent variable.
C Show the number of days the symptoms persisted on the xaxis, as this is the dependent variable
and the daily dosage of vitamin C on the yaxis, as this is the independent variable.
d Show the daily dosage of vitamin C on the xaxis, as this is the independent variable and the
number of days the symptoms persisted on the yaxis, as this is the dependent variable.
e It is impossible to decide which of the two variables is dependent and which one is independent,
so it does not matter which axes we use.
2 A backtoback stem plot is a useful way of displaying the relationship between:
a the number of children attending a day care centre and whether or not the centre has federal
B
C
d
e
funding
height and wrist circumference
age and weekly income
weight and the number of takeaway meals eaten each week
the age of a car and amount spent each year on servicing it
Company A
Company B
Company C
Company D
Company E
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110120130140 150
Annual salary ( $1000)
Junior staff
Senior staff
Total
For
23
14
37
Against
31
41
72
Total
54
55
109
84
x
d
x
e
9 A set of data comparing age with blood pressure is found to have a Pearsons correlation coefficient of
0.86. The coefficient of determination for these data would be closest to:
d 0.43
a 0.86
B 0.74
C 0.43
e 0.74
1 For each of the following, write down which is the dependent and which is the independent variable or
Volunteer
10
11
11
12
13
13
14
15
S ho rT
a n S W er
85
3 The IQ of 8 players in 3 different football teams were recorded and are shown below.
Team A
120
105
140
116
98
105
130
102
Team B
110
104
120
109
106
95
102
100
Team C
121
115
145
130
120
114
116
123
believed that uranium mining should continue. Fortyfive Liberal delegates were surveyed and 15 were
against continuation. Fiftythree Labor delegates were surveyed and 43 were against continuation.
a Present the data as percentages in a twoway frequency table and a segmented bar chart.
b Comment on any difference between the reactions of the Liberal and Labor delegates.
Age
Pulse rate
15
79
17
74
18
75
16
85
19
82
19
76
17
77
15
72
17
70
b Use the scatterplot to comment on any relationship which exists between the variables.
6 For the variables shown on the scatterplot below, give an estimate of the value of r and use it to
x
7 The table at right gives data relating the percentage of lectures attended
86
Lectures
Exam
attended (%) result (%)
70
80
59
62
85
89
93
98
78
84
85
91
84
83
69
72
70
75
82
85
Salary bracket
age and salary bracket among some employees of a
( $1000)
Age
large computer company is made and the results are
2039
32 21 43 23 22 27 37
shown at right.
4059
29 31 37 26 33 37
a State which is the independent variable and
which is the dependent variable.
6079
41 29 39 42 47 45 43 38
b State which of the following you could use to
8099
43 48 38 37 49 51 53 59
display the data:
100120
48 37 55 61
i backtoback stem plot
ii parallel boxplot
iii scatterplot
iv twoway frequency table in percentage form.
c State which of the following you could calculate in order to find out more about the relationship
between age and salary bracket:
i r, the Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient
ii the coefficient of determination.
e x Ten d ed
reS p o n S e
2 For marketing purposes, the administration of the Arts Centre needs to compare the ages of people
attending two different concerts: a symphony orchestra concert and a jazz concert. Twenty people were
randomly selected from each audience and their ages were recorded as shown.
Event
Symphony orchestra
concert
Jazz concert
iii median
vi mean
87
c Use the stem plot together with some summary statistics to compare the distributions of the ages
The administration of the Arts Centre now wishes to compare all three distributions of the ages.
Explain why it is not possible to use a backtoback stem plot for this task.
Calculate the eight summary statistics for the ages of the operagoers (as in part b above).
Display the data for the three events using parallel boxplots.
Use the boxplots and some summary statistics to compare the three distributions.
3 In one study, 380 Year 12 students were asked how often they were engaged in any sporting activity
outside school. Students were also asked to classify their stress level in relation to their VCE studies.
The results at right were obtained.
d
e
f
g
Level of stress
Low
Medium
High
diGiTal doC
doc9417
Test Yourself
Chapter 2
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
DA
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
88
In this study, which would be the independent variable: stress level, or the amount of sporting activity?
How many students in this study reported a high level of stress?
How many students were engaged in sport activity outside of school?
Represent the data in a twoway frequency table in percentage form.
Display the data from part d using a segmented bar chart.
Comment on any relationship between the stress level and the amount of sporting activity for this
group of Year 12 students.
4 The data in the table below show the number of hours spent by students learning to touchtype and their
corresponding speed in words per minute (wpm).
a
b
c
d
e
f
Time (h)
Speed (wpm)
20
34
33
46
22
38
39
53
40
52
37
49
46
60
44
58
24
36
36
42
50
65
48
63
29
40
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9409: Warm up with a quick quiz on
bivariate data. (page 57)
2B
TUTorial
We 2 eles1259: Watch a tutorial on displaying data on a backtoback stem plot. (page 59)
2C
parallel boxplots
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc9410: Compare two sets of data using parallel
boxplots. (page 64)
WorkSHEET 2.1 doc9411: Identify independent and dependent
variables and construct parallel boxplots and backtoback stem
plots. (page 65)
2e
Scatterplots
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc9414: Investigate the relationship between two
variables by constructing a scatterplot (page 73)
TUTorial
We 9 eles1261: Watch a worked example on constructing a
scatterplot to determine the relationship between the heights of
students and the number of hours they study. (page 71)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9417: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 88)
89
Answers CHAPTER 2
BiVariaTe daTa
exercise 2a dependent and
independent variables
1 a Independent age, dependent salary
b Independent amount of fertiliser,
dependent growth
c Not appropriate
d Not appropriate
e Independent number in household,
dependent size of house
f Independent month of the year,
dependent size of electricity bill
g Independent number of hours,
dependent mark on the test
h Not appropriate
i Independent season, dependent
cost
2 C
3 C
4 D
exercise 2B
4 a Key:1 2 = 12 marks
1 Key: 23 = 23
5 a
6 a
90
1 a
parallel boxplots
11A
10A
9A
2 a
10
15
5
Annual superannuation contribution ( $1000)
exercise 2e
C
Multivitamin
15
10
Number of jars sold
20
b
c
d
exercise 2d
Attitude
Female
Male
Total
37
79
116
Against
102
23
125
Total
139
102
241
For
3 B
4
33
83
1 hour
36
60
96
Total
86
93
179
i
iv
b i
iv
c i
iii
22
45
12
42
47%
100%
ii 26
v 41
ii 9
v 33
ii 58%
iv 100%
Preference
Men
59%
43%
41%
100%
100%
Attitude
Liberal
Labor
For
35.5
39.4
Against
64.5
60.6
100.0
100.0
Total
Attitude
Against
For
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
2000
Percentage
5 10 15 20 25 30
Hours of paving
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
Time of booking
(Number of days
before the performance)
pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
1 a No association
b Moderate positive
c Strong negative
d Strong negative
e Strong positive
140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250
Yearly salary ( $1000)
exercise 2F
Labor
Delegates
3000
Liberal
4000
1000
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
6 C
1 a
Women
57%
Strong positive
Weak negative
No association
i r 0.8
ii Strong, negative, linear association
i r 0.6
ii Moderate, positive, linear association
i r 0.2
ii No linear association
i r 0.2
ii No linear association
i r=1
ii Perfect, positive, linear association
i r 0.8
ii Strong, positive, linear association
i r0
ii No linear association
i r 0.7
ii Moderate, negative, linear association
iii 21
Rent by themselves
Total
5D
7
iii 19
Cost ($)
3 a
45 minutes
f
g
h
2 a
3 B
4E
10
Number of
primary schools
e
f
Scatterplots
Yes positive association
Yes positive association
Yes positive association
Yes negative association
Yes positive association
Yes negative association
No no association
Weak, negative association of linear
form
Strong, negative association of linear
form
Moderate, positive association of linear
form
Strong, positive association of linear
form
No association
Nonlinear association
1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
2 a
Number of votes
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Annual advertising budget ( $1000)
c r = 0.98
d Coefficient of determination is 0.96.
e The proportion of the variation in
91
10
8
7
5
4
3
2
150
d
f
g
h
50
2 3 4 5 6
Number of people in household
c r = 0.98
d Coefficient of determination is 0.96.
e The proportion of the variation in
ShorT anSWer
b
c
2 a
For
66.7
18.9
Against
33.3
81.1
Total
100.0
100.0
3 A
8 D
4 E
9 E
Attitude
Against
For
Labor
75
5 B
70
0 3 4 5 6 7 8
Number of people on committee
2 A
7 D
Labor
Delegates
mUlTiple ChoiCe
1 D
6 E
Liberal
Liberal
ChapTer reVieW
Attitude
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
100
4 a
5 a
200
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of weeks on the diet
Team A
Percentage
Team B
Pulse rate
92
Team C
9 a
Total weight loss (kg)
6 a
player independent
Suburb independent, size of
mortgage dependent
It is not appropriate to designate one or
other as independent or dependent.
Leaf Stem Leaf
Fulltime
Volunteer
1
0
2 2
0
4 4 3 3
0
6 5
0
0
8
1
0 1 1
1
2 3 3
1
4 5
1
1
Key: 03 = 3 hours
Both distributions are symmetric
with the same spread. The centre
of the volunteers distribution
is much higher than that of the
fulltime firefighters distribution.
Clearly, the volunteers needed more
counselling.
15 16 17 18 19
Age
4 a
60 70 80 90 100
Lectures attended (%)
exTended reSponSe
b Parallel boxplot
c Neither, since we have categorical data
Symphony Jazz
Summary concert
concert
i
Xmin
20
16
ii
Q1
40.5
21.5
iii
Median
48
31.5
iv
Q3
53.5
41
Xmax
60
62
vi
Mean
45.45
32.35
vii
IQR
13
19.5
viii
Standard
deviation
11.20
12.04
Stress level
High
Medium
Low
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Percentage
Symphony
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Age
Amount of exercise
Speed (wpm)
0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Time (h)
Level of
stress
Regularly Sometimes Never
Low
47.1%
25.8%
16.2%
Medium
35.3%
32.3%
25.2%
High
17.6%
41.9%
58.6%
Total
100%
100%
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
100%
93
ChapTer 3
Introduction to regression
diGiTal doC
doc9418
10 Quick Questions
ChapTer ConTenTS
3a
3B
3C
3d
3e
3F
3a
Consider the set of bivariate data points shown at right. In this case the xvalues
could be heights of married women, while yvalues could be the heights of their
husbands. We wish to determine a linear relationship between these two random
variables.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
x
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with lines of best
fit.
95
Of course, there is no single straight line which would go through all the points, so we can only
estimate such a line.
Furthermore, the more closely the points appear to be on or near a straight line, the more confident
we are that such a linear relationship may exist and the more accurate our fitted line should be.
Consider the estimate, drawn by eye in the figure below right. It is clear that most of the points
are on or very close to this straight line. This line was easily drawn since the points are
y
very much part of an apparent linear relationship.
However, note that some points are below the line and some are above it.
Furthermore, if x is the height of wives and y is the height of husbands, it seems
that husbands are generally taller than their wives.
Regression analysis is concerned with finding these straight lines using various
methods so that the number of points above and below the lines are balanced.
x
Think
draW
x
3
x
4
exercise 3a
The questions in this exercise represent data collected by groups of students conducting different
environmental projects. The students have to fit a straight line to their data sets.
Note:For many of these questions your answers may differ somewhat from those at the end of the
chapter. The answers are provided as a guide but there are likely to be individual differences when fitting
straight lines by eye.
96
1 We1
a y
Fit a straight line to the data in the scatterplots using the equalnumberofpoints method.
b y
c y
x
d y
e y
h y
g y
2 For the following scatterplots, fit a line of best fit by eye and determine the equation of the line.
b
y
4
Time (seconds)
3
2
1
0
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x
5
10 15
Age (years)
Fitting lines by eye is useful but it is not the most accurate of methods. Greater accuracy is achieved
through closer analysis of the data. Upon closer analysis, it is possible to find the equation of a line of
best fit of the form y = mx + c where m is the gradient and c is the yintercept. Several mathematical
methods provide a line with a more accurate fit.
One of these methods is called the 3median method. It involves the division of the data set into
3groups and the use of the 3 medians in these groups to determine a line of best fit.
It is used when data show a linear relationship. It can even be used when the data contain outliers.
The 3median method is best described as a stepbystep method.
Step 1. Plot the points on a scatterplot. This is shown in figure 1.
Step 2. Divide the points into 3 groups using vertical divisions (see
figure 2 on page 98). The number of points in a data set will
not always be exactly divisible by 3. Thus, there will be three
alternatives, as follows.
(a) If the number of points is divisible by 3, divide them into
3 equal groups, for example, 3, 3, 3 or 7, 7, 7.
(b) If there is 1 extra point, put the extra point in the middle
group, for example, 3, 4, 3 or 7, 8, 7.
(c) If there are 2 extra points, put 1 extra point in each of the
outer groups, for example, 4, 3, 4 or 8, 7, 8.
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Figure 1
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression
97
Step 3. Find the median point of each of the 3 groups and mark each
median on the scatterplot (see figure 3). Recall that the median
is the middle value. So, the median point of each group has
an xcoordinate which is the median of the xvalues in the
group and a ycoordinate which is the median of the yvalues
in the group.
(a) The left group is the lower group and its median
is denoted by (xL, yL).
(b) The median of the middle group is denoted
by (xM, yM).
(c) The right group is the upper group and its median
is denoted by (xU, yU).
Note: Although the xvalues are already in ascending order on the
scatterplot, the yvalues within each group may need reordering
before you can find the median.
To complete steps 4 and 5, three different approaches may
be taken from here: graphical, arithmetic or you can use a CAS
calculator.
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Figure 2
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
(xU, yU)
(xM, yM)
(xL, yL)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Figure 3
Graphical approach
y
The graphical approach is fast and, therefore, usually the preferred
7
method (see figure 4).
6
Step 4. Draw in the line of best fit. Place your ruler so that it passes
5
through the lower and upper medians. Move the ruler a third of
4
the way toward the middle group median while maintaining the
3
slope. Hold the ruler there and draw the line.
2
Step 5. Find the equation of the line (general form y = mx + c).
1
First, use the coordinates of the lower and upper medians to find
yU yL
0
.
the gradient: m =
xU xL
Next, find the yintercept. If the scale on the axes begins at zero,
you can read off the yintercept of the line. Otherwise, substitute
the coordinates of any point on the line into equation and solve for c.
(xM, yM)
(xU, yU)
(xL, yL)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Figure 4
arithmetic approach
Using the arithmetic approach, you will proceed as follows.
yU yL
.
Step 4. Calculate the gradient (m) of the line. Use the rule: m =
xU xL
Step 5. Calculate the yintercept (c) of the line.
Use the rule: c = 13 [(yL + yM + yU) m(xL + xM + xU)]
Thus, the equation of the regression line is y = mx + c.
Find the equation of the regression line for the data in the table below using the 3median method.
Give coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.
x
y
98
1
1
2
3
3
2
4
6
5
5
7
6
Think
1
WriTe/draW
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
yintercept = 1
Gradient (m) =
yU yL
xU xL
5.5 2
6 1.5
3.5
=
4.5
7
=
9
0.78
y = mx + c
= 0.78x + 1
yU yL
m= x x
U
L
5.5 2
=
6 1.5
= 3.5
4.5
7
=9
0.78
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression
99
y = 0.78x + 0.98
Note: There are slight variations in the values of the yintercept of the line between the graphical and
the arithmetic approaches. This is because the arithmetic method gives precise values for the yintercept,
whereas the graphical method gives approximate values.
diGiTal doCS
doc9419
SkillSHEET 3.1
Finding the median
doc9420
SkillSHEET 3.2
Gradient
doc9398
SkillSHEET 3.3
The equation of
astraight line
Find the regression line for the data in the table below using the 3median method.
1 We2
2 Copy and complete the following table for the division of data points into three groups in the 3median
regression line method. The first row of the table has been completed for you.
Total number of
points (n)
Lower group
Middle group
Upper group
10
11
12
13
14
26
43
58
698
3 Using the data in the table below, find the regression line using the 3median method on your CAS
calculator.
x
10
20
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
75
80
60
50
70
40
55
40
30
10
25
15
1
14
2
13
3
15
4
17
5
16
6
18
7
19
8
17
9
22
10
20
11
21
4 MC The gradient of the 3median regression line for the above data set is:
a 0.56
B 0.75
C 1
d 0.88
e 0.5
5 MC The yintercept of the 3median regression line for the data set above is:
a 12.00
100
B 12.15
C 17.83
d 23.52
e 36.44
12
24
6 The sales figures (in thousands) for a company over a 10month period were recorded as follows.
Month (x)
Sales (y)
10
85
77
81
73
68
72
64
57
53
49
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
11 16 15 13 19 22 26 24 28 31 30 32 36 29 39 40 44
Reservoir capacity (megalitres)
a drought. From the graph (you may use the formulas or your
calculator to check your answers):
a find the coordinates of the points used to find the gradient.
Use these to find the gradient.
b find the coordinates of the median of the middle group
c estimate the yintercept (use the graph and medians)
d state the relationship between water level and day as an equation.
9 Since management instituted new policies, the productivity at DMH
5
4
3
2
1
0
car plant has been improving. The scatterplot below shows the
number of cars produced each week over a 10week period.
6 8
Day
10
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
0
a
b
c
d
e
6 8
Week
10
What are the coordinates of the points used to find the gradient? Use them to find the gradient.
What are the coordinates of the median of the middle group?
Using the graph and medians found, estimate the yintercept.
State the relationship between cars produced and week as an equation.
Check your answers using a CAS calculator.
measured each year. Which graph best shows the line of best
fit using the 3median method?
140
120
Height (cm)
120
Height (cm)
140
100
80
60
100
40
80
20
60
40
20
0
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
101
C
140
140
120
120
100
80
60
80
60
40
20
20
2
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
140
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
120
Height (cm)
100
80
60
100
80
60
40
40
20
20
140
120
Height (cm)
100
40
Height (cm)
Height (cm)
6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)
11 MC When using the 3median method for fitting a straight line, which of the following statements is false?
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with least squares
regression.
a
B
C
d
e
Another method for finding the equation of a straight line which is fitted to data is known as the
method of leastsquares regression. It is used when data show a linear relationship and have no
obvious outliers.
To understand the underlying theory behind leastsquares, consider the
y
regression line shown below.
We wish to minimise the total of the vertical lines, or errors in some way.
For example, balancing the errors above and below the line. This is reasonable,
but for sophisticated mathematical reasons it is preferable to minimise the sum
of the squares of each of these errors. This is the essential mathematics of leastsquares regression.
The calculation of the equation of a leastsquares regression line is simple
using a CAS calculator.
Worked exaMple 3
A study shows the more calls a teenager makes on their mobile phone, the less time they spend
on each call. Find the equation of the linear regression line for the number of calls made plotted
against call time in minutes using the leastsquares method on a CAS calculator. Express
coefficients correct to 2decimal places.
Number of minutes (x)
Number of calls ( y)
102
1
11
3
9
4
10
7
6
10
8
12
4
14
3
15
1
Think
WriTe
y = 0.63x + 11.73
Formula to use:
The general form of the leastsquares regression line is
y = mx + c
where:
s
the slope of the regression line is m = r sxy
the yintercept of the regression line is c = y mx.
s
Alternatively, if the general form is given as y = a + bx, then b = r sxy and a = y bx.
Worked exaMple 4
WriTe
of the wife.
103
sy
b m = rs
= 0.85
= 0.7698
0.77
4.8
5.3
c c = y mx
d y = 0.77x + 30.44 or
diGiTal doC
doc9421
Spreadsheet
leastsquares
regression
1 We3 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the leastsquares
method.
x
10
12
15
17
10
13
15
14
18
19
23
2 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the leastsquares method.
35
28
22
16
19
14
3 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the leastsquares method.
10
16
12
16
11
21
4 We4 The following summary details were calculated from a study to find a relationship between
mathematics exam marks and English exam marks from the results of 120 Year 12 students.
Mean mathematics exam mark = 64%
Mean English exam mark = 74%
Standard deviation of mathematics exam mark = 14.5%
Standard deviation of English exam mark = 9.8%
Correlation coefficient, r = 0.64
The form of the leastsquares regression line is to be:
Mathematics exam mark = m English exam mark + c.
a Which variable is the dependent variable (yvariable)?
b Calculate the value of m for the leastsquares regression line (correct to 2 decimal places).
c Calculate the value of c for the leastsquares regression line (correct to 2 decimal places).
d Use the regression line to predict the expected mathematics exam mark if a student scores 85% in
an English exam (to the nearest percentage).
104
5 Find the leastsquares regression equation, given the following summary data.
a x = 5.6
sx = 1.2
y = 110.4
sy = 5.7
r = 0.7
b x = 110.4
sx = 5.7
y = 5.6
sy = 1.2
r = 0.7
c x = 25
sx = 4.2
y = 10 200
sy = 250
r = 0.88
d x = 10
sx = 1
y = 20
sy = 2
r = 0.5
6 Repeat questions 1, 2 and 3, collecting the values for x, sx, y, sy and r from the calculator. Use these
1
20
2
18
3
16
4
14
5
12
6
10
7
8
8
6
9
4
10
2
20
18
16
14
12
10
10
d In comparing the regression line from part a with that from part c, what other interesting features
do you find?
8 MC The best estimate of the leastsquares regression line for the
scatterplot at right is:
1
2
a y = 2x
1
2
C y= x+2
B y= x
1
2
d y= x2
y
4
3
2
1
1
2
e y= x1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
x = 5.4
sx = 1.8
y = 12.5
sy = 1.4
r = 0.57
the values of m and c for the equation of the regression line y = mx + c are
d 0.44 and 14.9
a 0.44 and 14.9 B 0.73 and 14.6 C 0.44 and 10.1
e 1.32 and 3.8
10 The life span of adult males in a certain country over the last 220 years has been recorded.
Year
1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Life span
51.2
(years)
52.4
51.7
53.2
53.1
54.7
59.9
62.7
63.2
66.8
72.7
79.2
sample of calls from Melbourne to Slovenia are summarised in the table below.
Cost of call ($)
1.25
1.85
2.25
2.50
3.25
3.70
4.30
4.90
5.80
Duration of call
(seconds)
30
110
250
260
300
350
420
500
600
7.50
8.00
9.25
10.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
Duration of call
(seconds)
840
1000
1140
1200
1500
1860
2400
3600
7200
the cost of telephone calls. (That is, consider whether the regression line you found proves that
costs of calls and duration of calls are related.)
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression
105
12 MC In a study to find a relationship between the height of plants and the hours of daylight they were
and generate a linear equation. Is the same true of leastsquares linear regression?
Consider the following data set.
diGiTal doC
doc9422
WorkSHEET 3.1
a
b
c
d
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
12
16
17
21
25
29
interpretation, interpolation
and extrapolation
3d
Number of bacteria
500
11
Think
WriTe
interpolation
Interpolation is the use of the regression line to predict values within the range of data in a set, that
is, the values that are in between the values already in the data set. If the data are highly linear (r near
+1 or 1) then we can be confident that our interpolated value is quite accurate. If the data are not highly
linear (r near 0) then our confidence is duly reduced. For example, medical information collected from
a patient every third day would establish data for day 3, 6, 9, . . . and so on. After performing regression
analysis, it is likely that an interpolation for day 4 would be accurate, given a high r value.
extrapolation
Extrapolation is the use of the regression line to predict values outside the range of data in a set, that is,
values that are smaller than the smallest value already in the data set or larger than the largest value.
Two problems may arise in attempting to extrapolate from a data set. Firstly, it may not be reasonable
to extrapolate too far away from the given data values. For example, suppose there is a weather data
set for 5 days. Even if it is highly linear (r near +1 or 1) a regression line used to predict the same data
15 days in the future is highly risky. Weather has a habit of randomly fluctuating and patterns rarely stay
stable for very long.
Secondly, the data may be highly linear in a narrow band of the given data set. For example, there may
be data on stopping distances for a train at speeds of between 30 and 60 km/h. Even if they are highly
linear in this range, it is unlikely that things are similar at very low speeds (015 km/h) or high speeds
(over 100 km/h).
Generally, one should feel more confident about the accuracy of a prediction derived from
interpolation than one derived from extrapolation. Of course, it still depends upon the correlation
coefficient (r). The closer to linearity the data are, the more confident our predictions in all cases.
Worked exaMple 6
Using interpolation and the following data set, predict the height of an 8yearold girl.
Age (years)
Height (cm)
1
60
3
76
Think
5
115
7
126
9
141
11
148
WriTe
y = 9.23x + 55.63
When age = 8,
Height = 9.23 8 + 55.63
= 129.5 (cm)
107
Worked exaMple 7
Use extrapolation and the data from Worked example 6 to predict the height of the girl when she
turns 15. Discuss the reliability of this prediction.
Think
WriTe
interpretation, interpolation
and extrapolation
exercise 3d
diGiTal doC
doc9423
Spreadsheet
interpolation/
extrapolation
1 We5 A drug company wishes to test the effectiveness of a drug to increase red blood cell counts
in people who have a low count. The following data are collected.
Day of experiment
Red blood cell count
210
240
230
260
260
290
Find:
a the equation, describing the relationship between the variables in the form y = a + bx
b the rate at which the red blood cell count was changing
c the red blood cell count at the beginning of the experiment (that is, on day 0).
2 A wildlife exhibition is held over 6 weekends and features still and live displays. The number of live
animals that are being exhibited varies each weekend. The number of animals participating, together
with the number of visitors to the exhibition each weekend, is shown below.
Number of animals
Number of visitors
311
220
413
280
379
334
Find:
a the rate of increase of visitors as the number of live animals is increased by 1
b the predicted number of visitors if there are no live animals.
3 An electrical goods warehouse produces the following data showing the selling price of electrical goods
60
80
100
120
140
160
200
220
240
260
400
300
275
250
210
190
150
100
50
Perform a leastsquares regression analysis and discuss the meaning of the gradient and yintercept.
4 A study of the diningout habits of various income groups in a particular suburb produces the results
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Number of restaurant
visits per year
5.8
2.6
1.4
1.2
4.8
11.6
4.4
12.2
108
10
12
17
21
27
35
Find:
a the regression equation
b y when x = 3
c y when x = 12
d x when y = 7
e x when y = 25.
f Which of b to e above are extrapolations?
6 The following table represents the costs for shipping a consignment of shoes from Melbourne factories.
The cost is given in terms of distance from Melbourne. There are two factories that can be used. The
data are summarised below.
Distance from
Melbourne (km)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
70
70
90
100
110
120
150
180
70
75
80
100
100
115
125
135
a
b
c
d
7 A factory produces calculators. The leastsquares regression line for cost of production (C ) as a
a
b
c
d
e
C = 600 + 7.76n
Furthermore, this function is deemed accurate when producing between 100 and 1000calculators.
Find the cost to produce 200 calculators.
How many calculators can be produced for $2000?
Find the cost to produce 10 000 calculators.
What are the fixed costs for this production?
Which of a to c above is an interpolation?
8 A study of the relationship between IQ and results in a mathematics exam produced the following
results. Unfortunately, some of the data were lost. Copy and complete the table by using the leastsquares equation with the data that were supplied.
Note: Only use (x, y) pairs if both are in the table.
IQ
80
56
60
92
102
68
65
105
74
107
111
71
73
115
121
92
9 The leastsquares regression line for a starting salary (s) as a function of number of years of
3e
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
residual analysis
There are situations where the mere fitting of a regression line to some data is not enough to convince us
that the data set is truly linear. Even if the correlation is close to +1 or 1 it still may not be convincing
enough.
The next stage is to analyse the residuals, or deviations, of each data point from the straight line.
A residual is the vertical difference between each data point and the regression line.
Calculating residuals
A sociologist gathers data on the heights of brothers and sisters in families from different ethnic
backgrounds. He enters his records in the table below.
x
12
10
12
16
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with residual
analysis.
109
He then plots each point, and fits a regression line as shown in figure 1, which follows. He then decides
to calculate the residuals.
The residuals are simply the vertical distances from the line to each point. These lines are shown as
blue and red bars in figure 2.
y
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
10 x
10 x
Figure 2
Figure 1
Finally, he calculates the residuals for each data point. This is done in two steps.
Step 1. He calculates the predicted value of y from the regression equation.
Step 2. He calculates the difference between this predicted value and the original value.
Worked exaMple 8
Consider the data set below. Find the equation of the leastsquares regression
line and calculate the residuals.
x
10
15
24
47
77
112
187
309
Think
WriTe
y = 28.7x 78.7
xvalues
yvalues
5.0
6.0
xvalues
yvalues
Predicted
yvalues
Residuals
( y ypred)
Predicted
yvalues
Residuals
( y ypred)
8.0
15.0
24.0
50.05
21.38
7.3
35.98
64.66
55.05
27.38
0.7
20.98
40.66
6
47.0
7
77.0
8
112.0
9
187.0
10
309.0
93.34
122.02
150.7
179.38 208.06
46.34
45.02
38.7
7.62 100.94
Notes
1. The residuals may be determined by (y ypred); that is, the actual values minus the predicted values.
2. The sum of all the residuals always adds to 0 (or very close to 0 after rounding), when leastsquares
regression is used. This can act as a check for our calculations.
The answer is to plot the residuals themselves against the original xvalues. If there is a pattern, it
should become clearer after they are plotted.
Residuals
(+)
Positive
Negative
()
Residuals
(+)
Positive
Negative
()
Residuals
(+)
Positive
Negative
()
The transformation of data suggested in the last two residual plots will be studied in more detail in the
next section.
Worked exaMple 9
Using the same data as in Worked example 8, plot the residuals and discuss the features of the
residual plot.
Think
1
WriTe/draW
xvalues
Residuals
(y ypred)
xvalues
Residuals
(y ypred)
55.05
27.38
46.34
45.02
3
0.7
8
20.98
40.66
38.7
7.62
10
100.94
111
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
Residual
10 x
residual analysis
exercise 3e
9.7
12.7
13.7
14.4
14.5
2 We9 For the results of question 1, plot the residuals and discuss whether the relationship between
x and y is linear.
3 MC Which of the following scatterplots shows linear relationship between the variables?
iii
i
ii
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
40
40
40
30
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
10
0
20
40
60
80
20
40
a All of them
B None of them
d ii only
60
80
20
40
60
80
4 Consider the following table from a survey conducted at a new computer manufacturing factory. It shows
the percentage of defective computers produced on 8 different days after the opening of the factory.
Day
Defective rate (%)
10
11
15
10
12
a The results of leastsquares regression were: m = 1.19, c = 16.34, r = 0.87. Use the above
b
c
d
e
5 The following data represent the number of tourists booked into a hotel in central Queensland during
112
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
Sun.
158
124
74
56
31
35
22
y
40
30
20
10
0
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
x
C
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
7 From each table of residuals, decide whether or not the relationship between the variables is likely to be
linear.
a
x
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
y
2
4
7
11
21
20
19
15
12
6
Residuals
1.34
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.97
2.3
1.2
0.15
0.9
2.8
x
23
21
19
16
14
11
9
6
4
3
y
56
50
43
41
37
31
28
22
19
17
Residuals
0.12
0.56
1.30
0.20
1.45
2.16
0.22
3.56
2.19
1.05
5
94
7
180
x
1.2
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.1
y
23
25
24
26
28
29
34
42
56
64
Residuals
0.045
0.003
0.023
0.089
0.15
0.98
0.34
0.01
0.45
1.23
x
y
a
b
c
d
e
0
1
1
4
2
15
3
33
4
60
6
134
8
240
9
300
10
390
diGiTal doC
doc9425
WorkSHEET 3.2
113
3F
inTeraCTiViTY
int0184
Transforming to
linearity
eleSSon
eles0050
Which way to stretch?
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Transforming to linearity
Although linear regression might produce a good fit (high r value) to a set of data, the data set may still
be nonlinear. To remove (as much as is possible) such nonlinearity, the data can be transformed.
Either the xvalues, yvalues, or both may be transformed in some way so that the transformed data
are more linear. This enables more accurate predictions (extrapolations and interpolations) from the
regression equation. In Further Mathematics, six transformations are studied:
Logarithmic transformations:
y versus log10 (x)
log10 ( y) versus x
y2 versus x
Quadratic transformations:
y versus x2
1 versus x
Reciprocal transformations:
y versus 1x
y
Quadratic transformations
1. Use y versus x2 transformation.
Stretch
xvalues
Do more
Interact
with transforming
data.
Stretch
xvalues
3. Use y2 versus x transformation.
Stretch
yvalues
Stretch
yvalues
Compress
xvalues
114
Testing transformations
As there are at least two possible transformations for any given nonlinear scatterplot, the decision
as to which is the best comes from the coefficient of correlation. The leastsquares regression
equation that has a Pearson correlation coefficient closest to 1 or 1 should be considered as the
most appropriate. However, there may be very little difference so common sense needs to be
applied. It is sometimes more useful to use a linear function rather than one of the six nonlinear
functions.
Worked exaMple 10
TUTorial
eles1265
Worked example 10
10
15
24
47
77
112
187
309
Think
1
WriTe/draW
y
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
Stretch
xvalues
10
x2
16
25
36
49
15
24
47
64
81 100
Notes
1. These data are still not truly linear,
but are less parabolic. Perhaps
another transformation would
improve things even further. This
could involve transforming the
yvalues, such as log10 (y), and
applying another linear regression.
y
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
20 40 60 80 100 x2
115
Worked exaMple 11
100
80
65
55
50
51
48
46
Think
1
WriTe
Time
log
(heart log y
rate)
r = 0.93
There is a slight improvement of the correlation coefficient that
resulted from applying logarithmic transformation.
Further investigation
Often all appropriate transformations need to be performed to choose the best one. Extend Worked
example 11 by compressing the y data using the reciprocals of the y data or even compress the x data. Go
back to the steps for transforming the data. Did you get a better r value and thus a more reliable line of
best fit? (Hint:The best transformation gives r = 0.98.)
following data.
116
Temperature
(C)
10
15
20
25
30
35
Number of students
in a class wearing
jumpers
18
10
Think
WriTe/draW
Students
y
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10
14 18 22
Temperature
26
30
34
1
Temperature
1
x
1
5
1
10
1 1
15 20
1
1 1
25 30 35
Number of students
wearing jumpers
18
10
94.583
0.4354
Temperature
94.583
=
0.4354
12
= 7.447
Note: If the residual plot exhibits a clear pattern, the relationship between the variables is probably
not linear. To find an appropriate model, a logarithmic, quadratic or receiprocal transformation can be
attempted.
exercise 3F
Transforming to linearity
1 We 10 Apply a quadratic (x2) transformation to the following data set. The regression line has been
2
96
3
95
92
90
14
100
diGiTal doC
doc9482
Spreadsheet
Transforming data
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
128
144
148
154
158
161
165
164
166
167
117
We12 Apply a reciprocal transformation to the following data obtained by a physics student
studying light intensity.
10
90
60
28
22
20
12
b Use the transformed regression equation to predict the intensity at a distance of 20metres.
Horsepower
Driver ability
Engine revs
7 Use the equation y = 0.2x2 12.5, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given
b x = 2.5.
8 Use the equation y = 1.12 log10 (x) 25, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given
a x = 2.5
b x = 2.5
c x = 0.
9 Use the equation log10 (y) = 0.2x + 0.03, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given
the number of seeds in the successive circles starting from the centre and moving
outwards, the following number of seeds were counted.
Circle
Number
of seeds
118
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
13
21
34
55
89
144
233
119
Summary
Fitting a straight line
by eye
Make sure there are an equal number of points above/below the fitted line.
Fitting a straight
line the 3median
method
Use a calculator to find the equation of the leastsquares regression line. The equation can be
obtained in one of these forms:
y = mx + b
or
y = a + bx.
To find the equation of the leastsquares regression line by hand:
(a) The summary data needed are:
(i) x and sx the mean and standard deviation of the independent variable
(ii) y and sy the mean and standard deviation of the dependent variable
(iii) r Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient.
(b) The formulas to use are:
sy
(i) m = r s
(ii) c = y mx
x
where m is the slope of the regression line and c is the yintercept.
Alternatively, if the general form of the regression line is given as y = a + bx, then
sy
b = r s and a = y bx.
x
interpretation,
interpolation and
extrapolation
The slope (m) of the regression line y = mx + c indicates the change in the dependent variable as
independent variable increases by 1.
The yintercept, c, indicates the value of the dependent variable when independent variable = 0.
Interpolation is the use of the regression line to predict values between the values already in the
data set (predicting within the range of data set).
Extrapolation is the use of the regression line to predict values smaller than the smallest value
already in the data set or larger than the largest value (predicting outside the data set).
residual analysis
120
Calculate predicted values (ypred) from the regression equation (y = mx + c) for all values of x.
Calculate residuals (y ypred) for all values of x (actual values predicted values).
Construct the residual plot.
If the residual plot shows points randomly scattered around zero (i.e. there is no clear pattern), the
relationship between the variables in question is probably linear.
If the residual plot shows a clear pattern, the relationship between variables is probably not linear.
Transforming to
linearity
Transform nonlinear data to linearity by using one or more of the following possible
transformations.
1
Compressing axis: y versus log10 (x)
y versus x
1
log10 (y) versus x
y versus x
2
y2 versus x
Stretching axis:
y versus x
Quadratic transformations
1. Use y versus x2 transformation.
Stretch
xvalues
Stretch
xvalues
3. Use y2 versus x transformation.
Stretch
yvalues
Stretch
yvalues
Compress
xvalues
Compress
xvalues
121
Chapter review
M U lT ip l e
C h oiCe
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 The most appropriate line of best fit for the figure is:
a
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
e 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
d 8
C 8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
2
1
5
3
5
2
5
3 In using the 3median method for 34 points, the number of points placed in each group is:
a 10, 14, 10
B 11, 12, 11
C 12, 10, 12
d 10, 12, 14
e dependent on the decision of the person doing the calculations
4 The correlation between two variables x and y is 0.88. Which of the following statements is true?
a
B
C
d
e
a
B
C
d
e
x
y
25
78
36
153
45
267
78
456
89
891
99
1020
C 0.91
y = 172.5
sy = 7.4
r = 0.9
x = 154.4 sx = 5.8
the values of m and c, respectively, for the equation of the regression line y = mx + c are:
a 0.71 and 32.72
B 1.15 and 4.79
C 0.44 and 10.1
8 A 3median regression fit yielded the equation y = 4.3x 2.4. The value of y when x = 4.4 is:
a 21.32
d 1.58
122
B 18.92
e 2.4
C 16.52
110
1410
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
10 After a transformation, a relationship was found to be y = 0.4x2+ 12.1. The predicted value for y given
B 2.5
e 12.5
C 14.6
1 Find the equation of the line passing through the point (5, 7.5) with a gradient of 3.5.
S ho rT
a n S W er
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 x
xvalues
10
11
15
yvalues
23
21
20
14
16
12
4 Use the data from question 2 to fit a leastsquares regression line. Express the equation in the form
y = a + bx.
