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CALIFORNIAENERGYCOMMISSION

AGUIDETOPHOTOVOLTAIC(PV)SYSTEMDESIGNANDINSTALLATION
JUNE200150001020

CONSULTANTREPORTGrayDavis,Governor

AGUIDETOPHOTOVOLTAIC(PV)
SYSTEMDESIGNANDINSTALLATION
Preparedfor:
CaliforniaEnergyCommissionEnergyTechnologyDevelopmentDivision1516NinthStreetSacramento,California95814
Preparedby:
EndeconEngineering347NorrisCourtSanRamon,California94583
with
RegionalEconomicResearch,Inc.1104MainStreet,Suite630Vancouver,Washington98660

PREFACE
TheCaliforniaEnergyCommissionisprovidingthisguideasaninformationresourcetothoseinstallingphotovoltaic(PV)systems
undertheEmergingRenewablesBuydownProgram.Thisisthefirstpublisheddraftofthisguideandrepresentsthecurrentstateofthe
artinPVsysteminstallation.Revisionswillbemadetothedocumentasnecessarytoaddresssuggestionsmadebyusersoftheguide.If
anyonehassuggestionsonhowtomakethisguidemoreuseful,pleasedonothesitatetosendthosesuggestionstotheCaliforniaEnergy
Commission.Wehopethatthisguideisaworthwhileadditiontotheresourcesavailableforinstallersandlookforwardtoyour
constructivecommentsforcontinuedimprovements.
TABLEOFCONTENTS
SECTION1:INTRODUCTION............................................................................................4
1.1.BasicPrinciplestoFollowWhenDesigningaQualityPVSystem.........................................4
1.2. Basic Steps to Follow When Installing a PV System...............................................................4SECTION 2: SYSTEM DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS........................................................5
2.1TypicalSystemDesignsandOptions.........................................................................................5
2.1.1.GridInteractiveOnly(NoBatteryBackup)..........................................................................5
2.1.2.GridInteractiveWithBatteryBackup..................................................................................5
2.2.MountingOptions........................................................................................................................6
2.2.1.Roofmount..........................................................................................................................6
2.2.2.ShadeStructure..................................................................................................................7
2.2.3.BuildingIntegratedPVArray(BIPV)...................................................................................7
2.3EstimatingSystemOutput...........................................................................................................8
2.3.1.FactorsAffectingOutput.....................................................................................................8
2.3.2.EstimatingSystemEnergyOutput......................................................................................9
2.4.InstallationLaborEffort............................................................................................................10
2.5.IncentivestoReduceCosts......................................................................................................10
2.6.EstimatingElectricalEnergySavings.....................................................................................10
2.7.SupplierandSystemQualifications........................................................................................10

2.7.1.PreEngineeredSystems..................................................................................................10
2.7.2.Warranties.........................................................................................................................11
2.7.3.CompanyReputation(yearsinbusiness,previousprojects)............................................11
2.8.OverallProjectCoordination....................................................................................................12
2.8.1.UtilityConsiderations........................................................................................................12
2.8.2.AcceptanceofSystems(performanceevaluation)...........................................................12
2.8.3.SystemDocumentation.....................................................................................................12
2.8.4.SystemMonitoring............................................................................................................12
2.9.
References..................................................................................................................................13SECTION
INSTALLATION...........................................................................14

3:

SYSTEM

3.1.GeneralRecommendations......................................................................................................14
3.1.1.Materialsrecommendations..............................................................................................14
3.1.2.Equipmentrecommendationsandinstallationmethods...................................................14
3.2.PVSystemDesignAndInstallation.........................................................................................14
3.2.1.PreparationPhase............................................................................................................14
3.2.2.DesignPhase....................................................................................................................15
3.2.3.InstallationPhase..............................................................................................................16
3.2.4.MaintenanceandOperationPhase..................................................................................19
SECTION
4:
SOLAR
ELECTRIC
(PV)
SYSTEM
INSTALLATION
20APPENDIX........................................................................................................................25

CHECKLIST

.............

SECTION1:INTRODUCTION
Photovoltaic(PV)powersystemsconvertsunlightdirectlyintoelectricity.AresidentialPVpowersystemenablesahomeownerto
generatesomeoralloftheirdailyelectricalenergydemandontheirownroof,exchangingdaytimeexcesspowerforfutureenergyneeds
(i.e.nighttimeusage).Thehouseremainsconnectedtotheelectricutilityatalltimes,soanypowerneededabovewhatthesolarsystem
canproduceissimplydrawnfromtheutility.PVsystemscanalsoincludebatterybackuporuninterruptiblepowersupply(UPS)
capabilitytooperateselectedcircuitsintheresidenceforhoursordaysduringautilityoutage.
Thepurposeofthisdocumentistoprovidetoolsandguidelinesfortheinstallertohelpensurethatresidentialphotovoltaicpower
systemsareproperlyspecifiedandinstalled,resultinginasystemthatoperatestoitsdesignpotential.Thisdocumentsetsoutkey
criteriathatdescribeaqualitysystem,andkeydesignandinstallationconsiderationsthatshouldbemettoachievethisgoal.This
documentdealswithsystemslocatedonresidencesthatareconnectedtoutilitypower,anddoesnotaddressthespecialissuesofhomes
thatareremotefromutilitypower.
Inthisearlystageofmarketingsolarelectricpowersystemstotheresidentialmarket,itisadvisableforaninstallertoworkwithwell
establishedfirmsthathavecomplete,preengineeredpackagedsolutionsthataccommodatevariationsinmodels,ratherthancustom
designingcustomsystems.Onceasystemdesignhasbeenchosen,attentiontoinstallationdetailiscriticallyimportant.Recentstudies
havefoundthat1020%ofnewPVinstallationshaveseriousinstallationproblemsthatwillresultinsignificantlydecreased
performance.Inmanyofthesecases,theperformanceshortfallscouldhavebeeneliminatedwithproperattentiontothedetailsofthe
installation.
1.1.BasicPrinciplestoFollowWhenDesigningaQualityPVSystem
1. Selectapackagedsystemthatmeetstheowner'sneeds.Customercriteriaforasystemmayincludereductioninmonthlyelectricity

bill,environmentalbenefits,desireforbackuppower,initialbudgetconstraints,etc.SizeandorientthePVarraytoprovidethe
expectedelectricalpowerandenergy.
2. Ensuretheroofareaorotherinstallationsiteiscapableofhandlingthedesiredsystemsize.
3. Specifysunlightandweatherresistantmaterialsforalloutdoorequipment.
4. Locatethearraytominimizeshadingfromfoliage,ventpipes,andadjacentstructures.
5. Designthesystemincompliancewithallapplicablebuildingandelectricalcodes.
6. Designthesystemwithaminimumofelectricallossesduetowiring,fuses,switches,andinverters.

7. Properlyhouseandmanagethebatterysystem,shouldbatteriesberequired.
8. Ensurethedesignmeetslocalutilityinterconnectionrequirements.

1.2.BasicStepstoFollowWhenInstallingaPVSystem
1. Ensuretheroofareaorotherinstallationsiteiscapableofhandlingthedesiredsystemsize.
2. Ifroofmounted,verifythattheroofiscapableofhandlingadditionalweightofPVsystem.Augmentroofstructureasnecessary.
3. Properlysealanyroofpenetrationswithroofingindustryapprovedsealingmethods.
4. Installequipmentaccordingtomanufacturersspecifications,usinginstallationrequirementsandproceduresfromthe

manufacturers'specifications.
5. Properlygroundthesystempartstoreducethethreatofshockhazardsandinducedsurges.
6. CheckforproperPVsystemoperationbyfollowingthecheckoutproceduresonthePVSystemInstallationChecklist.
7. Ensurethedesignmeetslocalutilityinterconnectionrequirements
8. HavefinalinspectionscompletedbytheAuthorityHavingJurisdiction(AHJ)andtheutility(ifrequired).

SECTION2:SYSTEMDESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
2.1TypicalSystemDesignsandOptions
PVElectricalSystemTypes
TherearetwogeneraltypesofelectricaldesignsforPVpowersystemsforhomessystemsthatinteractwiththeutilitypowergridand
havenobatterybackupcapabilityandsystemsthatinteractandincludebatterybackupaswell.
2.1.1.GridInteractiveOnly(NoBatteryBackup)
Thistypeofsystemonlyoperateswhentheutilityisavailable.Sinceutilityoutagesarerare,thissystemwillnormallyprovidethe
greatestamountofbillsavingstothecustomerperdollarofinvestment.However,intheeventofanoutage,thesystemisdesignedto
shutdownuntilutilitypowerisrestored.
TypicalSystemComponents:
PVArray:APVArrayismadeupofPVmodules,whichareenvironmentallysealedcollectionsofPVCellsthedevicesthatconvert
sunlighttoelectricity.ThemostcommonPVmodulethatis5to25squarefeetinsizeandweighsabout34lbs./ft2.Oftensetsoffour
ormoresmallermodulesareframedorattachedtogetherbystrutsinwhatiscalledapanel.Thispanelistypicallyaround2035square
feetinareaforeaseofhandlingonaroof.Thisallowssomeassemblyandwiringfunctionstobedoneonthegroundifcalledforbythe
installationinstructions.
balanceofsystemequipment(BOS):BOSincludesmountingsystemsandwiringsystemsusedtointegratethesolarmodulesintothe
structuralandelectricalsystemsofthehome.Thewiringsystemsincludedisconnectsforthedcandacsidesoftheinverter,ground
faultprotection,andovercurrentprotectionforthesolarmodules.Mostsystemsincludeacombinerboardofsomekindsincemost
modulesrequirefusingforeachmodulesourcecircuit.Someinvertersincludethisfusingandcombiningfunctionwithintheinverter
enclosure.
dcacinverter:ThisisthedevicethattakesthedcpowerfromthePVarrayandconvertsitintostandardacpowerusedbythehouse
appliances.
metering:Thisincludesmeterstoprovideindicationofsystemperformance.Somemeterscanindicatehomeenergyusage.
othercomponents:utilityswitch(dependingonlocalutility)

2.1.2.GridInteractiveWithBatteryBackup
Thistypeofsystemincorporatesenergystorageintheformofabatterytokeepcriticalloadcircuitsinthehouseoperatingduringa
utilityoutage.Whenanoutageoccurstheunitdisconnectsfromtheutilityandpowersspecificcircuitsinthehome.Thesecriticalload
circuitsarewiredfromasubpanelthatisseparatefromtherestoftheelectricalcircuits.Iftheoutageoccursduringdaylighthours,the
PVarrayisabletoassistthebatteryinsupplyingthehouseloads.Iftheoutageoccursatnight,thebatterysuppliestheload.Theamount
oftimecriticalloadscanoperatedependsontheamountofpowertheyconsumeandtheenergystoredinthebatterysystem.Atypical
backupbatterysystemmayprovideabout8kWhofenergystorageatan8hourdischargerate,whichmeansthatthebatterywilloperate
a1kWloadfor8hours.A1kWloadistheaverageusageforahomewhennotrunninganairconditioner.
TypicalSystemComponents:
Inadditiontocomponentslistedin2.1.1.,abatterybackupsystemmayincludesomeorallofthefollowing:
1. batteriesandbatteryenclosures
2. Batterychargecontroller
3. separatesubpanel(s)forcriticalloadcircuits

