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In this paper the cascaded H Bridge multilevel inverter (CHB-MLI) is discussed and mainly focuses on the
modified H-Bridge multilevel inverter in which the number of power devices is reduced. The analysis of fivelevel,
seven-level and nine-level MLI are also done. The various control strategies are also introduced which
effectively reduce the harmonics. The THD of five-level multilevel inverter is reduced to 16.91% which is much
lower than the nine-level MLI.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 11( Part 5), December 2014, pp.30-35

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

Harmonics Distortion

Vipul Kumar*, Dr. Arvind Mittal**, Mr. Abid Husain Saifee***

*Assistant Professor and Head of EE Department, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun-248001 (India),

**Associate Professor, Energy Department, NIT-Bhopal-462051(India),

***

Principal, All Saint College, Bhopal-462003 (India) +919826740386,

Abstract

In this paper the cascaded H Bridge multilevel inverter (CHB-MLI) is discussed and mainly focuses on the

modified H-Bridge multilevel inverter in which the number of power devices is reduced. The analysis of fivelevel, seven-level and nine-level MLI are also done. The various control strategies are also introduced which

effectively reduce the harmonics. The THD of five-level multilevel inverter is reduced to 16.91% which is much

lower than the nine-level MLI.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, five-level, seven-level, nine-level MLI, THD, control strategies.

I. Introduction

The preliminary studies on multilevel inverter

(MLI) have been discussed using three level inverter

that has been proposed by Nabae [15]. Multilevel

inverters have more attention in the field of high

voltage and medium power applications due to their

many advantages, such as low voltage stress on

power semiconductor devices, low harmonic

distortions, good electromagnetic compatibility,

reduced switching losses and improved reliability on

fault tolerance. Comparing with the two or three level

inverter multilevel inverter has the more harmonics

reduction capability. Therefore, the multilevel

inverters also have lower dv/dt ratios to prevent

induction or discharge failures on the loads. The

multilevel inverter topologies are classified into three

categories up to now: Diode Clamped inverters,

Flying Capacitor inverters, and Cascaded H Bridge

inverters. Among three types of multi-level topology

the cascaded H Bridge inverter has the least

component for a given number of levels. A new

model of H-Bridge MLI is introduced in which the

number of switches is lower than the cascaded HBridge multilevel inverter which helps to reduce the

overall cost of the inverter and circuit become less

complicated.

This paper presents the model of H-Bridge for

different levels and analysis of the THD with the

resistive load with hardware waveform results. The

THD of five-level MLI can be reduced up to 16.91%

by using the various control strategies which is

introduced in this paper.

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is connected in series by which the five-level output

voltage is obtained. The circuit diagram of the threephase CHB-MLI is shown in the fig 1 and the

corresponding output waveform is shown in fig 2.

Vb

Va

M1

M5

M2

Vdc

Vdc

M3

M4

M1'

M2'

M3'

M4'

M9

M10

Vdc

M7

M5'

M8

M11

M6'

Vdc

Vdc

Vc

M6

M9'

M12

M10'

Vdc

M7'

M8'

M11'

M12'

CHB-MLI

The voltage THD with resistive load is calculated as

0.3192.

In this proposed topology the CHB-MLI is

modified with the objective to reduce the numbers of

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 11( Part 5), December 2014, pp.30-35

power devices. As the number of power devices is

reduced the cost of the circuit also reduces. As the

levels of MLI are increased then in modified circuit

only two power devices are to be added for

increasing one level. Similarly for increasing the twolevel just add four power devices. For example for

five-level MLI six power devices are required, where

as for seven-level eight power devices are required

and for nine-level ten power devices are required.

The power consumption of the circuit is also reduced

and circuit become simple and less complicated as

compared as conventional topology. The power

circuit of five-level modified H-Bridge MLI is shown

in fig 3.

Vb

Va

M1

M7

M2

M 14

M13

M8

Vdc

Fig. 5 Output voltage waveform for single phase fivelevel new model H-Bridge MLI

M 16

M3

M4

M10

M 15

M9

M5

M6

Vdc

5. The control strategy which is used in this topology

is termed as --2-- where the value of is

30.The circuit diagram of three-phase five-level new

model H-Bridge MLI is shown in fig 6 and voltage

output waveforms are shown in fig 7 respectively.

Vc

Vdc

Vdc

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11

17

M18

M12

Vdc

Vdc

The percentage reduction in switching devices is

shown in table 1.

Inverter type

5-level

7-level

9-level

8

12

16

Cascaded HBridge

6

Proposed

topology

10

25%

33.33%

37.5%

% Reduction

Table1. The percentage reduction in switching

devices

New model H-Bridge MLI

i.

In the five-level H-Bridge MLI six power

devices are required for single phase and eighteen

power devices for three-phase power circuit. The

circuit diagram of single phase five-level modified HBridge MLI is shown in the fig 4.

M1

M2

Vdc

LOAD

M3

M4

five-level new model H-Bridge MLI

Vdc

M5

M6

ii.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 11( Part 5), December 2014, pp.30-35

For the seven-level new model H-Bridge MLI

eight power devices are required and for three-phase

twenty four power devices are required. The power

circuit is shown in fig 8. The three-phase power

circuit is same as the power circuit of three-phase

five-level modified H-Bridge MLI and the voltage

output waveforms are shown in fig 9.

M1

M2

Vdc

LOAD

M3

M4

Vdc

M1

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M5

M2

M6

Vdc

LOAD

M3

M7

M8

M4

Vdc

Vdc

M5

M6

M9

M10

Vdc

M7

M8

Vdc

modified H Bridge MLI

Fig. 9 The output voltage waveforms for three-phase

seven-level new model H-Bridge MLI

iii.