5 Find the leastsquares regression line and the correlation coefficient for the data in question 3. Express
123
7 Using the leastsquares regression line from question 5, copy and complete the following table of
predicted values.
x
ypred
11
13
15
17
20
8 For the leastsquares regression line from question 5, find the residuals.
e x T ended
r e S ponS e
Task 1
1 Consider this data set which measures the sales figures for a new salesperson.
Day
Units sold
1
1
2
2
3
4
4
9
5
20
6
44
7
84
8
124
Task 2
1 A mining company wishes to predict its gold production output. It collected the following data over a
9month period.
Month (1 = January) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.
Production (tonnes)
3
8 10.8 12 11.6 14 15.5 15 18.1
a Plot the data and fit a line of best fit by eye.
b State the equation of this line.
c Fit a straight line to the original data using the 3median
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
DA
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
124
12 months.
f Comment on the accuracy, usefulness and simplicity of the
methods.
2 Using the data from question 1 above, answer the following
questions.
a Looking at the original data set, discuss whether linearity is a reasonable assertion.
b Research into goldmines has indicated that after about 10 months, production tends not to increase
as rapidly as in earlier months. Given this information, a logarithmic transformation is suggested.
Transform the original data using this method.
c Fit a straight line to this transformed data using leastsquares regression.
d Discuss whether or not this transformation has removed any nonlinearity.
e Predict the level of production of gold after 12 months using the equation obtained in part d.
Compare the prediction from question 1 e above with the one obtained using the logarithmic
transformation.
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9418: Warm up with a quick quiz on
introduction to regression. (page 95)
3B
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 3.1 doc9419: Practise finding the median. (page 100)
SkillSHEET 3.2 doc9420: Practise calculating the gradient (I).
(page 100)
SkillSHEET 3.3 doc9398: Practise finding the equation of a straight
line. (page 100)
3d
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc9423: Investigate interpolation and extrapolation
on a scatterplot. (page 108)
SkillSHEET 3.4 doc9424: Practise using the regression line to make
predictions. (page 108)
3e
residual analysis
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 3.2 doc9425: Fitting a line by using the equalnumberofpoints method, the 3median method, calculate r, calculate residuals
and make predictions using interpolation and extrapolation. (page 113)
3F
Transforming to linearity
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc9482: Investigate different transformations to
linearity. (page 117)
TUTorialS
We 10 eles1265: Watch a tutorial on applying a
parabolic transformation to data using a CAS calculator.
(page 115)
inTeraCTiViTY
Transforming to linearity int0184: Use the interactivity to consolidate
your understanding of applying appropriate transformations to
achieve linearity. (page 114)
eleSSon
Which way to stretch? eles0050: Discover how to use a scatterplot
displaying a nonlinear relationship to determine how to transform
data to achieve linearity. (page 114)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9426: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 124)
125
Answers CHAPTER 3
inTrodUCTion To
reGreSSion
b y = 0.15x + 21.87
c y = 52.38x + 8890.48
d y = x + 30
n
Lower
(total)
group
10
3
11
4
12
4
13
4
14
5
26
9
43
14
58
19
698
233
3 y = 0.95x + 78.8
5 B
b y
c y
7 a
d y
b
8 a
b
c
e y
d
9 a
b
c
d
e
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Middle Upper
group
group
4
3
3
4
4
4
5
4
4
5
8
9
15
14
20
19
232
233
4 D
6 y = 4x + 90
10 15 20
y = 1.93x + 3.71
(2, 4.2) and (8, 2.4), 0.3
(5, 3.1)
Approximately 4.7 (using calculator
4.733)
Level = 0.3 day + 4.7
(2, 65) and (9, 100), 5
(5.5, 70)
From the graph, approximately 50
Number of cars = 5 week + 50
Cars
x
85
10 A
exercise 3C
126
y = 5x + 50.83
70
0
h y
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Week
11 D
80
70
60
50
0
1780 1830 1880 1930 19802030
Year
6
0
100
g y
b
Age
2 a y = 0.4x + 1.3
b Time = 2 age + 2.5
Cost ($)
1 a y
meaningless
x
1
2
9.7
7.46
2.24
3
12.7
9.82
2.88
4
13.7
12.18
1.52
5
14.4
14.54
0.14
2.4
6
14.5
16.9
2 By examining the original scatterplot, and
residual plot, data are clearly not linear.
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
138.8
19.2
124
116.3
7.7
74
93.8
19.8
56
71.3
31
48.8
17.8
35
26.3
8.7
3.8
Residuals
58.7
23.8
3
ypred
Residuals
34.0
15
13.96
1.04
37.9
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
10
12
4
9
7
3
4
11.58
10.39
8.01
6.82
5.63
4.44
3.25
1.58
35.8
27.8
5.7
16.4
10
68.5
12
d 15.15%
e 13.7 days. Unlikely that extrapolation
140
120
Average height
(cm)
0.954
128
144
1.041
148
1.079
154
1.114
158
1.146
161
1.176
165
1.204
164
1.230
166
1.255
167
3 a i 123.3 cm ii 143.9 cm
iii 176.7 cm
b a ii
4 Normal growth is linear only within given
7
8
9
10
11 a
240
180
120
y = 59.07 + 21.74x
60
30
0
60
30
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Age group (years)
18.2
e
Residuals
15.3
3.1
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
160
M T W T F S S
23.1
No apparent
pattern in the
residuals
likely to be linear
180
3D
4 a, b
22
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
1.61
4.01
2.18
1.37
1.44
0.75
Residuals
158
7
c
ypred
1 2 3 4 5 6
Defective
Day rate (%)
2 a
Bookings
Day in hotel
Transforming to linearity
5 a, b
b $29 300
d About 13 years
residual analysis
y
ypred
Residuals
1
5.1
4.1
exercise 3F
Seeds
Average
height (cm)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Circle
8 9 10
positive relationship.
c 180
127
Circle
Seeds
Residual
MUlTiple ChoiCe
40.33
20.59
1.85
13
14.89
ShorT anSWer
21
28.36
1 y = 3.5x + 25
34
37.37
55
89
25.58
144
7.41
10
233
74.67
1 A
5 D
9 C
2E
6C
10 C
38.12
Residuals
60
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Circle
30
i Stretch using x2
1
ii Compress either log10 (y) or
12 a
Logseeds
1.8
1.2
0.6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Circle
e
f
128
relation.
log10 ( y) = 0.2094x + 0.2746
log10 (number of seeds) = 0.2094
circle number + 0.2746
0.9999, 99.99% (100.0%) of variation
in number of seeds is due to number of
circles. This is a perfect relation, often
found in nature (see the Golden Ratio).
378
This is a much better prediction as it
follows the steep upward trend.
Task 2
4 E
8 C
1 a
2 y=
ypred
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
20.6
18.1
15.6
13.1
10.6
8.1
5.6
3.2
20
0.65
y
23
ypred
23.1
2 4 6 8 10
2
4
8
9
10
11
15
21
20
14
16
9
12
5
21.85
19.35
14.35
13.1
11.85
10.6
5.6
log10 (month)
0.85
0.65
0.35
2.9
2.85
1.4
0.6
exTended reSponSe
Task 1
1 a Likely to be a y versus x2 relationship
b A poor predictor for most values of x
c 128
20
16
12
8
4
y ypred
0.1
x
1
2.4
3 B
7 B
9
22
x
7
21
3 y = 1.33x + 24.56 4 y = 2.055 + 1.364x
5 y = 1.25x + 24.35, r = 0.96
b 16.75
6 a 0.45
ChapTer reVieW
Day
16
25
36
49
Units
sold
20
44
84 124
64
Production
(tonnes)
0.301
0.477
10.8
0.602
12
0.699
11.6
0.778
14
0.845
15.5
0.903
15
0.954
18.1
Chapter 4
Time series
DiGitaL DOC
doc9427
10 Quick Questions
Chapter COntentS
4a
4B
4C
4D
4e
4F
4a
In previous chapters we looked at bivariate, or (x, y), data where both x and y could vary independently.
In this chapter we shall consider cases where the xvariable is time and, generally, where time goes up in
even increments such as hours, days, weeks or years. In these cases we have what is called a time series.
The main purpose of a time series is to see how some quantity varies with time. For example, a company
may wish to record its daily sales figures over a 10day period.
Time
Sales ($)
Day 1
5200
Day 2
5600
Day 3
6100
Day 4
6200
Day 5
7000
Day 6
7100
Day 7
7500
Day 8
7700
Day 9
7700
Day 10
8000
Sales ($)
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days
As can be seen from this graph, there seems to be a trend upwards clearly, this company is
increasing its revenues!
types of trend
Units: 3 & 4
Although many types of trend exist, in Further Mathematics we shall be looking at trends that are
classified as secular, seasonal, cyclic and random.
Secular trends
If over a reasonably long period of time a trend appears to be either increasing or decreasing steadily, with
no major changes of direction, then it is called a secular trend. It is important to look at the data over a long
period. If the trend in the previous figure continued for, say, 30 days, then we could safely conclude that
the company was indeed becoming more profitable. What appears to be a steady increase over a short term
say, stock market share prices can turn out to be something quite different over the long run.
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
129
Seasonal trends
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
seasonal trends.
Seasons
Months
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about cyclic
trends.
Seasons
Winter, spring, summer, autumn
Jan., Feb., Mar., . . ., Nov., Dec.
Houses sold
AOS: DA
Cycle
Four seasons in a year
12 months in a year
Example
Rainfall
Grocery store monthly sales
figures
Four quarters in a year Quarterly expenditure
figures of a company
Cyclic trends
Like seasonal trends, cyclic trends show fluctuations
upwards and downwards, but not according to
season. Businesses often have cycles where at times
profits increase, then decline, then increase again.
A good example of this would be the sales of a new
major software product. At first, sales are slow; then
they pick up as the product becomes popular. When
enough people have bought the product, sales may
fall off until a new version of the product comes
on the market, causing sales to increase again. This
cycle can be repeated many times, which is why
there are many versions of some software products.
Units: 3 & 4
250
200
150
100
50
0
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4t
2007
2008
2009
Profits
random trends
30
26
22
18
14
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 t
Years
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 1
Write/DraW
Temp. (C)
think
38.4
38.2
38.0
37.8
37.6
37.4
37.2
0
38.4
38.2
38.0
37.8
37.6
37.4
37.2
0
Temp. (C)
Units: 3 & 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Hours
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Hours
example 1
Week 1
Mon.
1
Week 1
Tues.
2
Week 1
Wed.
3
Week 1
Thurs.
4
Week 1
Fri.
5
Week 1
Sat.
6
Week 1
Sun.
7
Week 2
Mon.
8
Week 2
Tues.
9
example 2
Jan.
2009
1
Feb.
2009
2
Mar.
2009
3
Apr.
2009
4
May
2009
5
June
2009
6
July
2009
7
Aug.
2009
8
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 2
The following table displays the school fees collected over a 10week period. Plot the data and
decide on the type of timeseries pattern. If there is a secular trend, t a straight line.
Week beginning 8 Jan. 15 Jan. 22 Jan. 29 Jan. 5 Feb. 12 Feb. 19 Feb. 26 Feb. 5 Mar. 12 Mar.
$ 1000
1.5
2.5
14.0
4.5
13.0
4.5
8.5
0.5
5.0
1.0
131
Write/DraW
Week
8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26
5
12
beginning Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb. Feb. Mar. Mar.
$ 1000
5.0
Time code
School fees
think
1.0
10
y
15
12
9
6
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
Week
exercise 4a
For questions 1 to 5, identify whether the trends are likely to be secular, seasonal, cyclic or random for:
1 the amount of rainfall, per month, in Western Victoria
2 the number of soldiers in the United States army, measured annually
3 the number of people living in Australia, measured annually
4 the share price of BHP Billiton, measured monthly
5 the number of seats held by the Liberal Party in Federal Parliament.
6 Fit a trend line by eye to the data in the graph at right.
40
7 We1 A wildlife park ranger is travelling on safari
35
towards the centre of a wildlife park. Each day (t), he
30
records the number of sightings (y) of zebra that he
25
notes. He draws up the table below.
Temperature (C)
DiGitaL DOC
doc9421
Spreadsheet
trend lines
20
15
10
t
y
1
6
2
9
3
13
4
8
5
9
6
14
7
15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days
8
17
9
14
Fit a trend line to the data. What type of trend is best reflected by these data?
132
10
11
11
15
12
19
8 We2 The monthly share prices of a recently privatised telephone company were recorded as
follows.
Date
Jan. 09
Feb. 09
Mar. 09
Apr. 09
May 09
June 09
July 09
Aug. 09
2.50
2.70
3.00
3.20
3.60
3.70
3.90
4.20
Price ($)
Graph the data (let 1 = Jan., 2 = Feb. . . . and so on) and fit a trend line to the data.
Comment on the feasibility of predicting share prices for the following year.
9 Plot the following monthly sales data for umbrellas. Fit a trend line. Discuss the type of
trend best reflected by the data and the limitations of your trend line.
Month
Jan.
Feb.
10
Sales
Mar. Apr.
15
May June
40
70
95
100
90
60
Nov. Dec.
35
20
10
10 Consider the data in the figure below, which represent the price of oranges over a 19week period.
Price (cents)
100
80
60
40
20
0
10
15
Weeks
20
25
Plot the data and fit a trend line using the best fit by eye method. Discuss the type of trend best reflected
by these data.
Quarter Q107 Q207 Q307 Q407 Q108 Q208 Q308 Q408 Q109 Q209 Q309 Q409
Sales
120
135
150
145
140
120
100
110
120
140
190
220
12 The number of employees at the Comnatpac Bank was recorded over a 10month period. Plot and fit a
trend line to the data. What would you say about the trend?
Month
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Employees
6100
5700
5400
5200
4800
4400
4200
4000
3700
3300
4B
Using our eyes to fit a straight line to a set of data or to predict values can be an inadequate mathematical
technique (as we saw in chapter 3). In this section we shall look at using either the 3median or leastsquares regression techniques to calculate the equation of a trend line.
133
example 1
Year
Time code
2006
1
2007
2
2008
3
2009
4
example 2
example 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
40
CD sales
30
20
10
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 3
A new tanning salon has opened in a shopping centre, with customer numbers for its rst days shown
in the following table. Fit a straight line to the data set using the leastsquares regression method.
Period
Number of
customers
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Week 1
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
Sun.
Mon.
11
13
16
18
19
20
Week 2
Tues. Wed.
23
27
Use the equation of the straight line to predict the number of customers for:
a Monday week 4
b Thursday week 2.
think
1
Complete an association
table, where
Monday week 1 is 1,
Tuesday week 1 is 2,
Wednesday week 2
is 10.
Use a calculator to find
the equation of leastsquares regression line.
Write
Period
Number of
customers
Time code
Week 1
Week 2
Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed.
9
11
13
16
18
19
20
23
27
10
y = 5.67 + 1.97x
Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code
where time code 1 corresponds to Monday of week 1.
Monday week 4,
a Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code
the time code is 22.
= 5.67 + 1.97 22
Substitute t = 22 into
= 49.01
the equation and
Number of customers = 49
evaluate. Round to the
nearest integer.
3 a For
134
= 5.67 + 1.97 11
= 27.34
Number of customers = 27
Note: Remember that forecasting is an extrapolation and if going too far into the future, the prediction is
not reliable, as the trend may change.
Once an equation has been determined for a time series, it can be used to analyse the situation.
For the period given in the previous worked example, the equation is:
Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code.
The yintercept (5.67) has no real meaning, as it represents the time code of zero, which is the day
before the opening of the salon. The gradient or rate of change is of more importance. It indicates that
the number of customers is changing; in this instance, growing by approximately 2 customers per day
(gradient of +1.97).
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 4
The forecast equation for calculating share prices, y, in a sugar company was obtained from data
of the share prices over the past 5 years. The equation is y = 0.42t + 1.56, where t = 1 represents the
year 2001, t = 2 represents the year 2002 and so on.
a Rewrite the equation putting it in the context of the question.
b Interpret the values of the gradient and yintercept.
c Predict the share price in 2013.
think
Write
exercise 4B
= $0.42 13 + $1.56
= $5.46 + $1.56
= $7.02
1 We3 The following table represents the number of cars remaining to be completed on an assembly
line. Fit a straight line to the following data using the leastsquares regression method.
Time (hours)
Cars remaining
1
32
2
26
3
27
4
23
5
16
6
17
7
13
8
10
9
9
DiGitaL DOC
doc9430
SkillSHEET 4.1
Gradientintercept
method for
sketching linear
graphs
2 From the equation of the trend line, it should be possible to predict when there are no cars left on the
assembly line. This is done by finding the value of t which makes y= 0. Using the equation from
question 1, find the time when there will be no cars left on the assembly line.
Chapter 4 Time series
135
y
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Number of staff
DiGitaL DOC
doc9429
Spreadsheet
3median
method
6
8
Months
10
11
12
13
10
14
12
15
16
Price ($) 2.75 3.30 3.15 2.25 2.10 1.80 1.50 2.70 4.10 4.20 3.55 1.65 2.60 2.95 3.25 3.70
5 The following time series shows the number of internet websites on a webring over a 9month
period. Plot the data and fit a 3median trend line. Comment on this line as a predictor of further
growth.
Time (months)
Sites (millions)
2.00
2.20
2.50
3.10
3.60
4.70
6.10
7.20
8.50
6 We4 The forecast equation for calculating prices, y, of shares in a steel company was obtained from
data of the share prices of the past 6 years. The equation is.
y = 0.72t + 2.56
where t = 1 represents the year 2010, t = 2 represents the year 2011 and so on.
a Rewrite the equation putting it in the context of the question.
b Interpret the values of the gradient and the yintercept.
c Predict the share price in 2020.
7 The TeenyTinyTot Company has started to make prams. Its sales figures for the first 8 months are
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sales
65
95
130
115
145
170
190
220
a Using the sequence Jan. = 1, Feb. = 2, . . ., calculate the equation of the trend line using the least
The book was released a week before the first figures were collected.
Time (weeks)
Sales (1000)
17
21
25
28
27
26
a
b
c
d
136
Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the leastsquares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the sales for weeks 10, 12 and 14.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting your
arguments with mathematical statements.
9 The average quarterly price of coffee (per 100 kg) has been recorded for 3 years.
Quarter Q107 Q207 Q307 Q407 Q108 Q208 Q308 Q408 Q109 Q209 Q309 Q409
Price ($)
a
b
c
d
358
323
316
336
369
333
328
351
389
387
393
402
Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the leastsquares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the price for the next quarter.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting
your arguments with mathematical statements.
10 A mathematics teacher gives her students a test each month for 10 months, and the
class average is recorded. The tests are carefully designed to be of similar difficulty.
Test
Mark (%)
a
b
c
d
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
57
63
62
67
65
68
70
72
74
77
Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the leastsquares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the results for the last exam in December.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting your
arguments with mathematical statements.
4C
DiGitaL DOC
doc9428
WorkSHEET 4.1
When the data fluctuates a lot, it is often hard to see the underlying trend. In order to reveal the trend,
we may need to try and remove some of these fluctuations before attempting to fit the trend line. This
process is referred to as smoothing.
There are two basic techniques for smoothing random or cyclical variation: median smoothing and
movingaverage smoothing.
Median smoothing is preferred where there are small data sets, as it can be done graphically on a
timeseries plot. Also, for data sets with many outliers due to the volatile random or cyclical trend,
median smoothing is preferred. We have seen earlier that the median is not affected by outliers, while the
mean is.
Movingaverage smoothing is an option that is preferred for data sets with few random fluctuations.
Movingaverage smoothing
This technique relies on the principle that averages of data can be used to
represent the original data. When applied to time series, a number of data points
are averaged, then we move on to another group of data points in a systematic
fashion and average them, and so on. It is generally quite simple. Consider the
following example:
Notice how the third column in the table at right is computed from the first two.
1. Take the first three yvalues (i.e. first, second and third) and find their average
12 + 10 + 15 = 12.3
3
3. Continue moving down the table until you reach the last three points.
As we use three points to average, moving down the table from top to bottom,
the process is called a 3point movingaverage smoothing.
The number of points averaged at a time may vary: we could have a 4point
smoothing, a 5point smoothing or even an 11point smoothing. Although it is
preferable to choose an odd number, such as 3 or 5, it is possible to choose even
numbers as well, with a slight change in the method. Later in the chapter, we will
discuss how to choose the number of points for smoothing.
2
10
3
15
4
13
5
16
Moving average
12 + 10 + 15
= 12.3
3
10 + 15 + 13
= 12.7
3
15 + 13 + 16
= 14.7
3
13 + 16 + 13
= 14.0
3
13
16 + 13 + 18
= 15.7
3
18
13 + 18 + 21
= 17.3
3
21
18 + 21 + 19
= 19.3
3
19
137
The temperature of a sick patient is measured every 2 hours and the results are recorded.
a Use a 3point movingaverage technique to smooth the data.
b Plot both original and smoothed data on the same set of axes.
c Predict the temperature for 18 hours using the last smoothed value.
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
9
3
2
36.5
4
37.2
6
36.9
8
37.1
think
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
10
37.3
14
37.5
16
37.8
37.2
1
(36.5 + 37.2 + 36.9) = 36.87
3
36.9
1
(37.2 + 36.9 + 37.1) = 37.07
3
37.1
1
(36.9 + 37.1 + 37.3) = 37.10
3
10
37.3
1
(37.1 + 37.3 + 37.2) = 37.20
3
12
37.2
1
(37.3 + 37.2 + 37.5) = 37.33
3
14
37.5
1
(37.2 + 37.5 + 37.8) = 37.50
3
16
37.8
38
37.5
37
36.5
36
0
12
37.2
Write/DraW
Temperature (C)
Units: 3 & 4
Time (hours)
Temp. (C)
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Number of hours
2. Fit a single straight line to the smoothed data using either the 3median or leastsquares regression
techniques, one could find a single equation for the smoothed data points. This is often the preferred
technique.
A
time
B
temp.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
36.5
37.2
36.9
37.1
37.3
37.2
37.5
37.8
C
smooth
=SUM(B1:B3)/3
=SUM(B2:B4)/3
=SUM(B3:B5)/3
=SUM(B4:B6)/3
=SUM(B5:B7)/3
=SUM(B6:B8)/3
139
exercise 4C
Year (t)
Sales (y)
2002
2250
2003
2600
2004
2400
2005
2750
2006
2900
2007
2450
2008
3100
2009
3400
Jan.
120
Feb.
70
Mar.
100
Apr.
110
May
90
June
80
July
70
Aug.
90
Sept.
80
Oct.
100
Nov.
60
Dec.
60
a Using a 3point moving average, smooth the data and comment on the result. Use Jan. = 1, Feb. = 2 . . .
b Using the leastsquares regression method, find the equation of the trend line for the smoothed data.
c Use the equation to predict the number of sales for March next year. Comment on the predictions.
3 Perform a 5point moving average smoothing on the data from question 2 and discuss the result.
4 Consider the quarterly rainfall data below. Rainfall has been measured over a 3year period. Perform a
3point moving average and comment on whether there is an underlying secular trend.
Time (t)
Rainfall
(mm)
Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter
2006
2006
2007
2007 2007
2007
2008
2008 2008
2008
2009
2009
100
50
65
120
90
50
60
110
85
40
50
100
5 The attendance at Bendigo Football Club games was recorded over 10 years. Management wishes to
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
75
72
69
74
66
72
61
64
69
65
Attendance
( 1000)
a Perform a 3point moving average smoothing on the data and comment on the result.
b Using the 3median line of best fit on the smoothed data, find the equation of the trend line.
c Use the equation from b to predict the attendance in 2011. Comment on the prediction.
6 Use a spreadsheet solution to complete a 3point moving average smoothing on the following data
140
Week
Sales
Week
Sales
34
12
44
27
13
47
31
14
49
37
15
41
41
16
52
29
17
48
32
18
44
37
19
49
47
20
56
10
38
21
54
11
41
Smoothed data
Smoothed data
7 Coffee price data are shown below. Perform a 3point moving average to smooth the data. Plot the
Q107 Q207 Q307 Q407 Q108 Q208 Q308 Q408 Q109 Q209 Q309 Q409
358
323
316
336
369
333
328
351
389
387
393
402
8 The sales of a new car can vary due to the effect of advertising and promotion. The sales figures for
Nassin Motor Companys new sedan are shown in the table. Use 5point moving averages to smooth
the data. Plot the data, and use the last smoothed value to predict sales for the next month.
Month
Sales
Feb.
141
Mar.
270
Apr.
234
May
357
June
267
July
387
Aug.
288
Sept.
303
Oct.
367
Nov.
465
Dec.
398
9 A large building site requires varying numbers of workers. The weekly employment figures over the
last 7 weeks have been recorded. By performing a 3point moving average smoothing, predict the
number of people required for the next week.
Week
Employees
67
78
54
82
69
88
94
As mentioned in the previous section, it is usually preferable to use an odd number of points. However,
there are situations when an even number of points should be used that is, a 4point, 6point or even
12point moving average. When we used an odd number of points, the result was automatically centred;
that is, the ydata had the same tvalues as the original (except at the first and last lost points). This
does not occur with an evenpoint smoothing, as shown in the following example of a 4point moving
average.
Time
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
yvalue
6
10
14
12
11
15
16
(6 + 10 + 14 + 12) 4
10.5
(10 + 14 + 12 + 11) 4
11.75
(14 + 12 + 11 + 15) 4
13
(12 + 11 + 15 + 16) 4
13.5
141
Observe that the first average (10.5) is not aligned with any particular year it is aligned with
2007.5! Also note that there are now three lost values (the seven original records reduced to four). In
other words, the moving average is not centred properly. To align the data correctly, an additional step
needs to be performed; this is called centring.
Use the following procedure to centre the data:
Step 1. Find the average of the first two smoothed points and align it with the 3rd time point.
Step 2. Find the average of the next two smoothed points and align it with the 4th time point.
Step 3. Repeat, leaving two blank entries at both top and bottom of the table.
This is demonstrated in the following table, using the data from the previous table.
4point average (smoothed value)
Time
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Calculation
yvalue
Result
10
(6 + 10 + 14 + 12) 4
14
(10 + 14 + 12 + 11) 4
12
(14 + 12 + 11 + 15) 4
11
(12 + 11 + 15 + 16) 4
15
16
Result
(10.5 + 11.75) 2
11.125
(11.75 + 13) 2
12.375
(13 + 13.5) 2
13.25
10.5
11.75
13
13.5
The first average (11.125) is now aligned with 2008, the second (12.375) aligned with 2009 and so
on. This process not only introduces an extra step, but an extra averaging (or smoothing) as well. It is
usually preferable to stick with an oddpoint smoothing to reduce these difficulties.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 6
The quarterly sales figures for a dress shop (in thousands of dollars)
were recorded over a 2year period. Perform a centred 4point moving
average smoothing and plot the result. Comment on any trends that has
been revealed.
Time
tUtOriaL
eles1331
Worked example 6
Spring
29
Write/DraW
Time
Sales
27
22
4point centred
moving average
142
Time Sales
3
4point centred
moving average
19
(22 + 19 + 25 + 31) 4 = 24.25
25
(19 + 25 + 31 + 25) 4 = 25.00
31
(25 + 31 + 25 + 22) 4 = 25.75
25
(31 + 25 + 22 + 29) 4 = 26.75
22
29
35
Sales ( $1000)
25
15
4 5
Time
Observe the steadily increasing trend (even with only four smoothed points)
that was not obvious from the original data.
143
The formulas are shown below. Note the cell row and column labels.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
A
time
B
sales
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
27
22
19
25
31
25
22
29
C
fourpoint
D
centred
=SUM(B1:B4)/4
=SUM(B2:B5)/4
=SUM(B3:B6)/4
=SUM(B4:B7)/4
=SUM(B5:B8)/4
=SUM(C2:C3)/2
=SUM(C3:C4)/2
=SUM(C4:C5)/2
=SUM(C5:C6)/2
There is little difference between this and a 3point moving average spreadsheet, except that the SUMs
are located (columns C and D) to correspond to the appropriate term in the time series (columns A and B).
exercise 4D
of points
1 We 6 Perform a 4point centred moving average to smooth the following data and plot the result.
1
75
2
54
3
62
4
60
5
70
6
45
7
54
8
59
9
62
10
64
2 The price of oranges fluctuates from season to season. Data have been recorded for 3years. Perform a
4point centred moving average, plot the data and comment on any trends.
t
Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer
2007
2007 2007
2007
2008
2008 2008
2008
2009
2009 2009
2009
Price
45
67
51
44
52
76
63
48
58
80
66
52
3 a Use a spreadsheet to complete the following table. The time series represents the temperature of a
Temperature
36.6
36.4
36.8
37.2
36.9
36.5
37.2
37.4
37.1
37.4
37.6
36.9
37.2
37.6
36.9
36.75
36.825
36.85
36.95
37
37.05
37.275
37.375
37.25
37.275
37.325
37.15
b Using the smoothed data, find the equation of the leastsquares regression line.
c Use the trend line to predict the temperature of the patient on day 16.
144
4 The sales of summer clothing vary according to the season. The following table gives seasonal sales
data (in thousands of dollars) for 3 years at a Darryl Jones department store.
Season Q306 Q406 Q107 Q207 Q307 Q407 Q108 Q208 Q308 Q408 Q109 Q209
Sales
78
92
90
73
62
85
83
70
61
78
74
59
last 10 days.
Day
Time (s)
a
b
c
d
10
188
179
183
180
173
171
182
168
171
166
7 The following table shows the share price index of Industrial Companies during an unstable fortnights
trading. By calculating a 4point centred moving averages, determine if there seems to be an upward or
downward trend.
Day
Index
4e
10
678
762
692
714
689
687
772
685
688
712
Median smoothing
An alternative to movingaverage smoothing is to replace the averaging of a group of points with the
median of each group. It is a faster technique requiring no calculations (provided you use oddpoint
median smoothing). Often it can be done directly on a graph of a time series.
145
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 7
Perform a 3point median smoothing on the data in the table below. The table shows the cost of an
airline ticket between Perth and Melbourne over an 8month period. Construct a timeseries plot
of the original data and smoothed data on the same set of axis.
Time
Cost ($)
340
350
320
340
300
330
350
310
think
Time
Cost ($) 340 350 320 340 300 330 350 310
3point
moving
median
($)
Cost ($)
Write/DraW
y
380
360
340
320
300
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Time
Generally, the effect of median smoothing is to remove some random fluctuations. It performs poorly on
cyclical or seasonal fluctuations unless the size of the range being used (3, 5, 7, . . . points) is chosen
carefully.
146
10 x
think
Write/DraW
exercise 4e
10 x
Median smoothing
1 We7 Perform a 3point median smoothing on the following data and plot the result. Comment on any
trends that you find. These are the same data as in question 1, Exercise 4D, so compare the graphs of
1
75
2
54
3
62
4
60
5
70
6
45
7
54
8
59
9
62
10
64
2 The maximum daily temperatures for a year were recorded as a monthly average. Perform a 3point
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Temp. (C)
31
29
27
24
21
20
22
Aug. Sept.
21
23
Nov.
Dec.
25
27
26
y
20
16
12
8
4
0
Oct.
10 x
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
0
8 10 12 x
5 Perform a 3point median smoothing on the data in the following table, which represent the share price
147
6 Perform a 5point median smoothing on the data in the following table, which represent the share price
Price
Day
Price
Day
Price
Day
Price
0.87
11
1.04
21
1.01
31
1.89
1.34
12
1.19
22
0.98
32
1.75
1.14
13
1.09
23
1.12
33
1.55
1.08
14
1.10
24
1.07
34
1.35
0.89
15
1.04
25
1.23
35
1.15
0.67
16
1.02
26
1.32
36
1.30
0.98
17
0.94
27
1.45
37
1.20
1.23
18
0.98
28
1.56
38
1.17
1.06
19
0.89
29
1.67
39
1.07
10
1.08
20
1.00
30
1.78
40
0.87
DiGitaL DOC
doc9432
WorkSHEET 4.2
4F
A seasonal trend is similar to a cyclical trend where there are defined peaks and troughs in the timeseries data, except for one notable difference.
Seasonal trends have a fixed and regular period of time between one peak and the next peak in the
data values. Conversely, there is a fixed and regular period of time between one trough and the
next trough.
Joes Fast Food daily hamburger sales
As we have seen in the sections on
fitting a straight line to a time series,
120
Sat.
it is difficult to find an effective linear
Sat.
100
Sat.
equation for such data. As well, the
80
sections on smoothing indicated that
60
seasonal data may not lend themselves
40
to the techniques of movingaverage
20
or median smoothing. We may just
Tues.
Tues.
Tues.
have to accept that the data vary from
0
5
10
15
20
25 t
season to season and treat each record
Day of the week
individually.
For example, the unemployment rate in Australia is often quoted as 6.8% seasonally adjusted.
The Government has accepted that each season has its own time series, more or less independent of
the other seasons. How can we remove the effect of the season on our time series? The technique of
seasonally adjusting, or deseasonalising, will modify the original time series, hopefully removing the
seasonal variation, and exposing any other trends (secular, cyclic, random) which may be hidden by
seasonal variation.
Number of hamburgers sold
interaCtiVitY
int0185
Seasonal adjustment
Seasonal adjustment
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about
deseasonalising
data
148
To deseasonalise the data, we divide each value by the corresponding seasonal index. That is,
Deseasonalised figure or value =
The method of deseasonalising time series is best demonstrated with an example. Observe carefully the
various steps, which must be performed in the order shown.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 9
7.7
2007
2008
2009
6.4
6.7
6.9
8.3
8.5
8.1
7.9
8.2
8.3
7.5
7.7
7.6
Write/DraW
7.2
tUtOriaL
eles1266
Worked example 9
2005
7.3750
2006
7.5750
2007
7.5250
2008
7.7750
2009
7.7250
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Summer
0.8407
0.8581
0.8505
0.8617
0.8932
Autumn
1.0983
1.0429
1.1030
1.0932
1.0485
Winter
1.0847
1.0825
1.0498
1.0547
1.0744
Spring
0.9763
1.0165
0.9967
0.9904
0.9838
Summer:
(0.8407 + 0.8581 + 0.8505 + 0.8617 + 0.8932) 5 = 0.8608
Autumn:
(1.0983 + 1.0429 + 1.1030 + 1.0932 + 1.0485) 5 = 1.0772
Winter:
(1.0847 + 1.0825 + 1.0498 + 1.0547 + 1.0744) 5 = 1.0692
Spring:
(0.9763 + 1.0165 + 0.9967 + 0.9904 + 0.9838) 5 = 0.9927
Season
Summer Autumn
Seasonal index 0.8608 1.0772
Winter
1.0692
Spring
0.9927
149
Unemployment figures
2005
7.202
7.520
7.482
7.253
2006
7.551
7.334
7.669
7.756
2007
7.435
7.705
7.388
7.555
2008
7.783
7.891
7.669
7.756
2009
8.015
7.520
7.763
7.656
8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
0
8
12 16
Time period
20
unemployment figures.
Spreadsheet solution
Although a CAS calculator can be used to solve some parts of Worked example 9, a spreadsheet can be
used to solve the entire problem. Such a spreadsheet has been constructed on the following page.
Note: The input data are in the table below. They should also appear at the top of your spreadsheet.
Step 1. Yearly averages are calculated just below the data table.
Step 2. Each term is divided by the appropriate yearly average.
Step 3. Seasonal indices are calculated (to the right of step 2).
Step 4. Deseasonalised data are calculated (below step 2).
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
Step 1
Yearly ave.
2005
6.2
8.1
8
7.2
7.375
2006
6.5
7.9
8.2
7.7
7.575
2007
6.4
8.3
7.9
7.5
7.525
2008
6.7
8.5
8.2
7.7
7.775
2009
6.9
8.1
8.3
7.6
7.725
Step 3
150
Step 2
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
2005
0.840 678
1.098 305
1.084 746
0.976 271
2006
0.858 086
1.042 904
1.082 508
1.016 502
2007
0.850 498
1.102 99
1.049 834
0.996 678
2008
0.861 736
1.093 248
1.054 662
0.990 354
Step 4
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
2005
7.202 264
7.519 508
7.481 972
7.252 767
2006
7.550 76
7.333 841
7.669 022
7.756 431
2007
7.434 595
7.705 175
7.388 448
7.554 965
2008
7.783 091
7.890 842
7.669 022
7.756 431
2009
Seasonal indices
0.893 204 0.860 84
1.048 544 1.077 198
1.074 434 1.069 237
0.983 819 0.992 725
4.000 000
2009
8.015 422
7.519 508
7.762 546
7.655 698
The formulas corresponding to the spreadsheet follow. Note carefully the row and column addresses.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
3
4
Season
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5
Summer
6.2
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.9
6
Autumn
8.1
7.9
8.3
8.5
8.1
7
Winter
8
8.2
7.9
8.2
8.3
8
Spring
7.2
7.7
7.5
7.7
7.6
9
10 Step 1 Yearly
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
ave.