BatterySystem
2.2.MountingOptions
ThereareseveralwaystoinstallaPVarrayataresidence.MostPVsystemsproduce5to10Wattspersquarefootofarrayarea.Thisis
basedonavarietyofdifferenttechnologiesandthevaryingefficiencyofdifferentPVproducts.Atypical2kWPVsystemwillneed
200400squarefeetofunobstructedareatositethesystem.Considerationshouldalsobegivenforaccesstothesystem.Thisaccess
spacecanaddupto20%ofneededareatothemountingarearequired.
2.2.1.RoofmountOftenthemostconvenientandappropriateplacetoputthePVarrayisontheroofofthebuilding.ThePVarraymay
bemountedaboveandparalleltotheroofsurfacewithastandoffofseveralinchesforcoolingpurposes.Sometimes,suchaswithflat
roofs,aseparatestructurewithamoreoptimaltiltangleismountedontheroof.
Properroofmountingcanbelaborintensive.Particularattentionmustbepaidtotheroofstructureandthe
weathersealingofroofpenetrations.Itistypicaltohaveonesupportbracketforevery100WattsofPV
modules.Fornewconstruction,supportbracketsareusuallymountedaftertheroofdeckingisappliedand
beforetheroofingmaterialsisinstalled.Thecrewinchargeoflayingoutthearraymountingsystem
normallyinstallsthebrackets.Theroofingcontractorcanthenflasharoundthebracketsastheyinstallthe
roof.Asimpleinstallationdetailandasampleofthesupportbracketisoftenallthatisneededforaroofing
contractortoestimatetheflashingcost.
Masonryroofsareoftenstructurallydesignednearthelimitoftheirweightbearingcapacity.Inthiscase,
theroofstructuremusteitherbeenhancedtohandletheadditionalweightofthePVsystemorthemasonry
rooftransitionedtocompositionshinglesintheareawherethePVarrayistobemounted.Bytransitioning
toalighterroofingproduct,thereisnoneedtoreinforcetheroofstructuresincethecombinedweightof
compositeshinglesandPVarrayisusuallylessthanthedisplacedmasonryproduct.
2.2.2.ShadeStructureAnalternativetoroofmountingistomountthesystemasashadestructure.Ashadestructuremaybeapatio
coverordeckshadetrelliswherethePVarraybecomestheshade.TheseshadesystemscansupportsmalltolargePVsystems.
TheconstructioncostwithaPVsystemisalittledifferentthanforastandardpatiocover,especiallyifthePVarrayisactsaspartorthe
entireshaderoof.IfthePVarrayismountedatasteeperanglethanatypicalshadestructure,additionalstructuralenhancementsmaybe
necessarytohandletheadditionalwindloads.TheweightofthePVarrayis3to5lbs./ft2,whichiswellwithinstructurallimitsof
mostshadesupportstructures.Theavoidedcostofinstallingroofbracketsandtheassociatedlaborcouldbecountedtowardthecostofa
fullyconstructedpatiocover.Theoverallcostofthisoptionwilllikelybehigherthanroofmounting,butthevalueoftheshadeoften
offsetstheadditionalcosts.Otherissuestoconsiderinclude
Simplifiedarrayaccessformaintenance
Modulewiring,ifvisiblefromunderneath,mustbecarefullyconcealedtokeeptheinstallationaestheticallypleasing
Cannotgrowvines,ormustbediligentaboutkeepingittrimmedbackfrommodulesandwiring
2.2.3.BuildingIntegratedPVArray(BIPV)
AnothertypeofsystemdisplacessomeoftheconventionalroofingproductwithbuildingintegratedPVmodules.Commercially
availableproductscurrentlyincluderoofslates(similartomasonryroofing)andstandingseammetalroofingproducts.Specialattention
mustbepaidtoensurethattheseproductsareinstalledproperlyandcarrythenecessaryfireratings.
Dimensionaltolerancesarecriticalandinstallationrequirementsmustfollowedpreciselytoavoidroofleaks.
2.3EstimatingSystemOutput
PVsystemsproducepowerinproportiontotheintensityofsunlightstrikingthesolararraysurface.Theintensityoflightonasurface
variesthroughoutaday,aswellasdaytoday,sotheactualoutputofasolarpowersystemcanvarysubstantial.Thereareotherfactors
thataffecttheoutputofasolarpowersystem.Thesefactorsneedtobeunderstoodsothatthecustomerhasrealisticexpectationsof
overallsystemoutputandeconomicbenefitsundervariableweatherconditionsovertime.
2.3.1.FactorsAffectingOutput
StandardTestConditionsSolarmodulesproducedcelectricity.ThedcoutputofsolarmodulesisratedbymanufacturersunderStandard
TestConditions(STC).Theseconditionsareeasilyrecreatedinafactory,andallowforconsistentcomparisonsofproducts,butneedto
bemodifiedtoestimateoutputundercommonoutdooroperatingconditions.STCconditionsare:solarcelltemperature=25oCsolar
irradiance(intensity)=1000W/m2(oftenreferredtoaspeaksunlightintensity,comparabletoclearsummernoontimeintensity)and
solarspectrumasfilteredbypassingthrough1.5thicknessofatmosphere(ASTMStandardSpectrum).Amanufacturermayratea
particularsolarmoduleoutputat100WattsofpowerunderSTC,andcalltheproducta100wattsolarmodule.Thismodulewilloften
haveaproductiontoleranceof+/5%oftherating,whichmeansthatthemodulecanproduce95Wattsandstillbecalleda100watt
module.Tobeconservative,itisbesttousethelowendofthepoweroutputspectrumasastartingpoint(95Wattsfora100watt

module).
TemperatureModuleoutputpowerreducesasmoduletemperatureincreases.Whenoperatingonaroof,asolarmodulewillheatup
substantially,reachinginnertemperaturesof5075oC.Forcrystallinemodules,atypicaltemperaturereductionfactorrecommendedby
theCECis89%or0.89.Sothe100wattmodulewilltypicallyoperateatabout85Watts(95Wattsx0.89=85Watts)inthemiddle
ofaspringorfallday,underfullsunlightconditions.
DirtanddustDirtanddustcanaccumulateonthesolarmodulesurface,blockingsomeofthesunlightandreducingoutput.Muchof
Californiahasarainyseasonandadryseason.Althoughtypicaldirtanddustiscleanedoffduringeveryrainyseason,itismore
realistictoestimatesystemoutputtakingintoaccountthereductionduetodustbuildupinthedryseason.Atypicalannualdust
reductionfactortouseis93%or0.93.Sothe100wattmodule,operatingwithsomeaccumulateddustmayoperateonaverageat
about79Watts(85Wattsx
0.93=79Watts).
MismatchandwiringlossesThemaximumpoweroutputofthetotalPVarrayisalwayslessthanthesumofthemaximumoutputofthe
individualmodules.Thisdifferenceisaresultofslightinconsistenciesinperformancefromonemoduletothenextandiscalledmodule
mismatchandamountstoatleasta2%lossinsystempower.Powerisalsolosttoresistanceinthesystemwiring.Theselossesshould
bekepttoaminimumbutitisdifficulttokeeptheselossesbelow3%forthesystem.Areasonablereductionfactorfortheselossesis
95%or0.95.
DctoacconversionlossesThedcpowergeneratedbythesolarmodulemustbeconvertedintocommonhouseholdacpowerusingan
inverter.Somepowerislostintheconversionprocess,andthereareadditionallossesinthewiresfromtherooftoparraydowntothe
inverterandouttothehousepanel.ModerninverterscommonlyusedinresidentialPVpowersystemshavepeakefficienciesof9294%
indicatedbytheirmanufacturers,buttheseagainaremeasuredunderwellcontrolledfactoryconditions.Actualfieldconditionsusually
resultinoveralldctoacconversionefficienciesofabout8892%,with90%or0.90areasonablecompromise.
Sothe100wattmoduleoutput,reducedbyproductiontolerance,heat,dust,wiring,acconversion,andotherlosseswilltranslateinto
about68WattsofACpowerdeliveredtothehousepanelduringthemiddleof
aclearday(100Wattsx0.95x0.89x0.93x0.95x0.90=67Watts).
2.3.2.EstimatingSystemEnergyOutput
SouthSunangleandhouseorientationSSE,SSWDuringthecourseofaday,theangleofsunlightSE,SWstrikingthesolarmodulewill
change,whichwillaffectESE,WSWthepoweroutput.Theoutputfromthe100wattE,Wmodulewillrisefromzerograduallyduring
dawn
Flat4:127:1212:1221:12Vertical
0.890.971.000.970.890.58
0.890.970.990.960.880.59
0.890.950.960.930.850.60
0.890.920.910.870.790.57
0.890.880.840.780.700.52
hours,andincreasewiththesunangletoitspeakTable1:OrientationFactorsforVariousoutputatmidday,andthengraduallydecrease
intoRoofPitchesandDirectionstheafternoonandbackdowntozeroatnight.Whilethisvariationisdueinparttothechanging
intensityofthesun,thechangingsunangle(relativetothemodules)alsohasaneffect
Thepitchoftheroofwillaffectthesunangleonthemodulesurface,aswilltheEastWestorientationoftheroof.Theseeffectsare
summarizedinTable1,whichshowsthatanarrayona7:12pitchrooffacingdueSouthinSouthernCaliforniagives,forexample,the
greatestoutput(correctionfactorof1.00),whileanEastfacingroofatthatsamepitchwouldyieldabout84%oftheannualenergyof
theSouthfacingroof(acorrectionfactorof0.84fromTable1).
Table2isintendedtogiveaconservativeestimateoftheannualenergyexpectedfromatypicalPVsystem,takingintoaccountthe
variousfactorsdiscussedabove.
ThesevaluesareforannualkWhproducedfroma1kilowatt(1kW)STCDCarray,asasimpleandeasyguide.Ifthesystemincludes
batterybackuptheoutputmaybereducedfurtherby610%duetobatteryeffects.
Example:A4kWSTCsolararray(asspecifiedunderSTCconditions)locatedintheLosAngelesareaata4:12pitchandfacing
southeastshouldproduceatleast5343kWhofelectricenergyannually(1406kWh/kWx0.95x4kW=Table2:AnnualEnergy
1
by
Production5343kWh).Thetypicalresidentialcustomerinthatareausesabout7300kWhannually ,meaningsuchaPVsystem

CityperkWSTCarrayratingcouldproduceatleast75%ofthetotalenergyneededbysuchatypicalhome.Andifenergyefficiency
measuresweretakenbytheownertoreducetheoverallelectricalconsumptionofthehome,thepercentagecouldapproach100%.Note
thatthelowendoftherangewasusedtocalculatetheactualsavings.Itiswisetobeconservativewhenmakingperformanceclaims.
Netmeteringhasrecentlybeenextendedtotimeofusecustomersyieldingapotentialadditional
valueof2030%forthePVelectricitygeneratedbythesystem.Withthisnettimeofusemetering,
thehomeownerwouldcoveralmosttheirentireelectricbillandonlyhavetopaythemonthly
meteringcharge.

CITY
Arcata
Shasta
SanFrancisco
Sacramento
1Actualresidentialelectricalenergyusagevariesdramaticallyfromonehometothenext.Itisbest Fresno
tousetheprevioustwoyearsofenergybillstodetermineactualenergyconsumptionforaparticular SantaMaria
home.EnergyconsumptioninCaliforniacanvaryfrom3,000kWh/yearforaveryminimaluserto Barstow
25,000kWh/yearforalargehomewithheavyelectricalusage.
LosAngeles
SanDiego

2.4.InstallationLaborEffort

kWh/kWstc(range)
10921365
13451681
13791724
14551819
15051881
14221778
16462058
14061758
14061758

Installationeffortisverysensitivetospecifichouselayoutsandroofingtype.Anexperiencedcrewcaninstalla2kWnonbatteryPV
systemintwotofourpersondays.SystemswithlargesolararraysarerelativelylesseffortperwattofpowerandkWhofenergythan
smallersystemsbecausetheinstallationoftheinverterandotherhardwarerequiredbyallPVsystemsisspreadovermoresolar
modules.Systemswithbatterybackuparemorelaborintensivethannonbatterysystemsbecauseoftheadditionalwiringrequiredfor
wiringthecriticalloadsubpanel.Abatterysystemcanadd50100%tothetimerequiredfortheinstallation.
2.5.IncentivestoReduceCosts
FinancialincentivesareavailablefromtheEnergyCommission,theCPUC,andseverallocalutilitiesandmunicipalitiesthroughout
Californiatoreducethesesystemcosts.TheCECbuydownsarecalculatedbymultiplying$4.50timestheadjustedpeakdcpowerfrom
thesysteminWatts(uptoamaximumof50%ofthesystemcost).ThisbuydownisavailableforallPacificGas&Electric(PG&E),
SouthernCaliforniaEdison(SCE),andSanDiegoGas&Electric(SDG&E)customers.Somemunicipalutilitiesincitiessuchas
Sacramento,LosAngeles,PaloAlto,andRosevilleprovidethesameorevenhigherincentives.
Thislevelofrebatecanreducethecostofsystemsby30to50percentormoreandresultinmuchmorefavorableeconomicsforthe
owner.Anownercanincorporateabasic1kWsolarpowersystemforaslittleas$3,000$5,000.Ifthesystemisincludedinthe
mortgageofthehome,thissmallincrementinhousepaymentmaybeoffsetbyanequivalentreductioninthemonthlyutilitybill.
2.6.EstimatingElectricalEnergySavings
Oneofthekeybenefitsofresidentialsolarpowersystemsisalowerelectricutilitybillresultingfromtheenergythatthesolarsystem
produces.TheenergysavingstoahomeownercanbeestimatedbysimplymultiplyingtheannualenergyinkWhthataPVsystem
mightproducetimestheutilityelectricenergyrate.Theseratesvarybylocalutility,andarelikelytoincreasefromtheircurrentvalues.
EstimatedenergysavingsfromsmallandlargePVsystemsinSouthernCaliforniaarepresentedbelowtoillustratethekindsofsavings
thatcanbeachieves.