Similarly to the five-level and seven-level new

model of H-bridge MLI the ninelevel has required

ten power devices for single-phase and thirty power

devices for three-phase. The power circuit of ninelevel modified H-Bridge MLI is shown in fig10. And

the power circuit for three-phase is same as the fivelevel modified H Bridge MLI. The output voltage

waveforms of nine-level three-phase modified HBridge MLI are shown in fig 11.

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The THD of five-level, seven-level and ninelevel of mew model H-Bridge MLI is shown in the

table 2.

Levels

THD

0.3192

Five-level

0.2546

Seven-level

0.2203

Nine-level

Table 2. Comparing THD of new model H-Bridge

MLI for different levels.

V. Control strategies

By properly controlling the switching of the

MOSFETs, the THD of output voltage waveforms

can be reduced to substantial level. The various

control schemes for five-level new model H-Bridge

MLI are discussed in detail below.

32 | P a g e

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 11( Part 5), December 2014, pp.30-35

--4-- scheme

In this scheme the switching of the MOSFETs is

done in the pattern --4--, where the value of is

22.5. The output voltage waveform for three-phase

is shown in fig 12. It is observed that the THD is

reduced to 0.286.

i.

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The comparison of THD of five-level modified

H-Bridge MLI for various control strategies is shown

in table 3.

Schemes

THD

0.3192

, , 2

0.2086

, , 4

0.2049

, 2, 4

0.1697

, 2, 6

Table 3 Comparison of THD for various control

strategies

The hardware result of a new model H-Bridge

five-level Multilevel inverter is shown in the

following figures.

-2-4-2-scheme

In this scheme the switching of MOSFETs has

changed as -2-4- 2- , where the value of is

18. It is analyzed the THD is reduced 0.2049. The

output waveform of three-phase is shown in fig 13.

ii.

-2-6-2-scheme

In this scheme the switching of the MOSFETs is

done in the pattern of -2-6-2-, where the value

of is 15. The output voltage waveform for threephase is shown in fig 14. It is observed that the THD

is reduced to 0.1697.

iii.

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33 | P a g e

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 11( Part 5), December 2014, pp.30-35

www.ijera.com

conventional nine-level MLI.

VIII. Acknowledgements

The author is very grateful and would

acknowledge the energy department, Maulana Azad

National Institute of Technology for providing all

possible facilities for carrying out this research paper.

References

The waveform of switch M5 is

VII. Conclusions

In this paper modified H-Bridge MLI topology

has been presented using reduced number of devices

as compared to conventional H-Bridge cascaded

MLI. The reduction in the number of devices goes on

increasing as we increase the number of levels. A

suitable and simple control strategy is proposed for

three phase five-level MLI in which the THD is

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Journal Papers:

[1]

Colak _I, Kabalci E. The control methods of

multi-level inverter. TUBAV Sci2009;1:45

54.

[2] Leon JI, Portillo R, Vazquez S, Padilla JJ,

Franquelo LG, Carrasco JM. Simple unified

approach to develop a time-domain

modulation strategy for singlephase

multilevel converters. IEEE Trans Ind

Electron 2008;55:323948.

[3]

Nandhakumar S, Jeevananthan S. Inverted

sine carrier pulse width modulation for

fundamental fortification in DCAC

converters. In: Proceedings of IEEE power

electronics and drive-systems; 2007. p.

102834.

[4]

Kuhn H, Ruger NE, Mertens A. Control

strategy for multilevel inverter with nonideal dc sources. In: Proceedings of IEEE

power electronics specialists conf. Orlando

(USA); 2007.

[5]

Zhong Du1, Leon M. Tolbert2,3, John N.

Chiasson2, and Burak zpineci3, A

Cascade Multilevel Inverter Using a Single

DC Source, Applied Power Electronics

Conference and Exposition, 2006. APEC

'06. Twenty-First Annual IEEE,PP-426-430.

[6]

Gupta AK, Khambadkone AM. A space

vector pwm scheme to reduce common mode

voltage for a cascaded multilevel inverter.

In: Proceedings of 37th IEEE PESC 06,

Jeju (Korea); 2006.

[7]

IAEA, "Model for Analysis of Energy

Demand"

(MAED-2),

User

Guide,

International Atomic Energy Agency,

Vienna, Austria, 2006.

[8]

Juan Quintanilla Martinez, "Energy and

Emissions Long Term Outlook - A Detailed

Simulation of Energy Supply-Demand,"

Mexican-US Economic and Environmental

Modeling Workshop, Mexico City, July 1112, 2005.

[9]

Rodriguez J, Hammond P, Pont J, Musalem

R. Method to increase reliability in 5-level

inverter. Electron Lett 2003;39:13435.

[10] Chiasson J, Tolbert L, McKenzie K, Du Z.

Real-time computer control of a multilevel

converter using the mathematical theory of

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2003;63:197208.

[11] ETSAP, "MARKAL", Energy Technology

Systems Analysis Programme, Energy

Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN),

Petten, The Netherlands, December 2001.

[12] Rashid MH. Power electronics handbook.

Florida, USA: Academic Press; 2001.

[13] Lin BR. A novel control scheme for the

multilevel rectifier/inverter. Taylor and

Francis Int J Electron 2001;88:22547.

[14] Kincic S, Chandra A, Babic S. Multilevel

inverter and its limitations when applied as

statcom.

In:

Proceedings

of

9th

Mediterranean conference on control and

automation, Dubrovnik (Croatia); 2001.

[15] Nabae A, Takashi I, Akagi H. A new

neutral-point clamped PWM inverter.

IEEETransIndAppl 1981; 17:51823.

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