(D5:D8)/4 (E5:E8)/4 (F5:F8)/4 (G5:G8)/4 (H5:H8)/4
11
Step 3
12 Step 2 Season
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Seasonal indices
13
Summer =D5/D$10 =E5/E$10 =F5/F$10 =G5/G$10 =H5/H$10 =SUM(D13:H13)/5
14
Autumn =D6/D$10 =E6/E$10 =F6/F$10 =G6/G$10 =H6/H$10 =SUM(D14:H14)/5
15
Winter =D7/D$10 =E7/E$10 =F7/F$10 =G7/G$10 =H7/H$10 =SUM(D15:H15)/5
16
Spring =D8/D$10 =E8/E$10 =F8/F$10 =G8/G$10 =H8/H$10 =SUM(D16:H16)/5
17
=SUM(I13:I16)
18 Step 4
19
20
21
22
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
=D5/$I$13
=D6/$I$14
=D7/$I$15
=D8/$I$16
=E5/$I$13
=E6/$I$14
=E7/$I$15
=E8/$I$16
=F5/$I$13
=F6/$I$14
=F7/$I$15
=F8/$I$16
=G5/$I$13
=G6/$I$14
=G7/$I$15
=G8/$I$16
=H5/$I$13
=H6/$I$14
=H7/$I$15
=H8/$I$16
Notes
1. By adding/deleting columns between columns D and H, you could increase/decrease the number of
years. Remember to change the denominator in the seasonal indices (I13 . . . I16)
2. By adding/deleting more rows between Rows 5 and 8, you could increase/decrease the number of
seasons (see Exercise 4F, question 5). Do not forget to change the denominator in row 10.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Use the deseasonalised data from Worked example 9 to find the equation of the straight line for
the deseasonalised data using the leastsquares regression method. Predict the unemployment
figure for summer in 2010. The deseasonalised data are reproduced below. (The seasonal index for
summer is 0.8608.)
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
2005
7.202
7.520
7.482
7.253
2006
7.551
7.334
7.669
7.756
2007
7.435
7.705
7.388
7.555
2008
7.783
7.891
7.669
7.756
2009
8.015
7.520
7.763
7.656
151
Write
think
1
Summer of 2010:
Deseasonalised unemployment (%)
= 0.0227 21 + 7.357
= 7.834%
Seasonalised value
= deseasonalised value seasonal index
= 7.834 0.8608
= 6.74%
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 11
Quarterly sales figures for a pool chemical supplier between 2007 and 2012
were used to determine the following seasonal indices.
Season
Seasonal index
1st quarter
1.8
2nd quarter
1.2
3rd quarter
0.2
4th quarter
0.8
tUtOriaL
eles1267
Worked example 11
Using the seasonal indices provided in the table, calculate the following.
a Find the deseasonalised figure if the actual sales figure for the second quarter in 2011 was
$4680.
b Find the deseasonalised figure if the actual sales figure for the third quarter in 2011 was $800.
c Find the predicted value if the deseasonalised predicted value for the first quarter in 2013 is
expected to be $4000.
think
Write
deseasonalised figure.
actual figure
seasonal index
4680
=
1.2
= $3900
actual figure
b Deseasonalised figure =
seasonal index
800
=
0.2
= $4000
a Deseasonalised figure =
c Seasonalised figure
Seasonal indices
Finally, it should be noted that the sum of all the seasonal indices gives a specific result, which can be
used to answer certain types of queries.
The sum of the seasonal indices is equal to the number of seasons.
152
Type of data
Monthly figures
Quarterly figures
Fortnightly figures
Daily figures for data from Monday to Friday only
Daily figures for data from Monday to Sunday
Cycle
A year
A year
A year
A week
A week
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 12
A fast food store that is open seven days a week has the following seasonal indices.
Season
Index
Monday
0.5
Tuesday
0.2
Wednesday
0.5
Thursday
0.6
Friday
Saturday
2.2
Sunday
1.1
The index for Friday has not been recorded. Calculate the missing index.
think
Write
Friday index
= 7 (sum of all the other indices)
= 7 (0.5 + 0.2 + 0.5 + 0.6 + 2.2 + 1.1)
= 7 5.1
= 1.9
exercise 4F
Seasonal adjustment
Note: Your answers may vary slightly, depending upon rounding. Try to round to 4 decimal places
for all intermediate calculations.
1 We 9 The price of sugar ($/kg) has been recorded over
Season
2007
2008
2009
3 years on a seasonal basis.
Summer
1.03
0.98
0.95
a Compute the seasonal indices.
Autumn
1.26
1.25
1.21
b Deseasonalise the data using the seasonal indices.
Winter
1.36
1.34
1.29
c Plot the original and deseasonalised data.
d Comment on your results, supporting your statements
Spring
1.14
1.07
1.04
with mathematical evidence.
DiGitaL DOC
doc9433
Spreadsheet
Seasonal adjustment
2 Data on the total seasonal rainfall (in mm) have been accumulated over a 6year period.
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
a
b
c
d
2004
103
93
143
123
2005
97
84
124
109
2006
95
82
121
107
2007
117
100
156
125
2008
118
99
155
122
2009
120
98
151
124
153
3 It is known that young people (1825) have problems in finding work; these problems are different
from those facing older people. The youth unemployment statistics are recorded separately from the
overall data. Using the youth unemployment figures for five years shown below:
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
a
b
c
d
2005
7.6
10.9
11.7
9.9
2006
7.7
11.3
12.4
10.5
2007
7.8
11.9
12.8
10.8
2008
7.7
12.6
13.5
11.4
2009
7.9
13.1
13.9
11.9
4 The unemployment rate in a successful European economy is given in the table below as a percentage.
Quarter
2007
2008
2009
a
b
c
d
e
1
5.8
6.1
5.7
2
4.9
5.1
4.5
3
3.5
3.2
4.1
4
6.7
6.5
7.1
5 It is possible to seasonally
154
Season
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Monday
1036
1089
1064
1134
1042
Tuesday
1103
1046
1085
1207
1156
Wednesday
1450
1324
1487
1378
1408
Thursday
1645
1734
1790
1804
1789
Friday
2078
2204
2215
2184
2167
Saturday
2467
2478
2504
2526
2589
Sunday
1895
1786
1824
1784
1755
MC
Season
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Number of umbrellas
24
24
25
26
25
27
27
28
30
31
33
34
(deseasonalised)
Index
1.15 0.90 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.45 3.0 2.10 2.15 0.95 0.40 0.15
a Find the equation of the straight line for the deseasonalised data using the leastsquares regression
method.
b Predict the umbrella sales for January the following year.
8 We11 Quarterly sales figures for an icecream parlour between
Mon.
0.5
Tues.
0.2
Wed.
Thurs.
0.6
Fri.
1.5
Sat.
2.2
Sun.
1.1
Season
Index
Summer
1.23
Autumn
0.89
Winter
Spring
1.45
Questions 11 and 12 relate to the following table, which contains the seasonal indices for the
monthly sales of spring water in a particular supermarket.
Season
Index
Jan.
1.05
Feb.
Mar.
1.0
Apr.
1.0
May
0.95
June
0.85
July
0.8
Aug.
0.9
Sept.
0.95
Oct.
1.05
Nov.
1.10
Dec.
1.15
B 1.05
e 1.20
C 1.10
12 MC If the actual sales figure for June 2012 was $102 000, then the deseasonalised figure would be:
a $96 900
D $120 000
B $86 700
e $102 000
C $107 368.42
155
Summary
time series
A time series is a set of measurements taken over (usually) equally spaced time intervals, such as
hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or annually.
trend lines
The trend line is a straight line that can be used to represent the entire time series. Trend lines can
be used for predicting the future values of the time series. The line can be found in several ways.
1. No smoothing:
for time series that are clearly linear; that is, slightly random or have secular trends
fit the line of best fit by eye, or using the 3median or leastsquares regression method to
raw data.
2. With smoothing:
for time series that are random, secular or have cyclical trends
fit the line of best fit using either the 3median or leastsquares regression method to smoothed
data.
3. With deseasonalising:
for time series that have seasonal trends only
fit the line of best fit using either the 3median or leastsquares regression method to
deseasonalised data.
Smoothing involves replacing the original time series with another one from which most of
the variation has been removed, in order to see if there is a secular trend. There are three basic
smoothing techniques. In all cases, points are lost at the start and end of the time series. Refer to
the text for detailed descriptions of the techniques involved.
Movingaverage
smoothing with an
odd number of points
Movingaverage smoothing works best with an odd number of points. For a 3point moving
average, two points are lost; one point at each end of the time series.
Movingaverage
smoothing with an
even number of points
Movingaverage smoothing with an even number of points is a 2step process. For example, with
4 points first perform a 4point moving average smoothing, then centre by averaging pairs of the
4point averages. For a 4point centred smoothing, four points are lost; two points at each end of
the time series.
Median smoothing
Median smoothing is usually done with an odd number of points. The number of points lost is the
same as for movingaverage smoothing.
Deseasonalisation
(only for seasonal
trends)
Deseasonalising a time series involves replacing the original time series with another one where most
or all of the seasonal variation is removed. To deseasonalise the data:
1. Calculate seasonal indices.
Average over all seasons for each year these are the yearly averages.
Divide each point in the original time series by its corresponding yearly average.
Using this new series, average over all years for each season these are the seasonal indices.
2. Deseasonalise the data by dividing each point in the original time series by its corresponding
seasonal index.
actual original figure or value
Deseasonalised figure or value =
seasonal index
To seasonalise (predicted) figures:
Seasonalised figure or value = deseasonalised figure or value seasonal index.
The sum of the seasonal indices is equal to the number of seasons.
156
Chapter review
Price of oranges ($)
M U Ltip L e
C hO iC e
50
40
30
20
10
0
8 10 12 14 16 t
Months
1
20
2
28
3
10
a 4.93
4
14
5
18
B 0.18
6
24
7
16
8
26
9
16
10
18
11
22
12
20
D 3.30
C 0.313
13
17
14
25
15
20
16
5
e 17.8
3 From another 16month time series for the price of apples, it was found that
the leastsquares trend line was: price = 0.415 month + 8.45. A prediction
for the price of apples in month 18 is:
a 8.45
B 0.42
C 6.64
e unable to be determined with the above information
D 15.92
4 A leastsquares trend line has been fitted to the time series in the figure below.
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10 t
C y = 8t
D y = 8t 10
e y = 8t + 10
5 The following data represent the number of employees in a car manufacturing plant. The data are
2002
350
2003
320
2004
300
2005
310
2006
270
2007
240
2003
12
2004
13
2005
16
2006
16
2007
17
2008
19
2008
200
2009
160
2009
22
The value, after a 4point moving average smoothing after centring, plotted against the year 2006 is:
a 16.25
B 14.25
C 15.5
D 17
e 14.875
Chapter 4 Time series
157
8 A 3point median smoothing is performed on the data in the figure below. The last smoothed value is:
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
a 25
B 21.7
C 20
10 t
D 15
e 9
Season
Index
Spring
1.12
Summer
0.78
Autumn
0.92
Winter
D 1.06
11 Using the data from question 10, a seasonally adjusted value for the summer of 2010, when the original
D 614
Revenue ($)
15 000
10 000
5 000
12
18
24
30
36
Month
12 This time series plot indicates that, over the 3year period, revenue from sales each month showed:
a no overall trend
B no correlation
e an increasing trend with seasonal variation
C positive skew
13 A 3median trend line is fitted to these data. Its slope (in dollars per month) is closest to:
a 125
158
B 146
C 167
D 188
e 255
1 The number of uniforms sold in a school uniform shop is reported in the table.
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
S hO rt
a n S W er
Fit a trend line to these data. What type of trend is best reflected by these data? Can you explain
these trends?
2 Fit a leastsquares trend line for the following data, which represent the sales at a snack bar during the
Sales ($)
2300
2200
2600
3100
2900
3200
3300
3500
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 t
squares method.
Day
Rooms
1
12
2
18
3
15
4
20
5
22
6
20
7
25
8
24
9
26
10
28
11
30
159
5 Perform a 3point moving average smoothing on the following rainfall data. Plot the original and
smoothed data on the same set of axes. Give all answers rounded to 1 decimal place.
Day
Rain (mm)
1
2
2
5
3
4
4
6
5
3
6
7
7
6
8
9
6 Apply a 5point moving average smoothing to the following seasonal data of coat sales.
Season
Sales ($)
Winter 2008
690
Spring 2008
500
Summer 2008
400
Autumn 2008
720
Winter 2009
780
Spring 2009
660
Summer 2009
550
Autumn 2009
440
7 Apply a 4point centred moving average smoothing to the data from question 6. Compare your results.
What do you notice about the number of smoothed data points in each case?
8 Perform a 3point median smoothing on the data shown below. Plot the smoothed points and join them
10 t
9 The seasonal indices for the price of shares in CSP fruit canneries are:
Season
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Index
1.7
0.6
0.5
1.2
Use seasonal indices shown in the table above to deseasonalise the following data:
Share price
Season (2009)
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
160
Seasonalised
150
100
300
400
Deseasonalised
task 1
1 Jazzas CD store has been opened for the past three weeks. The sales figures for the store were recorded
e X ten D eD
reS p O n S e
10
12
15
24
45
Week 2
12
14
18
26
53
Week 3
15
10
16
21
33
58
a Plot the above data as a time series plot and comment on the type of
b
c
d
e
Tues.
Week 1
10
= 0.5263
19
0.4211
Week 2
12
0.4091
Week 3
= 0.5455
0.5882
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
12
=
19
0.7895
1.2632
14
0.8182
= 0.6364
Sat.
2.4091
0.3922
1.2941
2.2745
Seasonal
indices
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
0.5533
1.2224
= 0.4075
3
0.6318
Thurs.
2.4312
Fri.
= 0.8104
Sat.
1.2464
18.07
21.69
Week 3
27.11
19.63
9
=
0.4075
10
=
0.4075
Fri.
Sat.
19.14
18.99
22.16
18.51
22.21
19.26
20.86
25.32
25.91
26.48
b Find the equation of the trend line using the leastsquares method and interpret the values of the
161
task 2
The next 8 questions relate to the following data, which represent seasonal rainfall (mm) in an Australian city.
Season
Rainfall (mm)
1
43
2
75
3
41
4
13
5
47
6
78
7
50
8
19
9
51
10
83
11
55
12
25
1 Plot the data points and try to fit a trend line by eye. Comment on the ease of fitting the line to this plot.
2 Now, try to fit a trend line using the 3median method. Compare the result with that of question 1.
3 Finally, fit a trend line using the leastsquares technique. Again, compare your result with the previous
ones.
4 To smooth out the seasonal variation, 3point and 5point moving average smoothings are tried. Compare
the results of these two methods with the results from questions 1 to 3 by plotting the smoothed data.
5 Upon observing the results with the 5point smoothing, a trend appears. Take the data from the 5point
moving average smoothing and fit a straight line using the leastsquares method. Put the first smoothed
point at t = 3 and then centre the time data. State the yintercept and gradient. Compare this trend line with
that from question 3.
6 Given the seasonal nature of the data, a 4point moving average smoothing is tried. After calculating
the 4point moving average, fit a leastsquares regression line, following the method of question 5.
Compare the results obtained with those from question 5.
DiGitaL DOC
doc9434
Test Yourself
Chapter 4
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
DA
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
162
7 Finally, try seasonal adjustment. Take t = 1 to be summer and find the seasonal indices. Then,
ICT activities
Chapter opener
DiGitaL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc9427: Warm up with a quick quiz on time
series. (page 129)
4a
DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc9421: Investigate the leastsquares trend line.
(page 132)
4B
DiGitaL DOCS
SkillSHEET 4.1 doc9430: Gradientintercept method for sketching
linear graphs (page 135)
Spreadsheet doc9429: Investigate the 3median method. (page 136)
WorkSHEET 4.1 doc9428: Plotting time series data and fitting trend
lines using various techniques (page 137)
4C
DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc9431: Investigate the moving average. (page 140)
4D
tUtOriaL
We 6 eles1331: Watch a tutorial on performing a centred 4point
moving average on time series data and plotting the result. (page 142)
4e
Median smoothing
DiGitaL DOC
WorkSHEET 4.2 doc9432: Recognise trends, 3point moving
average, 4point centred moving average, 6point centred moving
average and 5point median smoothing. (page 148)
4F
Seasonal adjustment
DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc9433: Make comparisons between seasonalised
and original data. (page 153)
tUtOriaLS
We 9 eles1266: Watch a tutorial on computing seasonal indices
and then using them to deseasonalise data. (page 149)
We 11 eles1267: Watch a tutorial on calculating deseasonalised
values, given actual values using seasonal indices.(page 152)
interaCtiVitY
Seasonal adjustment int0185: Use the interactivity to consolidate
your understanding of seasonal adjustment. (page 148)
Chapter review
DiGitaL DOC
Test Yourself doc9434: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 162)
163
Answers CHAPTER 4
2 4
6 8 10 12 t
2 4 6 8 10 12
Date
Price (cents)
100
80
60
40
20
5
10 15 20 25 t
Weeks
2007
2008
Quarter
2009
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
80
70
60
50
Price ($)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Months
exercise 4C
1 a
2416.7
2583.3
y
3400
3000
2600
2200
4 6 8
Months
10
2683.3
2700.0
2816.7
2983.3
80
80
80
90
80
73.3
130
110
90
70
50
0
4 6 8 10 12 t
Month
4 6 8 10 12 t
Months
Sales ( 1000)
164
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
0
10
6 8
Months
10
8
6
4
2
0
Sales
Price ($)
6
5
4
3
2
1
c $398
d The first 2 years seemed seasonal, the
Mark %
Sites (millions)
Temp. (C)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days
420
380
340
300
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters
Sales
y(14) = 50.95
90
90
88
82
84
80
78
130
110
90
70
50
0
4 6 8 10 12 t
Month
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 t
Weeks
98
Sales
exercise 4a
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
71.7 78.3 91.7 86.7 66.7 73.3 85.0 78.3 58.3 63.3
Rainfall (mm)
Number of employees
tiMe SerieS
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters
72
5 a
Sales
34
27
31
37
41
29
32
37
47
38
41
44
47
49
41
52
48
44
49
56
54
Smoothed data
30.67
31.67
36.33
35.67
34.00
32.67
38.67
40.67
42.00
41.00
44.00
46.67
45.67
47.33
47.00
48.00
47.00
49.67
53.00
Q306
Q406
58.25
57.125
56
57.375
Q107
81.25
Q207
78.475
Q307
76.625
Q407
75.375
Q108
74.88
Q208
73.875
Q308
71.875
Q408
69.375
8 10 t
Q109
Q209
b
Day Smoothed
2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Seasons
420
400
380
360
340
320
300
0
4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters
Sales
8 253.8
303
362
364.2
500
400
300
200
100
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Months
3 a
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Temperature
36.6
36.4
36.8
37.2
36.9
36.5
37.2
37.4
37.1
37.4
37.6
36.9
37.2
37.6
36.9
4point
moving
average
36.75
36.825
36.85
36.95
37
37.05
37.275
37.375
37.25
37.275
37.325
37.15
4point
centred
moving
average
6 a
Day Smoothed
180.625
36.78
177.75
36.92
176.625
37.03
175.00
37.07
173.25
172.375
37.14
37.24
9
10
10
37.27
11
37.29
12
37.29
13
36.7875
36.8375
36.9
36.975
37.025
37.1625
37.325
37.3125
37.2625
37.3
37.2375
14
15
b
190
Time (s)
Price ($)
332.3 325.0 340.3 346.0 343.3 337.3 356.0 375.7 389.7 394.0
2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Seasons
downward trend.
5
100
90
80
70
60
50
0
80
70
60
50
40
0
Smoothed
62.125 60.375
Season
4 a
y
80
70
60
50
40
Price ($)
Sales ( $1000)
180
170
160
0
6 8
Day
10
in times.
d 167
165
1
2
3
712.75
704.75
711.75
708.25
711.25
1.2274, 1.0288
b
Season
10
Index
800
775
750
725
700
675
650
2
6 8
Day
10
Median smoothing
9 10
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
62 60 62 60 54 54 59 62
y
80
70
60
50
40
0
8 10 t
Temp (C)
Temp.
(C)
Month
Jan.
Feb.
29
Mar.
27
Apr.
24
May
21
Jun.
21
Jul.
21
Aug.
22
Sep.
23
Oct.
25
Nov.
26
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
0
6 8 10 12
Months
16
12
8
4
6
8 10 t
166
Smoothed
1.00
1.01
1.07
1.12
1.23
1.32
1.45
1.56
1.67
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.55
1.35
1.30
1.20
1.17
1.17
2007
1.211
1.178
1.186
1.221
2008
1.152
1.169
1.169
1.146
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
116.506 101.027
Spring
160
140
120
100
80
0
2009
1.117
1.132
1.125
1.114
4 8 12 16 20 24
Seasons
1.0027
b
Season
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Winter
Spring
14
12
10
8
0
8 12 16 20 t
0.6829, 1.2845
Quarter
2007
5.205
5.336
5.125
5.216
2008
5.474
5.554
4.686
5.060
2009
5.115
4.900
6.004
5.528
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Seasonal adjustment
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
1.56
1.67
1.58
1.71
1.67
1.71
1.67
1.78
1.78
1.78
1.67
1.67
1.71
1.1467, 0.9336
3 20y
Smoothed
Dec.
8 10 12
Smoothed Day
21
22
1.08
23
1.08
24
0.98
25
0.98
26
0.98
27
1.06
28
1.06
29
1.08
30
1.08
31
1.09
32
1.09
33
1.09
34
1.04
35
1.02
36
0.98
37
0.98
38
0.98
39
0.98
40
exercise 4F
Price ($)
Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
2004
705.50
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
0
Rainfall (mm)
Index
Youth unemployment
Day
Unemployment
4 6 8 10 12 t
Time period
= 0.0188 t + 5.1448
e i 6.0
ii 3.9
5 Seasonal indices: 0.6341, 0.6613, 0.8329,
Season
Monday
Tuesday
2 4 6 8 10 12
Seasons
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Revenue
2800
2200
1600
1000
0
Season
14 21 28 35 t
Time period
Winter 08
Spring 08
Summer 08
Autumn 08
Winter 09
Spring 09
Summer 09
Autumn 09
6A
7 a Deseasonalised umbrella sales = 0.9161
t + 21.8788
b 39
8 a $3000
b $3200
9 0.9
10 0.43
11 E
c $4800
12 D
Chapter reVieW
MULtipLe ChOiCe
1C
6C
11 B
2B
7A
12 E
3 D
8 D
13 C
4 E
9 B
5 C
10 A
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
110
50
30
10
0
2 4
6 8 10 12
Month
Day
Ave.
2
3.7
3
5.0
4
4.3
5
5.3
6
5.3
1 e
10
8
6
4
2
Winter 08
Spring 08
Summer 08
Autumn 08
Winter 09
Spring 09
Summer 09
Autumn 09
Week 1
10
19
Week 2
12
22
Seasonal
indices
Sales ($)
2 a
618
612
622
630
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 t
Week 1
Week 2 Week 3
Cycle
= 0.5263 0.4211
12
19
= 0.5455 0.4091
14
22
Week 3 0.5882
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Day
Season
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
7
7.3
10
Task 1
1 a The time series is seasonal. There are
peaks and troughs occurring on the
same days of the week. There is also an
upward secular trend. This can also
be seen from the table as each day, week
after week more CDs are sold.
b 6
c 3: there are 3 weeks of figures given
Rainfall (mm)
eXtenDeD reSpOnSe
3 a Gradient , yintercept 3
6
b 30.83
4 a Gradient 1.58, yintercept 12.33
b y(12) = 32, y(13) = 33
70
588.75
620
658.75
642.5
90
ShOrt anSWer
Sales ($)
0.3922
Mon.
Tues.
0.5533
1.2224
3
= 0.6316
= 0.6364
16
25.5
= 0.6349
Wed.
= 0.4075 0.6318
0.7895
1.2632
0.8182
26
22
21
22
2.4312
3
= 2.3684
= 1.1812 2.4091
= 0.8235 1.2941
Thurs.
45
19
Fri.
= 0.8104 1.2462
2.2745
Sat.
7.052
3
= 2.3507
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
18.99
18.51
19.26
19.14
Week 2 21.69
9
0.4075
= 22.09 22.16
22.21
20.86
53
2.3507
= 22.55
Week 3 27.11
10
0.4075
= 24.54 25.32
25.91
26.48
58
2.3507
= 24.67
167
3point smooth:
Rainfall (mm)
Rainfall (mm)
Task 2
1 Very difficult to fit an accurate trend line.
However, there seems to be an upward
trend.
100
80
60
40
20
2
Rainfall (mm)
Rainfall (mm)
6 8 10 12
Season
100
80
60
40
20
Rainfall (mm)
Rainfall (mm)
6 8 10 12
Season
Season
3
10
11 12
Rainfall 43 75 41
13
47
78 50 19
51
83
55 25
53 43 33.7 46 58.3 49 40
51
63 54.3
3pt ave.
5pt ave.
168
6 8 10 12
Season
6 8 10 12
Season
4
1
100
80
60
40
20
0
10 11 12
Rainfall 43 75 41
13
47
78
50
19
51
83 55 25
4pt ave.
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
Seasonal index
0.9741
1.6346
1.0042
0.3871
6 8 10 12
Season
3 y = 0.02t + 48.47
100
80
60
40
20
0
100
80
60
40
20
0
5point smooth:
6 8 10 12
Season
2 y = 1.375t + 38.9
Season
100
80
60
40
20
0
Season
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Rainfall
43
75
41
13
47
78
50
19
51
83
55
25
8 y = 1.66t + 37.70
Seas. adj.
44.1
45.9
40.8
33.6
48.2
47.7
49.8
49.1
52.4
50.8
54.8
64.6
M U Ltip L e
C hO iC e
20 minutes
B 2
C 3
D 9
e 28
C 2.54
D 5.55
e 61.36
B 2.50
6 7 8
Scores
9 10 11 12 13
B negatively skewed
e positively skewed with outliers
C positively skewed
4 From the data, it can be concluded that for the season shown:
a
B
C
D
e
5 A population has a mean of 82.1 and a standard deviation of 2.3. Approximately 95% of the population
1
12
2
16
3
24
4
25
5
32
6
38
7
56
8
80
9
95
2
D y = 8.08 + 10.02x
e y = 8.44 + 0.95x2
The following information relates to questions 9 and 10.
The following table shows the seasonal indices for the quarterly attendances at a swimming pool.
Quarter
Seasonal index
1
1.12
2
0.95
4
1.09
Exam practice 1
169
B 0.91
C 0.95
D 1.00
e 1.05
10 The actual number of pool visits in the first quarter of a particular year is 146 089. The deseasonalised
1
12
2
16
3
15
4
18
5
26
6
22
7
27
8
26
9
29
35
10
34
30
25
20
13
1
C
7
2
25
7
D
e
12
13
12 For the time series data below, the value of the 3point moving
median centred at t = 5 is:
a 2
t
C
1
12
a 5
e X t enDeD
r e S pOnS e
10 minutes
2
16
3
13
B 17
4
17
5
19
C 18
6
18
D 19
e 163 620
15
10
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
7
20
e 20
total marks
= 12
2
6
2
5
2.5
3
3
6
3
5
4
7
5
9
5
10
7
8
8
9
10
9
12
8
13
10
15
9
20
10
a Assuming a linear relationship, use the data above to determine the leastsquares regression
equation that could be used to determine the level of job satisfaction from the number of hours
[1 mark]
worked. Write your answer in terms of the variables given.
b A residual plot is constructed to test the assumption of linearity for the relationship.
Residual
3
2
1
0
1
10 12 14 16 18 20
Average hours
3
i Explain the features of this residual plot that suggest the relationship is not linear.
A log10 (x) transformation is applied in the attempt to linearise the data. The table below shows the
transformed values.
ii Find the missing value correct to 2 decimal places.
DiGitaL DOC
doc10284
Solutions
exam practice 1
170
Average hours 2
2 2.5 3
3
Log (hours)
0.30 0.30 0.40 0.48 0.48
Satisfaction
6
5
3
6
5
4
7
5
5
7
8
10 12 13 13 20
0.70 0.70 0.85 0.90 1 1.08 1.11 1.18 1.30
9
10
8
9
9
8
10
9
10
iii Find the equation of the leastsquares regression line for the transformed
[1
+ 1 + 1 = 3 marks]
total marks = 4
ChapTer 5
ChapTer ConTenTS
5a
5B
5C
5d
5e
5F
5G
5h
5i
introduction
Patterns occur naturally in many reallife situations; for example the addition of interest to bank
accounts, plant spacing in a winery and the stacking of logs in a pile. Two of the most common patterns
are termed arithmetic and geometric sequences. Recognition of these two patterns is important in
analysing situations that occur normally in the real world. Look at the sequence in the shaded column on
this bank statement.
5a
Date
Description
1.1.2006
1.1.2007
1.1.2008
1.1.2009
Deposit
Interest
Interest
Interest
Debit
Credit
Balance
1000.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
1000.00
1100.00
1200.00
1300.00
+3
+3
10
+3
13
+3
16
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about
arithmetic
sequences.
+3
19
22
The first term of the sequence is 4. We refer to the first term of a sequence as a. So in this
example, a = 4.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
171
In this arithmetic sequence, the first term is 4, the second term is 7, the third term is 10 and so on.
Another way of writing this is:
t1 = 4, t2 = 7 and t3 = 10.
There are 7 terms in this sequence. Because there is a countable number of terms in the sequence, it is
referred to as a finite sequence.
The arithmetic sequence below
7
37,
30,
23,
16,
9 ...
is an infinite sequence since it continues endlessly as indicated by the ellipsis (. . .) after the final term
shown. The first term, a, is 37 and the common difference, d, is 7. We can see that a negative common
difference gives a sequence that is decreasing.
1. An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the difference between successive
terms is the same.
2. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is referred to as a.
3. The common difference between successive terms is referred to as d.
4. tn is the term number; for example, t6 refers to the 6th term in the sequence.
Worked example 1
Think
WriTe
t2 t1 = 13 7
=6
t3 t2 = 19 13
=6
t4 t3 = 25 19
=6
t5 t4 = 31 25
=6
t2 t1 = 94 (81)
= 13
t3 t2 = 106 (94)
= 12
172
1
2
d 1 , 1,
1
1
2
, 0, 1,
2
11 = 1
1
2
1
2
1 = 12
1
2
=1
2
0=1
2
Worked example 2
Write the value of a and d for each of the following arithmetic sequences.
2 2 3
3
3
a 1.2, 3.6, 6, 8.4, 10.8, . . .
b 1 , , , 1 , 2 , . . .
5 5 5
5
5
Think
WriTe
a = 1.2
t2 t1 = 3.6 1.2
= +2.4
d = +2.4
2 2 3
, ,
5 5 5
b 1 ,
13, 23, . . .
5
a = 125
t 2 t1 =
exercise 5a
2
5
= +1
d = +1
125
1 We1a
2 We2
c 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
f 3, 30, 300, 3000, 30 000, . . .
i 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, . . .
For those arithmetic sequences found in question 1, write the values of a and d.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
173
b 1, 3, 1, 5, 3, . . .
d 67, 27, 13, 53, 93, . . .
f 7, 18, 29, 30, 39, . . .
h 0, 10, 21, 32, 43, . . .
4 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 3, write the values of a and d.
5 We1c State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.
a 0.7, 1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, . . .
c 3.5, 2, 0.5, 1, 2.5, . . .
e 2, 0.1, 2.1, 3.3, 4.5, . . .
6 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 5, write the values of a and d.
7 We1d State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
a , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ...
1 3
2
4
5 5
5
5
1 1 1
, , 1, 1 ,
3 3
3
c , , 1, 1 , 1 , . . .
e
2, . . .
1 3
4 4
3
1
4
3
4
1
4
b , , 1 , 1 , 2 , ...
d
f
, 0, 3, 11, 21, . . .
4
4
2
4
1 1 1 1 1
, , , , , ...
2 4 6 8 10
8 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 7, write the values of a and d.
9
10 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 9, where appropriate information is given, write the
value of a and d.
11 For the following arithmetic sequences:
a 4, 13, 22, 31, . . . which term, tn, will be equal to 58?
b 9, 4.5, 0, . . . which term, tn, will be equal to 18?
c 60, 49, 38, . . . which term, tn, will be the first to be greater than 10?
d 100, 87, 74, . . . which term, tn, will be the first to be less than 58?
12 Jenny receives 5 dollars for completing the first kilometre of a walkathon and 7 dollars more for
completing each subsequent kilometre. Write the arithmetic sequence that represents the amount
received by Jenny for each kilometre walked from 1 to 10 kilometres.
13 Each week, Johnny buys a pack of 9 basketball cards. In the first week Johnny has 212 cards in his
collection. Give the total number of cards Johnny has for each of the first five weeks.
14 mC Which of the following could be the first five terms of an arithmetic sequence?
a 1, 3, 9, 12, 15, . . .
C 3, 3, 6, 6, 9, . . .
e 3, 1, 0, 1, 3, . . .
inTeraCTiViTY
int0007
number patterns
+10
Now, t1 = 8
t2 = 8 + 10
t3 = 8 + 10 + 10
t4 = 8 + 10 + 10 + 10
t5 = 8 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10
18
+10
28
+10
38
t1 = a
t2 = a + d
t3 = a + d + d
t4 = a + d + d + d
t5 = a + d + d + d + d
48
t2 = a + 1d
t3 = a + 2d
t4 = a + 3d
t5 = a + 4d
tn = a + (n 1) d
This rule enables us to find any term of an arithmetic sequence provided we know the value of a and d.
Worked example 3
WriTe
a=5
d = t2 t1
= 40 5
= 35
t20 = 5 + (20 1) 35
= 5 + 19 35
= 670
The 20th term is 670.
If we are given only two terms of an arithmetic sequence, we are able to use the rule tn=a + (n 1) d to
set up two simultaneous equations to find the value of a and d and hence write the rule for the arithmetic
sequence.
Worked example 4
The third term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the fifth term is 11.
a Write the rule for the arithmetic sequence.
b Find the 50th term of the sequence.
Think
tn = a + (n 1) d, where n = 3.
WriTe
a t3 = a + 2d = 1
175
t5 = a + 4d = 11
a + 2d = 1
a + 4d = 11
2d = 12
d=6
tn = 13 + (n 1) 6
= 13 + 6n 6
= 19 + 6n
[1]
[2]
[2] [1]
b tn = 19 + 6n
t50 = 19 + 6 50
= 19 + 300
= 281
Worked example 5
If the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence are 5.2, 7.4 and 9.6, which
term is equal to 53.6?
Think
WriTe
a = 5.2
d = t2 t1
= 7.4 5.2
= 2.2
tn = 5.2 + (n 1) 2.2
= 5.2 + 2.2n 2.2
= 3 + 2.2n
53.6 = 3 + 2.2n
50.6
n=
2.2
= 23
TUTorial
eles1268
Worked example 5
Worked example 6
An ant colony is studied and found to have a population of 10 000 in the first week of the study.
The population increases by 500 each week after that.
a Write a rule for the number of ants in the colony in week n of the study.
b When will the ant population double in size?
176
Think
a tn = 10 000 + (n 1) 500
tn = 9500 + 500n
WriTe
tn = 9500 + 500n
20 000 = 9500 + 500n
10 500 = 500n
10 500
n=
500
= 21
The ant population will double to 20 000
in the 21stweek.
this sequence?
b The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 23 and the 5th term is 277. What is the 20th term of
this sequence?
c The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0 and the 6th term is 8. What is the 32nd term of this
sequence?
d The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the 7th term is 19. What is the 40th term of this
sequence?
3 We5 Evaluate the following.
a The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 3, 9 and 15. Which term is equal to 141?
b The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 9, 6 and 3. Which term is equal to 72?
c The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 1.7, 2.5 and 3.3. Which term is equal to 28.1?
d The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 1.5, 2 and 2.5. Which term is equal to 140.5?
4 We6 A batsman made 23 runs in
177
6 A marker is placed 15 m from a white line by a P.E. teacher. The next marker is placed 25 m from the
white line and the next 35 m from the white line. The teacher continues placing markers in this pattern.
a Write a rule for the distance of marker n from the white line.
b How many markers will need to be placed before the last marker is at least 100 metres from
the line?
7 mC The 41st term of the arithmetic sequence 4.3, 2.1, 0.1, 2.3, 4.5, . . . is:
a 83.7
B 85.9
C 92.3
d 172.4
e 178.5
8 mC The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 2 and the 5th term is 2.5. The 27th term of this
sequence is:
a 32.5
B 35.5
C 42.5
d 89.5
e 96
9 mC The numbers 8, 1 and 6 form the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence. In this arithmetic
sequence the term which is equal to 258 is the:
a 30th
B 32nd
C 37th
d 39th
e 42nd
10 Find the 28th term of the arithmetic sequence 5.2, 6, 6.8, 7.6, 8.4, . . .
1 3
sequence?
1
13 The 4th term of an arithmetic sequence is 3 2 and the 7th term is 6 2 . What is the 25th term of this
sequence?
14 The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 15 and the 8th term is 45. Which term of the sequence is
equal to 183?
15 The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the 6th term is 15. Which term of the sequence is
equal to 167?
16 mC The 3rd term of a sequence is 1 and the fifth is 14. The term which is equal to 141.5 is the:
a 9th
B 11th
C 18th
d 20th
e 22nd
17 Peter plants his first tomato seedling 0.5 m from the fence, the next 1.3 m from the fence and the next 2.1 m
from the fence. If he continues to plant in this pattern, how far will the 14thseedling be from the fence?
18 Olivia began her china collection in 1951.
19 m from the road. The remainder of the fence posts are spaced in this pattern.
a Write a rule for the distance of fence post n from the road.
b If 100 posts are to be erected, how far will the last post be from the road?
When the terms of an arithmetic sequence are added together, an arithmetic series is formed. So, 5, 9,
13, 17, 21, . . . is an arithmetic sequence whereas 5 + 9 + 13 + 17 + 21 + . . . is an arithmetic series.
The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by Sn.
Consider the finite arithmetic sequence below.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
178
The sum of this arithmetic sequence is given by S10 since there are 10 terms in the sequence.
So,
S10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10
= 55
Note that the sum of the first and last terms is 11. Also, the sum of the second and second last
terms is 11. Similarly, the sum of the third and third last term is 11. This pattern continues with
the fourth and fourth last terms as well as with the fifth and fifth last terms. There are in fact five
lots of 11.
We can formalise this pattern to obtain a rule which applies to all arithmetic sequences.
Let Sn = a + (a + d ) + (a + 2d ) + . . . + (l 2d ) + (l d ) + l
where l is the last term of the sequence.
By reversing the order of the series above, we obtain
Sn = l + (l d ) + (l 2d ) + . . . + (a + 2d ) + (a + d ) + a
By adding these two equations, we obtain
2Sn = (a + l) + (a + d + l d ) + (a + 2d + l 2d ) + . . . (l d) + (a + d) + (a + l)
2Sn = (a + l) + (a + l) + (a + l) + . . . (a + l) + (a + l)
2Sn = n(a + l) where n represents the number of terms in the sequence.