2.7.SupplierandSystemQualifications
WhenchoosingasupplierandspecifyingaPVsystem,thefollowingareaseriesofgeneralguidelinestohelpguidethedecision
makingprocess.
2.7.1.PreEngineeredSystems
WhenaownerconsidersanHVACsystemforahome,theydonotbuyacompressorfromonemanufacturerandacoolingcoilfrom
anothercompany,andafanfromathirdcompanyandthenputthesepiecestogether.Theequipmentmanufacturershaveengineereda
packagedsystemthatisdesignedtoworktogether.Eachmodelofahomemayneedaslightlydifferentunitbasedonthesizeand
layout,butthosevariationshavebeendesignedintotheproduct.Inthesameway,thecomponentsofaPVsystemshouldbeengineered
toworktogetherasaunitaccountingforvariationsinsystemsizefordifferenthomes.
SincethePVindustryisintheearlystagesofdevelopment,thereisawiderangeofcompetencylevelsamongPVsystemintegrators.
Unlesstheinstallerisfamiliarenoughwiththetechnologytorecognizewhetherthesystemintegratoriscompetent,itismuchsaferto
staywithafirmthatprovidespreengineeredsystems.Preengineeringmaynotguaranteeaflawlesssystem,buttheconcernsover
productcompatibilityandspecificationofindividualcomponentshavebeenaddressedinthesystemdesign.

2.7.2.Warranties
Thereareseveraltypesofwarrantiesthatcomewithasystemorcanbepurchasedinadditiontoastandardwarranty.Theseinclude(1)
productwarrantiescoveringdefectsinmanufacture(2)systemwarrantiescoveringproperoperationofequipmentforaspecifictime
period(5or10years)and,(3)annualenergyperformancewarrantiescoveringtheguaranteedoutputofthePVsystem.Theinstaller,to
guaranteepropersysteminstallation,oftencoversthesystemandannualenergyperformancewarranties.
Productwarranties:ItiscommonthesedaystoseewarrantiesonPVmodulesof20ormoreyears.Althoughthisisimpressiveand
indicatesthelevelofconfidencemanufacturersplaceinthelongevityoftheirproducts,therearemanyothercomponentsinthese
systemsthatmaynothavethesamelifeexpectancy.Invertersmayhave10year,fiveyear,orevenoneyearwarranties.Thismustbe
consideredwhenreviewingthecostofinvertersandothersystemcomponents.
Systemwarranties:Itisequallyimportanttolookforentiresystemlevelwarrantiesoffiveyearsormore.Thisindicatesthatthe
manufacturerhastakenmanyotheroperationalissuesintoaccount.Sincethesesystemsgenerateelectricalpower,itishelpfultohave
systemperformanceincludedaspartofthewarranty.Forinstance,atypicalsystemlevelwarrantymightstatethatthesystemis
guaranteedtoproducetwokilowatts(2kW)ofACpoweratPVUSATestConditions(PTC)(PTCis1kW/m2irradiance,1m/swind
speed,20oCambienttemperature)inthefifthyearofoperation.Theequipmenttoperformthistestisexpensive,butthefactthata
companywouldknowenoughtospecifythistypeofwarrantyisanindicationthattheyareconfidentintheirsystemdesign.Currently,
theCaliforniaEnergyCommissionBuydownprogramrequiresinstallingcontractortoprovidethesewarranties.Theintentofthis
requirementistoimprovecustomeracceptanceofPVsystems.
Annualenergyperformancewarranties:Althoughthereareveryfewcompaniessellingsystemswiththistypeofwarranty,anenergy
performancewarrantyguarantiesthatthesystemwillperformconsistentlyoveraperiodoftime.Thisisparticularlyhelpfulinensuring
thatthecustomerreceivesthebillsavingsthattheyexpect.Thistypeofwarrantyismorecommonwithenergyefficiencyretrofit
projectsforcommercialandindustrialclients.Adequatemeteringtoverifythesystempoweroutputandenergygenerationisnecessary
tohelpthesystemownerunderstandwhetherthesystemisoperatingproperly,orhaswarrantyrelatedperformanceissues.Withan
adequatemeter,thecustomercanreadilyidentifywhenthesystemismalfunctioning.
2.7.3.CompanyReputation(yearsinbusiness,previousprojects)
ThereputationofthePVmanufacturerisacriticalpieceofthedecisionmakingprocess.Thesizeofthecompany,numberofyearsin
business,numberofpreviousprojectscompleted,areallimportantissuesthatneedtobereviewedbeforechoosingacompanys
products.Althoughpriceisoftenthestrongestsingleconsiderationinreviewingproposals,theotherlesstangibleconsiderationsoften
adduptoasimilarlevelofimportancewithcost.Fortunately,thereareseveralcompanieswithverystrongfinancialandhistorical
recordsinthisfield.Itisrecommendedthatyouresearchthebackgroundandhistoryoftheprospectivevendorthoroughly.
2.8.OverallProjectCoordination
OncethedecisionismadetoinstallaPVsystem,severalissuesmustthenbeaddressed.
2.8.1.UtilityConsiderations
Theelectricutilitycompanyprovidingservicetotheresidenceplaysaveryimportantroleinthisprocess.InterconnectingaPVsystem
totheutilitygridisnotatrivialundertaking.Fortunately,PVhasawelldevelopedsetofutilityinterconnectionstandardsmakingthe
processfairlystraightforward.However,utilitiesaregenerallycautioussincemosthavelittleexperienceinterconnectingPVsystems.
Thekeypointistoinvolvetheutilityasearlyaspossibleintheinstallation.MostknowledgeableutilitieshaveadoptedIEEE9292000
RecommendedPracticeforUtilityInterfaceofPhotovoltaic(PV)Systems.Iftheutilityisunfamiliarwiththisdocument,makesurethat
theyobtainacopyandthoroughlyreviewit..AninverterlistedtoUL1741(withthewords"UtilityInteractive"printedonthelisting
mark)indicatesthattheunitisfullycompliantwithIEEE9292000.
Theothermajorutilityrelatedconsiderationismeteringrequirements.InCalifornia,asinmanyotherstates,thereislegislation
mandatingutilitycompaniestonetmeteracertainamountofPVsystems.Netmeteringreferstoastandardhouseutilitymeterthat
measurestheflowofelectricityinandoutofthehome2.Californialawallowscustomerstocarryoverexcessenergyfrommonthto
monthwithanannualtrueupandpaymentoftheelectricalbillforanynetconsumptionoverthewholeyear.Thenetmeteringlawdoes
notrequiretheutilitytocompensatethecustomerforexcesselectricityattheendofthat12monthperiod.Formoreinformationabout
thisandotherconsumerrelatedPVissues,downloadthedocument,BuyingaPhotovoltaicSolarElectricSystem:AConsumersGuide,
fromtheCaliforniaEnergyCommissionswebsiteathttp://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/50099008.PDForcall18005557794
(RenewableEnergyCallCenter)toreceiveacopybymail.
2.8.2.AcceptanceofSystems(performanceevaluation)
Typically,theinstallerverifiesthatthesystemhasbeeninstalledaccordingtothemanufacturersprocedures.Acheckoutprocedure
shouldbedeveloped,suchastheoneprovidedinsection4ofthisguide,toensureanefficientandcompleteinstallation.Obtaining
extremelyaccurateperformanceisdifficultandrequiresexpensivetestequipment.Fortunately,itisnotnecessarytodefinethe
performancewithextremeaccuracy.Asystemcanbecheckedwithsomecommontestequipmenttoverifyproperinstallationand
performance.Akeytokeepingthesystemtestingsimpleistodothetestsoncloudlessdays.Cloudscancausefluctuationsthat
confoundevaluationoftheresults.ThePVSystemInstallationChecklistthataccompaniesthisguidehasadetailedSystemAcceptance
Test.

2.8.3.SystemDocumentation
Uptothispoint,selection,installation,andperformanceofPVsystemshavebeendiscussed.Ofsimilarimportanceareoperationand
ongoingmaintenanceoftheequipment.Aswithothermajorsystemsinahome,itisessentialthattheownerhavecomplete
documentationonthesystem.Systemdocumentationshouldincludeanownersmanualandcopiesofrelevantdrawingsforwhatever
systemmaintenancemightberequiredinthefuture.
2.8.4.SystemMonitoring
Thekeycomponentofthesystemprovidingfeedbacktothecustomeristhepowerandenergymetering.Withoutpropermeteringthe
customerwillneverknowwhetherthesystemisoperatingproperlyornot.Asimplemeter,registeringthepoweroutputofthePV
systemandrecordingtheenergydeliveredtothehouse,canprovidetheownerwiththesatisfactionthattheycanmonitorthe
performanceofthesystem.
Yes,out!Evena500WattPVsystemonasunnydaymaygeneratemoreelectricitythanthehomeconsumesatanygiventime.
MaximumpoweroutputofmostproperlyinstalledPVsystemsoccursnearmiddayonsunnydaysinthespringandfall.Iftheowner
fullyunderstandsthischaracteristictheywillnotbedisappointedwithunavoidablelowoutputinthemiddleofthewinter.Themeteris
alsoawayofprovingtotheownerthattheequipmentisproperlyinstalled.Often,theownersprimaryindicationofwhethertheyfeel
thesystemisoperatingproperlyonnotistheirmonthlyelectricbill.Iftheownersuddenlybeginsusingmoreelectricity,theymaynot
seemuchdecreaseintheirbillandassumethePVsystemisunderperforming.Ametercanhelpavoiddisputesbetweentheinstaller
andtheownerbyshowingthatthesystemperformsasadvertised.
OneoftheattractiveattributesofPVsystemislowmaintenance.However,evenelectricalsystemsneedtobemaintainedfromtimeto
time.Withpropermetering,aninformedownercaneasilydetermineiftheirsystemisoperatingproperlyornot.Itisimportantthatthe
ownerhavecontactinformationforcontractorsthatcanperformsystemmaintenanceintheirarea.Althoughmanyareasdonothave
fulltimePVcontractors,itisalwayshelpfultoprovidealistoftwoorthreelocalcontractorsthatofferPVmaintenanceservices.Along
withtheinformationonlocalcontractors,thesystemwarrantyinformationshouldbeprovidedsothatthecustomerclearlyunderstands
whatisandisnotcoveredbytheirwarranty.
2.9.References
1999NationalElectricalCode(NEC)Article690andArticle702.EmergingRenewablesBuyDownProgramInformation:
http://www.energy.ca.gov/greengrid
BuyingaPhotovoltaicSolarElectricSystem:AConsumersGuide:
http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/50099008.PDFCleanPowerEstimator:http://www.energy.ca.gov/cleanpower/index.htmlListof
CertifiedPVModules:http://www.energy.ca.gov/greengrid/certified_pv_modules.htmlListofCertifiedInverters:
http://www.energy.ca.gov/greengrid/certified_inverters.htmlCaliforniaEnergyCommission,15169thStreet,Sacramento,CA95814
5512,8005557794(RenewableEnergyCallCenter)
ULStandard1703,StandardforFlatplatePhotovoltaicModulesandPanelsULStandard1741,Inverters,Converters,andControllers
forIndependentPowerSystemsIEEEStandard9292000,RecommendedPracticeforUtilityInterfaceofPhotovoltaic(PV)Systems
IEEEStandard12621995,RecommendedPracticeforQualificationofPhotovoltaic(PV)ModulesEnvironmentalbenefitsofPV
systemscanbefoundatthefollowingUSEPAwebsite:
http://199.223.18.230/epa/rew/rew.nsf/solar/index.html
SECTION3:SYSTEMINSTALLATION
3.1.GeneralRecommendations
Thefollowingisalistofgeneralrecommendationstohelptheinstallerchoosetherightmaterials,equipment,andinstallationmethods
thatwillhelpensurethatthesystemwillprovidemanyyearsofreliableservice.Theserecommendationscanbeusedtoevaluatepre
engineeredsystemdesignsandcomparesystemfeaturesfromonesuppliertoanother.
3.1.1.Materialsrecommendations
Materialsusedoutdoorsshouldbesunlight/UVresistant
Urethanesealantsshouldbeusedforallnonflashedroofpenetrations.
Materialsshouldbedesignedtowithstandthetemperaturestowhichtheyareexposed.
Dissimilarmetals(suchassteelandaluminum)shouldbeisolatedfromoneanotherusingnonconductiveshims,washers,orother
methods.
Aluminumshouldnotbeplacedindirectcontactwithconcretematerials.
Onlyhighqualityfastenersshouldbeused(stainlesssteelispreferred).

Structuralmembersshouldbeeither:
a. ocorrosionresistantaluminum,6061or6063
b. ohotdipgalvanizedsteelperASTMA123
c. ocoatedorpaintedsteel(onlyinlowcorrosiveenvironmentssuchasdeserts)
d. ostainlesssteel(particularlyforcorrosivemarineenvironments)
3.1.2.Equipmentrecommendationsandinstallationmethods
Allelectricalequipmentshouldbelistedforthevoltageandcurrentratingsnecessaryfortheapplication.
PVmodulesshouldbelistedtoUL1703andwarrantedforaminimumof5years(2025yearwarrantiesareavailable).
InvertersshouldbelistedtoUL1741andwarrantedforaminimumof5years(outsideCAthesemaynotbeavailable).
Allexposedcablesorconduitsshouldbesunlightresistant.
Allrequiredovercurrentprotectionshouldbeincludedinthesystemandshouldbeaccessibleformaintenance
Allelectricalterminationsshouldbefullytightened,secured,andstrainrelievedasappropriate.
Allmountingequipmentshouldbeinstalledaccordingtomanufacturersspecifications
Allroofpenetrationsshouldbesealedwithanacceptablesealingmethodthatdoesnotadverselyimpacttheroofwarranty
Integralroofingproductsshouldbeproperlyrated(e.g.,classAroofingmaterials)
Allcables,conduit,exposedconductorsandelectricalboxesshouldbesecuredandsupportedaccordingtocoderequirements.
PVArrayshouldbefreeofshadebetween9:00a.m.and4:00p.m.Thisrequirementincludesevensmallobstructionssuchasvent
pipesandchimneys.Asmallamountofshadecanhaveadisproportionatelyhighimpactonsystemperformance

MainCombinerDC/AC
Service
UtilityUtilityBoxInverterSwitchPanel
3.2.PVSystemDesignAndInstallation
PVArray
3.2.1.PreparationPhaseFigure4SimplePVSystemDiagram
1. ContacttheCaliforniaEnergyCommission18005557794(RenewableEnergyCallCenter)toreceiveacopyoftheguideforthe
BuydownprogramordownloadtheguidefromtheBuydownWebsiteatwww.energy.ca.gov/greengrid.
2. Obtainpastelectricbillsforthehomeifavailableandaudithometodeterminewhatcanbedonetoreduceelectricityusage.
3. DeterminethesizeofthePVsystembasedonbudget,energycostreduction,andavailablemountingareaforthesystem.ThePV
systemsuppliertypicallyprovidesthecustomerwithsizingandperformanceinformation.Themethodinsection2ofthis
documentisintendedtoprovideabasistoidentifythosesupplierswhoarethoroughintheirsizingestimates.
4. DeterminethephysicalsizeanddimensionsofthePVarrayanditsprimarycomponents.Thisiscriticallyimportantin
determiningwherethePVarrayandancillaryequipmentistobemounted.
3.2.2.DesignPhase
1. ExaminelocationoptionsformountingthePVarray(i.e.roof,patiocover,otherstructure).
2. Reviewavailablepreengineeredsystempackagesthatcontainthedesiredoptions.Comparethevariousproductandsystem
warrantiesavailablefromeachsupplier.
3. ConfirmthatthePVequipmenthasthenecessarylistingsrequiredbybuildingofficials(e.g.UL1703,UL1741,andany
applicableevaluationreportsfromNationalEvaluationServices(NES)orInternationalConferenceofBuildingOfficials(ICBO)
EvaluationServices)

4. Selectsystemoptionsmakingsuretheequipmentmeetstheguidelinesoflocalincentiveprograms.FortheCaliforniaBuydown
ProgramcheckthatthePVmodulesandinverterarelistedontheBuydownWebsiteatwww.energy.ca.gov/greengrid
5. Contactlocalutilitycompany(PG&E,SCE,orSDG&E)toobtaintherequireddocumentsforinterconnectionandnetmetering.
6. Reviewdocumentstoensuresystemmeetslocalinterconnectionrequirements
7. Purchasetheequipment.
8. SendcompletedBuydownReservationpackagetotheCaliforniaEnergyCommission.
9. LayoutPVarrayonroofplanorotherstructure.Ifroofmounted,determinerequiredlocationofPVmodulesonroofandany
potentialroofpenetrationsduetoplumbingorcombustionapplianceventsthatcouldaffectarrayplacementorshadethearray.
Someobstructionscanberelocatedtoanotherportionoftheroofshouldthepenetrationdramaticallyimpactthelocationofthe
array.Attempttoprovideforanaestheticallypleasinglayoutbyattemptingtofollowthedimensionalshapeoftheroofsection
(example:iftheroofisrectangular,trytomaintainthesameshaperectangleinthearraylayout).Ifmodulesaretobegroupedin
panelsofseveralmodulesforeaseofwiringandmounting,trytoarrangethepanelsinsymmetricalarrangements.
1. CalculatetheimpactofshadingonthePVarraylayoutwiththeassistanceofaSolarPathfinder
(http://www.solarpathfinder.com/).ConsiderotherlocationstomountthePVarrayiftheproposedlocationreceivestoo
muchshade.Reviewthemountingoptionsdiscussedinsectiontwo
2. ofthisguideforalternatives.
10. Measurethedistancebetweentheestimatedlocationsofallsystemcomponentsanddevelopsitedrawingandonelinediagramof
PVsysteminstallationforthepermitpackage.(Seeexampledrawing).
1. Assemblethepermitpackageforthelocalauthorityhavingjurisdiction(AHJ).Thispackageshouldincludethefollowing:
1. SitedrawingshowingthelocationofthemainsystemcomponentsPVArray,conduitruns,electricalboxes,inverter
enclosure,criticalloadsubpanel,utilitydisconnect,mainservicepanel,andutilityserviceentrance.(seedrawingEX1
inAppendix)
2. Onelinediagramshowingallsignificantelectricalsystemcomponents.(seedrawingsEX2andEX3inAppendix)
3. Cutsheetsforallsignificantelectricalsystemcomponents(PVmodules,inverter,combiner,dcratedswitchesand
fuses,etc).
4. Copyoffilledoututilitycontract.
5. Structuraldrawingifthesystemisincorporatedintoaseparatestructure.
6. Structuralcalculationsasnecessary
3.2.3.InstallationPhase
1. SubmitrequiredpermitmaterialstotheAHJandpayforpermittobeginconstruction.
2. Receiveequipmentandprepareforinstallation.Examineallequipmenttobesurethatallequipmentwasshippedandthatnone
wasdamagedinshipping.
3. Reviewinstallationinstructionsforeachcomponenttobecomefamiliarwiththeinstallationprocess.
4. EstimatelengthofwirerunsfromPVmodulestocombinerandinverter.
5. CheckampacityofPVarraycircuitstodeterminetheminimumwiresizeforcurrentflow.Sizewirefortherunbasedon
maximumshortcircuitcurrentforeachcircuitandthelengthofthewirerun.ExampleusingdrawingEX1intheappendix:
CheckampacityofPVarraycircuits:
a.
Minimumwireampacityforthewirerunfrommodulestocombinerisbasedonmodulemaximumseriesfuseratingprintedonthe
listinglabel(i.e.15ampson100Wattmodule).FromTableA1intheappendix,usethecolumnfor90Cinanopenrack,useat
least#14AWGUSE2wire.Thisistheminimumwiresizeandmayneedtobeenlargedtoreducevoltagedrop.
b.
Minimumwireampacityforthewirerunfromcombinertoinverterisbasedonthenumberofmoduleseriesstringstimesthe
maximumseriesfuserating(5seriesstrings=5x15amps=75amps).FromTableA1intheappendix,usethecolumntitled
Ampacityof75Cwetratedconductors(45C),foraminimumof#3AWGTHWNwireinconduit.Thisistheminimumwire
sizeandmayneedtobeenlargedduetovoltagedrop.
6.SizePVarraywiringsuchthatthemaximumvoltagedropatfullpowerfromthePVmodulestotheinverteris3%orless(6ampsfor
a100Wattmodule).Ifarraycombinerboxislocatedremotefromtheinverter,spreadthevoltagedropaccordinglybetweenthePV

arraytocombinerwiringandthecombinertoinverterwiring(examplefromEX1intheappendix:witha100footwirerunfromPV
modulestoinverter(3%total)comprisedofa25footwirerunfromPVmodulestocombinerboxanda75footwirerunfromcombiner
boxtoinverteruseamaximumof1%forthe25footrunand2%lossforthe75footsectionforatotalof3%)
a.
wirerunfrommodulestocombineris25feet.Fromthe48VoltTableA3intheappendix,1%voltagedropfor25feetand6
amps(tousetablefor1%voltagedrop,findDFactorfor3%voltagedropfor6ampsat25feet(1.1),thenmultiplythisvalueby3
(3.3)toobtainpropersizeofwireonTableA1intheappendix),use#10AWGwire.
b.
wirerunfromcombinertoinverteris75feet.Fromthe48VoltTableA3intheappendix,2%voltagedropfor75feetand30
amps(tousetablefor2%voltagedrop,findDFactorfor3%voltagedropfor30ampsat120feet(16)thenmultiplythisvalueby
1.5(24)toobtainpropersizeofwireonTableA1intheappendix),use#2AWGwire.
7.Estimatelengthofwirerunfrominvertertomainservicepanel(ExampledrawingEX1inthe
appendix:wirerunfrominvertertopanelis25feet).ExampleusingsampledrawingEX1intheappendix:Goalis1%voltagedropfor
acsideofsystem(3%absolutemaximum)From120VolttableA4,1%voltagedropfor30feetand35amps(tousetablefor1%
voltagedrop,findDFactorfor3%voltagedropfor30ampsat30feet(2.5),thenmultiplythisvalueby3
(7.5)toobtainpropersizeofwireonTableA1),use#6AWGwire.
1. ExaminemainservicepaneltodetermineifthepanelisadequatelysizedtoreceivethePVbreakerorwhetherthepanelmust
beupgraded.
2. ManyhomesinCaliforniaarefedbya100ampservicepanel.Forresidentialapplications,theNEC69064allowsthetotal
supply(utilityplusPV)tothebusbaroftheservicepaneltoequal120%ofthebusbarrating(100ampsx1.2=120amps).
Thismeansthata100ampservicepanelcanhavea100ampmainbreakeranda20ampPVbreaker.Ifourexamplesystem
cansupply45ampsofcontinuouspower,weneedroomfora60ampcircuitbreaker(45ampsx1.25=56.25amps).A
systemthatsizewillrequireeitherreplacingthe100ampmainbreakerwitha75ampunit(notusuallyrecommended)or
replacingtheexisting100ampservicepanelwitha200ampservicepanel.The200ampservicepanelisallowed240amps
ofsupply(200ampsx1.2=240amps)soifthePVbreakerisratedat60amps,themainbreakercanbeupto180amps(240
amps60amps=180amps)
1. Ifsystemincludesacriticalloadsubpanel(batterystandbysystem),determinewhichcircuitsarecritical.Thesecircuitsmust
beadequatelydesignedtohandletheanticipatedelectricalloads.ThestandbyportionofthesystemisconsideredbytheNEC
tobeanOptionalStandbySystemcoveredbyArticle702.
1. Warning:Multiwirebranchcircuitsinahomemustbecloselyevaluatedtoallowthemtobewiredtoa120VAC
optionalstandbysystem.Therearefourmainwaystodealwiththesetypesofcircuits:
2. i.Installanautotransformerontheoutputoftheinvertertostepupthesuppliedvoltagefrom120Vacto240Vacif
necessary.Thecriticalloadsubpanelcanthenbepoweredwithoutconcernofneutraloverload.
3. ii.Rerunonenewbranchcircuitwitheachmultiwirecircuitsothatoneofthesupplyconductorsofthemultiwire
circuitcanbeeliminatedandthetwocircuitsnolongersharetheneutral.
4. iii.Avoidmultiwirebranchcircuitsinthehome.Thisisoftenunacceptablesincerefrigeratorsandotherkeyloads
arenormallyfoundonmultiwirebranchcircuits.
5. iv.Deratethesupplybreakertomatchtheampacityoftheneutralwire.Thisisdonebyfirstdeterminingthatthe
maximumloadonthetwocircuitsislessthan80%oftheratingofonepoleofthedoublepolesupplybreaker.
Forinstance,ifthesupplybreakerisa20ampdoublepolebreaker,themaximumallowableloadonbothcircuits
isatotalof16ampsat120Vac.Toconfirmthisload,turnonalltheloadsintendedtobeoperatedatthesame
timeandmeasuretheloadcurrentwithaclamponammeter.Ifthetotalfromthetwocircuitsislessthan16
amps,thecircuitmaybesuppliedbyasinglepole20ampcircuitbreaker,whichprotectstheneutralfrom
overload.
1. Allloadstobeconnectedtotheoptionalstandbysystemmustbecarefullyevaluatedtodetermineiftheactualpower
consumptionanddailyusageforeachloadcanbemetbythesysteminstandbymode.
2. Allstandbyloadsmustbewiredintoaseparatesubpanelforconnectiontothestandbyoutputoftheinverter.
3. Averagepowerconsumptionforthestandbypowersystemloadsmustbecalculatedtodeterminehowlongthestorage
batterywillprovideuninterruptedpowerfortypicalelectricusage.
4. Article702OptionalStandbySystemsallowssizingbasedonsupplyofallequipmentintendedtobeoperatedatone
time(NEC7025).Thismeansthatallthe120Voltloadscouldberunoffofasinglepole60ampbreakerfroman
optionalstandbysystemaslongastheactualcontinuousloadisbelowthe80%limitforcontinuousoperationofa
breaker(48amps).
5. Itisrecommendedthatthestoragebatterysystemconsistofmaintenancefreevalveregulatedleadacid(VRLA)
batterieswithabsorbedglassmat(AGM)constructionsincetheserequirenomaintenancebythehomeowner.Other
typesofbatteriesmaybecomeavailableinthefuturethatareequallysuitedtothisapplication,butdonotattempttouse
anybatterythathasnotbeenthoroughlytestedinUninterruptiblePowerSystem(UPS)applications.