Sn = 1n(a + l)
So,
The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence with a as its first term and l as its last term is
given by:
n
Sn = (a + l).
2
Recall that the nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by:
tn = a + (n 1)d.
So, for the sum of n terms, l is the last term; that is, tn = l.
So, the last term is:
l = a + (n 1)d.
n
Substituting this into
Sn = (a + l )
2
n
we obtain
Sn = {a + [a + (n 1)d]}
2
n
= [2a + (n 1)d]
2
An alternative formula for the sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence when the value of a and
d are known, is given by:
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ].
2
Worked example 7
Find the sum of the first ten given terms of the arithmetic sequence:
4, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, 46, 52, 58.
Think
WriTe
Method 1:
1
a=4
l = 58
n = 10
n
Use the series formula Sn = (a + l).
2
n
Sn = (a + l)
2
10
S10 = (4 + 58)
2
= 5 62
= 310
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
179
Method 2:
1 We know the value of a and d and n.
a=4
d = 10 4 = 6
n = 10
n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d].
2
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1)d]
2
10
Sn = [2 4 + (10 1)6]
2
S10 = 5[8 + 9 6]
= 5[8 + 54]
= 5 62
= 310
Worked example 8
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the seventh term is 29.
What is the sum of the first 10 terms of this sequence?
Think
1
n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d].
2
WriTe
a=5
tn = a + (n 1)d
t7 = 5 + 6 d
= 29
5 + 6d = 29
6d = 24
d=4
TUTorial
eles1269
Worked example 8
10
[2 5 + (10 1)4]
2
= 5[10 + 9 4]
= 230
S10 =
Worked example 9
The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 4 and the 8th is 11. What is the sum of the first
30 terms of the sequence?
Think
1
180
WriTe
t3 = a + 2d
=4
t8 = a + 7d
= 11
a + 2d = 4
a + 7d = 11
5d = 15
d = 3
Substitute d = 3 into equation [1].
a + 2d = 4
a + 2 3 = 4
a6=4
a = 10
[1]
[2]
[1]
[2]
[2] [1]
n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ].
2
To find the sum of the first 30 terms.
Write your answer.
30
[2 10 + (30 1)(3)]
2
= 15[20 + 29 3]
= 1005
S30 =
Worked example 10
The first term of a sequence is 7 and the sum of the first 25 terms is 1625. Find:
a the 25th term
b the first five terms of the sequence.
Think
WriTe
n
use Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ] or tn = a + (n 1)d
2
having found that the 25th term is 137.
= 1625
12.5(7 + l ) = 1625
7
+ l = 1625
+ l = 130
l = 137
12.5
l = t25
= 137
The 25th term is 137.
S25 = 25 (7 + l )
S25 = 25
[14 + (25 1)d ]
2
= 1625
12.5 [14 + 24d ] = 1625
14 + 24d = 130
24d = 144
d = +6
or tn = a + (n 1)d
t25 = 137
137 = 7 + (25 1)d
144 = 24d
d = +6
The sequence is 7, 1, 5, 11, 17, . . .
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the second is 9. Find the sum of the first
40 terms of the sequence.
2 We8
3 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.7 and the second is 1. Find the sum of the first 25 terms of
the sequence.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
181
4 We9 For each of the following, evaluate the sum of a series, Sn.
a The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 19 and the 4th is 25. Find the sum of the first 15 terms
of the sequence.
b The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 3.6 and the 5th is 10.8. Find the sum of the first
c The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.5 and the 6th is 4. Find the sum of the first 26 terms
of the sequence.
d The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.75 and the 5th is 2.25. Find the sum of the first
is 551. Find:
a the 19th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
6 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 4 and the sum of the first 30 terms of the sequence is 2490.
Find:
a the 30th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
1
1
7 mC The sum of the first 21 terms of the sequence, 0, 3 , 7, 10 , 14, . . . is:
2
2
d 36.75
e 735
a 1470
B 735
C 700
8 mC The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5.2 and the second is 6. The sum of the first 22 terms
9 What is the sum of the first 19 terms of the sequence 180, 80, 20, 120, 220, . . . ?
10 What is the sum of the first 28 terms of the sequence
1 1
, ,
2 2
e 70.4
112, 212, . . . ?
11 The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 28.2 and the 6th is 84.6. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of
the sequence.
12 The 1st term of an arithmetic sequence is 5.5 and the sum of the first 18 terms of this sequence is 328.5.
Find:
a the 18th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
13 The 1st term of an arithmetic sequence is 11 and the sum of the first 20 terms of this sequence is 350.
Find:
a t20
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
14 Sam makes $100 profit in his first week of business. If his profit increases by $75 each week, what
would his total profit be by the end of week 15?
15 Georges salary is to start at $36 000 a year and increase by $1200 each year after that. How much will
the first step is 15cm, what is the total height of the first 17 steps?
17 Paula collects stamps. She bought 250 in the first
5d
A sequence in mathematics is an ordered set of numbers. A geometric sequence is one in which the
first term is multiplied by a number, known as the common ratio, to create the second term which
is multiplied by the common ratio to create the third term, and so on. The first term in a geometric
sequence is referred to as a and the common ratio is referred to as r.
Consider the geometric sequence where a = 1 and r = 3. The terms in the sequence are:
3
1
3
3
3
9
3
27
81...
To discover the common ratio, r, of a geometric sequence you need to calculate the ratio of any
t
t
t
two successive terms, for example, 2 . You could alternatively calculate 3 or 4 and so on.
t1
t2 t3
A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the ratio of successive terms is the same.
t2 t3 t4
= = = . . . = common ratio
t1 t2 t3
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with geometric
sequences.
Which of the following are geometric sequences? For those that are geometric, state the values
of a and r.
a 2, 10, 50, 250, 1250, . . .
b 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . .
3 3 3
c 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
d 6, 3, , , , . . .
2 4 8
Think
WriTe
t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1
t2 10
=
t1 2
=5
t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2
t3 50
=
t2 10
=5
t
Calculate the ratio of 4 .
t3
t4 250
=
t3 50
=5
t
Calculate the ratio of 5 .
t4
t5 1250
=
t4 250
=5
t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1
t2 8
=
t1 4
= 2
t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2
t3 16
=
t2 8
= 2
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
183
t
Calculate the ratio of 4 .
t3
t4 32
=
t3 16
= 2
t
Calculate the ratio of 5 .
t4
t5 64
=
t4 32
= 2
t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1
t2 6
=
t1 2
= +3
t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2
t3 18
=
t2 6
= 3
t
Calculate 2 .
t1
t
Calculate 3 .
t2
t
Calculate 4 .
t3
t
Calculate 5 .
t3
3 3 3
2 4 8
d 6, 3, , , , . . .
t2 3
=
t1 6
1
=
2
t3 3
= 3
t2 6
3 1
=
2 3
1
=
2
t4 3 3
=
t3 4 2
3 2
=
4 3
2
=
4
1
=
2
t5 3 3
=
t4 8 4
3 4
=
8 3
1
=
2
There is a common ratio of 1.
2
184
exercise 5d
c 0, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . .
d 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
2 4 8 16 32
1 2
, ,
3 3
...
1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
2 6 12 18 24
1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
5 10 15 20 25
...
...
c
f
1 1
, , 1, 1, 1 ,
4 20 100 500 2500
1 1
1
1, 3 , 9 , 121, 81 , . . .
...
12 For those geometric sequences found in question 11, write the value of a and r.
13 mC Which of the following is a geometric sequence?
a 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, . . .
C 9, 9, 3, 3, 1, . . .
e
1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , , , ,
8 7 6 6 5 4
...
14 mC There is a geometric sequence for which a is positive and r = 2. It is true to say that:
a
B
C
d
e
15 mC There is a geometric sequence for which every term is negative. It could be said with certainty that:
a a and r are both positive
C a is positive and r is negative
e a is greater than r
16 mC There is a geometric sequence for which every oddnumbered term is positive and every
185
17 A savings account balance at the end of each of the past four years is given as follows: $100.00,
of these two friends tell two of their own friends, and so on.
a Write the geometric sequence for the first five days of this reallife situation.
b Find the value of r.
c How many people are told of the rumour on the 12th day?
Consider the finite geometric sequence of seven terms for which a = 3 and r = 4.
4
3
Now, t1 = 3
t2 = 3 4
t3 = 3 4 4
t4 = 3 4 4 4
t5 = 3 4 4 4 4
186
4
12
4
48
t1 = a
t2 = a r
t3 = a r r
t4 = a r r r
t5 = a r r r r
4
192
384
t2 = a r1
t3 = a r 2
t4 = a r 3
t5 = a r 4
and os on. . .
tn = ar n 1
This rule enables us to find any term of a geometric sequence provided we know the value of a and r.
Worked example 12
WriTe
a=2
r = 10
t12 = 2 512 1
= 97 656 250
=5
Worked example 13
The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 8 and the 5th is 512. Find the 10th term of this sequence.
Think
WriTe
t2 = a r1
=8
t5 = a r4
= 512
a r1 = 8
a r4 = 512
a r4 512
=
ar
8
3
r = 64
r=4
[1]
[2]
[2] [1]
tn = 2 4n 1
t10 = 2 49
= 524 288
The 10th term in the sequence is 524 288.
187
Worked example 14
WriTe
TUTorial
eles1270
Worked example 14
a=2
t
r= 2
t1
= 62
=3
tn = 2 3n 1
2 3n 1 = 1 000 000
3n 1 = 500 000
Worked example 15
128
64
32
Think
ratios.
188
WriTe
t2 64
t3 32
=
=
t1 128
t2 64
1
1
=
=
2
2
The ratios are the same, so the terms follow a
geometric sequence. The ratio, r = 12 .
n 1
b tn = 128 1
c t8 = 128 1 = 1
2
7
1 We 12 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences.
a Find the 10th term of the geometric sequence 2, 12, 72, 432, 2592, . . .
b Find the 11th term of the geometric sequence 5, 35, 245, 1715, 12 005, . . .
c Find the 18th term of the geometric sequence 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, . . .
d Find the 8th term of the geometric sequence 11, 22, 44, 88, 176, . . .
e Find the 11th term of the geometric sequence 5, 15, 45, 135, 405, . . .
f Find the 15th term of the geometric sequence 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .
2 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences in decimal form.
a Find the 20th term of the geometric sequence 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6, . . .
b Find the 10th term of the geometric sequence 2.3, 2.76, 3.312, 3.9744, . . .
c Find the 8th term of the geometric sequence 3.1, 8.06, 20.956, 54.4856, 141.662 56, . . .
3 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences in negative form.
a Find the 9th term of the geometric sequence 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .
b Find the 12th term of the geometric sequence 6, 18, 54, 162, 486, . . .
4 We 13 Find the value of the term specified for the specified geometric sequences.
a The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 6 and the 5th term is 162. Find the 10th term.
b The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 6 and the 5th term is 48. Find the 12th term.
c The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 32 and the 7th term is 256. Find the 14th term.
5 We 14 Evaluate the following.
a The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 5, 12.5 and 31.25. Which term would be the first
to exceed 50 000?
diGiTal doC
doc9437
SkillSHEET 5.3
Solving nonlinear
simultaneous
equations
b The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 3.2, 9.6 and 28.8. Which term would be the first
diGiTal doC
doc9438
SkillSHEET 5.4
Solving indicial
equations
189
7 A small town is renowned for spreading rumours. All of its citizens are aware in a short time of any
new rumours. The spread of the rumour can be summarised in the table below.
If the number of citizens who have been told the rumour each day continues to follow a geometric
sequence, find:
Day number
36
1 1 1 1
, , , ...
8 16 32 64
2 1 2 1
, 1 , 2 , 5 , ...
3 3 3 3
12 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 81 and the 7th term is 2187. Find the 12th term.
13 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 0.875 and the 7th term is 0.109 375. Find the
10th term.
14 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 1 and the 6th term is
8
.
27
15 The takings at a new cinema each month are recorded. If the takings each month continue to follow a
Takings
$10 000
$ 8 500
$ 7 225
Height (m)
1.2
1.26
1.323
17 mC The 12th term of the geometric sequence 21, 63, 189, 567, . . . is:
a 6804
d 3 720 087
B 413 343
e 5 931 980 229
C 1 240 029
18 mC The 10th term of the geometric sequence 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . . is:
a 2560
d 5120
190
B 1280
e 3 906 250
C 1280
19 MC The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 75 and the 6th term is 9375. The 9th term is:
A 5859375
D 32805
b 1171875
E 234375
C 32805
20 MC The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 5.5, 7.7 and 10.78. The first term to exceed 100
would be the:
A 8th
D 11th
b 9th
E 12th
C 10th
When the terms of a geometric sequence are added, a geometric series is formed. So 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, ...
is a geometric sequence, whereas 3 + 6 + 12 + 24 + 48 + ... is a geometric series.
The sum of n terms of a geometric sequence is given by Sn.
Consider the general geometric sequence a, ar, ar2, ar3, ... arn 1.
Now, Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + arn 1
Also, multiplying each term by r, rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + ar4 + ... + arn
So, rSn Sn = a + arn since all the other terms cancel out.
So, Sn (r 1) = a(rn 1)
a(rn 1)
Sn =
r1
This formula is useful if r < 1 or r > 1, for example, if r is 2, 10, 3.3, 4, 1.2.
By calculating Sn rSn instead of rSn Sn, as we did earlier, we obtain an alternative form of the
formula. That is,
Sn rSn = a arn
Sn(1 r) = a(1 rn)
Sn =
a(1 rn)
1r
a(rn 1)
if r < 1 or r > 1
r1
a(1 rn)
if 1 < r < 1.
1r
Worked Example 16
Find the sum of the first 9 terms of the sequence 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, ...
Think
1
Write
a = 0.25
t2 0.5
=
t1 0.25
t3 1
=
t2 0.5
= 2
=2
t4 2
=
t3 1
= 2
r=2
t5 4
=
t4 2
=2
a(r n 1)
.
r1
S9 =
0.25(29 1)
1
= 127.75
4
Worked example 17
The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 11.25 and the 6th term is 303.75.
Find the sum of the first 10 terms of the sequence correct to 1 decimal place.
Think
WriTe
TUTorial
eles1271
Worked example 17
t3 = ar 2
ar2 = 11.25
t6 = ar 5
ar5 = 303.75
1
2
a(r n 1)
.
r1
[1]
[2]
1.25(310 1)
2
= 36 905
S10 =
Worked example 18
How many terms of the geometric sequence 100, 95, 90.25, 85.7375, . . . are required for the sum
to be greater than 1000?
Think
192
WriTe
a = 100
Find a.
Find r.
Use Sn =
r=
a(1 r n)
since r < 1.
1r
Sn =
95
= 0.95
100
100(1 0.95n)
0.05
100(1 0.95n)
0.05
= 2000(1 0.95n)
0.5 = 1 0.95n
0.95n = 0.5
100 =
log10(0.5)
log10(0.95)
= 13.513
So, we require that n = 14.
1 a We 16 Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
b Find the sum of the first 7 terms of the geometric sequence 5, 35, 245, 1715, 12 005, . . .
c Find the sum of the first 11 terms of the geometric sequence 3.1, 9.3, 27.9, 83.7, 251.1, . . .
d Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 6.4, 25.6, . . .
We 17 The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 10 and the 5th is 80. Find the sum of the first
12 terms of the sequence.
b The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 15 and the 5th is 405. Find the sum of the first 11 terms
of the sequence.
c The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 12 and the 5th is 768. Find the sum of the first 9 terms
of the sequence.
d The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 500 and the 6th is 500 000. Find the sum of the first
10 terms of the sequence.
2 a
We 18 How many terms of the geometric sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 3000?
b How many terms of the geometric sequence 5, 20, 80, 320, 1280, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 100 000?
c How many terms of the geometric sequence 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 10 000?
d How many terms of the geometric sequence 120, 96, 76.8, 61.44, 49.152, . . . are required for the
sum to be greater than 540?
3 a
4 mC The sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence 2.25, 4.5, 9, 18, 36, . . . is closest to:
a 1149.75
C 5318.81
e 8342.65
B 2301.75
d 6648.51
5 mC The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 20 and the 5th is 1280. The sum of the first 12 terms
B 1 062 880
d 1 062 880
6 Find the sum of the first 13 terms of the geometric sequence 80, 72, 64.8, 58.32, 52.488, . . .
7 Find the sum of the first 8 terms of the geometric sequence 250, 150, 90, 54, 32.4,. . .
8 Find, correct to 1 decimal place, the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence
192,
9 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the 6th is 0.016. Find, correct to 1 decimal place, the
diGiTal doC
doc9439
WorkSHEET 5.2
11 How many terms of the geometric sequence 600, 180, 54, 16.2, 4.86, . . . are required for the sum to be
193
5G
Growth and decay of discrete variables is constantly found in reallife situations. Some examples are
increasing or decreasing populations and increase or decrease in financial investments. Some of these
geometric models are presented here.
Worked example 19
A city produced 100 tonnes of rubbish in the year 2004. Forecasts suggest
that this may increase by 2% each year. If these forecasts are true:
TUTorial
a what will be the citys rubbish output in 2008?
eles1332
Worked example 19
b in which year will the amount of rubbish reach 120 tonnes?
c what was the total amount of rubbish produced by the city in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006?
This is an example of a geometric sequence where a = 100 and r = 1.02. Note that r 0.02. If
this was the case, then multiplying 100 by 0.02 would result in a lesser amount of rubbish in
the second year and so on. We are told that the amount of rubbish increases by 2%. That is the
original amount plus an extra 2%, or:
original amount + 2% of original amount
= original amount (1 + 2%)
= original amount (1 + 0.02)
= 1.02 original amount.
Think
WriTe
a a = 100
t5 = 100 1.025 1
= 100 1.0824
= 108.24
100(1.02)n 1 = 120
(1.02)n 1 = 1.2
log10 (1.02)n 1 = log10 (1.2)
(n 1) log10 (1.02) = log10 (1.2)
n1=
log10(1.2)
log10(1.02)
n 1 = 9.207
n = 10.207
3
Use Sn =
2
194
a(r n 1)
where n = 3.
r1
c S3 =
Worked example 20
A computer decreases in value each year by 15% of the previous years value. Find an
expression for the value of the computer, Vn, after n years. Its initial purchase price is given
as V1 = $12 000.
Think
WriTe
a = 12 000
Decrease by 15%: 100% 15%
= 85%
r = 0.85
Vn = 12 000 (0.85)n 1
Compound interest
Consider the case where a bank pays compound interest of 5% per annum on an amount of $20 000. The
amount is invested for 4 years and interest is calculated yearly.
Compound interest is named so because the interest which is earned is paid back into the account so
that the next time interest is calculated, it is calculated on an increased (i.e. compounded) amount. There
is a compounding effect on the money in the account.
If we calculated the amount in the account each year, we would have the following amounts.
Start
After 1 year
After 2 years
After 3 years
After 4 years
$20 000
$20 000 1.05 = $21 000
$20 000 1.05 1.05 = $22 050
$20 000 1.05 1.05 1.05 = $23 152.50
$20 000 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 = $24 310.13
The amounts 20 000, 21 000, 22 050, 23 152.50, 24 310.13, . . . form a geometric sequence where
a = 20 000 and r = 1.05.
We need to be a little careful, however, in using the formula tn = ar n 1 in calculating compound
interest. This is because the original amount in the account, that is, $20 000, in terms of the geometric
sequence would be referred to as t1 or a. In banking terms, t1 would represent the amount in the account
after the first lot of interest has been calculated and added in.
To be clear and to avoid errors, it is best to use the following formula for compound interest.
A = PR n
where
r
100
A = amount in the account, $
P = principal, $
r = interest rate per compounding period (e.g. per year, per quarter), %
n = the number of compounding periods during the investment.
R=1+
Note: Students who are studying Module 4: Business related mathematics will use this formula for
compound interest.
Worked example 21
Helen inherits $60 000 and invests it for 3 years in an account which pays compound interest of
8% per annum compounding each 6 months.
a What will be the amount in Helens account at the end of 3 years?
b How much will Helen receive in interest over the 3year period?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
195
Think
r
.
100
Interest is calculated each 6 months, so over
3 years, there are 6 compounding periods:
n = 6.
Interest is 8% per year or 4% per 6 months.
So, r = 4%.
a P = 60 000
n = 6 halfyears
r = 4% per halfyear
4
So,
R=1+
100
= 1.04
A = PRn
= 60 000(1.04)6
= 75 919.14
WriTe
Worked example 22
Jim invests $16 000 in a bank account which earns compound interest at the rate of 12% per
annum compounding every quarter.
At the end of the investment, there is $25 616.52 in the account.
For how many years did Jim have his money invested?
Think
WriTe
A = 25 616.52
P = 16 000
r = 12
4
= 3% per quarter
3
and so R = 1 + 100
= 1.03
A = PRn
25 616.52 = 16 000(1.03)n
1.601 = 1.03n
196
log10(1.601)
log10(1.03)
0.2044
0.0128
n = 15.92
16
It will take 16 compounding periods where a
period is 3 months. So, it will take 48 months
or 4 years.
exercise 5G
1 We 19 A farmer harvests 4 tonnes of lucerne in his first year of production. In his business plan, he has
diGiTal doCS
doc9440
SkillSHEET 5.5
relating the common
ratio of a geometric
sequence to percentage
increase or decrease
doc9441
Spreadsheet
Sequences and series
197
10 $10 000 is invested in an account which earns compound interest at 10% per annum. Find the amount
d monthly.
11 $20 000 is invested in an account earning compound interest of 10% per annum compounding quarterly.
c 5 years?
d 10 years?
12 We22 In an account earning compound interest of 8% per annum compounding quarterly, an amount
of $6000 is invested. When the account is closed, there is $7609.45 in the account. For how many years
was the account open?
13 Sue earns 12% interest per annum compounding quarterly on her investment of $40 000. For how many
years would this investment need to operate for the amount to rise to $50 670.80?
14 An amount of $14 500 is invested in an account attracting compound interest of 6% per annum
compounding quarterly. After a certain time the interest earned in the account is $1834.14. Find out for
how long the amount had been invested.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
If you are 2 metres away from a wall and you move 1 metre (or halfway) towards the wall and then
move 1 metre (or halfway again) towards the wall and continue to do this, will you reach the wall? When
2
will you reach the wall?
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
1
2
1m
2m
1
4
1
8
1m
1,
Each term in the sequence is half the size of the previous term, that is, r=0.5.
If we were to add n terms of this sequence together, we would have:
1 (1 0.5 n)
1 0.5
1 0.5 n
=
0.5
1 0.5 n
=
0.5 0.5
= 2 0.5n 1
Sn =
Consider 0.5n 1 in the equation above. As n becomes very large, the term 0.5n 1 becomes very small.
Try this with your calculator.
Let n = 5, 0.5n 1 = 0.54 = 0.0625; therefore, S5 = 2 0.0625 = 1.9375
Let n = 10, 0.5n 1 = 0.59 = 0.001 95; therefore, S10 = 2 0.001 95 = 1.998 05
Let n = 20, 0.5n 1 = 0.519 = 0.000 001 9; therefore, S20 = 2 0.000 001 9 = 1.999 998 1
We can see that as n becomes larger, 0.5n 1 becomes smaller. If n were to approach infinity (note that
you can never reach infinity, you can only approach it), then the value of 0.5n 1 would approach zero.
So, Sn = 2 0.5n 1 would become S = 2.
It is possible to generalise this in order to find the sum of an infinite geometric sequence. We use the
symbol S which is referred to as the sum to infinity of a geometric sequence.
The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence for which 1 < r < 1 is given by:
a
S =
.
1r
198
Worked example 23
Find the sum to infinity of the geometric sequence 2, 0.4, 0.08, 0.016, 0.0032, . . .
Think
WriTe
a=2
t
r= 2
t1
0.4
=
2
= 0.2
Find a and r.
1r
a
1r
2
=
1 0.2
2
=
S =
0.8
= 2.5
3
Worked example 24
The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence is 15 and the value of a is 10. Write the first 4 terms
of the sequence.
Think
1
WriTe
a
to find the value
1r
of r. Transpose the equation to make r the
a
1r
10
15 =
1r
S =
1 r = 10
15
r = 1 23
r = 13
2
Worked example 25
The sum to infinity of the geometric sequence is 6.25 and the value of r is 0.2. Write the first
4 terms of the sequence.
Think
WriTe
a
to find the value of a.
1r
a
1r
a
625 =
1 0.2
6.25 0.8 = a
a=5
S =
199
Express 1. 2 as a fraction.
Think
WriTe
a = 0.2
0.02
r=
0.2
= 0.1
a
S =
1r
.
0.2
0.2 =
1 0.1
0.2
=
0.9
2
=
9
So, 1.2 = 1 + 29
= 12
9
Worked example 27
a
to express 0.045
Use the formula S =
1r
as a fraction first.
WriTe
a = 0.045
0.000 45
r=
0.045
= 0.01
a
1r
0.045
0.045 =
1 0.01
0.045
=
0.99
S =
=
=
45
990
1
22
10
66
110
22
5
110
71
Worked example 28
An injured rabbit attempts to crawl back to its burrow. It moves 30 metres in the first hour,
21 metres in the second hour and 14.7 metres in the third hour and so on. If the burrow is
200 metres away, will the rabbit make it back?
Think
1
WriTe
30
30
1 0.7
= 100
a
.
1r
S =
c 1, , ,
e 3,
1 1
, 1 , 1 , ...
5 25 125 625
50, 5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.05,
d 1, ,
0.0048, . . .
...
2 We24 Write the first 3 terms of the geometric sequence for which:
a r = 0.6 and S = 25
c r = 0.9 and S = 120
b r = 0.25 and S = 8
e r = 0.8 and S = 5
d r = 0.2 and S = 3
1
3
3 We25 Write the first 3 terms of the geometric sequence for which:
a a = 12.5 and S = 25
b a = 12.5 and S = 50
c a = 48 and S = 120
d a = 2 and S = 3 .
4
9
2
3
.
..
b 0.4
c 1.3
d 3.7
g 0.529
h 1.321.
0.14
5 We28 A defiant child walks 10 metres towards his mother in the first minute, 4 metres in the second
minute and 1.6 metres in the third minute. If the child continues to approach in this same pattern, and
if his mother is standing stationary, 20 metres from the childs initial position, will the child ever reach
the mother?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
201
6 A failing machine produces 35 metres of spouting in the first hour, 21 metres in the second hour and
12.6 in the third hour. If this pattern continues and 280 metres of spouting is required, how far short of
the quota will the machine fall?
7 A nail penetrates 20 mm with the
first hit of a hammer, 12 mm with the
2nd hit and 7.2mm with the 3rd. If
this pattern continues, will the 50 mm
long nail ever be completely
hammeredin?
8 A woman establishes a committee to raise money for a hospital. It raises $40 000 in the first year,
$36 800 in the 2nd year and $33 856 in the third year. If the fundraising continues in this pattern, how
far short will they fall in raising $1 000 000?
9 A will of a recently deceased woman specifies how her money is to be donated to a charity. Her total
wealth of $12.5 million is to be donated for eternity with the first donation of $1 million in the first year.
a What fraction of this first donation should be donated for the second year and subsequent years?
b Write the value of the donations for each of the first 5 years.
c How much will be donated after 10 years?
inTeraCTiViTY
int0186
Contrasting arithmetic
and geometric
sequences
When discrete variables are presented graphically some distinct features may be evident. This is
especially so for discrete variables that have an arithmetic or geometric pattern.
arithmetic patterns
Value of term tn
Value of term tn
3 4
Term n
2 3 4
Term n
d is negative
d is positive
An increasing pattern or a positive common
difference gives an upward straight line.
Geometric patterns
Value of term tn
Value of term tn
2 3 4
Term n
2 3 4
Term n
Value of term tn
Value of term tn
Term n
Term n
Value of term
Worked example 29
50
40
30
20
10
0
Think
2 3 4
Term number
WriTe
Find a.
t1 = 40, so a = 40.
Find d.
t2 = 30 and t1 = 40.
d = t2 t1 = 10.
Worked example 30
Calculate the total amount in an account if $10 000 is invested for 5 years and earns:
a simple interest of 10% per annum
b compound interest of 10% per annum compounding yearly.
c For each of the above cases, graph, on the same set of axes, the amount in the account over the
five years. Use your graph or calculations to calculate the difference between the accounts after
4 years.
Think
WriTe
203
= 10 000 1.11
= $11 000
After 2 years, amount in account
= 10 000 1.12
= $12 100
After 3 years = $13 310
After 4 years = $14 641
After 5 years = $16 105
17 000
16 000
15 000
14 000
13 000
12 000
11 000
10 000
Compound interest
Simple interest
1 2 3 4 5
Number of years invested (n)
1 We29 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
Value of term
5
4
3
2
1
0
2 3 4
Term number
State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.
Value of term
2 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2 3 4
Term number
State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.
204
Value of term
3 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2 3 4
Term number
State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.
State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric
and give the value of a and the value of either d or r.
Value of term
4 On the graph at right, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
20
15
10
5
0
sequences:
2 3 4
Term number
a arithmetic, a = 7, d = 2
b geometric, a = 5, r =
d arithmetic, a = 32, d = 5
e geometric, a = 12, r =
10
.
3
are plotted.
The sequence could be described by which one of the
following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 10
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 0.5
d Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 2
e Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 1.5
Value of term
10
5
0
5
10
1
2
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
2 3 4
Term number
5 Term number
On the same set of axes, plot points showing the amount in each account at the end of each of the 3years.
9 An amount of $100 000 is invested for 3 years and earns:
a simple interest of 15% per annum
b compound interest of 15% per annum compounding yearly.
On the same set of axes, plot points showing the amount in each account at the end of each of the 3 years.
10 On the same set of axes, sketch the graphs of the sequences with the rule un = 10n and
vn = 10 1.5n 1. Use your graph to decide for how many of the first five terms un is greater than vn.
11 On the same set of axes, sketch the graphs of the sequences with the rule un = 120 20n and
vn = 100 0.8n 1. Use your graph to decide for how many of the first five terms un is greater than vn.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
205
Summary
Recognition of
arithmetic sequences
An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the difference between successive terms is
the same.
Given an arithmetic sequence, identify:
the first term, a
and the common difference, d = t2 t1.
Given an unspecified sequence, establish whether it is arithmetic by testing all terms for a common
difference: d = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = t4 t3 = ...
Recognition of
geometric sequences
A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the ratio of successive terms is the same.
Given a geometric sequence, identify:
the first term, a
t
and the common ratio, r = 2 .
t1
Given an unspecified sequence, establish whether it is geometric by testing all terms for a common
t t t
ratio, r = 2 = 3 = 4 = ...
t1 t2 t3
tn = arn 1
where tn is the nth term
a is the first term
r is the common ratio.
Geometric growth
Geometric decay
Compound interest
r
100
A = amount in the account, $
P = principal, $
r = interest rate per compounding period (e.g. per year, per quarter), %
n = the number of compounding periods during the investment.
A = PRn where R = 1 +
and
For decreasing or decaying geometric series, the sum of an infinite number of terms approaches a
finite sum.
The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence for which 1 < r < 1 is given by:
a
S =
.
1r
Contrasting arithmetic
and geometric
sequences through
graphs
Value of term tn
2 3 4
Term n
d is positive
2 3 4
Term n
d is negative
Value of term tn
Value of term tn
2 3 4 5
Term n
An increasing pattern or a positive
common ratio greater than 1 (r > 1) gives
an upward curved line.
Term n
Value of term tn
Value of term tn
2 3 4
Term n
Term n
207
Chapter review
mUlT ip l e
Ch oiCe
B 3, 3, 6, 6, 9, . . .
e 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . .
2 For the sequence 3.6, 2.1, 0.6, 0.9, 2.4, . . ., it is true to say it is:
a
B
C
d
e
3 For the arithmetic sequence, 1, 1, 3, 5, 7, . . . the value of a, the value of d and the rule for the sequence
a a = 1, d = 2, tn = 3 + 2n
d a = 2, d = 1, tn = 3 n
B a = 1, d = 2, tn = 3 n
e a = 2, d = 1, tn = 3 n
C a = 1, d = 1, tn = 2 n
4 The 43rd term of the arithmetic sequence 7, 2, 11, 20, 29, . . . is:
a 327
B 243
C 371
5 The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 3.1 and the 7th term is
a 153.7
B 27.7
C 28.9
d 380
1.3.
e 387
d 38.3
6 The sum of the first 24 terms of the sequence 16, 12, 8, 4, 0, . . . is:
a 720
B 912
C 1344
d 1440
e 1488
7 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 14 and the 3rd is 8. The sum of the first 30 terms of the
sequence is:
d 1725
e 2190
a 1770
B 1095
C 885
8 There is a geometric sequence for which a = 3 and r is a negative number. We can be certain that:
a r is a fraction less than 1
B the 3rd term will be a positive number
C the 3rd term will be greater than the 1st term
d only one number in the sequence is positive
e the 4th term will be greater than the 3rd term
9 Which of the following is a geometric sequence?
a 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, . . .
d 4,
4,
2,
2,
1 1 1 1
, , ,
3 9 27 81
B 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
1, . . .
C 1, ,
...
10 The 19th term of the geometric sequence 3.25, 6.5, 13, 26, 52, . . . is:
a 425 984
B 851 968
C 1 703 936
d 41 978 243
11 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 19.35 and the 6th is 522.45. The 12th term of the sequence is:
a 16 539.15
B 417 629.75
C 126 955.35
d 380 866.05
e 1 142 598.15
12 The first 3 terms of a geometric sequence are 2.25, 4.5, 9. The first term to exceed 1000 is:
a t9
B t10
C t11
d t12
B 16
C 17
1
,
2
e t13
. . . is closest to:
d 18
e 20
14 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 0.9 and the 6th is 7.2. The sum of the first 12 terms of the
18 The first term of the geometric sequence for which r = 0.5 and S = 5 is:
a 1
208
1
B 2
3
C 2
2
3
d 8
e 10
2
3
graph at right.
The sequence could be described by which of
the following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 50 and d = 25
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 50 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 0.5
d Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 1.5
e Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 2
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
graph at right.
The sequence could be described by which of the
following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 5
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 5
d Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 5
e Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 0.5
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
2 3 4 5
Term number
5 Term number
1 For the sequences below, state whether or not they are an arithmetic sequence. If they are, give the
value of a and d.
a
123, 23,
5 1 , 2 1 , 3 ,
4
4 4
S ho rT
a n S W er
334, 634, . . .
2 If the second term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the fifth term is 16, which term in the sequence is
equal to 226?
3 Blood donations at a suburban location increase by 40 each year. If there are 520 donations in the first year:
a how many donations are made in the 15th year?
b what is the total number of donations made over those 15 years?
4 For each of the sequences below, state whether or not they are a geometric sequence. If they are, state
a 5, , , ,
70, . . .
5 The amount of garbage (in tonnes) collected in a particular area by the local council each year is
recorded over 3 successive years.
b
7.2
8.28
9.522
If the amount collected each year were to continue to follow a geometric sequence:
a write a rule for the amount of garbage, tn, which would be collected in the area in year n
b how much garbage would be collected in the 8th year? (Answer correct to 2 decimal places.)
c in which year would the amount of garbage collected exceed 30 tonnes?
6 How many terms of the geometric sequence 164, 131.2, 104.96, 83.968, 67.1744, . . . are required for
the sum to exceed 800?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences
209
7 Andrew invests $25 000 in an account earning compound interest of 10% per annum compounding
quarterly.
a Find the amount in the account after 3 years.
b Find how long it would take to have $40 965.41 in his account.
8 Express 3.7 as a fraction.
9 The batteries in a toy soldier are running down. The toy soldier marches 50 cm in the first minute,
30 cm in the second minute, 18 cm in the next and so on. By how much does the toy soldier fall short of
marching 1.5 m?
10 On the same set of axes, sketch the graph of the sequence with the rule:
b vn = 10 2n 1.
a un = 10n
e x Tended
r e S p onS e
Task 1
1 Consider the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, . . . , whose common ratio is 3.
a Subtract successive terms to form the sequence 2, 6, . . . Is this a geometric sequence as well and,
b Add successive terms to form the sequence 4, 12, . . . Is this a geometric sequence as well and, if
Consider a bank, which offers a simple interest rate of 5% per annum on an investment of $100.
a What is the value of the investment for each of the first 5 years?
b Consider another bank, which offers compound interest at the same rate of 5%. What is the value
of the investment for each of the first 5 years?
c When will the value of the investment in part b be twice as much as the investment in part a?
Task 2
1 A newly established quarry produces
Crushed rock
produced (tonnes)
11.5
15
nth month.
100tonnes?
e The local council has ordered that after a total of 3050 tonnes of crushed rock has been extracted
from the quarry, an environmental impact survey must be completed. After how many months will
that happen?