6. Batterystoragecabinetmustbekeptoutofthesunandinascoolaplaceaspractical.
7. Everybatterystoragesystem,whetheritincludesfloodedleadacid,orvalveregulatedleadacidbatteries,requires
ventilation.Batterystoragecabinetmustbeventilatedtotheoutdoorsventsneedtobeatthehighandlowpointsinthe
cabinet.Forbatterysystemsinutilityroomsinalivingspace,followthesameventilationrequirementsasneededfor
gasfiredservicewaterheaters.
1. Determinelocationofcriticalloadsubpanel,installsubpanelandpreparetomovecircuits
1. InstallPVarray.Packagedsystemsshouldincludedetailedinstructionsoneachphaseoftheinstallationprocess.Somebasic
guidelinesthatmayhelpinreviewinginstallationproceduresare:
1. PreparestructureformountingofPVarray.Ifroofmounted,hireroofingcontractortoinstallroofmountsaccordingto
manufacturersdirections.
2. Checkmodulesvisuallyandchecktheopencircuitvoltageandshortcircuitcurrentofeachmodulebeforehaulingonto
thestructuretoverifyproperoperationseechecklist.
3. Useplugconnectorstoconnectpanelstogetherwherelistedproductsareavailable.Thisreducesinstallationtime.
4. Useonlyasmanyattachmentpointsandroofpenetrationsasnecessaryforstructuralloadingconcerns.Thenumberof
attachmentpointsandstructuralrequirementsoftheroofmustbespecificallyidentifiedinthedrawings.
5. MountPVarraytosupportstructure.
2. InstallPVcombiner,inverter,andassociatedequipmenttoprepareforsystemwiring.
3. Connectproperlysizedwire(determinedinstep6ofinstallationphase)toeachcircuitofmodulesandrunwireforeachcircuitto
thecircuitcombiner(s).(WARNING:Itisadvisabletoterminatethecircuitsinthecircuitcombinerpriortocompletingthefinal
connectionforeachstringatthePVarrayendofthecircuit.)
4. Runproperlysizedwire(determinedinstep6ofinstallationphase)fromcircuitcombinertoinverterovercurrent/disconnect
switch(ifavailablefollowinstallationproceduresuppliedbymanufacturer).
5. Runproperlysizedwire(determinedinstep7ofinstallationphase)frominvertertoutilitydisconnectswitch(WARNING:Make
suretheneutralwiredoesnotgetroutedthroughoneoftheswitchpolesinthedisconnectbox.)
6. Runproperlysizedwire(determinedinstep7ofinstallationphase)fromutilitydisconnectswitchtomainservicepaneland
connectcircuittothemainutilityservice.
7. Usethechecklistinsection4toensureproperinstallationthroughoutthesystem.
8. VerifythatallPVcircuitsareoperatingproperlyandthesystemisperformingasexpected.ThePVSystemInstallationChecklist
insection4ofthisguidehasadetailedperformancetestingprocedureentitledSystemAcceptanceTest.
9. Shutsystemdownandcallforfinalinspections(AHJfirstthenutilityifnecessary).
10. Onceapprovaltoparallelisreceivedfromtheutility,beginsystemoperation.
11. MailcompletedBuydownRequestForm,withallnecessaryattachments,totheCaliforniaEnergyCommissiontoreceive
Buydownpayment.
12. Enjoywatchingyourmeterspinbackward.(note:TimeOfUsenetmetersdonothaveameterdisktowatchrunbackwardithas
adigitalreadoutinstead).
3.2.4.MaintenanceandOperationPhase
1. WashPVarray,duringthecooloftheday,whenthereisanoticeablebuildupofsoilingdeposits.
2. Periodicallyinspectthesystemtomakesureallwiringandsupportsstayintact.
3. OnasunnydaynearnoononMarch21andSeptember21ofeachyear,reviewtheoutputofthesystem(assumingthearrayis
clean)toseeiftheperformanceofthesystemisclosetothepreviousyear'sreading.Maintainalogofthesereadingssoyoucan
identifyifthesystemisperformanceisstayingconsistent,ordecliningtoorapidly,signifyingasystemproblem.
Followingthecompletionofeachitemonthechecklistbelow,checktheboxtotheleftoftheitemandinsertthedateandinitialsofthe
personcompletingtheitemwhetherthatistheinstallingcontractororownerinstaller.Remembertofollowthepropersafetyprocedures
whileperformingthesysteminstallation.Theappropriatesafetyequipmentforeachsectionofthechecklistislistedaboveeachsection
ofthechecklist.
BeforestartinganyPVsystemtesting:(hardhatandeyeprotectionrecommended)

1.Checkthatnoncurrentcarryingmetalpartsaregroundedproperly.(arrayframes,racks,metalboxes,etc.areconnectedtothe
groundingsystem)
2.Ensurethatalllabelsandsafetysignsspecifiedintheplansareinplace.
3.Verifythatalldisconnectswitches(fromthemainACdisconnectallthewaythroughtothecombinerfuseswitches)areintheopen
positionandtageachboxwithawarningsigntosignifythatworkonthePVsystemisinprogress.
PVARRAYGeneral(hardhat,gloves,andeyeprotectionrecommended)
1.Verifythatallcombinerfusesareremovedandthatnovoltageispresentattheoutputofthecombinerbox.
2.Visuallyinspectanyplugandreceptacleconnectorsbetweenthemodulesandpanelstoensuretheyarefullyengaged.
3.Checkthatstrainreliefs/cableclampsareproperlyinstalledonallcablesandcordsbypullingoncablestoverify.
4.Checktomakesureallpanelsareattachedproperlytotheirmountingbracketsandnothingcatchestheeyeasbeingabnormalor
misaligned.
5.Visuallyinspectthearrayforcrackedmodules.
6.Checktoseethatallwiringisneatandwellsupported.
PVARRAYCIRCUITWIRING(hardhatandeyeprotectionrecommended)
1.Checkhomerunwires(fromPVmodulestocombinerbox)atDCstringcombinerboxtoensurethereisnovoltageonthem.
2.Recheckthatfusesareremovedandallswitchesareopen.
3.ConnectthehomerunwirestotheDCstringcombinerboxterminalsintheproperorderandmakesurelabelingisclearlyvisible.
REPETITIVESOURCECIRCUITSTRINGWIRING(hardhat,gloves,andeyeprotectionrecommended)
Thefollowingproceduremustbefollowedforeachsourcecircuitstringinasystematicapproachi.e.easttowestornorthtosouth.
IdealtestingconditionsaremiddayoncloudlessdaysMarchthroughOctober.
4.Checkopencircuitvoltageofeachofthepanelsinthestringbeingwiredtoverifythatitprovidesthemanufacturersspecified
voltageinfullsun.(Panelsunderthesamesunlightconditionsshouldhavesimilarvoltagesbewareofa20Voltormoreshiftunderthe
samesunlightconditions.)
5.Verifythattheboththepositiveandnegativestringconnectorsareidentifiedproperlywithpermanentwiremarking.
6.Repeatthissequenceforallsourcecircuitstrings.
CONTINUATIONOFPVARRAYCIRCUITWIRING(hardhat,gloves,andeyeprotectionrecommended)
7.RecheckthatDCDisconnectswitchisopenandtagisstillintact.
8.VERIFYPOLARITYOFEACHSOURCECIRCUITSTRINGintheDCStringCombinerBox(placecommonleadonthe
negativegroundingblockandthepositiveoneachstringconnectionpayparticularattentiontomakesurethereisNEVERanegative
measurement).Verifyopencircuitvoltageiswithinproperrangeaccordingtomanufacturersinstallationmanualandnumbereach
stringandnotestringpositiononasbuiltdrawing.(Voltagesshouldmatchcloselyifsunlightisconsistent.)
WARNING:IFPOLARITYOFONESOURCECIRCUITSTRINGISREVERSED,THISCANSTARTAFIREINTHEFUSE
BLOCKRESULTINGINTHEDESTRUCTIONOFTHECOMBINERBOXANDPOSSIBLYADJACENTEQUIPMENT.
REVERSEPOLARITYONANINVERTERCANALSOCAUSEDAMAGETHATISNOTCOVEREDUNDERTHE
EQUIPMENTWARRANTY.
9.RetightenallterminalsintheDCStringCombinerBox.
WIRINGTESTSRemainderofSystem:(hardhat,gloves,andeyeprotectionrecommended)
10.VerifythattheonlyplacewheretheACneutralisgroundedisatthemainservicepanel.
11.ChecktheAClinevoltageatmainACdisconnectiswithinproperlimits(115125VoltsACfor120Voltsand230250for240
Volts).
12.IfinstallationcontainsadditionalACdisconnectswitchesrepeatthestep11voltagecheckoneachswitchworkingfromthemain
serviceentrancetotheinverterACdisconnectswitchclosingeachswitchafterthetestismadeexceptforthefinalswitchbeforethe
inverter(itispossiblethatthesystemonlyhasasingleACswitch).
INVERTERSTARTUPTESTS(hardhat,gloves,andeyeprotectionrecommended)

1.Besurethattheinverterisoffbeforeproceedingwiththissection.
2.TestthecontinuityofallDCfusestobeinstalledintheDCstringcombinerbox,installallstringfuses,andclosefusedswitchesin
combinerbox.
3.CheckopencircuitvoltageatDCdisconnectswitchtoensureitiswithinproperlimitsaccordingtothemanufacturersinstallation
manual.
4.IfinstallationcontainsadditionalDCdisconnectswitchesrepeatthestep4voltagecheckoneachswitchworkingfromthePVarray
totheinverterDCdisconnectswitchclosingeachswitchafterthetestismadeexceptforthefinalswitchbeforetheinverter(itis
possiblethatthesystemonlyhasasingleDCswitch).
5.Atthispointconsulttheinvertermanualandfollowproperstartupprocedure(allpowertotheinvertershouldbeoffatthistime).
6.ConfirmthattheinverterisoperatingandrecordtheDCoperatingvoltageinthefollowingspace.________
7.Confirmthattheoperatingvoltageiswithinproperlimitsaccordingtothemanufacturersinstallationmanual.
8.Afterrecordingtheoperatingvoltageattheinvertercloseanyopenboxesrelatedtotheinvertersystem.
9.Confirmthattheinverterisproducingtheexpectedpoweroutputonthesuppliedmeter.
10.Providethehomeownerwiththeinitialstartuptestreport.
SYSTEMACCEPTANCETEST(hardhatandeyeprotectionrecommended)
IdealtestingconditionsaremiddayoncloudlessdaysMarchthroughOctober.However,thistestprocedureaccountsforlessthanideal
conditionsandallowsacceptanceteststobeconductedonsunnywinterdays.
1.ChecktomakesurethatthePVarrayisinfullsunwithnoshadingwhatsoever.Ifitisimpossibletofindatimeduringthedaywhen
thewholearrayisinfullsun,onlythatportionthatisinfullsunwillbeabletobeaccepted.

2.Ifthesystemisnotoperating,turnthesystemonandallowittorunfor15minutesbeforetakinganyperformancemeasurements.

3.Obtainsolarirradiancemeasurementbyoneoftwomethodsandrecordirradianceonthisline:W/m2.Toobtainpercentageofpeak
sun,divideirradianceby1000W/m2andrecordthevalueonthisline.(example:692W/m21000W/m2=0.692or69.2%.)Method
1:Takemeasurementfromcalibratedsolarmeterorpyranometer.Method2:Placeasingle,properlyoperatingPVmodule,ofthesame
modelfoundinthearray,infullsunintheexactsameorientationasthearraybeingtested.After15minutesoffullexposure,testthe
shortcircuitcurrentwithadigitalmultimeterandplacethatreadingonthisline:Amps.Dividethisnumberintotheshortcircuitcurrent
(Isc)valueprintedonthebackofthePVmoduleandmultiplythisnumberby1000W/m2andrecordthevalueonthelineabove.
(example:Iscmeasured=3.6AmpsIscprintedonmodule=5.2AmpsIrradiance=3.6Amps/5.2Amps*1000W/m2=692W/m2)
4.SumthetotalofthemoduleratingsandplacethattotalonthislineWattsSTC.Multiplythisnumberby0.7toobtainexpectedpeak
ACoutputandrecordonthislineWattsACestimated.
5.RecordACWattoutputfromtheinverterorsystemmeterandrecordonthislineWattsACmeasured.
6.DivideWattsACmeasuredbypercentpeakirradianceandrecordonthisline
WattsACcorrected.ThisACcorrectedvalueistheratedoutputofPVsystem.Thisnumbermustbewithin90%orhigherof
WattsACestimatedrecordedinstep4.Ifitislessthan90%,thePVsystemiseithershaded,dirty,miswired,fusesareblown,orthe
modulesorinverterarenotoperatingproperly.
Example:
APVsystemismadeupof20,100WattSTCPVmodulesoperatingatanestimatedirradianceof692W/m2using
method2shownabove.Thepoweroutputismeasuredtobe1000WattsACmeasuredatthetimeofthetest.Isthissystemoperating
properlyornot?
Solution:
Sumofmoduleratings=100WattsSTCpermodulex20modules=2,000WattsSTC.EstimatedACpoweroutput=2,000WattsSTCx
0.7=1,400WattsACestimated.MeasuredACoutput=1,000WattsACmeasured.
CorrectedACoutput=1,020WattsACcorrected0.692=1,474WattsACcorrected.Comparisonofcorrectedandestimatedoutputs:
1,474WattsACcorrected1,400WattsACestimated=1.050.9(acceptableperformance)
APPENDIX

PVInstallationGuide

++++++++++++++++
ExistingExteriorMainBreakerBox
SquareD120VoltQOLoadCenter
Minimum#6AWGTHWNCombinerBox
(2plcs.)(Conduitsizebased
#102conductorTCwithTHWN2onwirefill)
conductorsforallPVarraywiring
+
POS

+PhotovoltaicModulesTracePowerModule

60A
+
15A,5plcs.
TraceC40Continuous
ChargeController

Equipment
+GroundSurgeArrestor
NEG
TraceNo.4/0RHW
DCSW4048Inverter250A

ACDC+InOutN4/0RHWBatteryCables(Typical)No.4/0RHW
ExteriorPG&EDisconnectBoxManualTransferSwitchinPowerModule
BatteryBox1BatteryBox2
60AIsolatedNeutral
BondingBlock
15A15A20A20A
N(isolated)
H
To120VacHouseLoads
Notes:
1. NECArrayOpenCircuitVoltage=95Voltsdc.
2. Max.ShortCircuitArrayCurrent=45Amps.
3. PVmodulesareUL1703listed,100Wattmodules(Arrayconsistsof20modules5parallelsetsof4unitsinseries)
4. TraceEngineeringPowerModulewith4048inverter,UL1741listed.
5. Batteryis8ConcordPVC1295Hunitsfor48Vdcnominalbatteryvoltage(2parallelsetsof4unitsinseries).
1EMTConduitsw/#6AWGTHWNconductors

COMPANYNAMETitle:ElectricalDrawing,PVw/Battery
DrawnBy:

Date:

CheckedBy:

RelatedDrawings:EX1

Scale:N/A
Material:

EX2

DWGNO.

WIRESIZINGTABLE

TABLEA1

FORAMPACITYANDVOLTAGEDROP

Ampacityof
WireSize

Ampacityof

Ampacityof

90CWetWire
DFactor RoofMounted

90CWetWire
RackMounted

75CWetWire
90CWetWire
RackMounted BOSWiring(45C)

Modules(80C)

Modules(70C)

Modules(70C)

10
12
16
23
31
39
N/A
N/A
N/A

15
17
23
32
44
55
N/A
N/A
N/A

7
8
12
17
21
28
N/A
N/A
N/A

(AWG)
14
12
10
8
6
4
3
2
1

Ampacityof

1.5
2.5
3.9
6.0
9.7
15.6
19
25
31

22
26
35
48
65
83
96
113
131

Ampacityof

Ampacityof

75CWetWire
BOSWiring(45C)

60CWetWire
BOSWiring(45
C)

16
21
29
41
53
70
82
94
107

14
18
21
28
39
50
60
67
78

1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
300MCM
500MCM

39
50
62
80
112
189

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

148
170
196
226
278
374

123
144
164
189
234
312

89
103
117
138
170
227

TodetermineDFactorfor1%voltagedropsimplymultiplyDFactorfrom3%tablesby3.
Example:48V,6Amps,70ftDFactor=2.9for3%.Multiplyingby3yieldsDFactor=8.7
Solution:Need#10AWGtostayunder3%voltagedropand#6tostayunder1%voltagedrop
TodetermineDFactorfor2%voltagedropsimplymultiplyDFactorfrom3%tablesby1.5.
Example:48V,6Amps,70ftDFactor=2.9for3%.Multiplyingby1.5yieldsDFactor=4.4
Solution:Need#10AWGtostayunder3%voltagedropand#8tostayunder2%voltagedrop

TABLE
A2

DFACTOR
3%VOLTAGEDROP24VOLTCIRCUITSCOPPER

ONEWAYWIRE
DISTANCE(FT)
AMPS
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

TABLE
A3

0.3 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.5


0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0
0.8 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7 7.5
1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9 10.0
1.4 2.8 4.2 5.6 6.9 8.3 9.7 11.1 12.5
1.7 3.3 5.0 6.7 8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 15.0
1.9 3.9 5.8 7.8 9.7 11.7 13.6 15.6 17.5
2.2 4.4 6.7 8.9 11.1 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.0
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5
2.8 5.6 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.7 19.4 22.2 25.0
3.5 6.9 10.4 13.9 17.4 20.8 24.3 27.8 31.3
4.2 8.3 12.5 16.7 20.8 25.0 29.2 33 38
4.9 9.7 14.6 19.4 24.3 29.2 34.0 39 44
5.6 11.1 16.7 22.2 27.8 33.3 38.9 44 50
6.3 12.5 18.8 25.0 31.3 38 44 50 56
6.9 13.9 20.8 27.8 34.7 42 49 56 63
8.3 16.7 25.0 33 42 50 58 67 75
9.7 19.4 29.2 39 49 58 68 78 88
11.1 22.2 33.3 44 56 67 78 89 100
12.5 25.0 37.5 50 63 75 88 100 113
13.9 27.8 41.7 56 69 83 97 111 125
15.3 30.6 45.8 61 76 92 107 122 138
16.7 33 50 67 83 100 117 133 150
18.1 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 163
19.4 39 58 78 97 117 136 156 175
20.8 42 63 83 104 125 146 167 188
22.2 44 67 89 111 133 156 178 200
23.6 47 71 94 118 142 165 189 213
25.0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
26.4 53 79 106 132 158 185 211 238
27.8 56 83 111 139 167 194 222 250

2.8
5.6
8.3
11.1
13.9
16.7
19.4
22.2
25.0
27.8
34.7
42
49
56
63
69
83
97
111
125
139
153
167
181
194
208
222
236
250
264
278

3.3
6.7
10.0
13.3
16.7
20.0
23.3
26.7
30.0
33.3
41.7
50
58
67
75
83
100
117
133
150
167
183
200
217
233
250
267
283
300
317
333

3.9
7.8
11.7
15.6
19.4
23.3
27.2
31.1
35.0
38.9
48.6
58
68
78
88
97
117
136
156
175
194
214
233
253
272
292
311
331
350
369
389

4.4
8.9
13.3
17.8
22.2
26.7
31.1
35.6
40
44
56
67
78
89
100
111
133
156
178
200
222
244
267
289
311
333
356
378
400
422
444

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45
50
63
75
88
100
113
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500

5.6
11.1
16.7
22.2
27.8
33.3
38.9
44.4
50
56
69
83
97
111
125
139
167
194
222
250
278
306
333
361
389
417
444
472
500
528
556

6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0


12.2 13.3 14.4 15.6 16.7 17.8 18.9 20.0
18.3 20.0 21.7 23.3 25.0 26.7 28.3 30.0
24.4 26.7 28.9 31.1 33.3 35.6 37.8 40.0
30.6
33
36
39
42
44
47
50
36.7
40
43
47
50
53
57
60
42.8
47
51
54
58
62
66
70
48.9
53
58
62
67
71
76
80
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
61
67
72
78
83
89
94 100
76
83
90
97 104 111 118 125
92 100 108 117 125 133 142 150
107 117 126 136 146 156 165 175
122 133 144 156 167 178 189 200
138 150 163 175 188 200 213 225
153 167 181 194 208 222 236 250
183 200 217 233 250 267 283 300
214 233 253 272 292 311 331 350
244 267 289 311 333 356 378 400
275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450
306 333 361 389 417 444 472 500
336 367 397 428 458 489 519 550
367 400 433 467 500 533 567 600
397 433 469 506 542 578 614 650
428 467 506 544 583 622 661 700
458 500 542 583 625 667 708 750
489 533 578 622 667 711 756 800
519 567 614 661 708 756 803 850
550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900
581 633 686 739 792 844 897 950
611 667 722 778 833 889 944 1000

DFACTOR
3%VOLTAGEDROP48VOLTCIRCUITSCOPPER

ONEWAYWIRE
DISTANCE(FT)

10.6
21.1
31.7
42.2
53
63
74
84
95
106
132
158
185
211
238
264
317
369
422
475
528
581
633
686
739
792
844
897
950
1003
1056

11.1
22.2
33.3
44.4
56
67
78
89
100
111
139
167
194
222
250
278
333
389
444
500
556
611
667
722
778
833
889
944
1000
1056
1111