210
2 The amount of crushed rock produced each month at a second quarry is shown below.
Month
1
2
3
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
diGiTal doC
doc9442
Test Yourself
Chapter 5
211
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9435: Warm up with a quick quiz on
arithmetic and geometric sequences. (page 171)
5B
TUTorial
We 5 eles1268: Watch a worked example on finding the value of
a term in an arithmetic sequence given its value and the beginning
of an arithmetic sequence. (page 176)
inTeraCTiViTY
Number patterns int0007: Recognise the relationship between two
variables by observing patterns. (page 175)
5e
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.3 doc9437: Practise solving nonlinear simultaneous
equations (page 189)
SkillSHEET 5.4 doc9438: Practise solving indicial equations
(page 189)
TUTorial
We 14 eles1270: Learn how to find the value of a term in
a geometric sequence using a CAS calculator and by using a
spreadsheet. (page 188)
212
5G
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.5 doc9440: Practise relating the common ratio of a
geometric sequence to percentage increase or decrease. (page 197)
Spreadsheet doc9441: Investigate graphs of arithmetic sequences
and series. (page 197)
TUTorial
We 19 eles1332: Watch a worked example on applying the
concepts involved in geometric sequences to real life. (page 194)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9442: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 211)
Answers CHAPTER 5
ariThmeTiC and GeomeTriC
SeQUenCeS
exercise 5a
recognition of arithmetic
sequences
1 a, c, i
2 a a = 2, d = 5
c a = 2, d = 2
i a = 10, d = 10
3 a, c, d, e
4 a a = 123, d = 100
c a = 7, d = 6
d a = 67, d = 40
e a = 5, d = 7
5 a, c, f
6 a a = 0.7, d = 0.3
c a = 3.5, d = 1.5
f a = 5.2, d = 0.8
7 a, b, c, d
1
8 a a= ,d=1
2
1
5
c a= ,d=
2
5
b a= ,d=2
4
d a=
3
4
,d=4
9 a, d, e
10 a a = 2, d = 2
d a = not specified, d = 2
e a = 8, d = 8
11 a 7th
b 7th
c 8th
d 5th
12 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, 61, 68
13 212, 221, 230, 239, 248
14 B
15 D
exercise 5B Finding the terms of an
arithmetic sequence
b 38
c 2900
1 a 122
d 149
f 549.9
e 219
b 1777
2 a 103
c 60
d 217
b 28th
c 34th
d 279th
3 a 24th
4 tn = 13 + 10n
5 tn = 37 + 3n
b 10
6 a tn = 5 + 10n
7A
8B
9 D
10 26.8
13 24
1
2
11
1
12 5
14 31st
12 78.4
15 44th
16 E
17 10.9 metres 18 101
19 tn = 3 + 4n
20 a tn = 8.5 + 3.5n
b 358.5 metres
exercise 5C
14
15
16
17
18
19
16 a tn = 1.2 1.05n 1
b 1.46 m
c 12
17 D
18 A
19 B
$9375
$414 000
363.8 cm
1135
a $10 600
a $155
b $136 000
b $2150
e a = 4, r = 2
h a = 5, r = 4
5 a, c, d
6 a a = 1, r = 2
c a = 4, r = 3
d a = 7, r = 1
7 a, c, f
8 a a = 2, r = 2
c a = 3, r = 5
f a = 6, r = 10
9 a, c, d, e
10 a a = 1.2, r = 2
c a = 2.25, r = 2
1
d a = 7, r =
e a = 10, r = 1.2
2
11 a, c, d, f
1
2
1
2
c a= ,r=
d a= ,r=2
f a = 1, r =
D
D
14 D
16 C
b a = $100, r = 1.1
b 2
12 a a = , r =
1
3
13
15
17
18
a Various answers
a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
c 2048
1
4
1
5
1
3
of geometric
17th year
24.82
Year 9
$6317.32
16th year
10 weeks
Year 11
Year 9
$16 288.95
$16 453.09
$26 897.78
$53 701.28
5
4
5
f 45
e 2.5
11
10, 6, 3.6
b 6, 1.5, 0.375
12, 10.8, 9.72
d 4, 0.8, 0.16
9, 7.2, 5.76
f 6, 1.2, 0.24
12.5, 6.25, 3.125
12.5, 9.375, 7.031 25
48, 28.8, 17.28
4 22 22
d 2 , ,
9 27 81
2 a
c
e
3 a
b
c
4 a
5
9
b
7
d 39
g
262
495
4
9
c 1
e 8
2
3
h 1
321
999
1
3
14
99
1
3
10 2048
1
6 192.5 m
8 $500 000
11 341 3
12 531 441
9 a
20 C
exercise 5F
23
25
64
729
15 a tn = 10 000 0.85n 1
7 Yes
b $2724.91
$716 392.96
c $7 070 144.32
213
5 a
8 10
4 104
2 104
tn
30
15
Amount ($)
10
5
0
8 n
b tn
7
9
80
70
6000
Legend
Simple interest
Compound interest
5500
5000
1
2
Year
60
50
40
30
Amount ($)
8 n
tn
15
0
5
130 000
0
2
10
2
Year
10 3 terms
11 0 terms
ChapTer reVieW
15
tn
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
Legend
Simple interest
Compound interest
120 000
110 000
mUlTiple ChoiCe
1
6
11
16
C
A
D
C
2
7
12
17
B
C
B
E
3
8
13
18
A
B
B
D
ShorT anSWer
Un = 10n
1
4
2
3
Term number (n)
exTended reSponSe
140 000
Vn = 10 2n 1
10
150 000
10
Legend
20
160 000
b 5 years
9 25 cm
214
b 19.2 tonnes
10
5 a tn = 7.2 1.15n 1
c Year 12
6 17
7 a $33 622.22
6500
6
5
b 12 000
b No
8 3
8 n
6 D
7 E
8
20
3 a 1080
1
4 a Yes, a = 5, r =
6 104
25
tn
Amount ($)
1
4
b Yes, a = 5 , d = 3
2 Term number 35
4
9
14
19
C
A
C
D
5
10
15
20
B
B
A
A
Task 1
1 a Common ratio is 3.
b Common ratio is 3.
c Multiplication: common ratio is 9 (32);
division: common ratio is 1 (30).
d The ratio of the second term to the first
term, after the subtraction, is
ar 2 ar ar (r 1)
=
= r.
ar a
a(r 1)
2 a $105, $110, $115, $120, $125
b $105, $110.25, $115.76, $121.55,
$127.63
c 35 years
Task 2
1
1 a 18 tonnes
b tn = 4.5 + 3.5n
2
c 214.5 tonnes
d 28th month
e 40 months
2 a 1.1
b tn = 10 1.1n 1
c 14.641 tonnes
d 13th month
e 213.84 tonnes
3 24th month
ChapTer 6
Difference equations
ChapTer ConTenTS
6a
6b
6C
6d
6e
6F
6G
diGiTal doC
doc9443
10 Quick Questions
introduction
In the previous chapter we examined arithmetic and geometric patterns, examining such patterns with
explicit functions like tn = a + (n 1) d. Another approach is to look at how two consecutive terms in a
sequence are related. This approach is more useful in practical applications in which the information is
provided as follows:
The population is increasing by 10% each year, less 200 deaths, with a current population of 9500.
In the above statement we are told about the relationship or change in population from one year to the
next and are given a starting term.
t1 = 1.
The expression is read as the next term is the previous term plus 4, starting at 1.
Or, transposing the above equation, we get:
tn + 1 tn = 4
t1 = 1.
This is read as the difference between two consecutive terms is4, starting at 1.
This equation is called a first order difference equation. It has two main parts:
tn + 1 = tn + 4 describes the pattern in the sequence
t1 = 1 is the first or starting term in the sequence.
A first order difference equation defines a relationship between two successive terms of
a sequence, for example, between:
tn, the previous term
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with first order
difference
equations.
215
The following equations each define a sequence. Which of them are first order difference equations
(defining a relationship between two consecutive terms)?
a tn = tn 1 + 2
t1 = 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = 4 + 2n
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
c fn + 1 = 3fn
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
Think
WriTe
tn = tn 1 + 2
and a starting or first term of t1 = 3.
There is no tn + 1 or tn 1 term.
Given a fully defined first order difference equation (pattern and a known term) we can generate the
other terms of the sequence.
Starting term
Earlier, it was stated that a starting term was required to fully define a sequence. As can be seen below,
the same pattern with a different starting point gives a different set of numbers.
tn + 1 = tn + 2
tn + 1 = tn + 2
t1 = 3
t1 = 2
gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
Worked exaMple 2
Write the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order difference equation:
tn = 3tn 1 + 5
t0 = 2.
Think
216
WriTe
tn = 3tn 1 + 5
t1 = 3t0 + 5
=32+5
= 11
t2 = 3t1 + 5
= 3 11 + 5
= 38
t3 = 3t2 + 5
= 3 38 + 5
= 119
t4 = 3t3 + 5
= 3 119 + 5
= 362
t0 = 2
Worked exaMple 3
If the fourth term of the sequence is 29, that is, t4 = 29, then what is the second term?
Think
WriTe
tn =
t3 =
tn + 1 + 3
2
t4 + 3
2
29 + 3
=
2
= 13
t3 + 3
2
13 + 3
=
2
= 5
t2 =
1 We1
Which of the following equations are complete first order difference equations?
a tn = 2 + n
b tn = tn 1 1
t0 = 2
c tn = 1 3tn 1
t0 = 2
d tn 4tn 1 = 5
e tn = tn 1
f tn = n + 1
t1 = 2
g tn = 1 tn 1
t0 = 21
h tn = an 1
t2 = 2
i fn + 1 = 3fn 1
j pn = pn 1 + 7
t0 = 7
2 We2
i tn = tn 1 + 2
iii tn = 1 + tn 1
t0 = 6
t0 = 23
ii tn = tn 1 3
iv tn + 1 = tn 10
t0 = 5
t1 = 7
b From your knowledge of chapter 5, write whether the sequences you have found in partsiiv are
t0 = 1
ii tn = 5tn 1
t0 = 2
t0 = 1
iv tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
b From your knowledge of chapter 5, write whether the sequences you have found in parts iiv are
arithmetic or geometric sequences.
i tn = 3tn 1
iii tn = 4tn 1
tn = 3tn 1 +
a 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .
C 2, 10, 34, 106, 322, . . .
e 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, . . .
t0 = 2
b 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, . . .
d 2, 11, 47, 191, 767, . . .
217
6 MC Which of the sequences below is generated by the following first order difference equation?
a
b
C
d
e
3,
5, 9, 17, 33, . . .
3, 5, 9, 17, 33, . . .
3, 5, 3, 5, 3, . . .
3, 8, 14, 26, 54, . . .
3, 7, 15, 31, 63, . . .
tn + 1 = 2tn 1
t1 = 3
tn + 1 = 3tn + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
If the fourth term is 67 (that is, t4 = 67) what is the second term?
8 A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:
tn + 1 = 4tn 5
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
If the third term is 41 (that is, t3 = 41) what is the first term?
9 MC A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:
tn + 1 = 5tn 10
If the third term is
a
14
6
d 2
10,
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
C 0
b 6
e 4
10 Write the first order difference equations for the following descriptions of a sequence and generate the
In the next few exercises, a link will be made between first order difference equations and arithmetic and
geometric sequences studied in chapter 5.
Note the variation in the pronumerals used. This is best summarised in a table.
Arithmetic and geometric
sequence convention
a or t1
t0 or t1
Common difference
Common ratio
Term
First term
t1 = 3.
tn + 1 = tn + 4
t1 = 3.
(or tn + 1 tn = b)
Worked exaMple 4
Which of the following first order difference equations defines an arithmetic sequence?
a tn + 1 = tn + 2 t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 2tn t1 = 5
c tn + 1 = tn 6 t0 = 11
Think
form tn + 1 = tn + b.
form tn + 1 = tn + b.
form tn + 1 = tn + b.
WriTe
Worked exaMple 5
Express each of the following arithmetic sequences as first order difference equations.
a 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, . . .
b 9, 3, 3, 9, 15, . . .
Think
WriTe
b = t4 t3
= 22 17
=5
b = t3 t2
= 17 12
=5
b = t2 t1
= 12 7
=5
b 9, 3, 3, 9, 15, . . .
b = t4 t3
= 9 3
= 6
b = t3 t2
= 3 3
= 6
b = t2 t1
=39
= 6
219
Worked exaMple 6
Express the arithmetic sequence defined below as a first order difference equation.
tn = 3n 2
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
Think
WriTe
tn = 3n 2
t1 = 3 1 2
= 3 2
= 5
n=2
t2 = 3 2 2
= 6 2
= 8
n=3
t3 = 3 3 2
= 9 2
= 11
n=4
t4 = 3 4 2
= 12 2
= 14
The sequence is 5, 8, 11, 14, . . .
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
n=1
1 We4 State which of the following first order difference equations define an arithmetic sequence.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 6
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = 3tn + 3
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = tn 2
t0 = 5
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t0 = 10
f tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
g tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 0
h tn + 1 = tn
t0 = 1
i tn + 1 = 2tn 3
t1 = 2
j tn + 1 = tn + 100
t1 = 20
2 We5 Express each of the following arithmetic sequences as first order difference equations.
a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .
b 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, . . .
c 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, . . .
d 2, 2, 6, 10, 14, . . .
e 12, 5, 2, 9, 16, . . .
f 6, 1, 4, 9, 14, . . .
h 4, 10.5, 17, 23.5, 30, . . .
g 1, 0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, . . .
3 MC The arithmetic sequence 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
a tn + 1 = tn 3
C tn + 1 = 3tn
e tn + 1 = 3tn
t0 = 6
t1 = 3
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
d tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t1 = 6
t0 = 3
4 We6 Express each of the arithmetic sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = n + 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = n 2
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
c tn = n 10
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
d tn = n + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
e tn = n 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
f tn = 2n + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
g tn = 3n 4
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
h tn = 2n + 6
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
5 MC The sequence defined by tn = 2n + 3, n = 1, 2, 3, . . ., can be defined by the first order difference
equation:
a tn + 1 = tn 2
d tn + 1 = tn + 3
220
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = 2tn + 3
t1 = 3
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = 2tn
tn = 1
Consider the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . . From chapter 5, the common ratio is given by:
t
t
t
r = a = 2 = 3 = 4 = ...
t1 t2 t3
For this sequence
3 9 27
= =
= ...
1 3 9
= +3
a=
TUTorial
eles1273
Worked example 7
WriTe
Worked exaMple 8
Express each of the following geometric sequences as first order difference equations.
a 1, 5, 25, 125,
25, . .6
b 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 . . .
Think
WriTe
a a=
25
5
= 5
1
+5
125
25
=. . .
is 1.
=
t1 = 1
221
term is 3.
b a=
6
3
2
12
6
24
12
=. . .
=
t1 = 3
Worked exaMple 9
Express each of the geometric sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = 2(7)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
b tn = 3(2)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
Think
WriTe
a tn = a(r)n 1
tn = 2(7)n 1,
tn + 1 = atn
a = 7, t1 = 2
tn + 1 = 7tn
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
t1 = 2
tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 3
1 We 7 State which of the following first order difference equations define a geometric sequence.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 6
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = 3tn + 3
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 5
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 10
f tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
g tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 0
h tn + 1 = tn
t1 = 1
i tn + 1 = 2tn 3
t1 = 2
j tn + 1 = tn + 100
t1 = 20
2 We8 Express each of the following geometric sequences as first order difference equations.
a 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . .
b 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
c 1, 6, 36, 216, 1296, . . .
d 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .
e 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, . . .
f 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .
equation:
a tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 2
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 3
C tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 2
e tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 2
4 We9 Express each of the geometric sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = 2(3)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = 3(5)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
1
c tn = 3(4)
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
d tn = 5(2)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
e tn = 0.5(1)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
f tn = 0.1(3)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
5 MC The sequence tn = 4(1)n 1 n = 1, 2, 3, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
diGiTal doC
doc9444
WorkSHEET 6.1
222
a tn + 1 = tn
C tn + 1 = 4tn
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 4
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn 1
d tn + 1 = 4tn + 3
t1 = 4
t1 = 4
inTeraCTiViTY
int0187
Setting up first order
difference equations
In practical applications we will be presented with a description of the situation including the pattern and
a starting term. We need to translate that description to recognise:
1. the first term (t0 or t1)
2. the current or previous term (tn or tn 1)
3. how the next term (tn or tn + 1) is generated.
The choice of notation for the first term is defined by the type of situation.
Use t0 for sequences that are dependent on time, such as population growth and investment amounts.
For example, a population starts at 1500 (start = t0). After the first year (1st year = t1) it has grown to
1700, and after the second year (2nd year = t2) it has grown to 1900.
Use t1 for most other situations, such as prizes: first prize t1 = $1000, second prize t2=$500, third
prize t3 = $250.
As an example, let us look at a very simple situation.
Initial description:
The school population is increasing each year by 50 students and the initial population was 200.
Below is the description in terms of the population for two consecutive years:
Next years population
is
plus 50,
Pn + 1
Pn
+ 50,
P0 = 200
P0 = 200.
The above approach refers to the two terms as the relationship between the next (tn + 1) and previous
(tn) terms.
Note: A more appropriate pronumeral than t is usually chosen to represent the terms in a sequence, for
example, P for population.
The first order difference equation can be stated as:
Next term is the previous term plus some defined change, given the first term.
Three types of difference equations will be closely investigated: those describing an arithmetic sequence,
a geometric sequence and a combination of both.
223
Worked exaMple 10
John is advised that the runs he scored in his first ten innings in cricket is a pattern. The first
innings score was 25, and each innings score increased by 7 runs after that.
Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
Think
WriTe
R1 = 25
Rn + 1 = Rn + 7
Rn + 1 = Rn + 7
R1 = 25
Worked exaMple 11
Erin earns 4% simple interest per annum on $15 000 that she has invested.
Recall that simple interest is always calculated on the original amount.
a Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
b Calculate the total value after the third year.
Think
TUTorial
eles1333
Worked example 11
WriTe
A0 = $15 000
An + 1 = An + 4% of $15 000
An + 1 = An + 600
An + 1 = An + 600
224
b An + 1 = An + 600
A1 = A0 + 600
= 15 000 + 600
= 15 600
A3 = A2 + 600
= 16 200 + 600
= 16 800
A0 = 15 000
A2 = A1 + 600
= 15 600 + 600
= 16 200
Think
population.
TUTorial
eles1334
Worked example 12
WriTe
P0 = 1200
Pn + 1 = Pn + 0.05Pn
= Pn(1 + 0.05)
= 1.05Pn
Pn + 1 = 1.05Pn
b Pn + 1 = 1.05Pn
P1 = 1.05P0
= 1.05 1200
= 1260
P0 = 1200
P0 = 1200
P2 = 1.05P1
= 1.05 1260
= 1323
P4 = 1.05P3
P3 = 1.05P2
= 1.05 1323
= 1.05 1389.15
= 1389.15
= 1458.6075
P5 = 1.05P4
= 1.05 1458.6075
= 1531.537 875
After 5 years, the bird population is 1532,
correct to the nearest whole number.
225
that is
tn + 1 = a tn + b
Worked exaMple 13
James is saving for a car. He saves $200 from his pay and deposits it at the start of each month into
an account earning 6% interest per annum, compounding monthly and calculated at the end of
the month. He opened the account on 1 May with a gift from his parents of $100.
a Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
b How much would James have on 1 August?
Think
WriTe
A0 = $100
6% per annum =
An + 1 = An + 0.5% of An + $200
= An(1 + 0.005) + 200
= 1.005An + 200
An + 1 = 1.005An + 200
226
6%
per month
12
= 0.5% per month
A0 = 100
b An + 1 = 1.005An + 200
A0 = 100
A0 = 100
A1 = 1.005A0 + 200
A2 = 1.005A1 + 200
= 1.005 100 + 200
= 1.005 300.50 + 200
= 100.50 + 200
= 302.0025 + 200
= 300.50
= 502.0025
A3 = 1.005A2 + 200
= 1.005 502.0025 + 200
= 504.512 512 5 + 200
= 704.512 512 5
The total sum James would have on 1 August would
be $704.51, correct to the nearest cent.
1 We10, 11
For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it.
a The first bar on a metal barricade is 50 centimetres long. Each successive bar is 2centimetres
to start with.
d Water leaks from a tank at the rate of 2 litres per day. The tank initially held 5000 litres of water.
For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it and find
the unknown term.
a A towns population increases by 3% each year. The towns original population was 2600. Find
the population after 3 years.
b Gary receives a yearly pay increment of 1.2%. His starting salary is $45 000. What is Garys
expected salary after 5 years?
c Topsoil at a coastal hillside park is estimated to be eroded at the rate of 4% per annum. If the
estimated amount of topsoil at the park is initially 70 000 cubic metres, how much topsoil will be
remaining after 2 years?
d A new hospital increases the number of patients it treats by 12% each year. It treated 3500 in its
first year. How many patients will be treated in the fourth year?
2 We12
diGiTal doC
doc9445
SkillSHEET 6.1
Changing a
percentage to a
decimal
3 We13 For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it and find
are added to the colony which initially had 15 000 ants. How many ants will there be in the colony
after 4 weeks?
b A grove of trees loses 1% of trees through environmental damage each year. Two hundred new
trees are planted each year to cover the losses. The grove began with 3000trees. How many trees
will there be after 3 years?
c Sophie opens an account and on the 15th day of each month deposits $150 into the account which
earns compound interest of 12% per annum, compounding monthly and calculated at the end of
the month. How much will there be in the account at the end of the third month?
4 MC Helen increases the size of her herb garden by
per week more than in the previous week. In his first week, he
earns $160.
The first order difference equation that would describe this is:
a An = An 1 + 40
A0 = 160
b An = 160An 1
A0 = 40
C An = 1.04An 1
A0 = 160
d An = An 1 + 160
A0 = 40
e An = An 1 + 160 40
A0 = 0
6 MC The number of people attending a weightloss club increases by 3% each year. Forty members
leave the club each year. The clubs initial membership was 1100 statewide.
The first order difference equation that reflects this is:
a Pn = 0.97Pn 1 40
P0 = 1100
b Pn = 0.97Pn 1 + 40
C Pn = 1.03Pn 1 40
P0 = 1100
d Pn = 1.03Pn 1 + 40
e Pn = 1.40Pn 1 1100
P0 = 40
P0 = 1100
P0 = 1100
227
7 MC The number of people in a country town is decreasing by 5% each year as the young adults move
to the city. A further 20 people die each year. The towns initial population was 2500.
The first order difference equation that reflects this is:
a Pn = 0.95Pn 1 20
P0 = 2500
b Pn = 0.95Pn 1 + 20
P0 = 2500
C Pn = 1.05Pn 1 20
P0 = 2500
d Pn = 1.05Pn 1 + 20
P0 = 2500
e Pn = 1.20Pn 1 2500
P0 = 20
8 MC The whale population in the
Southern Pacific Ocean is decreasing
by 150 per year. The current population
is 1500.
The first order difference equation
that describes the above is:
a Pn = 0.9Pn 1
P0 = 1500
b Pn = 1.1Pn 1 150
P0 = 1500
C Pn + 1 = Pn + 150
P0 = 1500
d Pn = Pn 1 1500
P0 = 150
e Pn = Pn 1 150
P0 = 1500
9 The number of paidup members of a football club is increasing by 4% per week, but the club loses
10 members each week. The club began with 10 000 members.
a Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
b Calculate the size of the membership for each of the first 8 weeks.
c In which week will the membership first exceed 11 000?
10 At the local brickworks there are piles of house bricks. The first pile has 4000 house bricks. Each pile
after the first has 20 fewer house bricks than the previous pile.
a State whether this is an arithmetic or geometric sequence.
b Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
c Calculate the number of bricks for each of the first 7 piles.
In another yard, there are piles of paving bricks. The first pile has 4000 paving bricks; however,
the bricks reduce by a rate of 1% for each subsequent pile.
d State whether this is an arithmetic or geometric sequence.
e Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
f Calculate the number of bricks in the seventh pile of paving bricks.
Graphical representation of a
sequence defined by a first order
difference equation
6e
t1 = 3,
t1 = 3.
Value of term
Value of term
The sequences of a first order difference equation tn + 1 = tn + b are distinguished by a straight line or a
constant increase or decrease.
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
Worked exaMple 14
On a graph, show the first five terms of the sequence described by the first
order difference equation:
tn + 1 = tn 3
t1 = 5.
Think
TUTorial
eles1274
Worked example 14
WriTe/draW
tn + 1 = tn 3
t2 = t1 3
= 5 3
= 8
t4 = t3 3
= 11 3
= 14
tn
Value of term
0
4
t1 = 5
t 3 = t2 3
= 8 3
= 11
t 5 = t4 3
= 14 3
= 17
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
8
12
16
20
1 2 3 4 5 6 n
Term number
An increasing pattern or a positive common ratio
greater than 1 (a > 1) gives an upward curved line.
0
Value of term
Value of term
The sequences of a first order difference equation tn + 1 = atn are distinguished by a curved line or a saw form.
tn
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 n
Term number
A decreasing pattern or a positive fractional common
ratio (0 < a < 1) gives a downward curved line.
0
229
tn
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
Value of term
Value of term
tn
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Term number
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Term number
Worked exaMple 15
On a graph, show the first six terms of the sequence described by the first order difference
equation:
tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 0.5.
WriTe/draW
tn + 1 = 4tn
t2 = 4t1
= 4 0.5
=2
t3 = 4t2
=42
=8
t4 = 4t3
=48
= 32
t5 = 4t4
= 4 32
= 128
t6 = 4t5
= 4 128
= 512
t1 = 0.5
tn
160
Value of term
Think
120
80
40
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
As the pattern of first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn + b is a combination of both
arithmetic and geometric rules, they are primarily distinguished by a curved line but are more complex
in nature than those given by geometric sequences.
230
Worked exaMple 16
On a graph, show the first five terms of the sequence described by the first order difference
equation:
tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t1 = 2.
Think
WriTe/draW
tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t2 = 3t1 1
=321
=5
t4 = 3t3 1
= 3 14 1
= 41
Value of term
t1 = 2
t3 = 3t2 1
=351
= 14
t5 = 3t4 1
= 3 41 1
= 122
tn
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
1 We14 For each of the following, plot the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order
difference equation.
tn + 1 = tn + 3
tn + 1 = tn + 7
tn + 1 = tn 3
tn + 1 = tn + 5
tn + 1 = tn + 17
tn + 1 = tn 16
a
b
c
d
e
f
t1 = 1
t1 = 5
t1 = 17
t1 = 9
t1 = 11
t1 = 90
2 We15 For each of the following, plot the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order
difference equation.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
b tn + 1 = 2tn
c tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn = 0.5tn 1
f tn + 1 = 2.5tn
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
t1 = 0.25
t1 = 0.5
t1 = 16
t1 = 2
3 We16 For each of the following, plot the first four terms of the sequence defined by the first order
difference equation.
a tn + 1 = 3tn 1
c tn + 1 = 2tn + 1
e tn + 1 = 1 + 3tn
t1 = 1
t1 = 5
1
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 3tn 4
d tn = 2tn 1 + 0.5
f
tn = 2 + 5tn 1
t1 = 3
t1 = 2
t1 = 0.2
4 For each of the following, plot the first four terms of the sequence defined by the first order difference
equation.
a tn + 1 = 100 3tn
c tn + 1 = tn 50
e tn = 0.1tn 1
t1 = 20
t1 = 100
t1 = 10
b tn + 1 = tn + 50
d tn + 1 = 10tn
f tn = 0.5tn 1 5
t1 = 100
t1 = 0.1
t1 = 30
diGiTal doC
doc9446
WorkSHEET 6.2
231
From the previous exercise, you would have noticed that particular families of graphs were generated.
Straight or linear
A straight line or linear pattern is given by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = tn + b, and
(from the previous chapter) if each pair of terms has a common difference, it is an arithmetic sequence.
Value of term
60
30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
nonlinear (exponential)
A nonlinear pattern is generated by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn, and (from the
previous chapter) if each pair of terms has a common ratio, it is a geometric sequence.
Value of term
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
One other nonlinear pattern is produced by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn + b:
a combination of a geometric and an arithmetic sequence.
y
Value of term
240
180
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
Starting term
Earlier, the need for a starting term to be given to fully define a sequence was stated. As can be seen
below, the same pattern but a different starting point gives a different set of numbers.
tn + 1 = tn + 2
tn + 1 = tn + 2
232
t1 = 3
t1 = 2
gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
Worked exaMple 17
tn
20
18
Value of term
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
Think
WriTe
tn + 1 = tn + b
Common difference, b = 3
tn + 1 = tn 3
(or tn + 1 tn = 3)
tn + 1 = tn 3
t1 = 18
Worked exaMple 18
tn
20
Value of term
16
12
8
4
0
Think
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
WriTe
tn + 1 = a tn
Common ratio, a = 2
tn + 1 = 2tn
t0 = 2
tn + 1 = 2tn
t0 = 2
233
Worked exaMple 19
Value of term
MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph below.
Which of the following first order difference equations could describe
tn
the sequence?
10
a tn + 1 = tn + 1
with t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn + 2
with t1 = 1
8
C tn + 1 = 2tn
with t1 = 1
6
d tn + 1 = tn + 1
with t1 = 2
4
e tn + 1 = tn + 2
with t1 = 2
TUTorial
eles1275
Worked example 19
0
Think
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
WriTe
The answer is b.
1 We17 For each of the following graphs, write a first order difference equation that defines the
Value of term
234
Value of term
tn
20
16
12
8
4
0
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
tn
20
16
12
8
4
tn
100
80
60
40
20
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
0
f
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
8
4
0
4
8
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
2 We 18 For each of the following graphs, write a first order difference equation that defines the
b
Value of term
Value of term
tn
50
40
30
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
8
Value of term
Value of term
4
0
4
8
tn
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
8
4
0
4
8
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
Value of term
Value of term
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
8
4
0
4
8
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
Value of term
3 We 19
12
8
4
Value of term
Value of term
2 3 4 5 n
Term number
2 3 4 5 n
Term number
2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
50
40
30
20
10
0
at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 0.5
b tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 0.5
C tn + 1 = tn 25
t1 = 50
d tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 50
e tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 50
16
at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = tn 8
t1 = 8
b tn + 1 = tn + 8
t1 = 8
C tn + 1 = tn 8
t1 = 45
d tn + 1 = tn + 8
t1 = 45
e tn + 1 = 8tn
t1 = 45
tn
20
tn
50
40
30
20
10
0
235
tn
at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 0.5
b tn = tn 1 12
t1 = 8
C tn = 8tn 1
t1 = 0.5
d tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 8
e tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 8
Value of term
n
0
2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
5
Value of term
at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = 5tn
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn + 5
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = 5
t1 = 5
d tn + 1 = 3tn 10
t1 = 5
e tn + 1 = 5tn + 5
t1 = 5
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
4
3
2
1
0
2 3 4 5
Term number
8 Graphs of the first five terms of first order difference equations are shown below together with the
first order difference equations. Match the graph with the first order difference equation by writing the
letter corresponding to the graph together with the number corresponding to the first order difference
equation.
Value of term
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
d
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
i tn + 1 = tn +
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
236
1
2
tn + 1 = tn 2
tn + 1 = 2tn
tn + 1 = 2tn 3
tn + 1 = 2tn 1
tn + 1 = 2tn 5
t1 = 8
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
t1 = 4
t1 = 1
t1 = 6
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
20
16
12
8
4
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
5
4
3
2
1
0
tn
25
20
15
10
5
0
Value of term
tn
18
16
12
8
4
0
Value of term
Value of term
tn
2
0
2
4
6
8
Value of term
Value of term
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Fibonacci numbers
Most of us have never taken the time to observe very carefully the number or arrangements of petals and
seeds in flowers. If we were to do so, some very interesting conclusions could be made. For each of the
following images, count the number of petals or spirals.
237
diGiTal doC
doc9447
Investigation
Fibonacci patterns
Leonardo di Pisano, also known as Fibonacci (which translates as son of Bonacci), first noticed the
sequence of Fibonacci numbers in 1202, when he was asked by his king to investigate a problem about
how fast rabbits can breed.
The sequence of Fibonacci numbers can be defined as a second order difference equation as follows:
Fn + 2 = Fn + Fn + 1
F1 = 1 and F2 = 1.
As with first order difference equations, this equation consists of two parts:
Fn + 2 = Fn + Fn + 1 describes the pattern in the sequence
(each new term is formed by adding the two previous terms)
F1 = 1 and F2 = 1 are the first two terms of the sequence.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
Fibonacci
sequences.
lucas numbers
Another useful Fibonacci sequence is one called the Lucas numbers, named after nineteenthcentury
mathematician Edouard Lucas. The sequence of Lucas numbers starts with the numbers 2 and 1. The
first 10 numbers of this sequence are 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47 and 76.
Ln + 1
Continue this sequence and investigate the ratio of the terms
. Compare this with the ratio of the
Ln
Fn + 1
terms
from the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. What do you notice?
Fn
The sequence of Lucas numbers can be also defined as a second order difference equation.
Ln + 2 = Ln + Ln + 1
L1 = 2 and L2 = 1
As stated earlier, any sequence in which each new term is the result of adding the previous two terms,
given any two starting values, is known as a Fibonacci sequence.
The second order difference equation for a Fibonacci sequence is set out in the same way as defined
earlier for the sequence of Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers. The notation can be either of the
following:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1 given f1 and f2
or
tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 given t1 and t2.
Worked exaMple 20
For the Fibonacci sequence given by the second order difference equation:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f1 = 2 and f2 = 5,
WriTe
f1 = 2 and f2 = 5
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f3 = f1 + f2
=2+5
=7
f5 = f3 + f4
= 7 + 12
= 19
f4 = f2 + f3
=5+7
= 12
f6 = f4 + f5
= 12 + 19
= 31
As was the case with first order difference equations, we can use the second order difference equation
for a Fibonacci sequence to find the value of previous terms in a sequence, given that we have later
numbers of the sequence.
238
Worked exaMple 21
MC For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first two terms could be
given as:
a t1 = 4, t2 = 1
b t1 = 1, t2 = 4
C t1 = 1, t2 = 3
d t1 = 1, t2 = 1
e t1 = 2, t2 = 1
Think
WriTe
tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1
tn = tn + 2 tn + 1
tn = 14 9
=5
tn = 9 5
=4
tn = 5 4
=1
An alternative method to solving the question in Worked example 21 could be a trialanderror approach.
Simply produce a sequence given the starting points for each option and then see which one results in
the given sequence.
Worked exaMple 22
WriTe
t5 = t3 + t4
t3 = t5 t4
= 18 11
=7
t2 = t4 t3
= 11 7
=4
The value of t2 is 4.
TUTorial
eles1276
Worked example 22
1 We20 For Fibonacci sequences given by the second order difference equation fn+2=fn + fn+1, give
the first 10 terms when the first two terms are defined as follows:
a f1 = 0 and f2 = 1
b f1 = 2 and f2 = 1
c f1 = 5 and f2 = 3
d f1 = 34 and f2 = 21.
diGiTal doC
doc9448
Fibonacci sequences
239
3 For Fibonacci sequences given by the second order difference equation fn+2=fn + fn+1, list the first
a f1 = 1 and f2 = 4
c f1 = 2 and f2 = 1
b f1 = 2 and f2 = 0
d f1 = 4 and f2 = 5.
starting terms:
a f1 = 6 and f2 = 1
c f1 = 1 and f2 = 2
Comment on the shape of the graphs produced.
b f1 = 12 and f2 = 8
d f1 = 3 and f2 = 2.
Explain why the sequences are different even though the same two values are used at the start.
7 MC For the difference equation tn = tn 2 + tn 1, where t1 = 4 and t2 = 3, the first five terms of the
sequence are:
a 3, 4, 7, 11, 18
C 4, 3, 7, 10, 17
e 1, 7, 8, 15, 23
b 4, 3, 4, 3, 4
d 4, 3, 12, 36, 432
8 MC For the Fibonacci sequence with a difference equation fn = fn 2 + fn 1, where f1 = 1 and f2 = 7, the
value of f7 is:
a 61
C 38
e 113
b 51
d 43
b 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
d 3, 3, 6, 9, 15, 24, . . .
For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first
two terms could be given as:
a t1 = 1, t2 = 4
b t1 = 3, t2 = 1
C t1 = 1, t2 = 3
d t1 = 1, t2 = 1
e t1 = 2, t2 = 1
10 We21
MC
11 MC For the sequence of Fibonacci numbers shown in the graph, the second order difference
equation is:
a tn = tn 2 + tn 1, where t1 = 3 and t2 = 1
b tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3
C tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 3 and t2 = 1
d tn 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3
e tn = tn 1 2, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3
tn
0
2
Value of term
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
240
Term number
2 4 6
n
12 Using a microscope to study the spread of a certain bacteria in an agar dish, a medical scientist
After
2 minutes
9
After
3 minutes
15
After
4 minutes
24
After
5 minutes
39
Assuming the number counted continues to follow this Fibonacci sequence, state the number of
bacteria (to the nearest million) expected after 30 minutes.
13 For each of the following Fibonacci sequences, determine the two starting terms, given that they both
must be the smallest possible nonnegative numbers.
a . . ., 13, 22, 35, 57, 92
b . . ., 14, 23, 37, 60, 97
c . . ., 8, 15, 23, 38, 61
d . . ., 16, 25, 41, 66, 107
14 We22 Given the following values as three terms of a particular Fibonacci sequence, find the value of
the required term.
a t1 = 4, t4 = 16 and t5 = 26; t2 = ?
b t2 = 1, t4 = 9 and t5 = 17; t1 = ?
c t2 = 3, t5 = 7 and t6 = 12; t1 = ?
d t4 = 22, t6 = 57 and t7 = 92; t2 = ?
15 Generate a sequence of eight numbers using the following second order difference equations:
a tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1
t1 = 3, t2 = 4
b tn + 2 = 2tn + tn + 1
t1 = 1, t2 = 1
c tn + 2 = 2tn + 2tn + 1 t1 = 1, t2 = 2
d tn = 3tn 2 + tn 1
t1 = 2, t2 = 2.
241
Summary
Generating the terms
of a sequence defined
by a first order
difference equation
A first order difference equation defines a relationship between two successive terms of a sequence,
for example, between:
tn, the previous term, and tn + 1, the next term,
or
tn 1, the previous term, and tn, the next term.
A first order difference equation has two main parts:
tn + 1 = tn + b (where b is a constant) describes the pattern in the sequence
t1 = 1 is the first or a starting term in the sequence.
First order difference equations can be expressed as follows:
tn + 1 = 2tn + 3
t0 = 1.
It is read as the next term is twice the previous term plus 3, starting at 1 or
tn + 1 tn = 4
t1 = 1
It is read as the difference between two consecutive terms is 4, starting at 1.
Starting term
A starting term is needed to fully define a sequence. The same pattern but different starting points
gives different sets of numbers.
gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 3
tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 2
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
t0 is used as the first term for situations that are dependent on time.
t1 is used as the first term for situations that are ordinal, such as placings (first place, t1, second
place, t2, third place, t3, . . .) or prizes (first prize, second prize, . . .).
The relationship
between arithmetic
sequences and first
order difference
equations
Pronumeral conventions
Term
First term
Common difference
Common ratio
The geometric common ratio, r, is the pronumeral a in first order difference equations.
t
t
t
The common ratio, r = a = 2 = 3 = 4 = . . .
t1 t2 t3
A geometric sequence with a common ratio of a may be defined by a first order difference equation
of the form:
tn + 1 = atn
where a is the common ratio
a > 1 is an increasing sequence
0 < a < 1 is a decreasing sequence
a < 0 is a sequence alternating between positive and negative values.
The next term is the previous term plus a fixed amount or a fixed percentage of an initial value.
242
tn + 1 = tn + b
where b = the common difference = fixed amount or % of the first term, t0 or t1.
The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value.
tn + 1 = tn + % of tn
tn + 1 = a tn
where a is the common ratio.
The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value plus a fixed
amount or a fixed percentage of an initial value.
tn + 1 = tn + % tn + b
tn + 1 = a tn + b
where a = the common ratio and b = the common difference.
A straight line or linear pattern is an arithmetic sequence given
by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = tn + b.
Value of term
60
30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
Value of term
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
y
240
Value of term
or
(b) tn + 1 = a tn + b
180
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
Fibonacci sequences
as second order
difference equations
The Fibonacci numbers are a unique sequence of numbers (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, . . .).
Each new term is formed by adding the two previous terms.
Any sequence in which each new term is the result of adding the previous two terms, given any
two starting values, is known as a Fibonacci sequence.
The Lucas numbers are a special group of numbers that follow a Fibonacci sequence and have
starting values of 2 and 1.
The second order difference equation for a Fibonacci sequence is set out using the following
notation:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1 given f1 and f2
or
tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 given t1 and t2.
243
Chapter review
M U lT ip l e
C h oiCe
1 Which one of the following equations is not a first order difference equation?
a tn = 1tn 1
d tn + 1 = 1 n
b fn + 1 = fn 2
e fn = 10fn 1
C pn = pn 1
2 Which of the sequences below is generated by the first order difference equation tn + 1 = tn 4, t1 = 6?
a 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, . . .
d 6, 2, 2, 6, 10, . . .
C 6, 2, 6, 2, 6, . . .
tn + 1 = 3tn 2
The third term, (that is, t3) of the sequence is
The first term of the sequence is:
a 161
1
b 8 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
7.
C 5
d 1
e 5
The first order difference equation that defines an arithmetic sequence is:
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 1
e tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 1
a tn + 1 = 2tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn + 2
t1 = 1
t1 = 4
t1 = 4
b tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = 4tn + 2
t1 = 4
t1 = 4
6 The first order difference equation that defines a geometric sequence is:
a tn + 1 = tn + 2
d tn + 1 = tn + 2
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn 2
e tn + 1 = 2tn 2
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 4
C tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
7 The sequence 3, 12, 48, 192, 768, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
a tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 3
C tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 4
t1 = 4
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 3
8 A library adds 300 new books to its collection each year. The collection began with 4000 books and it
is claimed that no book has ever been removed.
A first order difference equation that reflects this situation is:
a Bn = Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 300
b Bn = Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 4000
C Bn = 1.03Bn + 1 + 100
B0 = 300
d Bn = 1.03Bn + 1 + 4120
B0 = 4000
e Bn = 1.04Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 300
9 George deposits $80 during the second week of each month into an account that earns compound
tn
80
60
40
20
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
Value of term
10 The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph at right.
Value of term
interest of 6% per annum compounding monthly and calculated at the end of the month.
The first order difference equation that would describe this situation is:
a An = 1.005An 1 + 80.4
A0 = 0
b An = 1.005An 1 + 80.4
A1 = 0
C An = 1.06An 1 + 84.8
A0 = 0
d An = 1.06An 1 + 84.8
A1 = 0
e An = 1.08An 1 + 64.8
A0 = 0
tn
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
12 For the Fibonacci sequence with a second order difference equation given as fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1, where
a 165
d 21
b 102
e 13
C 63
b 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
e 1, 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, . . .
14 For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first two terms could be given as:
a t1 = 2, t2 = 6
d t1 = 1, t2 = 4
b t1 = 1, t2 = 7
e t1 = 0, t2 = 4
C t1 = 2, t2 = 3
Write the first five terms of each of the sequences defined below.
t1 = 1
t1 = 0
S ho rT
a n S W er
a tn = 4tn 1 3
b tn + 1 = 3 + 5tn
membership of the club was 300. Write a difference equation to describe this situation, stating clearly
the terms you use.
6
On a graph, plot the first five terms of the sequence described by the difference equation:
tn + 1 = 2tn 1
t1 = 2
7 The cost in dollars, Cn, to complete a housepainting job on the nth day is given by the difference
9 Write the first five terms for each of the sequences defined below:
a tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1
t1 = 2, t2 = 3
b fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f1 = 0, f2 = 4
c fn = fn 2 + fn 1
f1 = 2, f2 = 6
Value of term
8 The first four terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph at right.
tn
40
30
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e
Task 1
1 A band has been advised that, to tour successfully, the number of gigs played in the nth month for the
2 The occurrence of cymbal crashes in the bands most popular rock ballad follows the geometric
3 As a future sideproject, the lead guitarist of the band wants to open her own record store. To fund the
project, she sets up a savings account that earns 9% interest p.a., compounded monthly and calculated
at the end of the month. She opens the account with $500 and deposits $100 at the start of each month.
Represent this information with a difference equation.
ChapTer 6 Difference equations
245
4 The band uses an exotic flower as the cover art for their new record. The flower has a multitiered bud,
where the number of seeds per tier is given by the Fibonacci numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 . . .
a Represent this information as a difference equation.
b Find the number of seeds in the 10th tier.
c Which tier has 987 seeds?
5 The bands manager notices that the sales of their new record follow a Fibonacci sequence expressed by
the difference equation fn = fn 1 + fn 2, where f1 = 2 and f2 = 4. Each term of the sequence is measured
in thousands of units shifted per month.
a List the first 8 terms of the sequence.
b Determine the value of f 10.
Task 2
1 Two brothers set up a small workshop to produce surfboards.
11
14
17
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
diGiTal doC
doc9449
Test Yourself
Chapter 6
246
Task 3
Pythagorean triads are three integers that satisfy Pythagoras theorem. These triads, such as 3, 4 and 5 or
5, 12 and 13, can be formed from a Fibonacci sequence as shown below.
Take any four consecutive terms of a Fibonacci sequence. To obtain the first number of the
Pythagorean triad, multiply the two middle terms and double this answer. To obtain the second number
of the triad, multiply the two outer terms (from the four consecutive terms). To obtain the third number
of the triad, sum the squares of the two middle terms (from the four consecutive terms).
1 Consider the small Fibonacci sequence 1, 2, 3 and 5. State the values of t1 and t2 and represent the
sequence as a second order difference equation.
2 Calculate the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence 1, 2, 3 and 5.
3 The terms t4 = 7 and t5 = 11 form part of a Fibonacci sequence. Find the value of t1, t2 and t3.
4 Use t1, t2, t3 and t4 from question 3 to find the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence of these four terms.
5 Calculate the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence 2, 1, 3 and 4.
6 What makes the sequence from question 6 a Fibonacci sequence?
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9443: Warm up with a quick quiz on
difference equations. (page 215)
TUTorial
We14 eles1274: Watch a tutorial on using a CAS calculator to
represent a sequence graphically. (page 229)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9449: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 246)
inTeraCTiViTY
Setting up first order difference equations int0187: Consolidate your
understanding of difference equations. (page 223)
247
248
Value of term
Value of term
tn
80
60
40
20
Value of term
2 a
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
100
80
60
40
20
tn
100
80
60
40
20
Value of term
tn
40
30
20
10
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
10
5
0
5
10
n
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
20
15
10
5
0
tn
20
15
10
5
0
Value of term
1 a
tn
18
16
12
8
4
tn
20
15
10
5
exercise 6e
Graphical representation
of a sequence defined by a first order
difference equation
exercise 6C
Value of term
Value of term
exercise 6b
Value of term
Value of term
exercise 6d
Value of term
t1 = 2
t1 = 3
t1 = 3
t1 = 5
t1 = 0.5
t1 = 0.1
Value of term
4 a tn + 1 = 3tn
b tn + 1 = 5tn
c tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = tn
f tn + 1 = 3tn
5 A
diFFerenCe eQUaTionS
Value of term
Answers CHAPTER 6
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
4 a
tn
50
40
30
20
10
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
500
400
300
200
100
0
tn
160
120
100
80
40
0
40
tn
250
200
150
100
50
1 2 3 4 5n
Term number
tn + 1 = 100 3tn
2 3 4 5
Term number
Value of term
100
tn + 1 = tn + 50
10
0
Value of term
10
0
5 a
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
10
8 a ii
d iv
b v
e vi
12
3 4
Term
12
6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
Term number
tn
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
tn
3
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
n
Term number
tn + 1 = 10 tn
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
3 4
Term
Term number
18
tn
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
c iii
f i
18
tn
100
50
b i 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18
ii f 21 = 24 476
Term number
20
tn = 0.5 tn 1 5
tn + 1 = tn 50
12
tn
30
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
1 2 3 4 5
30
50
0
Term value
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
tn
50
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
80
60
40
20
1 2 3 4 5
Term number
15
Value of term
Term number
tn
100
80
60
40
20
Value of term
tn 0 1 2 3 4 5
0
n
100
200
300
400
500
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn = 0.1 tn 1
1
0
Term value
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
ii f21 = 19 308
c i 3, 1, 4, 5, 9, 14
tn
10
Value of term
Value of term
Value of term
tn
50
40
30
20
10
Term value
Value of term
3 a
3 4
Term
249
7 A
10 D
13 C
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
2 24th bar
3 An + 1 = 1.0075An + 100.75, A1 = 500,
9 A
12 B
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
fn = fn 1 + fn 2 where f1 = 1, f2 = 1
55 seeds
c 16th tier
2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 26, 42, 68
178
Task 2
1 a d=3
b Bn + 1 = Bn + 3
B1 = 5
2 a Bn + 1 = Bn + 4
B1 = 3
4 a
b
5 a
b
Term number
8 B
11 B
14 D
ShorT anSWer
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
15
5
45
= 3 and 15
=3
5 Pn = 0.96Pn 1 + 20
Value of term
Value of term
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
P0 = 300
tn
20
15
10
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
t
t
b 4 3 and t4 t3 t3 t2
exTended reSponSe
Task 1
1 a tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 10
250
3 D
6 C
tn
20
10
A0 = 1000
Task 3
1 tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 t1 = 1, t2 = 2
2 5, 12 and 13
3 t1 = 1, t2 = 3 and t3 = 4
4 7, 24 and 25
5 6, 8 and 10
6 Given two starting terms, the third and
fourth terms are the sum of their previous
two terms.
MUlTiple ChoiCe
2B
5C
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
t3 t 2
c $400
8 tn + 1 = tn + 10
t1 = 5
9 a 2, 3, 5, 8, 13
b 0, 4, 4, 8, 12
c 2, 6, 8, 14, 22
ChapTer reVieW
1 D
4 C
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
7 a $225
tn
Value of term
tn
M U lTip l e
C ho iC e
15 minutes
1 The revenue from sales each quarter for the first year in a 5year period is shown below.
Quarter
Revenue ($)
1
12 500
2
34 600
3
24 200
4
15 500
Using these values to determine the seasonal index for each month, the seasonal index for quarter 4
will be closest to:
a 0.18
b 0.64
C 0.71
d 0.78
e 1.40
The sixth term in the arithmetic sequence 19, 23, 27, . . . is:
a 27
b 35
C 36
d 39
e 40
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 3 and the sum of the first 12 terms is 294. The sum of the
first 5 terms is:
a 124
b 84
C 35
d 12.5
e 106
The difference equation tn + 1 = 5tn + b where t1 = 2 generates the sequence 2, 7, 32, 157, . . .
The value of b is:
C 2
a 3
b 2
d 3
e 5
The number of people enrolling in a language school has increased every term by 3% since the
beginning of 2009. There were 26 people enrolled in term 1 of 2009. Pn is the number of people
enrolled at the start of the nth term. Let P1 = 26.
The rule for the difference equation that could be used to model this is:
a Pn + 1 = 3Pn
b Pn + 1 = 1.03Pn
C Pn + 1 = 0.97Pn
d Pn + 1 = Pn + 26
e Pn + 1 = 1.03Pn + 26
6 Ellie has a habit of consuming 30 lollies a day. She decides to eliminate this habit by reducing the
number of lollies she eats each day by two, until she gets to zero. On the first day of this plan, she
consumes 30 lollies. The number of lollies she will consume while on this plan is:
a 30
b 120
C 240
d 300
e 450
7 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 36 and the 7th term is 182.25. The sum of the first 10terms
is closest to:
a 1813.28
b 922.64
C 615.09
d 604.43
e 218.25
8 Three consecutive terms in a geometric sequence are . . ., 16, m, 25, . . .
If the terms in the sequence can be described by the rule tn = ar n 1 then a possible value for r is:
a 1.25
b 1.56
C 16
d 20
e 20.5
9 For an infinite geometric series, t2 = 4.8 and t7 = 0.049 152. The sum of the series is:
a 5
b 12
C 20
Total marks = 9
d 26
e 30
1 The values listed below show the percentage scores for an assignment attained by 20 students in a
Maths class.
52, 67, 48, 99, 32, 50, 88, 76, 84, 49, 60, 72, 65, 59, 84, 77, 95, 67, 74, 91
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the scores, correct to 1 decimal place.
b Amelia scored 76% for the assignment. Calculate her standardised score (zscore), correct
to 1 decimal place.
ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e
35 minutes
[2 marks]
[1 mark]
c The results for students in other classes for the same assignment were collected and were
[1 mark]
Exam practice 2
251
2 The population of deer in a small Victorian state park is increasing each year. The table below shows
2006
100
2007
110
2008
121
of 2010.
[1 mark]
[1 mark]
c Write an expression that gives the number of deer, Dn, present in the park at the beginning
[1 mark]
[1 mark]
[1 mark]
3 Wildlife authorities decide that, to preserve the native wildlife, it is necessary to undertake a relocation
diGiTal doC
doc10192
Solutions
exam practice 2
of the deer. At the beginning of 2008 they decide they will relocate 20 deer at the end of each year.
The number of deer present in the park from 2008 onward can be found using the difference
equation:
Dn + 1 = rDn + d where D1 = 121 deer.
a Find r and d.
[2 marks]
b How many deer will there be in the park at the beginning of 2010?
[1 mark]
c In what year will the deer population first drop below 90?
[1 mark]
4 Wildlife officers are also concerned about the populations of some native animals within the park.
They have carefully monitored the populations of koalas and wombats over the last 3 years and have
found the koala population is decreasing by 2% each year while the wombat population is increasing
by 30 wombats per year. At the beginning of 2008, the koala and wombat populations were 820 and
580 respectively.
a An expression for the number of koalas, Kn, present in the park at the beginning of year
n is Kn = 820 r n 1. Determine the value of r.
[1 mark]
b Write a simplified expression for the number of wombats, Wn, present in the park at the
beginning of year n.
[1 mark]
c During which year will the wombat population first be greater than the koala population? [2 marks]
5 The park officers are concerned about the persistent presence of a local pest in the state park. They
have recorded the number of these pests over the last 4 years and have determined their growth
can be described as a Fibonacci sequence. In the first 2 years of monitoring the pests, the numbers
recorded were 50 and 62.
a How many pests were recorded in the 4th year?
[1 mark]
b What were the pest numbers likely to be in the year before they were first recorded?
[1 mark]
6 The park is becoming increasingly popular with hikers so the rangers decide, to make the park safer,
they will mark out some of the more popular walking tracks. In the first week they mark out 2 km of
tracks. In each week after that they mark 150 m less track than they had marked the previous week.
a What length of track do they mark out during the 4th week?
[1 mark]
b At the end of the 5th week they realise that they will need to order more trackmarking materials
for the next 5 weeks, including signs and bright arrows. What is the total length of track they will
be marking out over the next 5 weeks?
[2 marks]
Total marks = 22
252
ChapTer 7
Geometry: similarity
and mensuration
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions
doc9450
ChapTer ConTenTS
7a
7b
7C
7d
7e
7F
7G
Geometry
Geometry is an important area of study. Many professions and
tasks require and use geometrical concepts and techniques.
Besides architects, surveyors and navigators, all of us use it in
our daily lives for example, to describe shapes of objects,
directions on a car trip and space or position of a house. Much
of this area of study is assumed knowledge gained from previous
years of study.
UPPER
LEVEL
Bed 1
Bed 2
Bed 4
Bed 3
Stairways
properties of angles,
triangles and polygons
7a
inTeraCTiViTY
int0259
The sum of external
angles of a polygon
Exterior angle
360
= 180 90
4
= 90.
360
.
n
Interior angle
253
Worked example 1
Calculate the interior and exterior angle of the regular polygon shown.
Think
WriTe
360
5
= 180 72
= 108
Exterior angle =
360
5
= 72
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
The following geometry rules and notation will be most valuable in establishing unknown values in the
topics covered and revised in this module.
Between 90
and 180
ABC
Less than 90
B
Acute angle C
90
180
Right angle
Obtuse angle
Straight angle
Between 180
and 360
A
A
Line
AB
AB
A
B
AB
Line segment
Ray
Reflex angle
Parallel lines
Perpendicular lines
254
c
Scalene triangle
All equal
60 sides and
angles
Two equal
sides and
angles
60
Isosceles triangle
60
Equilateral triangle
45
45
Rightangled
isosceles triangle
C
a + b = 90
a=b
a + b = 180
Complementary angles
Vertically opposite
angles
Supplementary angles
a=b
c=d
a=b
c=d
a c
d b
b
d
Corresponding angles
Alternate angles
Cointerior angles
B a+b=d
b
d
c d
A
C D
BCD is an exterior angle.
a + b + c + d = 360
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
b
a
D
CD is a perpendicular
bisector of AB
a + d = 180
b + c = 180
a c
d b
Do more
Interact
with parallel lines.
Worked example 2
cm
6 cm
Think
WriTe
360
6
= 60
a=
a + b + c = 180
b=c
So:
60 + 2b = 180
b = 60
c = 60
60
d cm = 6 cm
255
Worked example 3
Calculate the missing pronumerals in the diagram of railings for a set of stairs shown below.
c
a b
35
Think
1
WriTe/draW
c
a b
35
35
c = 90
4
a + b + c = 180
35 + b + 90 = 180
b = 180 125
= 55
1 We 1 Calculate the interior and exterior angles for each of the following regular polygons.
a
c
e
f
g
256
Equilateral triangle
Hexagon
Heptagon
Nonagon
b Regular quadrilateral
d
2 We2
a
b
27
130
y
x
52
63
a
e
c a
15 b
b
c
8 cm
32
50
3 We3
a
b
x
35
30
0
62
70
t
e
27
b c
81
n
140
a
4 Name the regular polygon that has the given angle(s).
a Interior angle of 108, exterior angle of 72
b Interior angle of 150, exterior angle of 30
c Interior angle of 135, exterior angle of 45
d Interior angle of 120
e Exterior angle of 120
5
a
110
y z
35
3.6 cm
4.2 cm
c
d
a
86
40
a
b 75
e 150
C 90
150
d 65
e 50
257
7b
Much of our world is described by area (the amount of space enclosed by a closed figure) and perimeter
(the distance around a closed figure).
Topic:
17
Concept:
Lot 603
645 m2
37.92
36.56
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Corner block
with wide
17 m frontage
4.0
5
14.07
$251 000
13.05
Lot 658
761m2
5
32.7
AOS:
32.18
Units: 3 & 4
$147 000
5.8
23.55
Some examples are the area of a house block, the fencing of a block of land, the size of a bedroom
and the amount of paint required to cover an object. In this section we will review the more common
shapes.
perimeter
Perimeter is the distance around a closed figure.
Some common rules are:
2. For rectangles, the
1. For squares, the perimeter = 4l
perimeter = 2(l + w)
l
3. Circumference (C ) is the
perimeter of a circle.
C = 2 radius = 2 r
Square
Rectangle
l
w
Circumfere
l
w
nc
f a circl
e
e o
Worked example 4
Think
WriTe
1
258
600 mm
300 mm
1
2
of circumference = 2 2 r
= 150
= 471.24
Square
l
l
2. Area of a rectangle:
A = length width = l w
Rectangle
w
3. Area of a parallelogram:
A = base height = b h
Parallelogram
h
b
4. Area of a trapezium:
A = 2 (a + b) h
Trapezium
a
h
b
5. Area of a circle:
A=
radius2
r2
Circle
r
6. Area of a triangle:
A=2bh
(see the next chapter)
Triangle
h
Worked example 5
Calculate the area of the garden bed given in the diagram (to the nearest square metre).
2.4 m
5.7 m
7.5 m
Think
1
WriTe
1
Area of a trapezium = 2 (a + b) h
a = 7.5
b = 5.7
h = 2.4
= 2 13.2 2.4
= 15.84 m2
3
259
Composite areas
Often a closed figure can be identified as comprising two or more different common figures. Such
figures are called composite figures. The area of a composite figure is the sum of the areas of the
individual common figures.
Area of a composite figure = sum of the areas of the individual common figures
Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . . .
Worked example 6
Calculate the area of the hotel foyer from the plans given at right
(to the nearest square metre).
25 m
20 m
8m
25 m
A1
A2
8m
WriTe/draW
16 m
16 m
Think
A3
20 m
Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3
2
A1 = area of triangle
1
=2bh
1
= 2 16 20
= 160 m2
A2 = Area of rectangle
=lw
= 25 16
= 400 m2
A3 = Area of half of a circle
1
= 2 r2
1
= 2 82
= 100.53 m2
3
Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3
= 160 + 400 + 100.53
= 660.53 m2
Worked example 7
WriTe
To convert from m2 to cm2, multiply by 1002 or 10 000. 1.12 m2 = 1.12 10 000 cm2 = 11 200 cm2
Write your answer.
1.12 m2 is equal to 11 200 square
centimetres (cm2).
Worked example 8
a kilometres2
b hectares.
Think
WriTe
10002 or 1
= 0.156 km2
000 000.
b 156 000 m2 =
exercise 7b
Calculate the perimeters of the following figures (to the nearest whole units).
b
5m
7m
23.7 cm
cm
12 m
.9
1 We4
a
4m
15
156000
10 000
15.4 cm
27.5 cm
e
diGiTal doC
doc9451
SkillSHEET 7.1
Substitution into a
formula
70 m
83
210 m
120 m
13.5 mm
.2
25 m
2m
20 m
24 mm
125 mm
90 mm
16 cm
9
.2
11
cm
cm
10 cm
45.2 mm
12 m
8 cm
17 m
3.5 m
3 We6 Calculate the areas of the following figures (to 1 decimal place).
a
10 m
b
13 m
12 m
21 cm
261
diGiTal doC
doc9452
SkillSHEET 7.2
Conversion of units of
length and area
2.08 m
7 A cutting blade for a craft knife has the dimensions shown in the diagram.
34
24 + 5
24 + 2.5
29 + 5
29 + 5
30 mm
20 mm
What is the area of steel in the blade (to the nearest mm2)?
5 mm
40 mm
7 cm
2 cm
3 cm
12 cm
20.5 m
35.2 m
a
b
C
d
e
10 A 3ring dartboard has dimensions as shown below left. (Give all answers
to 1 decimal place.)
40 cm
20 cm
6 cm
diGiTal doC
doc9453
SkillSHEET 7.3
expressing one
number as a
percentage of another
1
2
3
2
1
262
7C
The total surface area (TSA) of a solid object is the sum of the areas of the surfaces.
In some cases we can use established formulas of very common everyday objects. In other situations
we will need to derive a formula by using the net of an object.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Cube
Cuboid
Cylinder
r
l
h
l
w
Cubes:
TSA = 6l2
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
h
Cuboids:
TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh)
See more
Watch a
video about surface
area and volume.
Cylinders:
TSA = 2r (r + h)
Sphere
Cone
Slant
s height
Cones:
TSA = r (r + s), where
s is the slant height
Spheres:
TSA = 4r2
WORKED EXAMPLE 9
TUTORIAL
eles1277
Worked example 9
3m
5 cm
1.1
THINK
WRITE
5_61_17866_MQ12_FM_4E_07.indd 263
263
8/05/13 1:35 PM
Worked example 10
WriTe
25 cm
Worked example 11
A die used in a board game has a total surface area of 1350 mm2. Calculate the linear dimensions
of the die (to the nearest millimetre).
Think
WriTe
TSA = 6 l2
= 1350 mm2
1350 = 6 l2
1350
l2 = 6 = 225
l = 225
= 15 mm
The dimensions of the die are 15 mm 15 mm 15 mm.
Net
Trapezoidal prism
Net
Cylinder
Net
264
Worked example 12
Calculate the total surface area of the triangular prism shown in the diagram.
10 cm
8 cm
10
10 cm
8 cm
A1
10 cm
cm
A4 6 cm
A2
6 cm
A3
20 cm
WriTe/draW
20 cm
Think
20 cm
20
cm
6 cm
TUTorial
eles1278
Worked example 12
8 cm 6 cm
10 A4 6 cm
cm
TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 A4
A1 = l1 w1
= 20 10
= 200 cm2
A2 = l2 w2
= 20 8
= 160 cm2
A3 = l3 w3
= 20 6
= 120 cm2
1
A4 = 2 b h
1
=286
= 24 cm2
3
TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 A4
= 200 + 160 + 120 + 2 24
= 528 cm2
Worked example 13
12 cm
Calculate the surface area of an open cylindrical can that is 12 cm high and 8 cm in diameter
(to 1 decimal place).
8 cm
265
WriTe/draW
2 r, r = 4 cm
12 cm
Think
A1
A2
4 cm
2
exercise 7C
TSA = A1 + A2
A1 = 2r h
= 2 4 12
= 301.59 cm2
A2 = r2
= 42
= 50.27 cm2
TSA = A1 + A2
= 301.59 + 50.27
= 351.86 cm2
The total surface area of the open cylindrical can is
351.9 cm2, correct to 1 decimal place.
1 We9 Calculate the total surface area for each of the solids a to f from the following information. Give
to1decimal place.
b
Length = 1.5 m
14 cm
410 mm
7 cm
4 cm
Diameter = 43 cm
3 We 11 Calculate the unknown dimensions, given the total surface area of the objects. Give answers
4 We 12 Calculate the total surface areas for the objects given in the diagrams. Give answers correct
to 1decimal place.
b
6.06 cm
5c
4 cm
15 c
10 cm
30
cm
7 cm
Area = 22
15
12 mm
8 cm
cm2
13 cm
m
m
25 m
9 mm
5 We 13 Calculate the total surface area of each of the objects in the diagrams below. Give answers
12
10.5 cm
.3
3 cm
c
10
2 cm
Rubbish bin
250 mm
cm
7 cm
4.5 cm
20 cm
250 mm
6 A concrete swimming pool is a cuboid with the following dimensions:
2.5
1.0 m
1.5 m
7 What is the total area of canvas needed for the tent (including the
4.5 m
6.5 m
b 55 cm2
e 5.5 cm2
C 55 000 mm2
10 mC The formula for the total surface area for the object shown is:
a
d
1
abh
2
1
bh +
2
1
2
b 2 bh + ab + 2 ah
3ab
1
2
C 3( bh + ab)
e bh + 3ab
b
11 mC The total surface area of a poster tube that is 115 cm long and 8 cm in diameter is closestto:
a 3000 cm2
b 2900 cm2
C 1500 mm2
d 6200 m2
e 23 000 cm2
12 A baker is investigating the best shape for a loaf of bread. The shape with the smallest surface area
stays freshest. The baker has come up with two shapes: a rectangular prism with a 12 cm square base
and a cylinder with a round end that has a 14 cm diameter.
a Which shape stays fresher if they have the same overall length of 32 cm?
b What is the difference between the total surface areas of the two loaves of bread?
diGiTal doC
doc9454
WorkSHEET 7.1
267
The most common volumes considered in the real world are the volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres
and objects that are a combination of these. For example, people who rely on tank water need to know
the capacity (volume) of water that the tank is holding.
Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3dimensional object.
The units of volume are mm3 (cubic millimetres), cm3 (cubic centimetres or cc) and m3 (cubic metres).
1000 mm3 = 1 cm3
1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3
Another measure of volume is the litre, which is used primarily for quantities of liquids but also for
capacity, such as the capacity of a refrigerator or the size of motor car engines.
1 litre = 1000 cm3
1000 litres = 1 m3
103
cm3
mm3
Often the units of volume need to be converted, for example, from cm3
to m3 and vice versa.
1003
103
m3
1003
Worked example 14
WriTe
Worked example 15
a m3
b litres.
Think
WriTe
convert from
2
= 0.156 m3
156000
1000
Uniform
crosssection
Volume of prisms
A prism is a polyhedron with a uniform crosssection.
Height
Rectangular
prism
Triangular prism
268
Trapezoidal prism
Hexagonal prism
To find the volume of a prism we need to determine the area of the uniform crosssection (or base)
and multiply by the height. This is the same for all prisms.
Volume of a prism, Vprism, can be generalised by the formula:
Vprism = area of uniform crosssection height
V = A H.
For example:
Vrect. prism = Arect. H
Vtriangular prism = Atriangle H
Note: Although cylinders are not prisms, they have a uniform crosssection (which is
a circle) therefore, the same formula can be applied to find volume of a cylinder.
Cylinder
Calculate the volume of the object shown. Give your answer correct to
the nearest cm3.
15 cm
Think
20 cm
Worked example 16
WriTe
Worked example 17
Calculate (to the nearest mm3) the volume of the slice of bread with a uniform crosssectional
area of 250 mm2 and a thickness of 17 mm.
17 mm
Think
WriTe
V=AH
where A = 250 mm2
V = 250 mm2 17 mm
= 4250 mm3
269
Given the volume of an object, we can use the volume formula to find an unknown dimension of the
object by transposing the formula.
Worked example 18
2m
Think
1
1.1
WriTe
6.6 =
2 h 1.1
= 1.1 h
h=
1
2
6.6
1.1
=6
Volume of pyramids
A pyramid is a polyhedron, where the base is any polygon and all other faces are triangles meeting at the
vertex.
The name of the pyramid is related to the shape of the polygon at the base.
Vertex
Triangular pyramid
Squarebased pyramid
Hexagonal pyramid
The shape of the crosssection of the pyramid remains unchanged, but its size reduces as it approaches
the vertex.
Similarly, for cones, the shape of the crosssection is always the same (a circle), but its size reduces as
we move from base towards the vertex.
Vertex
Cone
270
The volume of a pyramid is always onethird of the volume of a prism with the same base and same
height,H. This holds for all pyramids.
Volume of a pyramid, Vpyramid, can be found by using the formula:
1
Calculate the volume of the pyramid below (to the nearest m3).
Height of pyramid = 40 m
30 m
Think
1
30 m
WriTe
= 13 302 40
= 12 000 m3
2
Vsphere = 43 r 3
where r is the radius of the sphere.
Volume of a composite object= the sum of the volumes of the individual (on the difference) components.
Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . (or Vcomposite = V1 V2)
ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration
271
Worked example 20
12 cm
25 cm
20 cm
TUTorial
eles1280
Worked example 20
18 cm
18
cm
18 cm
exercise 7d
0.35 cm3
a
to mm3
d 15 litres to cm3
g 0.000 57 m3 to cm3
b 4800 cm3 to m3
e 1.6 m3 to litres
h 140 000 mm3 to litres
2 We 16 Calculate the volume of the following solids to the nearest whole unit.
b
a
c
mm
75
7 cm
104.8 cm
4000 mm
4 cm
23
c
1 We 14, 15
51.2 cm
diGiTal doC
doc9455
SkillSHEET 7.4
Conversion of
units of volume
and capacity
r = 6 cm
25 cm
WriTe/draW
H = 20 cm
Think
15 cm
e
6.4 m
20 mm
4.8
34 mm
272
14 mm
2.1 m
0
m3m
22 mm
57 m
2.9 m
Area = 15 cm2
Area = 32 cm2
8.5
cm
120 mm
3x
x
5 We 19 Calculate the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).
a
c VO = 17 m V
b
35 cm
V
VO = 10 cm
11 cm
8m
12 m
O
d
11 cm
e
12 mm
VO = 15 cm
Altitude of squarebased
pyramid = 18 mm
O
Base of
pyramid
6 cm
6 cm
12 cm
10 cm
273
10 cm
5m
6 We 20 Calculate the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).
b
c
a
4 cm
3m
m
7
cm
c
8
8 cm
r=
42 m
10 cm
19 m
1m
2.1 m
15 cm
4m
20 cm
6m
2.5 m
10 cm
60 m
42 m
7a
b
c
d
8 The medicine cup below has the shape of a cone with a diameter of 4 cm and a height of 5 cm
(not including the cups base). Calculate the volume of the cone to the nearest millilitre, where
1 cm3 = 1 mL.
5 cm
4 cm
9 Tennis balls have a diameter of 6.5 cm and are packaged in a cylinder that can
hold four tennis balls. Assuming the balls just fit inside a cylinder, calculate:
a the height of the cylindrical can
b the volume of the can (to 1 decimal place)
c the volume of the four tennis balls (to 1 decimal place)
d the volume of the can occupied by air
e the fraction of the cans volume occupied by the balls.
10 mC The volume 200 000 mm3 is equivalent to:
a 2 litres
d 200 cm3
b 2 cm3
e 2000 cm3
C 20 cm3
274
4
3
4
r
3
h
3
2
2
3
3
4
12 mC If the volume of the squarebased pyramid shown is 6000 m3, then the perimeter of the base is
closest to:
a 900 m
b 20 m
C 30 m
d 80 m
e 120 m
V
VO = 20 m
13 mC A tin of fruit is 13 cm high and 10 cm in diameter. Its volume, to 1 decimal place, is:
a 1021.0 cm3
7e
b 510.5 cm3
C 1021.4 cm3
d 1020.1 cm3
e 4084.1 cm3
Similar figures
Objects that have the same shape but different size are said to be similar.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
similarity.
B 1
4
A'
C'
B'
6
2
2
A 1
D'
C'
B'
60
125
A'
Scale factor, k
3
D
C
B
125 60
85
A 85
D'
A measure of the relative size of the two similar figures is the scale factor. The scale factor is the
common ratio of the corresponding sides and quantifies the amount of enlargement or reduction one
figure undergoes to transform into the other figure. The starting shape is commonly referred to as the
original and the transformed shape as the image.
B'
1. Scale factor, k, is the amount of enlargement or reduction and is
expressed as integers, fraction or scale ratios.
1
For example, k = 2, k = 12 or 1 : 10 000.
length of image
A B BC C A
=
=
2. Scale factor, k = length of original =
AB
BC
CA
where for enlargements k is greater than 1 and for reductions k
is between 0 and 1.
3. For k = 1, the figures are exactly the same shape and size and
are referred to as congruent.
B
3
A1 C
A' 3 C'
275
Enlargements and reductions are important in many aspects of photography, map making and
modelling. Often, photographs are increased in size (enlarged) to examine fine detail without distortion,
while house plans are an example of a reduction to a scale; for example, 1 : 25.
Worked example 21
20
Think
Original
cm
45 cm
Image
cm
10
WriTe
Scale factor, k =
=
length of image
length of original
A B
AB
10 cm
=
20 cm
= 12
b Scale factor, k =
1
2
length of image
k = length of original
1
2
x
45 cm
1
x = 2 45 cm
= 22.5 cm
2
276
Worked example 22
40
s
100 m
20
t 30
70
50 m
20
30
40
30
Think
B
40
s
100 m
D
A 30 t
70
20
Image
2
40
50 m
30
30
WriTe
20 C
Original
BA
BC
=
B C BA
100 s
=
50 30
100 30
s=
50
s = 60 m
DC
BC
=
B C DC
100 70
=
50
t
50 70
t=
100
t = 35 m
Similar figures
exercise 7e
8c
m
8 cm
y cm
x cm
x cm
4 cm
1m
4m
20 cm
y cm
70 cm
25 m
x cm
50 cm
y cm
200 cm
2c
50 cm
277
2 We22 For each of the following pairs of similar figures, calculate the value of a.
a
mm
40 mm
17
mm
62 mm
17
1 m
82
Photo
3 A photo has the dimensions 10 cm by 12 cm. The photo is enlarged by a factor of 2.5. Calculate the new
10 cm
12 cm
4 A set of model cars is made using the scale ratio 1 : 12. Calculate:
a the length of a real car if the model is 20 cm long (in metres to 1 decimal place)
b the height of a real car if the model is 3 cm high (to the nearest centimetre)
c the length of a model if the real car is 3 metres long.
5 The dimensions of a students room are 4300 mm by 3560 mm. A scale diagram of the room is to be
drawn on an A4 sheet, using the scale ratio 1 : 20. Calculate the dimensions of the scale drawing of the
room and state whether the drawing should be landscape or portrait on the A4 sheet.
6 mC The scale used to draw the diagram at right is 1: 25. The perimeter of the
4 cm
b 514 cm
d 14.28 cm
2 cm
7 mC A 1 : 27 scale model of a truck is made from clay. What is the length of the tray on the original
a 1 cm
d 540 cm
278
C 270 cm
7F
Similar triangles
Similar triangles can be used in a variety of situations. For example, with the aid of similar triangles,
we could find the heights of trees and buildings or the width of rivers and mountains. Two triangles
are similar if one of the following is true:
1. All three corresponding angles are
equal (AAA).
inTeraCTiViTY
int0188
Scale factors
Scale factor = 63 = 42 = 2 = k
3
4
As in the previous section, we use the known values of a pair of corresponding sides to determine the
scale factor (sf ) for the similar triangles.
Scale factor, k =
Worked example 23
B'
B
4 100
30
6
100
6
C A'
30
C'
WriTe/draW
a A = A = 30
B = B = 100
C = C = 180 (30 + 100)
= 50
ABC is similar to ABC because all three
corresponding angles are equal (AAA).
B'
B
A
4 100 Original
30
50
C
6
6
A'
30
100
x
Image
50
C'
6
4
= 1.5
ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration
279
unknown length, x.
A C
AC
x
1.5 =
6
x = 1.5 6
=9
1.5 =
Worked example 24
3.5
B
4.0
A
Think
1
7
All measurements in metres
WriTe/draW
B
0
4.
7.
7m
AD = 4.0 + 3.5
= 7.5 m
AE = (7 + x) m
E
(7 + x) m
A = A (common)
B = D (corresponding angles are equal)
C = E (corresponding angles are equal)
ABC is similar to ADE (AAA).
AD
AB
AC
7 + x 7.5
=
7
4
AE
4(7 + x) = 7 7.5
28 + 4x = 52.5
4x = 24.5
x = 6.125
There are many practical applications of similar triangles in the real world. It is particularly useful for
determining the lengths of inaccessible features, such as the height of tall trees or the width of rivers.