AMPS
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

0.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.3


0.3 0.6 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.5
0.4 0.8 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.8
0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0
0.7 1.4 2.1 2.8 3.5 4.2 4.9 5.6 6.3
0.8 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7 7.5
1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 4.9 5.8 6.8 7.8 8.8
1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9 10.0
1.3 2.5 3.8 5.0 6.3 7.5 8.8 10.0 11.3
1.4 2.8 4.2 5.6 6.9 8.3 9.7 11.1 12.5
1.7 3.5 5.2 6.9 8.7 10.4 12.2 13.9 15.6
2.1 4.2 6.3 8.3 10.4 12.5 14.6 17 19
2.4 4.9 7.3 9.7 12.2 14.6 17.0 19 22
2.8 5.6 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.7 19.4 22 25
3.1 6.3 9.4 12.5 15.6 19 22 25 28
3.5 6.9 10.4 13.9 17.4 21 24 28 31
4.2 8.3 12.5 17 21 25 29 33 38
4.9 9.7 14.6 19 24 29 34 39 44
5.6 11.1 16.7 22 28 33 39 44 50
6.3 12.5 18.8 25 31 38 44 50 56
6.9 13.9 20.8 28 35 42 49 56 63
7.6 15.3 22.9 31 38 46 53 61 69
8.3 17 25 33 42 50 58 67 75
9.0 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81
9.7 19 29 39 49 58 68 78 88
10.4 21 31 42 52 63 73 83 94
11.1 22 33 44 56 67 78 89 100
11.8 24 35 47 59 71 83 94 106
12.5 25 38 50 63 75 88 100 113
13.2 26 40 53 66 79 92 106 119
13.9 28 42 56 69 83 97 111 125

1.4
2.8
4.2
5.6
6.9
8.3
9.7
11.1
12.5
13.9
17.4
21
24
28
31
35
42
49
56
63
69
76
83
90
97
104
111
118
125
132
139

1.7
3.3
5.0
6.7
8.3
10.0
11.7
13.3
15.0
16.7
20.8
25
29
33
38
42
50
58
67
75
83
92
100
108
117
125
133
142
150
158
167

1.9
3.9
5.8
7.8
9.7
11.7
13.6
15.6
17.5
19.4
24.3
29
34
39
44
49
58
68
78
88
97
107
117
126
136
146
156
165
175
185
194

2.2
4.4
6.7
8.9
11.1
13.3
15.6
17.8
20
22
28
33
39
44
50
56
67
78
89
100
111
122
133
144
156
167
178
189
200
211
222

2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
20.0
23
25
31
38
44
50
56
63
75
88
100
113
125
138
150
163
175
188
200
213
225
238
250

2.8
5.6
8.3
11.1
13.9
16.7
19.4
22.2
25
28
35
42
49
56
63
69
83
97
111
125
139
153
167
181
194
208
222
236
250
264
278

3.1 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.6
6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.6 11.1
9.2 10.0 10.8 11.7 12.5 13.3 14.2 15.0 15.8 16.7
12.2 13.3 14.4 15.6 16.7 17.8 18.9 20.0 21.1 22.2
15.3
17
18
19
21
22
24
25
26 28
18.3
20
22
23
25
27
28
30
32 33
21.4
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37 39
24.4
27
29
31
33
36
38
40
42 44
28
30
33
35
38
40
43
45
48 50
31
33
36
39
42
44
47
50
53 56
38
42
45
49
52
56
59
63
66 69
46
50
54
58
63
67
71
75
79 83
53
58
63
68
73
78
83
88
92 97
61
67
72
78
83
89
94 100 106 111
69
75
81
88
94 100 106 113 119 125
76
83
90
97 104 111 118 125 132 139
92 100 108 117 125 133 142 150 158 167
107 117 126 136 146 156 165 175 185 194
122 133 144 156 167 178 189 200 211 222
138 150 163 175 188 200 213 225 238 250
153 167 181 194 208 222 236 250 264 278
168 183 199 214 229 244 260 275 290 306
183 200 217 233 250 267 283 300 317 333
199 217 235 253 271 289 307 325 343 361
214 233 253 272 292 311 331 350 369 389
229 250 271 292 313 333 354 375 396 417
244 267 289 311 333 356 378 400 422 444
260 283 307 331 354 378 401 425 449 472
275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500
290 317 343 369 396 422 449 475 501 528
306 333 361 389 417 444 472 500 528 556

DFACTOR

TABLE
A4

3%VOLTAGEDROP120VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

ONEWAYWIRE
DISTANCE(FT)
AMPS
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.9

0.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.7
2.1
2.5
2.9

0.2
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9

0.3
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.9

0.3
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.7
3.0
3.3
4.2
5.0
5.8

0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.9
5.8
6.8

0.4
0.9
1.3
1.8
2.2
2.7
3.1
3.6
4.0
4.4
5.6
6.7
7.8

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.3
7.5
8.8

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6
1.1 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.9 3.1
1.7 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.7
2.2 2.7 3.1 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.8 6.2
2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8
3.3 4.0 4.7 5.3 6.0 6.7 7.3 8.0 8.7 9.3
3.9 4.7 5.4 6.2 7.0 7.8 8.6 9.3 10.1 10.9
4.4 5.3 6.2 7.1 8.0 8.9 9.8 10.7 11.6 12.4
5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9 10.0 11.1 12.2 13.3 14.4 15.6
6.9 8.3 9.7 11.1 12.5
14
15
17
18
19
8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 15.0
17
18
20
22
23
9.7 11.7 13.6 15.6 17.5
19
21
23
25
27

1.7
3.3
5.0
6.7
8.3
10.0
11.7
13.3
15.0
16.7
21
25
29

1.8
3.6
5.3
7.1
8.9
10.7
12.4
14.2
16.0
17.8
22
27
31

1.9
3.8
5.7
7.6
9.4
11.3
13.2
15.1
17.0
18.9
24
28
33

2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
25
30
35

2.1
4.2
6.3
8.4
10.6
12.7
14.8
16.9
19.0
21.1
26
32
37

2.2
4.4
6.7
8.9
11.1
13.3
15.6
17.8
20.0
22.2
28
33
39

40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9 10.0 11.1 13.3 15.6 17.8 20.0
1.3 2.5 3.8 5.0 6.3 7.5 8.8 10.0 11.3 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5
1.4 2.8 4.2 5.6 6.9 8.3 9.7 11.1 12.5 13.9 16.7 19.4 22.2 25.0
1.7 3.3 5.0 6.7 8.3 10.0 11.7 13 15
17 20
23
27
30
1.9 3.9 5.8 7.8 9.7 11.7 13.6 16 18
19 23
27
31
35
2.2 4.4 6.7 8.9 11.1 13.3 15.6 18 20
22 27
31
36
40
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20 23
25 30
35
40
45
2.8 5.6 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.7 19.4 22 25
28 33
39
44
50
3.1 6.1 9.2 12.2 15.3 18.3 21.4 24 28
31 37
43
49
55
3.3 6.7 10.0 13.3 16.7 20.0 23.3 27 30
33 40
47
53
60
3.6 7.2 10.8 14.4 18.1 21.7 25.3 29 33
36 43
51
58
65
3.9 7.8 11.7 16 19 23 27 31 35
39 47
54
62
70
4.2 8.3 12.5 17 21 25 29 33 38
42 50
58
67
75
4.4 8.9 13.3 18 22 27 31 36 40
44 53
62
71
80
4.7 9.4 14.2 19 24 28 33 38 43
47 57
66
76
85
5.0 10.0 15.0 20 25 30 35 40 45
50 60
70
80
90
5.3 10.6 15.8 21 26 32 37 42 48
53 63
74
84
95
5.6 11.1 16.7 22 28 33 39 44 50
56 67
78
89 100

22
25
28
33
39
44
50
56
61
67
72
78
83
89
94
100
106
111

24
28
31
37
43
49
55
61
67
73
79
86
92
98
104
110
116
122

27
30
33
40
47
53
60
67
73
80
87
93
100
107
113
120
127
133

29
33
36
43
51
58
65
72
79
87
94
101
108
116
123
130
137
144

31
35
39
47
54
62
70
78
86
93
101
109
117
124
132
140
148
156

33
38
42
50
58
67
75
83
92
100
108
117
125
133
142
150
158
167

36
40
44
53
62
71
80
89
98
107
116
124
133
142
151
160
169
178

38
43
47
57
66
76
85
94
104
113
123
132
142
151
161
170
179
189

40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

42
48
53
63
74
84
95
106
116
127
137
148
158
169
179
190
201
211

44
50
56
67
78
89
100
111
122
133
144
156
167
178
189
200
211
222

DFACTOR

TABLEA
5

3%VOLTAGEDROP240VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

ONEWAYWIRE
DISTANCE(FT)
AMPS
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.6

0.1 0.1 0.1


0.1 0.2 0.2
0.2 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.3 0.4
0.3 0.4 0.6
0.3 0.5 0.7
0.4 0.6 0.8
0.4 0.7 0.9
0.5 0.8 1.0
0.6 0.8 1.1
0.7 1.0 1.4
0.8 1.3 1.7
1.0 1.5 1.9
1.1 1.7 2.2
1.3 1.9 2.5
1.4 2.1 2.8
1.7 2.5 3.3
1.9 2.9 3.9
2.2 3.3 4.4
2.5 3.8 5.0
2.8 4.2 5.6
3.1 4.6 6.1
3.3 5.0 6.7
3.6 5.4 7.2
3.9 5.8 7.8
4.2 6.3 8.3
4.4 6.7 8.9
4.7 7.1 9.4
5.0 7.5 10.0
5.3 7.9 10.6
5.6 8.3 11.1
5.8 8.8 11.7
6.1 9.2 12.2
6.4 9.6 12.8
6.7 10.0 13.3
6.9 10.4 13.9
7.2 10.8 14.4

0.1
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.7
2.1
2.4
2.8
3.1
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.6
6.3
6.9
7.6
8.3
9.0
9.7
10.4
11.1
11.8
12.5
13.2
13.9
14.6
15.3
16.0
16.7
17.4
18

0.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.7
2.1
2.5
2.9
3.3
3.8
4.2
5.0
5.8
6.7
7.5
8.3
9.2
10.0
10.8
11.7
12.5
13.3
14.2
15.0
16
17
18
18
19
20
21
22

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.4
3.9
4.4
4.9
5.8
6.8
7.8
8.8
9.7
10.7
11.7
12.6
13.6
14.6
15.6
16.5
17.5
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

0.2
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9
4.4
5.0
5.6
6.7
7.8
8.9
10.0
11.1
12.2
13.3
14.4
15.6
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
26
27
28
29

90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.5
3.1
3.8
4.4
5.0
5.6
6.3
7.5
8.8
10.0
11.3
12.5
13.8
15.0
16.3
17.5
19
20
21
23
24
25
26
28
29
30
31
33

0.3
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.6
6.3
6.9
8.3
9.7
11.1
12.5
13.9
15.3
17
18
19
21
22
24
25
26
28
29
31
32
33
35
36

0.3
0.7
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.0
2.3
2.7
3.0
3.3
4.2
5.0
5.8
6.7
7.5
8.3
10.0
11.7
13.3
15.0
16.7
18.3
20
22
23
25
27
28
30
32
33
35
37
38
40
42
43

0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.9
5.8
6.8
7.8
8.8
9.7
11.7
13.6
15.6
17.5
19.4
21.4
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51

0.4
0.9
1.3
1.8
2.2
2.7
3.1
3.6
4.0
4.4
5.6
6.7
7.8
8.9
10.0
11.1
13.3
15.6
17.8
20.0
22.2
24.4
27
29
31
33
36
38
40
42
44
47
49
51
53
56
58