This problem is overcome by setting up a triangle similar to the feature to be examined, as shown in the
next example.
280
Worked example 25
ay
r
ns
Su
Shadow
(140 cm)
Girl
(168 cm)
14 metres
Think
1
WriTe/draW
168 cm
A
140 cm
C
xm
14 m
A = A (common angles)
B = B (corresponding)
C = C (corresponding)
ABC is similar to ABC (AAA).
14
x
=
1.4 1.68
Solve for x.
10 =
exercise 7F
x
1.68
x = 10 1.68
= 16.8 m
Similar triangles
1 We23a State the rule (SSS or AAA or SAS) that proves that the triangles in each pair are similar and
5.6
4.6
320 mm
4.4
0
64
5
4.5
8.8
240 mm
25
m
m
0
8
4
9.2
10
.2
11
281
f
10.5
0.5
10.5
1
7.0
14
3.5
4
2 We23b For the given pairs of similar triangles, find the value of the pronumeral a.
45 cm
am
m
am
m
20
m
71
16
a
14
67
14.4 m
cm
56
56
12 m
38
3.2
59 cm
75
38
cm
15
15 mm
62 62
12
25
22.5 mm
62
62
6
13
12
9.6
7.8
3 We24 For the given pairs of triangles, find the value of the pronumeral a.
b
7.5
a
2
a
10
3
12
8
e
15.
17 m
80
142 mm
43
8m
10
68 m
m
4m
17.2
32
am
a
80
18
4.5
.5
12
4 We25 Find the height (to the nearest centimetre) of the flagpole shown in the diagram below.
Guy wire
0.9 m
1m
282
9m
5 Find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the bridge, AB, needed to span the river, using similar triangles
as shown.
B
(Not to scale)
2.5 m
A 12.5 m
4.3 m
6 The shadow of a tree is 4 metres and at the same time the shadow of a 1metre stick is 25cm. Assuming
both the tree and stick are perpendicular to the horizontal ground, what is the height of the tree?
7 Find the width of the lake (to the nearest metre) using the surveyors notes below.
Lake
A
25 m
2m
1.2 m
b 22
e 9.6
C 16
16
a 24
d 15
12
Not to scale
0.9 m
5m
1.1 m
20
10 m
b 2.7 m
e 1.6 m
C 2.5 m
7G
b 180 cm
e 150 cm
C 170 cm
diGiTal doC
doc9456
WorkSHEET 7.2
An unknown area or volume of a figure can be found without the need to use known formulas such as
in exercises 7B and 7D. We have seen that two figures that are similar have all corresponding lengths in
the same ratio or (linear) scale factor, k. The same can be shown for the area and volume of two similar
figures.
283
Area = 1 cm2
1 cm
1 cm
2 cm
3 cm
Area = 9 cm2
3 cm
Area = r2 = 1 cm2
Area = r2 = 4 cm2
Area = r2 = 9 cm2
Worked example 26
Area = x
4.8 cm
2.4 cm
Think
1
WriTe
2.4 cm
4.8 cm
1
2
= 1 = 14
2
x cm 2
100 cm 2
1
x = 4 100 = 25
The area of the small triangle is 25 cm2.
Worked example 27
x
2 cm
A = 250 cm2
A = 10 cm2
Think
1
WriTe
250 cm 2
= 25
10 cm 2
x cm
2 cm
x=52
= 10
The length, x, is 10 cm.
285
a cube
Volume = 1 1 1
= 1 cm 3
1 cm
1 cm
1 cm
Volume
=222
= 8 cm3
2 cm
2 cm
2 cm
a rectangular prism
Volume
=1 1 3
= 3 cm3
1 cm
3 cm
1 cm
Volume
=226
= 24 cm3
2 cm
6 cm
2 cm
Worked example 28
Think
1
Volume of
large cone
= 540 cm3
6 cm 9 cm
TUTorial
eles1282
Worked example 28
WriTe/draW
Volume
= 540 cm3
9 cm
Volume
= x cm3
2
286
= 23
3
8
= 27
4
x = 27 540
= 160
We can use the relationship between linear, area and volume scale factors to find any unknown in any
pair of similar figures as long as a scale factor can be established.
Given
Linear scale factor (lsf )
Example (k = 2)
=k
=2
= k2
3
= k3
= 38
=2
Then
Volume scale factor
=k
= 22
=4
2
= k3
= 23
=8
= k3
= 23
=8
= k2
= 22
=4
= 4
=2
Worked example 29
For two similar triangular prisms with volumes of 64 m3 and 8 m3, find the total surface area of the
larger triangular prism, if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 2.5 m2.
Think
WriTe
3 3
Linear scale factor = k = k
k= 38 =2
Area scale factor = k2
= 22
=4
64 m 3
8 m3
=8
k3 =
287
exercise 7G
8
16
3
125
100
64
0.027
36
0.1
100
0.16
400
2 We26 Find the unknown area for each of the following pairs of similar figures.
a
b
c
12 cm2
8c
540 mm2
48
22.5 mm
15 mm
3a
We27
21 mm
cm
x mm2
x cm2
Surface area
= x mm2
Surface area
= 100 mm2
Find the unknown length for each of the following pairs of similar figures.
ii
xm
14 mm
Area =
6.25 m2
1.7 m Area =2
25 cm
Area =
750 cm2
1.0 m
x
b Two similar trapeziumshaped strips of land have an area of 0.5 hectares and 2hectares. The
larger block has a distance of 50 metres between the parallel sides. Find the same length in the
smaller block.
c Two photographs have areas of 48 cm2 and 80 cm2. The smaller photo has a width of 6 cm. Find
the width of the larger photo.
4 We28 Find the unknown volume in the following pairs of similar objects.
a
b
x
cm3
7 cm
2400 cm3
14 cm
288
12 cm
2 cm
45 cm
Volume
= 1200 cm3
30 cm
For the two similar triangular pyramids with volumes of 27 m3 and 3 m3, calculate the total
surface area of the larger triangular prism if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 1.5 m2.
b For a baseball with diameter of 10 cm and a basketball with a diameter of 25cm, calculate the
total surface area of the baseball if the basketball has a total surface area of 1963.5 cm2.
c For a 14inch car tyre and 20inch truck tyre that are similar, calculate the volume (to the nearest
litre) of the truck tyre if the car tyre has a volume of 70 litres.
d For two similar kitchen mixing bowls with total surface areas of 1500 cm2 and 3375 cm2, calculate
the capacity of the larger bowl if the smaller bowl has a capacity of 1.25litres (to the nearest
quarter of a litre).
5a
We29
Area
= 5 cm2
Volume of
large cone
= 270 cm3
triangular pyramid.
c Calculate the total surface area of the small prism. d Calculate the diameter of the small cylinder.
Area = 12 cm2
12 cm
TSA
= 78 cm2
Area
= 6 cm2
TSA
= x cm2
x cm
Volume
= 1280 cm3
Volume
= 20 cm3
289
10 Find the ratios of the volume of 2 cubes whose sides are in the ratio of 3 : 4.
11 An island in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 500 km2. What is the area of its representation on a map
0 km
50
ea =
Ar
12 Two statues of a famous person used 500 cm3 and 1.5 litres of clay. The smaller statue stood 15 cm tall.
13
14
15
3h
16
What is the height of the other statue (to the nearest centimetre)?
The ratio of the volume of two cubes is 27 : 8. What is the ratio of:
a the lengths of their edges?
b the total surface area?
A cone is filled to half its height with icecream. What is the ratio of icecream to empty space?
mC A 1 : 27 scale model of a truck is made from clay. The ratio of volume of the model to the volume
of the real truck is:
a 1:3
b 3:1
C 1:9
d 1 : 729
e 1 : 19 683
mC The ratio of the volume of the blue portion to the volume of the
red portion is:
a 1:3
b 1:8
C 1:9
d 1 : 26
e 1 : 27
17 mC A 1 : 100 scale model of a building is a cube with sides of 100 cm. The volume of the building is:
a 10 000 000 m3
d 10 000 m3
290
b 1 000 000 m3
e 1000 m3
C 100 000 m3
Summary
properties of angles,
triangles and polygons
Volume of prisms,
pyramids and spheres
Equal sides
V=3AH
The height of a pyramid, H, is sometimes called the altitude.
4
Volume of a sphere is Vsphere = 3 r3.
Volume of a composite object = sum of the volumes of the individual common prisms, pyramids or
spheres.
Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .
or
Vcomposite = V1 V2 . . .
291
Similar figures
Two objects that have the same shape but different size are
said to be similar.
For two figures to be similar, the following must hold:
(a) The ratios of the corresponding sides must be equal.
A B B C C D A D
=
=
=
= common ratio
CD
AD
BC
AB
(b) All corresponding angles must be equal.
A = A
B'
A'
A 1
D'
C'
B'
60
125
B = B C = C D = D
length of image
= A B = B C = CA
length of original
CA
AB
BC
where for enlargements, k is greater than 1 and for reductions,
k is between 0 and 1.
For k = 1, the figures are exactly the same shape and size and are
referred to as congruent.
6
2
B 1
A'
Scale factor, k
C'
C
125 60
A 85
85
D'
B'
Scale factor, k =
3 3
A 1 C A' 3 C'
Similar triangles
The steps required to solve for length, area or volume using similarity are:
1. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length, area or volume) of the similar
shapes.
2. Establish a scale factor (linear, area or volume) using known pairs of measurements.
3. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement.
4. Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown.
area of image
Area scale ratio or factor (asf ) =
area of original
= square of linear scale factor (lsf )
= k2
volume of image
Volume scale ratio or factor (vsf ) =
volume of original
= cube of linear scale factor (lsf )
= k3
292
Chapter review
1 For the triangle shown in a semicircle, x is:
a
b
C
d
e
m U lTip l e
C ho iC e
32
58
68
90
none of the above
32
2 A triangle ABC has the following values: AB= 10 cm, AC = 12 cm where AB and AC are
C 240 cm2
220
80
200
All
measurements
in cm
50
4 The total surface area of a closed cylinder with a radius of 40 cm and a height of 20 cm is given by:
a 2 20 (40)
C 2 40 (100)
e 2 20 (60)
b 2 40 (40)
d 2 40 (60)
b 900 cm3
e 36 000 cm3
is closest to:
a 1000 cm3
b 1300 cm3
C 1500 cm3
d 2000 cm3
e 10 000 cm3
8 In the triangle shown, the value of c is:
3
a 3
b 6
2.6
c
C 9
d 12
e 4
7.8
9 The circumference of the larger cone is closest to:
a 113 mm
b 151 mm
C 226 mm
d 302 mm
e 459 mm
C 3600 cm3
24 mm
189 mm
63 mm
293
10 The diagonal distance on the plasma screen is used to specify the different sizes available. If the
h cm
51 cm
6x
x
4
12
which is 1 metre wide. The width (w) of her view of a mountain range
1 kilometre from her window is (to the nearest metre):
a 1002 metres
b 1000 metres
C 499 metres
d 501 metres
e 500 metres
2m
1m
13 The large cone is filled to onethird of its height with water as shown.
294
1000 m
2 Calculate the outer perimeter (shown in red) and shaded area of the flower.
r = 11 mm
r = 22 mm
4m
3m
5m
6m
4 a What is the volume contained by the solid and framed sections (to 1 decimal place)?
b What is the volume of the solid part only?
c What is the total surface area of the solid part only (to 1 decimal place)?
6m
10 m
5 The dimensions of a rectangular prism tub are 30 cm by 20 cm by 15 cm. The tub is filled completely
with water and then transferred into a cylinder tank that is 10 cm in radius and 40cm tall. How high is
the water level in the cylinder?
6 Two ladders are placed against the wall at the same angle. The ladders are 2 metres and 3metres long. If the
taller ladder reaches 2.1 metres up the wall, how far up will the second ladder reach (to 1 decimal place)?
7 A yacht is an unknown distance from the shore. A family on the beach make the measurements as
shown in the diagram below. How far is it to the yacht (to the nearest metre)?
10 m
1m
6m
295
e x Tended
r e S ponS e
diGiTal doC
doc9457
Test Yourself
Chapter 7
Task 1
A rectangular block of modelling clay has dimensions of 30 cm by 20 cm by 10 cm.
1 a What is the volume of the block of clay?
b Express, in litres, your answer from question 1 a.
c What is the total surface area of the clay?
2 The entire block of clay is remoulded to the shape of a cylinder with a height of 30 cm.
a Find the diameter of the cylindrical block of clay (to 2 decimal places).
b Find the new total surface area of the clay when moulded as a cylinder (to the nearest cm2).
c What fraction of the volume needs to be removed to turn the cylindrical block into a cone with the
same diameter and height?
3 Clay is moulded to the shape at right to represent a 1 : 100 scale model of a grain silo.
a Find the volume of clay needed to make a scale model grain silo
6.6 cm
(to 1 decimal place).
b Find the actual volume of the grain silo. Express your answer to the
nearest cubic metre.
6 cm
c What is the ratio of the volume of the model to the volume of the actual
grain silo?
d If the scale model has a total surface area of 143.14 cm2, find the total
surface area of the actual silo.
6 cm
5 cm
4 Another silo, half the size of the silo in question 3, is to be built. What fraction will this smaller silo be
Topic:
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
296
Task 2
The rectangular rear window of a car has an area of 1.28 m2.
a Find the height of the rear window if its length is 160 centimetres (to the nearest centimetre).
b A wiper blade is 50 centimetres long and just reaches the top of the window as it makes a semicircular
sweep. The base of the wiper is situated at the bottom centre of the rear window.
i Draw a diagram of the situation.
ii Find the area of the window swept by the wiper (to the nearest cm2).
iii Find the percentage of the windows area not swept by the wiper.
c The manufacturer decides to increase the wiper length by 10 centimetres
i Find the new area of the window that is swept by the wiper (to the nearest cm2).
ii Find the percentage of the windows area that is not swept by the wiper.
ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc9450: Warm up with a quick quiz on
similarity and mensuration. (page 253)
7a
inTeraCTiViTY
The sum of external angles of a polygon int0259: Use the
interactivity to investigate external angles of polygons. (page 253)
7b
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 7.1 doc9451: Practise substitution into a formula.
(page 261)
SkillSHEET 7.2 doc9452: Practise conversion of units of length.
(page 262)
SkillSHEET 7.3 doc9453: Practise expressing one number as a
percentage of another. (page 262)
7C
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 7.1 doc9454: Convert units, calculate perimeter, area,
total surface area and volume (page 267)
TUTorialS
We9 eles1277: Watch a tutorial on how to calculate the total
surface area of a poster tube. (page 263)
We 12 eles1278: Watch a tutorial on how to calculate the total
surface area of a triangular prism. (page 265)
7d
TUTorialS
We 18 eles1279: Watch a worked example on how to calculate
the volume of a prism. (page 270)
We20 eles1280: Watch a worked example on how to calculate
the volume of a composite 3dimensional object. (page 272)
7F
Similar triangles
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 7.2 doc9456: Interior and exterior angles, perimeter,
area, total surface area and volume, convert units and calculate
unknown quantities in similar triangles (page 283)
TUTorial
We24 eles1281: Watch a worked example on how to use similar
figures to calculate unknown dimensions. (page 280)
inTeraCTiViTY
Scale factors int0188: Use the interactivity to consolidate your
understanding of 1, 2 and 3dimensional scale factors. (page 279)
7G
TUTorial
We28 eles1282: Watch a worked example on how to use scale
factors to calculate volume. (page 286)
Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc9457: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 296)
diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 7.4 doc9455: Practise conversion to units of volume and
capacity. (page 272)
297
Answers CHAPTER 7
GeomeTrY: SimilariTY and
menSUraTion
exercise 7a properties of angles,
triangles and polygons
1 a 60, 120
b 90, 90
c 120, 60
d 135, 45
3
4
f 140, 40
e 128 7 , 51 7
g 144, 36
2 a 79
b x = 130, y = 50
c 27
d a = 15, b = 165, c = 165
e b = 8 cm, c = 50
f 148
3 a x = 35, y = 145
b 30
c 28
d a = 70, b = 110, c = 70, d = 110
e m = 117, n = 63
f 59
4 a Pentagon (5sided)
b Dodecagon (12sided)
c Octagon
d Hexagon
e Equilateral triangle
5 a r = 2.1 cm, h = 7.2 cm
b x = 35, y = 35, z = 110
c a = 86, b = 94, c = d = 43
d a = 40, b = 50
6 D
7A
exercise 7b
1 a
c
e
2 a
c
e
3 a
c
e
4 a
c
e
5 a
c
e
g
6 3.74 m2
7 661 mm2
8 E
9C
10 a 1256.6 cm2
b 28.3 cm2
c 285.9 cm2
d 75.0%, 22.75%, 2.25%
exercise 7C
exercise 7d
8 21 mL
9 a 26 cm
c 575.2 cm3
e
10
11
12
13
b 12.6 m2
11 a
m
r=1m
d 9.4 m2
r=2m
r=1m
298
2
3
1
3
f 1 m
b 862.8 cm3
d 287.6 cm3
D
B
E
A
exercise 7e
1 a i k=4
b i k=
Railing
2m
1 a 72 600 cm2
b 392 m2
c 8.0 m2
d 54.3 cm2
e 395.8 cm2
f 17 278.8 mm2
2 a 4.9 m2
b 364 cm2
c 5808.8 mm2 or 58.0 cm2
3 a 2m
b 7.1 cm
c 31.5 cm
d 224.0 cm
4 a 530 cm2
b 672.4 cm2
c 564 cm2
d 1008 mm2
5 a 245 436.9 mm2
b 914.8 cm2
c 123 cm2
6 50 m2, 50 0 000 cm2
7 99.25 m2
8 C
9 B
10 E
11 A
12 a Cylinder loaf
b 108.7 cm2
1
20
exercise 7F
b SSS, k = 2
c AAA or SAS, k = 2
d AAA, k = 1.5
e SSS, k = 3.5
f AAA, k = 3
2 a 30
c 15
e 7.2
3 a 8
b 4
d 38
e 72
4 810 cm
6 16 m
8 D
9 B
exercise 7G
factors
1
c i k = 0.8
ii x = 3.2 cm, y = 6.4 cm
2 a Corresponding angle law, 25.5 mm
b Photographic image, 1.2 m
3 25 cm by 30 cm
4 a 2.4 m
b 36 cm
c 25 cm
5 215 mm by 178 mm, landscape
6 C
7 E
8 D
b 18
d 42
f 10
c 10.8
f 426
5 21.5 metres
7 15 m
10 D
Linear
scale
factors
k
Area scale
factors
k2
Volume
scale
factors
k3
16
64
27
25
125
10
100
1000
64
512
0.3
0.09
0.027
36
216
0.1
0.01
0.001
100
10 000
1 000 000
0.4
0.16
0.064
20
400
2
8000
2
240 mm
225 mm2
i 4.25 m
25 m
300 cm3
1 litre
6.5 m2
204 litres
10 cm3
39 cm2
16
b 432 cm
ii
c
b
d
b
d
b
d
b
12.5 cm
7.75 cm
8640 cm3
4050 cm3
314.2 cm2
4.25 litres
1728 cm3
3 cm
25
16
4
9
8 a 64
64
27
125
64
8
27
2 a
c
3 a
b
4 a
c
5 a
c
6 a
c
7 a
Similar figures
ii x = 280, y = 200
ii x = 125, y = 5
Similar triangles
.
4
or 1.3
3
1 a SAS, k =
9 a 2 litres
10
27
64
12
13
14
16
22 cm
a 3:2
1:7
D
16
9
b 3.6 litres
11 20 cm2
b 9:4
15 E
17 B
ChapTer reVieW
mUlTiple ChoiCe
1
4
7
10
13
B
D
B
D
B
E
E
B
A
2
5
8
11
3
6
9
12
C
A
C
E
ShorT anSWer
1 a a = 40, b = 50, c = 40
b a = 45, b = 45, c = 135
2 Area = 4942 mm2, perimeter = 311 mm
3 a, b
c 84 m2
5
4
6
6
4
b 339.3 m3
8 a 2 cm
c 1 cm2
b 100 hectares
33
6 1.4 m
b i
cm
80 cm
160 cm
b 6 litres
b 1904 cm2
ii 8639 cm2
iii 32.5%
c i 9425 cm2
ii 26.4%
2
3
3 a 121.9 cm3
c 1:1 000 000
4
Task 2
a 80 cm
50
exTended reSponSe
Task 1
1 a 6000 cm3
c 2200 cm2
2 a 15.96 cm
33
4 a 367.6 m3
c 273.3 m2
5 28.6 cm
7 60 m
b 122 m3
d 143.14 m2
1
8
299
Chapter 8
Trigonometry
DIGItaL DOC
10 Quick Questions
doc9458
Chapter CONteNtS
8a
8B
8C
8D
8e
8F
8G
8h
8I
Pythagoras theorem
Pythagorean triads
Threedimensional Pythagoras theorem
Trigonometric ratios
The sine rule
Ambiguous case of the sine rule
The cosine rule
Special triangles
Area of triangles
trigonometry
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that is used to solve
problems involving the relationships between the angles and
sides of triangles.
Often the problem is a descriptive one and, to solve it
confidently, you need to visualise the situation and draw an
appropriate diagram or sketch.
Labelling conventions
When we use trigonometry to solve problems involving
triangles, there are several labelling conventions that help
us remain clear about the relationships between the vertices,
angles and lines being used. These will be explained as they
arise; however, the basic convention used in this book is
shown in the figure below right. Note the use of italics.
The angle A is at vertex A, which is opposite line a.
B
The angle B is at vertex B, which is opposite line b.
B
a
The angle C is at vertex C, which is opposite line c.
c
To avoid cluttered diagrams, only the vertices
C
C
(A, B, C) are usually shown; the associated angles
A
b
A
(A, B, C ) are assumed.
Note: Naturally, we do not need such labels in all diagrams, and sometimes we wish to label vertices,
angles and lines in other ways, but these will always be clear from the diagram and its context.
8a
pythagoras theorem
Before investigating the relationships between the angles and sides of a triangle, we should consider a
problemsolving technique that involves only the sides of triangles: Pythagoras theorem.
Pythagoras theorem is attributed to the Greek mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras, around
500 BC. (However, the principle was known much earlier, and it seems that even the pyramid builders of
ancient Egypt used the theorem in constructing the pyramids.)
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
301
The theorem describes the relationship between the lengths of the sides of all rightangled triangles.
Pythagoras theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse
is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, or
c (hypotenuse)
c2 = a2 + b2
a 2 + b2
where c is the longest side or hypotenuse and a and b are the two shorter sides.
Note: Because the equation c2 = a2 + b2 has become a standard way of expressing Pythagoras theorem, we
often adjust the labelling convention to use c for the hypotenuse no matter how the opposite (right) angle
and vertex is labelled. However, this will always be clear from the diagram.
The longest side is always opposite the largest angle (90 for rightangled triangles) and similarly, the
shortest side is opposite the smallest angle.
To find one of the shorter sides (for example, side a), the formula transposes to:
a2 = c2 b2
and so
a = c2 b2 .
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 1
Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in the
rightangled triangle shown.
thINK
1
2
3
4 cm
WrIte/DraW
7 cm
c=x
a=4
b=7
c2 = a2 + b2
x2
42
Alternatively,
2
2
c = a +b
72
2
2
x = 4 +7
= 16 + 49
= 16 + 49
= 65
x = 65
= 65
= 8.0622
The unknown sides length is 8.1 cm, correct to
1 decimal place.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 2
Find the maximum horizontal distance (to the nearest metre) a ship could drift from its original
anchored point, if the anchor line is 250 metres long and it is 24 metres to the bottom of the sea
from the end of the anchor line on top of the ships deck.
thINK
302
WrIte/DraW
es
0 metr
c = 25
a=?
b = 24 metres
c2 = a2 + b2
Alternatively,
2
2
a = c b
2502 = a2 + 242
2
2
= 250 24
62 500 = a2 + 576
= 62 500 576
a2 = 62 500 576
= 61 924
a=
61 924
61 924
= 248.845
4
pythagoras theorem
exercise 8a
1 We1 Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in each of the following rightangled
triangles.
a
b
x
8
x
DIGItaL DOC
doc9459
Spreadsheet
pythagoras theorem
12
2.4
9
5
0.7
d
11.6
1 2
x
17.5
2 An aircraft is flying at an altitude of 5000 metres. If its horizontal distance from the airport is
3kilometres, what is the distance (to the nearest metre) from the airport directly to the aircraft?
3 What is the length (to the nearest millimetre) of a diagonal brace on a rectangular gate that is 2600 mm
triangles.
a
8
17
20
10
15
x
9
d
7
25
x
7.4
10.6
15
x
x
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
303
5 Calculate the lengths of the sloping sides in the following. (Remember to construct a suitable
rightangled triangle.)
a
15
8 mm
10 mm
10.8
30 mm
10
4.6
12
6.2
f
6m
x
305 cm
14 m
3m
8m
12 m
460 cm
b
6.2
215 cm
17
3.1
10.6
10
15
d
2.3
6.3 mm
4.
4.6
1.7
d
5.3 mm
7 One of the smaller sides of a rightangled triangle is 16 metres long. The hypotenuse is 8metres longer
C 2
F
E
A
1m
B
9 MC To the nearest metre, the length of cable that would connect the roofs of two buildings that are
40 metres and 80 metres high respectively and are 30 metres apart (as shown below) is:
a 40 metres
B 45 metres
C 50 metres
D 55 metres
e none of these
304
8B
pythagorean triads
A Pythagorean triad is a set of 3 numbers which satisfies Pythagoras theorem. An example is the set of
numbers 3, 4, 5 where c2 = a2 + b2
So,
52 = 32 + 42
25 = 9 + 16
The diagram below illustrates this relationship.
35
10
6
3
5
4
8
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 3
WrIte
42 + 62 = 16 + 36
= 52
72 = 49
72 42 + 62
A triangle has sides of length 8 cm, 15 cm and 17 cm. Is the triangle rightangled?
If so, where is the right angle?
thINK
1
WrIte
82 + 152 = 64 + 225
= 289
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
305
172 = 289
172 = 82 + 152
The triangle is rightangled.
pythagorean triads
exercise 8B
DIGItaL DOC
doc9460
Spreadsheet
pythagorean triads
1 We3
Are the following sets of numbers Pythagorean triads?
a 9, 12, 15
b 4, 5, 6
d 3, 6, 9
e 0.6, 0.8, 1.0
g 6, 13, 14
h 14, 20, 30
j 10, 24, 26
k 12, 16, 20
c
f
i
l
30, 40, 50
7, 24, 25
11, 60, 61
2, 3, 4
2 Complete the following Pythagorean triads. Each set is written from smallest to largest.
a 9, __, 15
b __, 24, 25
c 1.5, 2.0, __
d 3, __, 5
e 11, 60, __
f 10, __, 26
g __, 40, 41
h 0.7, 2.4, __
3 For each of the sets which were Pythagorean triads in question 1, state which side the right angle is
opposite.
4 We4 A triangle has sides of length 16 cm, 30 cm and 34 cm. Is the triangle rightangled? If so, where
right angle?
6 Find the unknown length in each case below.
b Radius = 3.5 cm
a
20
13
12
30
24 cm
c
c
9
41
1.1
6.1
e
1.3
0.4
26 km
0.3
E
10 km
7 An athlete runs 700 m north and then 2.4 km west. How far away is the athlete from the starting point?
MATHS
QUEST
m
0c
20
180 cm
300 cm
306
B 6, 9, 11
e 5, 12, 13
C 3, 6, 9
C 13, 84, 85
threedimensional pythagoras
theorem
8C
Many practical situations involve threedimensional objects with perpendicular planes and therefore the
application of Pythagoras theorem. To solve threedimensional problems, a carefully drawn and labelled
diagram will help. It is also of benefit to identify right angles to see where Pythagoras theorem can be
applied. This enables you to progress from the known information to the unknown value(s).
INteraCtIVItY
int0189
threedimensional
pythagoras theorem
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 5
To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest possible thin rod that could fit
in the boot of a car? The boot can be modelled as a simple rectangular prism
with the dimensions of 1.5 metres wide, 1 metre deep and 0.5 metres high.
Draw a diagram of the rectangular prism.
E
0.5 m
A
1.0 m
1.5 m
C
y
1.5 m
G
x
0.5 m
WrIte/DraW
1.0 m
thINK
tUtOrIaL
eles1283
Worked example 5
c2 = a2 + b2
y2 = 1.52 + 1.02
= 2.25 + 1
= 3.25
y = 3.25
= 1.803 (to 3 decimal places)
The length of AC is 1.8 metres (to 1 decimal place).
2
2
c = a + b (alternative form)
2
x = 0.5 + ( 3.25)
= 0.25 + 3.25
= 3.5
= 1.8708 (m)
The longest rod that could fit in the car boot is
187 centimetres, calculated to the nearest centimetre.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 6
V
200 m
D
A
O
B
C
100 m
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
307
thINK
WrIte
2
2
c = a + b (alternative form)
2
2
AC = 100 + 100
= 20 000
= 10 000 2
= 100 2
= 100 2
100 m
100 m
b Length of AO is
100 2
or 50 2 metres.
2
2
2
a = c b (alternative form)
200 2 (50 2)
VO =
200 m
= 40 000 5000
= 35000
= 187.0829
2
50 2 m
exercise 8C
1 We5 To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest thin rod that could fit inside a cube with side
length 2 m?
2 To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest drumstick that could fit in a rectangular toy box whose
dimensions are 80 cm long by 80 cm wide by 60 cm high?
3 For each of the prisms shown, calculate:
i the length of AC
a
G
H
E
E
120 cm
C
D
40 cm
B
25 cm
G
I
C
F
5m
40 m
D 6m
14 m
E
400 mm
308
A
D
300 mm
H
1200 mm
G
600 m
40 m
D
A
C
20 m
B
15 m
D
A
km
C
km
5 A 3.5metre long ramp rises to a height of 1.2 metres. How long (correct to 1 decimal place) is the base
of the ramp?
6 MC Two guide wires are used to support a flagpole as shown.
Wire
Wire
8.5 m
2m
4m
pyramid at right.
c
6.1
a
3.0
4.9
C
E
40 m
C
30 m
B
F
D
30 m
A 10 m
H
Not to
scale
10 In each of the following typical building structures find the length of the unknown crossbrace
shown in red.
a
b
3m
5m
2.6 m
b
11 m
3m
11 For the coffee table design at right, find the length of the legs (to the nearest millimetre) if the coffee
table is to be:
a 500 mm off the ground
b 700 mm off the ground
and the legs are offset from the vertical by a distance of:
i 100 mm
ii 150 mm.
Offset distance
Table
height
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
309
12 Find the length of the brace, BG (to the nearest centimetre), that is needed to reinforce the wedge
E
G
D
F
1.0 m
C
4.0 m
DIGItaL DOC
doc9461
WorkSHEET 8.1
A 2.0 m B
8D
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
trigonometric ratios
Trigonometric ratios include the sine ratio, the cosine ratio and the tangent ratio; three ratios of the
lengths of sides of a rightangled triangle dependent on a given acute angle.
Labelling convention
For the trigonometric ratios the following labelling convention should be applied:
1. The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle (90).
2. The opposite side is directly opposite the given angle, .
3. The adjacent side is next to the given angle, .
Consider the three triangles drawn below. We know from the previous chapter on similarity that
ABC, ADE and AFG are similar because the corresponding angles are the same. Therefore, the
corresponding sides are in the same ratio (scale factor).
B
30
30
30
Opposite
ABC
ADE
AFG
310
Adjacent
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
opposite
, the value is the same for all three triangles.
hypotenuse
This is the same for all rightangled triangles with the same acute angle.
Notice that for each of the ratios, for example
Sine ratio
The sine ratio is defined as follows:
length of opposite side
lengt
.
The sine of an angle =
length
ength of hypotenuse side
engt
In short,
sin ( ) =
opposite
hypotenuse
sin ( ) =
O
H
Hypotenuse
Opposite
[SOH]
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 7
Find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the line joining the vertices A and B in the triangle
below.
A
15 cm
50
thINK
1
B
WrIte/DraW
A
15 cm
Hypotenuse
C
= 50
x cm
Opposite
B
Angle = 50
Opposite side = x cm
Hypotenuse = 15 cm
[SOH]
15 sin (50) =
x
15
15
x = 15 sin (50)
= 15 0.766
= 11.491
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
311
Cosine ratio
The cosine ratio is defined as follows:
The cosine of an angle =
In short,
cos () =
Hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
A
cos () =
H
Adjacent
[CAH]
In Worked example 7 the sine ratio was used to find the unknown length. The cosine ratio can be used
in the same way, if it is required.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 8
Find the length of the guy wire (to the nearest centimetre) supporting a flagpole, if
the angle of the guy wire to the ground is 70 and it is anchored 2 metres from the base
of the flagpole.
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
xm
Hypotenuse
70
2m
Adjacent
Angle = 70
Adjacent side = 2 m
Hypotenuse = x m
A
H
2
cos (70 ) =
x
x
1
=
cos (70) 2
[CAH]
cos () =
x=
2
cos (70)
= 5.8476
6
312
tangent ratio
The tangent ratio is defined as follows:
In short,
tan ( ) =
tan ( ) =
Opposite
O
A
Adjacent
[TOA]
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 9
Find the length of the shadow (to 1 decimal place) cast by a 3metre tall pole when the angle of
the sun to the horizontal is 70.
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
3m
70
70
xm
Adjacent
3
Angle = 70
Opposite side = 3 m
Adjacent side = x m
[TOA]
O
A
3
tan (70) =
x
x
1
=
tan(70) 3
tan () =
3
tan(70)
= 1.0919
x=
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
313
Find the smallest angle (to the nearest degree) in a 3, 4, 5 Pythagorean triangle.
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
5 Hypotenuse
Opposite 3
x
4
2
Evaluate x.
[SOH]
O
H
3
sin( x) =
5
= 0.6
sin () =
x = sin 1 (0.6).
= 36.87
exercise 8D
DIGItaL DOCS
doc9462
SkillSHEET 8.1
Identifying sides of a
rightangled triangle
with respect to the
given angle
doc9463
SkillSHEET 8.2
Finding trigonometric
values
and angles
Angle = x
Opposite side = 3
Hypotenuse = 5
trigonometric ratios
1 We 7 Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in each of the following triangles.
a
b
12 km
20
430 mm
2.5 m
50
43
d
61
52
2000 mm
15 cm
y
92 mm
49
2 We8 A boat is moored in calm waters with its depth sounder registering 14.5 m. If the anchor line
makes an angle of 72 with the vertical, what is the length of line (to the nearest metre) that is out
of the boat?
3 We9 A person is hoping to swim directly across a straight river from point A to point B, a distance of
215 m. The river carries the swimmer downstream so that she actually reaches the other side at pointC.
If the line of her swim, AC, makes an angle of 67 with the river bank, find how far (to the nearest
metre) downstream from point B she finished.
314
4 Find the value of the missing side (to 1 decimal place) of the following triangles.
c
a
b
x
45
2m
12
20
65
x
67.4
x
5 Find the value of the unknown sides (to 1 decimal place) of the following shapes.
a
b
c
6.5 cm
15 cm
110
27 m
20 cm
x
35
65
x
6 We10 Find the size of the unknown angle (to the nearest degree) in each of the following triangles.
a
b
10
2m
6
c
2m
d
500 mm
400 mm
7 Find the values of the unknown angle, a (to the nearest degree).
b
a
a
2m
11 m
10 m
a
1.2 m
4m
a
1m
2m
B 1.37
C 0.68
e 1.88
70
10 MC The correct expression for the angle of elevation, , of the ramp is:
4
a sin 1
5
B cos 1 4
D tan 1 4
3
e cos 1 3
5
C tan 1 4
5
3
4
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
315
11 MC The correct expression for the value of c in the figure at right is:
tan (37)
4
4
D
tan (37)
a
cos (37)
4
4
e
sin (37)
B
5
tan (37)
5m
37
c
3m
12 MC A flagpole 2 metres tall casts a 0.6metre long shadow. The angle of the sun to the ground is:
a 17
D 72
B 70
e 73
C 71
13 In the diagram at right find (to the nearest degree), x metres and y metres
4m
20
60
B
B
c
A
C
b
Note: To avoid cluttered diagrams, only the vertices (A, B and C) are usually shown and are used to
represent the angles A, B and C.
316
8e
C
b
A
a
B
Earlier, we saw that the new side, h, can be evaluated in two ways.
b
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
AOS:
h
h
sin (B) =
a
b
h = b sin (A)
h = a sin (B)
If we equate the two expressions for h:
b sin (A) = a sin (B).
and rearranging the equation, we obtain:
a
b
=
.
sin ( A) sin ( B)
Using a similar approach it can be shown that:
b
a
c
1.
=
=
sin ( A) sin ( B) sin ( C )
2. Similarly, if the triangle is labelled using other letters, for example STU, then:
s
u
t
=
=
sin ( S ) sin (T ) sin (U )
This can be generalised as follows: in any triangle, the ratio of side length to the sine of the opposite
angle is constant.
The sine rule is used if you are given:
1. two angles and one opposite side
or
2. an angle and its opposite side length (a complete ratio) and one
C
other side. For example, in triangle ABC at right, a= 7 cm, A = 50
a = 7 cm
and c = 9 cm. Angle C could then be found using the sine rule.
50
A
sin (A) =
Do more
Interact
with the sine rule.
c = 9 cm
B
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 11
130
30
thINK
1
tUtOrIaL
eles1284
Worked example 11
WrIte/DraW
B
130
C
7 cm
30
c = 7 cm
A
b=x
b
c
=
sin ( B) sin (C )
b=x
c = 7 cm
B = 130
C = 30
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
317
x
7
=
sin (130) sin (30)
7 sin (130)
sin (30)
= 10.7246
= 10.7
x=
Sometimes it is necessary to find the third angle in a triangle in order to apply the sine rule.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 12
100
65
7 cm
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
c=x
A
B
100
65
b=7
7 sin (15)
sin (100)
= 1.8397
6
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 13
For a triangle PQR, find the unknown angle (to the nearest degree), P,
given p = 5 cm, r = 7 cm and R = 48.
thINK
1
Q
7 cm
P
318
tUtOrIaL
eles1285
Worked example 13
WrIte/DraW
5 cm
48
Q
r=7
p=5
48
P
3
p
r
=
sin( P) sin( R)
p=5 P=?
r = 7 R = 48
5
7
=
sin ( P) sin (48)
sin ( P) sin (48)
=
5
7
5 sin (48)
sin ( P) =
7
5 sin (48)
P = sin 1
= 32.06
= 32
The unknown angle is 32, correct to
the nearest degree.