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1
1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.2
2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2
2.5 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.3
3.0 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.0 6.3
3.5 3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.4 5.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4
4.0 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.8 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.4
4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5
5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.6
6.3 6.9 7.6 8.3 9.0 9.7 10.4 11.1 11.8 12.5 13.2
7.5 8.3 9.2 10.0 10.8 11.7 12.5 13.3 14.2 15.0 16
8.8 9.7 10.7 11.7 12.6 13.6 14.6 15.6 16.5 17.5 18
10.0 11.1 12.2 13.3 14.4 15.6 16.7 17.8 18.9 20.0 21
11.3 12.5 13.8 15.0 16 18 19 20 21 23 24
12.5 13.9 15.3 16.7 18 19 21 22 24 25 26
15.0 17 18 20 22 23 25 27 28 30 32
17.5 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37
20.0 22 24 27 29 31 33 36 38 40 42
22.5 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 43 45 48
25.0 28 31 33 36 39 42 44 47 50 53
27.5 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58
30 33 37 40 43 47 50 53 57 60 63
33 36 40 43 47 51 54 58 61 65 69
35 39 43 47 51 54 58 62 66 70 74
38 42 46 50 54 58 63 67 71 75 79
40 44 49 53 58 62 67 71 76 80 84
43 47 52 57 61 66 71 76 80 85 90
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95
48 53 58 63 69 74 79 84 90 95 100
50 56 61 67 72 78 83 89 94 100 106
53 58 64 70 76 82 88 93 99 105 111
55 61 67 73 79 86 92 98 104 110 116
58 64 70 77 83 89 96 102 109 115 121
60 67 73 80 87 93 100 107 113 120 127
63 69 76 83 90 97 104 111 118 125 132
65 72 79 87 94 101 108 116 123 130 137

1.1
2.2
3.3
4.4
5.6
6.7
7.8
8.9
10.0
11.1
13.9
17
19
22
25
28
33
39
44
50
56
61
67
72
78
83
89
94
100
106
111
117
122
128
133
139
144

270
280
290
300

3.8
3.9
4.0
4.2

7.5
7.8
8.1
8.3

11.3
11.7
12.1
12.5

15.0
15.6
16.1
16.7

19
19
20
21

23
23
24
25

26
27
28
29

30
31
32
33

34
35
36
38

38
39
40
42

45
47
48
50

53
54
56
58

60
62
64
67

68
70
73
75

75
78
81
83

83 90 98 105 113
86 93 101 109 117
89 97 105 113 121
92 100 108 117 125

120
124
129
133

128
132
137
142

135
140
145
150

143
148
153
158

150
156
161
167

MAXIMUMONEWAYWIREDISTANCE
(FT)
3%VOLTAGEDROP24VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

TABLEA6

AMERICANWIREGAUGE(AWG)WIRE
SIZE

14

12

10

1/0

2/0

3/0

55
28
18
14

88
44
29
22
18
15

140
70
47
35
28
23
20
17
16
14

222
111
74
56
44
37
32
28
25
22
18
15

353
176
118
88
71
59
50
44
39
35
28
24
20
18
16
14

561
280
187
140
112
93
80
70
62
56
45
37
32
28
25
22
19
16
14

709
354
236
177
142
118
101
89
79
71
57
47
40
35
31
28
24
20
18
16
14

896
448
299
224
179
149
128
112
100
90
72
60
51
45
40
36
30
26
22
20
18
16
15
14

1125
563
375
281
225
188
161
141
125
113
90
75
64
56
50
45
38
32
28
25
23
20
19
17
16
15
14

1417
709
472
354
283
236
202
177
157
142
113
94
81
71
63
57
47
40
35
31
28
26
24
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
14

1782
891
594
446
356
297
255
223
198
178
143
119
102
89
79
71
59
51
45
40
36
32
30
27
25
24
22
21
20
19
18

2258
1129
753
565
452
376
323
282
251
226
181
151
129
113
100
90
75
65
56
50
45
41
38
35
32
30
28
27
25
24
23

4/0 300MCM 500MCM

AMPS WATTS
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

48
96
144
192
240
288
336
384
432
480
600
720
840
960
1080
1200
1440
1680
1920
2160
2400
2640
2880
3120
3360
3600
3840
4080
4320
4560
4800

2875
1438
958
719
575
479
411
359
319
288
230
192
164
144
128
115
96
82
72
64
58
52
48
44
41
38
36
34
32
30
29

4036
2018
1345
1009
807
673
577
504
448
404
323
269
231
202
179
161
135
115
101
90
81
73
67
62
58
54
50
47
45
42
40

6792
3396
2264
1698
1358
1132
970
849
755
679
543
453
388
340
302
272
226
194
170
151
136
123
113
104
97
91
85
80
75
71
68

MAXIMUMONEWAYWIREDISTANCE
(FT)
3%VOLTAGEDROP48VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

TABLEA7

AMERICANWIREGAUGE(AWG)WIRE
SIZE

14

12

10

1/0

2/0

3/0

110
55
37
28
22
18
16

176
88
59
44
35
29
25
22

279
140
93
70
56
47
40
35

445
222
148
111
89
74
64
56

706
353
235
176
141
118
101
88

1121
561
374
280
224
187
160
140

1417
709
472
354
283
236
202
177

1791
896
597
448
358
299
256
224

2250
1125
750
563
450
375
321
281

2835
1417
945
709
567
472
405
354

3564
1782
1188
891
713
594
509
446

4517
2258
1506
1129
903
753
645
565

4/0 300MCM 500MCM

AMPS WATTS
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

96
192
288
384
480
576
672
768

5751
2875
1917
1438
1150
958
822
719

8072
4036
2691
2018
1614
1345
1153
1009

13585
6792
4528
3396
2717
2264
1941
1698

18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

864
960
1200
1440
1680
1920
2160
2400
2880
3360
3840
4320
4800
5280
5760
6240
6720
7200
7680
8160
8640
9120
9600

20
18

31
28
22
19
16

49
44
36
30
25
22
20
18
15

78
71
56
47
40
35
31
28
24
20
18
16

125
112
90
75
64
56
50
45
37
32
28
25
22
20
19
17
16
15

157
142
113
94
81
71
63
57
47
40
35
31
28
26
24
22
20
19
18
17
16
15

199
179
143
119
102
90
80
72
60
51
45
40
36
33
30
28
26
24
22
21
20
19
18

250
225
180
150
129
113
100
90
75
64
56
50
45
41
38
35
32
30
28
26
25
24
23

315
283
227
189
162
142
126
113
94
81
71
63
57
52
47
44
40
38
35
33
31
30
28

396
356
285
238
204
178
158
143
119
102
89
79
71
65
59
55
51
48
45
42
40
38
36

502
452
361
301
258
226
201
181
151
129
113
100
90
82
75
69
65
60
56
53
50
48
45

639
575
460
383
329
288
256
230
192
164
144
128
115
105
96
88
82
77
72
68
64
61
58

897
807
646
538
461
404
359
323
269
231
202
179
161
147
135
124
115
108
101
95
90
85
81

1509
1358
1087
906
776
679
604
543
453
388
340
302
272
247
226
209
194
181
170
160
151
143
136

MAXIMUMONEWAYWIREDISTANCE
(FT)
3%VOLTAGEDROP120VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

TABLEA8

AMERICANWIREGAUGE(AWG)WIRE
SIZE

14

12

10

1/0

2/0

3/0

276
138
92
69
55
46
39
35
31
28
22
18
16

439
220
146
110
88
73
63
55
49
44
35
29
25
22
20
18
15

698
349
233
174
140
116
100
87
78
70
56
47
40
35
31
28
23
20
17
16

1112
556
371
278
222
185
159
139
124
111
89
74
64
56
49
44
37
32
28
25
22
20
19
17
16
15

1765
882
588
441
353
294
252
221
196
176
141
118
101
88
78
71
59
50
44
39
35
32
29
27
25
24
22
21
20
19
18

2804
1402
935
701
561
467
401
350
312
280
224
187
160
140
125
112
93
80
70
62
56
51
47
43
40
37
35
33
31
30
28

3543
1772
1181
886
709
591
506
443
394
354
283
236
202
177
157
142
118
101
89
79
71
64
59
55
51
47
44
42
39
37
35

4478
2239
1493
1119
896
746
640
560
498
448
358
299
256
224
199
179
149
128
112
100
90
81
75
69
64
60
56
53
50
47
45

5625
2813
1875
1406
1125
938
804
703
625
563
450
375
321
281
250
225
188
161
141
125
113
102
94
87
80
75
70
66
63
59
56

7087
3543
2362
1772
1417
1181
1012
886
787
709
567
472
405
354
315
283
236
202
177
157
142
129
118
109
101
94
89
83
79
75
71

8911
4455
2970
2228
1782
1485
1273
1114
990
891
713
594
509
446
396
356
297
255
223
198
178
162
149
137
127
119
111
105
99
94
89

11292
5646
3764
2823
2258
1882
1613
1412
1255
1129
903
753
645
565
502
452
376
323
282
251
226
205
188
174
161
151
141
133
125
119
113

4/0 300MCM 500MCM

AMPS WATTS
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

240
480
720
960
1200
1440
1680
1920
2160
2400
3000
3600
4200
4800
5400
6000
7200
8400
9600
10800
12000
13200
14400
15600
16800
18000
19200
20400
21600
22800
24000

14377
7188
4792
3594
2875
2396
2054
1797
1597
1438
1150
958
822
719
639
575
479
411
359
319
288
261
240
221
205
192
180
169
160
151
144

20179
10090
6726
5045
4036
3363
2883
2522
2242
2018
1614
1345
1153
1009
897
807
673
577
504
448
404
367
336
310
288
269
252
237
224
212
202

33962
16981
11321
8491
6792
5660
4852
4245
3774
3396
2717
2264
1941
1698
1509
1358
1132
970
849
755
679
617
566
522
485
453
425
400
377
357
340

MAXIMUMONEWAYWIREDISTANCE
(FT)
3%VOLTAGEDROP240VOLTCIRCUITS
COPPER

TABLEA9

AMERICANWIREGAUGE(AWG)WIRE
SIZE

14

12

10

1/0

2/0

3/0

552
276
184
138
110
92
79
69
61
55
44
37
32
28
25
22
18
16

878
439
293
220
176
146
125
110
98
88
70
59
50
44
39
35
29
25
22
20
18
16
15

1395
698
465
349
279
233
199
174
155
140
112
93
80
70
62
56
47
40
35
31
28
25
23
21
20
19
17
16
16
15

2225
1112
742
556
445
371
318
278
247
222
178
148
127
111
99
89
74
64
56
49
44
40
37
34
32
30
28
26
25
23
22

3529
1765
1176
882
706
588
504
441
392
353
282
235
202
176
157
141
118
101
88
78
71
64
59
54
50
47
44
42
39
37
35

5607
2804
1869
1402
1121
935
801
701
623
561
449
374
320
280
249
224
187
160
140
125
112
102
93
86
80
75
70
66
62
59
56

7087
3543
2362
1772
1417
1181
1012
886
787
709
567
472
405
354
315
283
236
202
177
157
142
129
118
109
101
94
89
83
79
75
71

8955
4478
2985
2239
1791
1493
1279
1119
995
896
716
597
512
448
398
358
299
256
224
199
179
163
149
138
128
119
112
105
100
94
90

11250
5625
3750
2813
2250
1875
1607
1406
1250
1125
900
750
643
563
500
450
375
321
281
250
225
205
188
173
161
150
141
132
125
118
113

14173
7087
4724
3543
2835
2362
2025
1772
1575
1417
1134
945
810
709
630
567
472
405
354
315
283
258
236
218
202
189
177
167
157
149
142

17822
8911
5941
4455
3564
2970
2546
2228
1980
1782
1426
1188
1018
891
792
713
594
509
446
396
356
324
297
274
255
238
223
210
198
188
178

22585
11292
7528
5646
4517
3764
3226
2823
2509
2258
1807
1506
1291
1129
1004
903
753
645
565
502
452
411
376
347
323
301
282
266
251
238
226

4/0 300MCM 500MCM

AMPS WATTS
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

480
960
1440
1920
2400
2880
3360
3840
4320
4800
6000
7200
8400
9600
10800
12000
14400
16800
19200
21600
24000
26400
28800
31200
33600
36000
38400
40800
43200
45600
48000

28754
14377
9585
7188
5751
4792
4108
3594
3195
2875
2300
1917
1643
1438
1278
1150
958
822
719
639
575
523
479
442
411
383
359
338
319
303
288

40359
20179
13453
10090
8072
6726
5766
5045
4484
4036
3229
2691
2306
2018
1794
1614
1345
1153
1009
897
807
734
673
621
577
538
504
475
448
425
404

67925
33962
22642
16981
13585
11321
9704
8491
7547
6792
5434
4528
3881
3396
3019
2717
2264
1941
1698
1509
1358
1235
1132
1045
970
906
849
799
755
715
679