Sometimes the angle required for the sine rule is not given. In such cases simply subtract the two known
angles from 180, as was done in step 3 of Worked example 12.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 14
A pair of compasses (often called a compass) used for drawing circles has two equal legs
joined at the top. The legs are 8 centimetres long. If it is opened to an included angle
of 36degrees between the two legs, find the radius of the circle that would be drawn
(to 1 decimal place).
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
8 cm
B
c = 8 cm
A
36
a = 8 cm
C
180 = A + B + C
= x + 36 + x
2x = 180 36
= 144
x = 72 and, therefore,
A = C = 72
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
319
b
c
=
sin( B) sin(C )
b = y B = 36
c = 8 C = 72
y
8
=
sin(36) sin (72)
y=
y 4.9
The radius of the circle is 4.9 cm, correct
to 1 decimal place.
exercise 8e
8 sin (36)
sin (72)
18
142
55 cm
250 km
7 mm
Church
3 km
32
Post Office
School
86
14
15 m
85 7 mm
74
58
c
85
x
105
25
2 The relative positions of the school, church and post office in a small
x
14
74
58
d
x
x
18
142
55 cm
d
18 cm
119
22
x
4 A sailing expedition followed a triangular course as shown at right. Find the total
10.5 km
30
78
6 Construct a suitable triangle from the following instructions and find all unknown sides and angles.
One of the sides is 23 cm; the smallest side is 15 cm. The smallest angle is 28.
7 We14 Steel trusses are used to support the roof of a commercial building. The struts in the truss
shown are each made from 0.8 m steel lengths and are welded at the contact points with the upper and
lower sections of the truss.
0.8 m
130
130
130
a On the lower section of the truss, what is the distance (to the nearest centimetre) between each
B 3.1
e 3.0
C 3.6
70
m
35
C
5.2
9 MC The correct expression for the value of t in the given triangle is:
a
7 sin(100)
sin(30)
D
sin (50)
sin (30)
sin (100)
D 3.3
e 3.6
C 5.4
5.5 m
50
30
7 sin (50)
e
sin (100)
a 4.3
100
7m
t
x
60
4
70
3
11 MC In the triangle given, the largest angle (to the nearest degree) is:
a 80
B 82
D 67
e 60
C 84
7 cm
8 cm
60
6 cm
between any two legs within the course, to the nearest degree, is:
a 34
B 55
D 78
e 90
15 km
C 45
45
18 km
13 km
13 MC The correct expression for angle S in the given triangle is:
a sin 1
40 sin(41)
30
B cos 1
C sin 1
30 sin (41)
40
D sin 1
40 cos(41)
30
41
40
S
30
41 sin (41)
30
e sin 1
30
40
si
n
(
41
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
321
being 6.5 cm long and the equal angles 68. Use the sine rule to
find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the unknown side.
16 A rope is pegged at one end into the ground, pulled tightly up over
a branch and pegged into the ground at the other end. It is known
that one pegtobranch length of rope is 8 m and it makes an angle
of 39 with the ground. The other end of the rope makes an angle
of 48 with the ground. Find (correct to 1decimal place):
a the length of the rope
b the distance between the two pegs.
17 A playground swing, which is 2.3 m long, makes an angle of 74, at its swing point, in one complete
swing. Determine the horizontal distance (in metres to 1 decimal place) between the extreme positions
of the swing seat.
18 A scenic flight leaves Geelong and flies west of north for the 80 km direct journey to Ballarat. At
Ballarat the plane turns 92 to the right to fly east of north to Kyneton. From here the plane again turns
to the right and flies the 103 km straight back to Geelong.
a Determine the angle (in degrees to 1 decimal place) through which the plane turned at Kyneton.
b Find the distance (to the nearest km) of the direct flight from Ballarat to Kyneton.
8F
eLeSSON
eles0051
ambiguous case of
the sine rule
On your calculator, investigate the values for each of these pairs of sine ratios:
sin (30) and sin (150)
sin (110) and sin (70).
You should obtain the same number for each value in a pair.
Obtuse
Acute
Similarly, sin (60) and sin (120) give an identical value of 0.8660.
Now try to find the inverse sine of these values; for example,
sin 1(0.8660) is 60. The obtuse (greater than 90) angle is not given by
the calculator. When using the inverse sine function on your calculator, the
A rope attached to a
calculator will give only the acute angle.
pole can be anchored
The situation is illustrated practically in the diagram at right where the
in two possible positions.
sine of the acute angle equals the sine of the obtuse angle.
Therefore always check your diagram to see if the unknown angle is the acute or obtuse angle or perhaps
either. This situation is illustrated in the two diagrams below. The triangles have two corresponding sides
equal, a and b, as well as angle B. The sine of 110 also equals the sine of 70; however, the side c is quite
different. It is worth noting that this ambiguity occurs when the smaller known side is opposite the known
acute angle. That is, an ambiguous case occurs if B < 90 and asinB b < a:
a
110
c
b
70
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 15
322
tUtOrIaL
eles1286
Worked example 15
WrIte/DraW
S
u = 12
T
25
s
t=7
u = 12
t=7
T
25
t
u
=
sin (T ) sin (U )
t=7
T = 25
u = 12 U = ?
7
12
=
sin (25) sin (U )
sin (U ) sin (25)
=
12
7
12 sin (25)
sin (U ) =
7
sin (U ) = 0.724 488
U = 46.43
U = 180 46.43
= 133.57
The angle U is either 46 or 134, correct
to the nearest degree.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 16
WrIte/DraW
40
R
30 cm
Q
p = 30
40
20 cm
P
r = 20
P
p
r
=
sin ( P) sin ( R)
p = 30
r = 20
P=?
R = 40
30
20
=
sin ( P) sin (40)
P = 180 74.62
= 105.38
The angle P is 105, correct to the nearest degree.
sin (P) =
20
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
323
exercise 8F
1 We15 Find both the acute and obtuse angles in each case below. Express all answers in degrees to
1decimal place.
In ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given b = 10.8, c = 6 and C = 26.
In STU, find the unknown angle, S, given t = 12.7, s = 16.3 and T = 45.
In PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 3.5, r = 2 and R = 12.
In LMN, find the unknown angle, M, given n = 0.22 km, m=0.5 km a nd N=18.
a
b
c
d
2 We16 Find the unknown angle (to the nearest degree) in each of the following obtuseangled triangles.
a
b
c
d
3m
60 km
B
110 km
4m
30.5
5.8 m
7m
7 4 m
25
30
20
11 m
38
39
78
141
142
C
4.15 cm
19
A
8 cm
4 Find the two unknown angles shown in the diagram below (correct to 1 decimal place).
10 cm
27 x
9 cm
9 cm
y
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with the cosine
rule.
324
8G
8 cm
5 cm
15
V
b2
x2
C
b
h
x
a
cx
B
b2 + c2 a2
2bc
a2 + c2 b2
a2 + b2 c2
and cos (C ) =
.
2ac
2ab
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 17
7 cm
80
6 cm
thINK
1
tUtOrIaL
eles1287
Worked example 17
WrIte/DraW
B
a=x
c=7
A
80
b=6
b=6
c=7
A = 80
a=x
x = 70.4136
= 8.391
x = 8.39
The unknown length is 8.39 cm, correct to
2 decimal places.
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
325
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 18
Find the size of angle x in the triangle below, to the nearest degree.
6
x
4
thINK
WrIte/DraW
A
c=6
b=6
x
a=4
a2 + c2 b2
2ac
a = 4, b = 6, c = 6, B = x
cos (B) =
cos (x) =
4 2 + 62 62
246
16
48
cos (x) = 0.3333
cos (x) =
x = 70.53
x 71
exercise 8G
1 We 17 Find the unknown length in each of the following (to 2 decimal places).
a
b
x
10 m
2.3 km
12
23
120
f
x
x
100
100 km
326
55
1.5 km
60
5m
d
z
5 3
30
200 km
33
4000 mm
47
2000 mm
7 km
107
x
3 Two circles, with radii 5 cm and 8 cm, overlap as shown at right. If the
angle between the two radii that meet at the point of intersection of the
circumferences is 105, find the distance between the centres of the circles
(to 1 decimal place).
5 cm
8 cm
105
4 We18 Find the size of the unknown angle in each of the following (to the nearest degree).
a
b
5m
8m
x
6m
12 mm y
20 mm
c
13 mm
d
20.5 cm
19.1 cm
x
28.6 cm
85 km
p
101 km
68 km
5 Consider the sailing expedition course in question 2. Find the two unknown angles (to the nearest
6
7
8
9
10
11
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
327
39
45
56
85
141
24 cm
15 cm
(Not to
scale)
20 cm
2
2
2
4 +5 6
cos 1
245
2
2
2
4 6 +5
C cos 1
2
2
2
4 +6 5
cos 1
245
264
246
5 cm
4 cm
6 cm
2
2
2
5 + 6 4
e cos 1
256
180 120
180 72
180 + 72
120
12
pyramid are all the same. The magnitude of these angles for the
pyramid shown at right (to the nearest degree) is:
a 1
B 34
C 38
D 39
e 71
Regular
squarebased
pyramid
15 cm
10 m
4 cm
4m
100
12 cm
3m
6 cm
DIGItaL DOC
doc9464
WorkSHEET 8.2
2m
8 cm
8h
Special triangles
Often, the triangles encountered in problem solving are either equilateral or rightangled isosceles
triangles. They exhibit some unique features that, when recognised, can be very useful in solving
problems.
Equilateral triangles have three equal sides and three equal angles. Therefore, when given the length
of one side, all sides are known. The three angles are always equal to 60.
B
B
60
3
A
C
a=b=c=3
A = B = C = 60
328
B
60
45
60
a = b = c = 45
C = 60
14
b = a = c = 14
B = A = C = 60
Rightangled isosceles triangles have one right angle (90) opposite the longest side (hypotenuse) and
two equal sides and angles. The two other angles are always 45.
A
13
B
10
a = c = 13
b = 13 2
A = C = 45
B = 90
A
10 2
45
a = c = 10
b = 10 2
A = C = 45
B = 90
5 2
a=c=5
b=5 2
A = C = 45
B = 90
Also, the hypotenuse is always 2 times the length of the smaller sides.
Check for yourself using Pythagoras theorem.
A
20
45
b = 20
a = c = 20
2
A = C = 45
B = 90
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 19
WrIte/DraW
6 cm
Regular hexagon
6 cm
r cm
60
= 360 6
= 60
2
r = 6 cm
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 20
Find the value of the pronumeral (correct to 1 decimal place) in the figure.
45
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
45
12 cm
12 cm
x
45
12 cm
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
329
c=a 2
x = 12 2
= 16.970 56
Special triangles
exercise 8h
c
a
60
60
15.2 cm
b
45
158 cm
7.2 m
10 mm
3 Answer the following.
a In ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given b = 10, c = 10 2 and C = 90.
b In STU, find the unknown side, s, given t = 12.7, S = 45 and T = 45.
c In PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 3.5, r = 3.5 and R = 60.
d In LMN, find the unknown side, m, given n = 0.22, L = 60 and N = 60.
4 A pair of compasses used for drawing circles has legs that are 6 cm long. If it is opened as shown in the
60
5 What is the height of a tree if its shadow, on horizontal ground, is 12 metres long when the suns rays
C
a 20 2
B 10
C 20
B
D
20
40
7 A 40 cm square serviette is prepared for presentation by completing three folds firstly, by taking a
corner and placing it on top of the opposite corner; secondly, by taking one of the two corners on the
crease that has been made and placing it on the other one; and finally, by placing the two corners at the
ends of the longest side on top of each other.
a Find the length of the crease made after the i first fold ii second fold iii third fold.
b With the final serviette lying flat, what angles are produced at the corners?
330
area of triangles
8I
Units: 3 & 4
A = 12bh
3 cm
Height
Topic:
Concept:
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Height
4 cm
Base
AOS:
Base
Method 2. When we are given two lengths and the angle in between we would use:
Area triangle = 12 a b sin (C )
A = 12 ab sin (C )
A
A
b
b = 10 m
C
32
a = 15 m
Height = b sin (C )
a = Base
Area = 12 Base Height
=
1
2
a b sin (C )
( a + b + c)
.
2
This formula is known as Herons formula. It was developed by Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria, a
Greek mathematician and engineer who lived around ad 62.
Let us find the area of the triangle at right to demonstrate that all three formulas provide the same
result.
For the 3, 4, 5 triangle, the most appropriate method is method 1 because
it is a rightangled triangle.
5
Area triangle = 12 Base Height
A = 12 3 4
=6
The other two methods may also be used.
Area triangle = 12 a b sin (C )
A = 12 3 4 sin (90)
=61
=6
Area triangle = s(s a) (s b) (s c)
A = 6(66 3)(6 4)(66 5)
( a + b + c)
2
(3 + 4 + 5)
=
2
s=
= 6 3 2 1
= 12
= 36
=6
=6
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
331
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 21
WrIte
12 mm
= 1 12 8
2
= 48
3
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 22
9m
37 6 m
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
A
b=9
B
37 a = 6
C
a=6
b=9
C = 37
= 12 6 9 sin (37)
= 16.249
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 23
Find the area of a triangle PQR (to 1 decimal place), given p = 6, q = 9 and r = 4, with
measurements in centimetres.
thINK
1
WrIte/DraW
Q
p=6
R
332
r=4
q=9
a = p = 6, b = q = 9, c = r = 4
( a + b + c)
s=
2
(6 + 9 + 4)
=
2
= 9.5
area of triangles
exercise 8I
1 We21 Find the areas of the following triangles (correct to 1 decimal place).
b
a
4.5 mm
7 cm
12 cm
7.0 mm
d
3.2 mm
3m
10.5 mm
5m
4m
2 We22 Find the areas of the following triangles (correct to 1 decimal place).
a
30
7 cm
3m
80
7 cm
4m
d
100 m
10.2 m
120
105
7.5 m
80 m
3 We23 Find the areas of the following triangles (to 1 decimal place).
a
20 mm
3 km
8m
6 km
8m
6m
d
5.2 cm
6.7 cm
4 km
3.1 cm
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
333
4.6 m
4.4 m
40
112 cm
42
70
c
2.5 km
60
50 m
11.2 km
70
30
86.6 m
10 km
5 Find the area of each of the following triangles. (Give all answers to 1 decimal place.)
a For ABC, given a = 10 km, c = 8 km and B = 30
b For ABC, given a = b = 10 cm and c = 6 cm
c For ABC, given a = 7 m, b = 3 m, c = 8.42 m and C = 108
d For STU, given t = 12.7 m, s = 16.3 m and u = 24.5 m
e For PQR, given p = 2 units, q = 3.5 units and r = 2.5 units
f For ABC, given b = 260 cm, c = 120 cm and A = 90
6 Find the area of an equilateral triangle with side lengths of 10 cm.
7 A triangular arch has supporting legs of equal length of 12 metres as shown in the diagram below. What
is its area?
12
12
45
45
m
10 mm
9 Find the area of the state forest as defined by the three firespotting towers on the corners of its
boundary.
11 km
5.2 km
10.4 km
10 MC If the perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 210 metres, its area is closest to:
a 2100 m2
D 5500 m2
334
B 2450 m2
e 1700 m2
C 4800 m2
11 MC The correct expression for the area of the shape at right is:
a
B
C
D
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
4m
6.13 m
50
30
12 MC The correct expression for the area of the octagon shown is:
5
6.5
30
45
7 km
5 mm
DIGItaL DOC
doc9465
Investigation
problem solving to find
an area
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
335
Summary
rightangled triangles
pythagoras theorem
For hypotenuse:
c2 = a2 + b2 or c = a 2 + b 2
a=
c2 b2
pythagorean triads
A Pythagorean triad is a set of three numbers which satisfies Pythagoras theorem. Some common
triads are: (a) 3, 4, 5 (b) 6, 8, 10 (c) 5, 12, 13 and (d) 7, 24, 25.
threedimensional
pythagoras theorem
trigonometric ratios
Hypotenuse
Opposite
sin () =
O
H
cos () =
A
H
Adjacent
tan () =
O
or
A
Nonrightangled triangles
the sine rule
a
b
c
=
=
sin ( A) sin ( B) sin (C )
c
B
B
a
C
336
The sine rule is ambiguous when finding an angle when the smaller known side is opposite the
known acute angle.
or
cos A)
( =
b2 + c2 a2
2bc
To calculate:
(a) sides, use the cosine rule when two sides and the included angle are given
(b) angles, use the cosine rule when all three sides are given.
Special triangles
45
60
60
60
Equilateral triangles
area of triangles
c= 2a
45
(b) given two sides and the included angle, use Area triangle = 12ab sin (C )
(c) given all three sides only, use Area triangle =
s(s a) (s b) (s c) where s =
a+b+c
.
2
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
337
Chapter review
M U Lt Ip L e
C h OICe
3x
B 10
e 30
C 20
80
5x
B 3, 4, 5
e 7, 24, 25
3 A 15 cm long straw is the longest that can fit into a cylindrical can with a radius of 6 cm. The height of
C 15
expression that would enable the angle the rod makes with the base of
the box to be found, is:
a tan ( ) =
D tan ( ) =
5
12
4
13
4
13
5
= 12
B sin ( ) =
e cos ( )
C tan ( ) =
4
12
12
4
5
B 1.41 m
e 6.97 m
C 1.50 m
3
4
12
16
16
9
e 1
B
D
16
12
4
3
?m
12 cm
S
16 cm
B 43
e 68
50 m
C 50
30
8 In a triangle ABC where b = 10, c = 20 and B = 26, C (to the nearest degree)
could be:
a 61
B 62
C 63
D 63 or 117
e 61 or 119
9 To find the distance across a large excavation, measurements were foundas
shown in the diagram. The distance, AB, across the excavation is closest to:
a 75 metres
B 74 metres
C 100 metres
D 120 metres
e none of these
110 m
45
35
338
2m
32
130 m
r = 2 cm
r
40
17 m
Y
10.9 m
a 96 cm2
C 98 cm2
e 100 cm2
50
40
20 cm
1 A 2.5 m long ladder is placed up against a wall and reaches to a height of 2.4 m. Find the distance that
the legs of the ladder are from the base of the wall.
2 A 190 mm square ceramic floor tile is to be cut diagonally. What is the exact length of the cut to be
made?
S hO rt
a N S W er
45
30
3
45
2
1
Angle
1
30
45
60
sin
cos
3
= 0.8660
2
tan
7 A car badge to be fitted on a bonnet is of anisosceles triangle design.
a If the height of the badge is not to be more than 30 mm, what is the maximum length of the base
of the badge (to the nearest mm), if the equal angles are 25?
b If the longest side is to be set at 100 mm, what is the length of the other two equal sides, if the
C
40 m
A
35
25 m
B
D
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
339
9 The hour hand of a clock is 20 mm long and the minute hand is 25 mm. The clock face below shows the
time at 4oclock. What is the distance between the tips of both hands (to the nearest mm)?
25 mm
120
20 mm
5m
B
6.3 m
8.1 m
USA
110 km
40
90 km
a What is the distance between the western and northern corners of the triangle (to the nearest
kilometre)?
b What is the largest angle within the triangle (to the nearest degree)?
12 A DVD storage unit is 1.5 metres tall and has a base area as shown.
a Find the front width of the storage unit (to the nearest cm).
b Find the volume of the storage unit (in cm3).
12 cm
12 cm
13 What is the area of a Give Way traffic sign that is in the shape of an equilateral
1 A sandwich bar uses bread that is roughly 10 cm square. The bread slices are cut into four equal
triangles and packaged in a cardboard box with the triangles arranged as shown.
10 cm
10 cm
8 cm
i What is the total length of the two cuts required to make four
triangular pieces?
ii What is the area of the triangular face of the packaged sandwich
i Show that the surface area of packaged, triangular sandwiches is close to 243 cm2.
ii Would cutting the sandwiches into four small equal square pieces reduce the surface area? If
so, by how much (to the nearest cm2)? Draw a suitable diagram(s).
iii Find the volume of the sandwich package.
c An alternative is to use bread which has a rectangular shape as shown,
9 cm
and to prepare it as triangular pieces.
i What is one disadvantage of using rectangular slices of bread for making
four triangular sandwich pieces?
12 cm
ii The four angles at the centre of the bread just after making the two cuts
are no longer right angles. Find the value of the largest angle.
iii If the four triangular pieces are also to be packaged, what is the smallest
possible area of the triangular face of the cardboard box?
2 Two thin rods are hinged together and the end of one rod is hinged to the
B
ground, while the end of the other rod is free, as shown in the diagram at right.
1m
1.5 m
Lucie conducts an investigation of the triangle formed. She starts by
C
investigating the formation of a rightangled triangle.
A
C
a i At what distance from A (to 2 decimal places) must Lucie place
endC so that a rightangled triangle is formed at C? Remember that
the two rods can move, although they are fixed at A.
ii What is the angle made by the 1.5 m rod with the ground (to the nearest degree)?
iii Using your answer from part ii, what is the value of the other acute angle?
b Lucie now brings end C to a position 1 m from end A.
i State the type of triangle formed.
ii What is the size of the largest angle formed in this triangle (to the nearest degree)?
iii If the largest angle is now to be 110, what is the new distance from A to C
(to 3 decimal places)?
c An alternative is to move end C away from A, as shown at right. How far is
end C from A, if ABC is to be 110 (in metres to 1 decimal place)?
B
d Lucie now investigates the area of the triangle made in each situation.
1.5 m
i What is the area of the triangle in part a i (in m2 to 2 decimal
1m
places)?
A
C
ii What is the area of the triangle in part b iii (in m2 to 2 decimal
places)?
iii What is the area of the triangle in part c (in m2 to 2 decimal places)?
e A third rod, 3 metres long, is connected at point B to the rightangled triangle formed in part a. Its
free end rests on the ground. What is the horizontal distance between B and the end of this third
rod (to the nearest cm)?
3 The diagram below represents a plan view (looking down onto) of an opencut mine, which is roughly
in the shape of a parallelogram.
D
Mine pit
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
341
DIGItaL DOC
doc9466
Investigation
paper planes
A mine surveyor has been asked to determine the dimensions of this pit.
a From A, she measures the distances, AB and AC, to either side of the pit and also the angle in
between. She finds that: AB = 86 m, AC = 97 m and BAC = 46o. Find the pits width, BC (to the
nearest metre).
b From D, she completes a similar exercise tofind the length of the pit, EF. This time shefinds:
DE = 102 m, DF = 111 m and EDF = 53.
The following diagram is a crosssectional view of the pit along its length.
E
F
49
DIGItaL DOC
doc9467
Test Yourself
Chapter 8
75
d
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic: 1 & 2
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.
342
The surveyor needs to find the depth, d. To do this she has located a large boulder, R, at the bottom
of the pit and found that the angle between the horizontal, EF, and ER is 49, and the angle between
FE and FR is 75. Find (to the nearest metre):
c the distance ER
d the depth, d.
e The surveyors last task is to find the area of the opening of the pit. For this calculation she simply
measures the sides of the pit opening. She finds that:
EB = CF = 71 m and BF = EC = 45 m.
Find the area, to the nearest square metre.
Note that in a parallelogram the diagonals bisect each other.
ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGItaL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc9458: Warm up with a quick quiz on
trigonometry. (page 301)
8a
pythaogoras theorem
DIGItaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc9459: Investigate the effect on the hypotenuse of a
rightangled triangle as each perpendicular side length varies.
(page 303)
8B
pythagorean triads
DIGItaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc9460: Investigate Pythagorean triads. (page 306)
8C
DIGItaL DOC
WorkSHEET 8.1 doc9461: Use Pythagoras theorem in three
dimensions and trigonometric ratios to calculate unknown lengths.
(page 310)
tUtOrIaL
We5 eles1283: Watch a tutorial on how to apply Pythagoras
theorem to solve a reallife problem. (page 307)
INteraCtIVItY
Threedimensional Pythagoras theorem int0189: Use the
interactivity to identify rightangled triangles in three dimensions in
order to calculate side lengths. (page 307)
8D
trigonometric ratios
DIGItaL DOCS
SkillSHEET 8.1 doc9462: Practise identifying sides of a rightangled
triangle with respect to the given angle. (page 314)
SkillSHEET 8.2 doc9463: Practise finding trigonometric values and
angles. (page 314)
8e
tUtOrIaLS
We11 eles1284: Watch a tutorial on how to use the sine rule to
calculate an unknown length in a nonrightangled triangle.
(page 317)
8F
tUtOrIaL
We 15 eles1286: Watch a tutorial on when the ambiguous case
of the sine rule is applied. (page 322)
eLeSSON
Ambiguous case of the sine rule eles0051: Discover how one fixed
angle and two defined side lengths can give two different triangles
an acute angle and an obtuse angle. (page 322)
8G
DIGItaL DOC
WorkSHEET 8.2 doc9464: Calculate the unknown sides and angles in
rightangled and nonrightangled triangles. (page 328)
tUtOrIaL
We 17 eles1287: Watch a tutorial on how to use the cosine rule
to calculate an unknown side length of a nonrightangled triangle.
(page 325)
8I
area of triangles
DIGItaL DOC
Investigation doc9465: Investigate the general rule for area.
(page 335)
tUtOrIaL
We22 eles1288: Watch a worked example on how to use sine to
calculate the area of a nonrightangled triangle. (page 332)
Chapter review
DIGItaL DOCS
Investigation doc9466: Investigate the area of a planes wings.
(page 342)
Test Yourself doc9467: Take the endofchapter test to test your
progress. (page 342)
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
343
Answers CHAPTER 8
trIGONOMetrY
exercise 8a
pythagoras theorem
b 12.0
c 2.5
e 1.7
f 3.6
1 a 13.0
d 21.0
2 5831 m
3 3162 mm
4 a 15.0
d 24.0
5 a 13
d 5m
6 a 20.3
c 3.4 mm
7 a
b
e
b
e
(x + 8) m
17.3
7.6
24.17 mm
15.23 m
c
f
c
f
12.0
10.6
8.77
246.98 cm
b 12.7
d 5.8
x
16 m
b
c
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
pythagorean triads
a Yes
b No
c Yes
d No
e Yes
f Yes
g No
h No
i Yes
j Yes
k Yes
l No
a 9, 12, 15
b 7, 24, 25
c 1.5, 2.0, 2.5
d 3, 4, 5
e 11, 60, 61
f 10, 24, 26
g 9, 40, 41
h 0.7, 2.4, 2.5
a 15
c 50
e 1.0
f 25
i 61
j 26
k 20
Yes, opposite the 34cm side
No
a 21
b 25 cm
c 50
d 6.0
e 1.2
f 24 km
2.5 km
480 cm
E
B
exercise 8C
threedimensional
pythagoras theorem
1 346 cm
2 128 cm
3 a i 2225 cm or 47.2 cm
ii 16625 cm or 128 .9 cm
b i 500 mm
ii
c i 44.72 m
ii
4 a i 25 m
ii
b i 1.00 km
ii
5 3.3 m
6
7 a = 3.9, b = 4.7, c = 5.6
8 AB = 4.95 m, DH = 14.16 m
9 58 m
10 a 6.8 m
b
11 a i 510 mm
ii
b i 707 mm
ii
12 415 cm
exercise 8D
1 a 8.2 km
c 1.9 m
e 19.2 cm
344
47 m
91 m
a 5.0
b 2m
c 9.3
a 24.3 cm
b 74.2 m
c 4.6 cm
a 53
b 45
c 53
d 53
a 53
b 42
c 76
37, 53
E
B
D
E
= 30, x = 8 m, y = 6.5 m
59
56
a 1.23 m
b 11.8
44
exercise 8e
9 C
exercise 8B
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
(x + 8)2 = x2 + 162
12 m, 16 m, 20 m
8 D
1
2
3
4
5
6
1 a 13.2 cm
b
d 27.6 cm
e
2 1.6 km
3 a 11.6 m
c 30.6 cm
4 26.1 km
5 a 52
b
d 27
e
6 46, 106, 30.7
7 a 145 cm
8 A
9 B
10 C
11 B
12 D
13 A
14 34.6 mm
15 4.9 cm
16 a 14.8 m
17 2.8 m
18 a 129.1
exercise 8F
b 28.6 mm
d 30.2 cm
24
48
cm
b 34 cm
trigonometric ratios
b 147.1 mm
d 1509.4 mm
f 44.6 mm
4772.67 mm
106
82
72.5
37.2
329.2
5.7 m
Special triangles
1 a 60, 60
b 100 2 cm or 141.4 cm
c 15.2 cm
2 a 10 2 mm or 14.1 mm
b 111.7 cm
c 10.2 m, 45
3 a 45
b 12.7
c 60
d 0.22
4 6 cm
5 12 m
6 C
i 40 2 cm or 56.6 cm
ii 20 2 cm or 28.3 cm
iii 20 cm
b 45
45
exercise 8I
b 10.8 m
b 68 km
1 a 52.1 or 127.9
b 65.2 or 114.8
c 21.3 or 158.7
d 44.6 or 135.4
2 a 141
b 105
c 127
d 130
3 D
4 y = 30.3 and x = 149.7
W
5 a
8 cm
5 cm
15
V
b 9.5 or 140.5
c 3.2 cm or 12.3 cm
exercise 8G
exercise 8h
7 a
5 cm
3.0 m
522 mm
716 mm
c 33
f 46
rule
1300 mm
45.83 m
38 m
332 m
B
c 28.8 mm
e 155.85 km
f
2 13.8 km
3 10.5 cm
4 a 39
b
c 46
d
5 44, 29
6 47, 28
7 43, 80, 57
8 a 5.0 km
b
c 7.1 m
d
e 34.0
f
9 12.03 cm, 116.2 , 35.8
10 B
11 C
12 D
13 A
14 E
15 D
16 a 51.3
b
90
area of triangles
b 42.0 cm2
d 6.0 m2
b 5.9 m2
d 36.9 m2
b 5.3 km2
d 7.8 cm2
b 4031.6 cm2
d 2165 m2
b 28.6 cm2
d 94.0 m2
f 15 600 cm2
1 a 15.8 mm2
c 16.8 mm2
2 a 12.3 cm2
c 3464.1 m2
3 a 22.2 m2
c 173.2 mm2
4 a 10.0 m2
c 11.5 km2
5 a 20.0 km2
c 10.0 m2
e 2.4 units2
6 43.3 cm2
7 72 m2
8 a i 12.5 mm2
ii 50 mm2
9 26.8 km2
10 A
11 C
12 B
13 a 24.5 km2
b 7.22 mm2
Chapter reVIeW
MULtIpLe ChOICe
1 C
6 E
11 B
2 A
7 E
12 E
3 B
8 E
13 C
4 D
9 A
5 A
10 B
ShOrt aNSWer
1 0.7 m
2 190 2 mm
3 Yes, because 11, 60, 61 is a Pythagorean
4 192 cm
5 a 1888 mm
6
Angle
30
sin
1
= 0.5
2
b 2937 mm
45
60
3
1
= 0.7071
= 0.8660
2
2
cos
3
1
= 0.7071
= 0.8660
2
2
1
= 0.5
2
tan
1
= 0.5774
3
3 = 1.732
7
8
9
10
11
12
a 129 mm
a 32, 78
39 mm
a 38, 51, 91
a 71 km
a 17 cm
b 10 800 cm3
13 877 cm2
14 1162 mm2
b 55 mm
b 42.6 m, 23.1 m
b C
b 85
eXteNDeD reSpONSe
1 a
i
ii
iii
b i
ii
iii
c i
ii
28.3 cm
25.0 cm2
5 cm
25 + 25 + 80 + 40 2 + 40 2 243 cm2
Yes: 210 cm2 or a reduction of 33 cm2
200 cm2
Two differently shaped triangles
106.26
iii 36 cm2
i 1.12 m
ii 42
iii 48
b i Obtuse isosceles triangle
ii 97
iii 0.827 m
c 2.1 m
d i 0.56 m2
ii 0.39 m2
iii 0.70 m2
e 283 cm
3 a BC = 72 m
b EF = 95 m
c ER = 111 m
d d = 84 m
e 3042 m2
2 a
Chapter 8 Trigonometry
345
Chapter 9
Applications of geometry
and trigonometry
DiGital DoC
doc9468
10 Quick Questions
Chapter ContentS
9a
9B
9C
9D
9e
9F
9G
Angles
Angles of elevation and depression
Bearings
Navigation and specification of locations
Triangulation cosine and sine rules
Triangulation similarity
Contour maps
introduction
In the previous two chapters, the skills and techniques used in basic geometry and trigonometry
were presented. In this chapter we shall examine some of the more complex applications of
geometry and trigonometry in the real world, in particular, the application of geometry and
trigonometry in navigation (for example, orienteering, sailing and so on) and surveying (location,
area, contour maps and so on).
9a
angles
Angles are measured in degrees (). In navigation, accuracy can be critical, so fractions of a degree are
also used. For example, a cruise ship travelling 1000 kilometres on a course that is out by half a degree
would miss its destination by almost 9 kilometres.
1
The common unit for a fraction of a degree is the minute (), where 1 minute or 1 = 60
of a degree and
3524 is read as 35 degrees 24 minutes.
60 minutes = 1 degree
30 minutes = 12 or 0.5 degree
15 minutes = 14 or 0.25 degree
1
6 minutes = 10
or 0.1 degree
3524' or 35.4
Converting angles
Converting angles from decimal form to degreeminutesecond (DMS) form and vice versa can be
done using inbuilt functions in calculators or manual techniques. Note that calculators give angles
in degrees, minutes and seconds. For this course, however, we shall use only degrees and minutes to
measure angles.
347
WorkeD exaMple 1
Write
56 and 0.75
56.75 = 56 + 45
= 5645
WorkeD exaMple 2
Write
125 and 36
36 = 60
36
= 0.6
Write
separately.
46
+ 65
111
86 = 60 + 26
= 1 + 26
111 + 1 + 26 = 11226
b 4020 = 39 + 60 + 20
= 3980
348
37
+ 49
86
39
16
23
80
55
25
30
a = 90 30 = 60
Two or more angles are supplementary if they add up to 180. An angle of 180 is also called a
straight angle.
20
170
45
For alternate angles to exist we need a minimum of one pair of parallel lines and one transverse line.
Alternate angles are equal.
b
b
a
a
a=b
a=b
Other types of angles to be considered are corresponding angles, cointerior angles, triangles in a
semicircle and vertically opposite angles.
c
a
d
b
Corresponding angles are equal:
a=b
c=d
A triangle in a
semicircle
always gives a
rightangled
triangle.
Vertically opposite
angles are equal:
a=b
c=d
349
WorkeD exaMple 4
Find the value of the pronumeral, f, the angle a beach umbrella makes with
the ground.
think
1
Write/DraW
47
Level ground
f
47
180 = 47 + f
f = 180 47
= 133
WorkeD exaMple 5
North
57
think
1
Write/DraW
57
exercise 9a
DiGital DoC
doc9469
SkillSHEET 9.1
Dealing with
angles in either
degrees or
degrees and
minutes
tUtorial
eles1289
Worked example 5
A = 57
180 = 57 + C
C = 180 57
= 123
angles
2 We2 Convert the following angles to their decimal form (to 2 decimal places).
a 4015
c 826
e 24730
b 12220
d 1649
f 7650
3 Use your calculator to find the values of the following trigonometric ratios to 3 decimal places.
a sin (4015)
b cos (12220)
c tan (826)
d cos (1649)
e sin (14730)
f tan (2728)
350
b 12220, 7935
d 24730, 14032
f 21233, 633
5 We4,5
a
a
32
15820'
North
North
b
4021'
f
b
3219'
4930'
37
6
a
1730'
1051'
4319'
2129'
North
58
5023'
2240'
10
East
4025
49.417
4935
50
90
b The value of angle B is:
a 4025
B 4935
C 49.538
D 50
e 13935
a
B
C
D
e
6212'
4025'
351
9B
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:
Topic:
Concept:
One method for locating an object in the real world is by its position
above or below a horizontal plane or reference line.
The angle of elevation is the angle above the horizon or horizontal
line.
Looking up at the top of the flagpole from position O, the angle of
elevation, AOB, is the angle between the horizontal line OB and the
line of sight OA.
Line of sight
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Angle of
elevation
O
Horizontal line
B
B
Angle of depression
Line of sight
Angle of depression
Angle of elevation
WorkeD exaMple 6
Find the angle of elevation (in degrees and minutes) of the tower measured
from the road as given in the diagram.
20 m
150 m
think
1
Write/DraW
A
20 m
(Opposite)
O
352
x
150 m
(Adjacent)
tan () =
WorkeD exaMple 7
Find the altitude of a plane (to the nearest metre) if the plane is
sighted 4.5 km directly away from an observer who measures its
angle of elevation as 26.38.
4.5 km
h
26.38
Observer
think
1
Write/DraW
)A
use
en
pot
Hy
m(
0
450 26.38
sin () =
=
sin (26.38) =
h (Opposite)
B
Evaluate.
= 1999.45
The plane is flying at an altitude of 2000 m, correct to
the nearest metre.
WorkeD exaMple 8
The angle of depression from the top of a 35metre cliff to a house at the
bottom is 23. How far from the base of the cliff is the house (to the nearest
metre)?
think
1
Write/DraW
tUtorial
eles1290
Worked example 8
23
35 m
23
35 m
(Opposite)
C
23
xm
(Adjacent)
353
= 82.4548 . . .
4
exercise 9B
1 We6 Find the angle of elevation (in degrees and minutes) in the following situations.
a
DiGital DoC
doc9470
SkillSHEET 9.2
Using trigonometric
ratios
121 m
5m
3m
3500 m
c
d
12 000 m
26.5 m
30 km
20.2 m
e
f
32 m
64 m
2m
2m
2 A kite is flying 17 metres above the ground on a taut line that is 38 metres
long. Find the angle of elevation of the kite from the ground.
38 m
3 We7 Find the values of the pronumerals (to the nearest metre).
b
a
hm
am
59.03
6m
40.28
100 m
354
17 m
am
Building height
= 20.7 metres
21 m
3123'
792'
d metres
4 A taut rope is used to tether a hotair balloon. If the angle of