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Original Title: Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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Microphone Array

Lalan Kumar

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

WISSAP 2015

Jan 4-7, 2015

1 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Presentation Outline

I Why Source Localization?

I My Research Journey : Uniform Linear Array (ULA) to Spherical Microphone

Array (SMA)

. Spherical Coordinate System

. Uniform Linear Array and Uniform Circular Array (UCA)

. Data Model in Spatial Domain

. MUltiple SIgnal Classfication (MUSIC) and MUSIC-Group delay (MGD) Spectrum

I Near-field Source Localization in Spherical Harmonics (SH) Domain

. Data Model in SH Domain

. SH-MUSIC, SH-MGD, SH-MVDR

. Cramr-Rao Bound Analysis

. Experiments on Source Localization

I Conclusion

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

I Distant speech recognition, speech enhancement, assistive living1, rendering spatial audio

I Session on Speaker Localization included in INTERSPEECH 2014

Pranjal Agrawal, Aseem Kushwah, Lalan Kumar, and Rajesh M. Hegde, "On the Rapid Prototyping of a Portable

Multi Media Acquisition System for Intelligent Meeting Capture." Journal of Signal Processing Systems 75, no. 3 (2014):

233-243.

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

I Location of a source is given by r = (r, ), with = (, )

I The range (r), elevation () and azimuth () takes values as r (0, ),

[0, ], [0, 2]

Z

4 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Linear and Planar Arrays

S1

M1

M0

X

M1

M0

M2

M3

S2

Z

5 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spatial Domain

I A sound field of L far-field sources with wavenumber k, is incident on a

microphone array of I microphones.

I In spatial domain, the sound pressure, p(k) = [p1(k), p2(k), . . . , pI (k)]T , is

written as,

p(k) = V(, k)s(k) + n(k),

(1)

I V(, k) is I L steering matrix, s(k) is L 1 vector of signal amplitudes,

n(k) is I 1 vector of zero mean, uncorrelated sensor noise.

I The steering matrix V(, k) is expressed as

V(, k) = [v1(1, k), v2(, k), . . . , vL(, k)], where

vl (l , k) = [e

jkT

l r1

jkT

l r2

,e

jkT

l rI T

,...,e

(3)

I ri = ((i 1)d, 0, 0)T for ULA and ri = (r cos i, r sin i, 0)T for UCA.

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

6 / 28

(2)

WISSAP 2015

MUSIC and MUSIC-Group Delay Spectrum for Source Localization

I The MUSIC spectrum for source localization is given by

PM U SIC () =

(4)

vH ()Rpns[Rpns]H v()

Rpns is noise subspace obtained from eigenvalue decomposition of autocorrelation matrix, Rp = E[p(k)p(k)H ].

I MUSIC-Group delay spectrum is given by

PM GD () = (

U

X

|arg(v().qu)|2).PM U SIC ()

(5)

u=1

and qu represents the uth eigenvector of the noise subspace, Rpns.

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

MUSIC Magnitude and MUSIC phase Spectrum : ULA and UCA

MP

4000

5

0

5

100

MUSIC Magnitude

2000

80

60

0

100

Ele() 40

50

Ele()

1

40

20

60

80

100

120

180

160

140

20

0

120

140

160

180

1

MP

0.5

0

0

100

80

60

40

20

10

20

30

40

Azi()

50

60

70

80

0.5

0

0

90

(a)

10

20

30

40

Azi()

50

60

70

80

90

(b)

(a) Spectral magnitude of MUSIC for UCA (top) and ULA (bottom). (b)Spectral phase of MUSIC for

UCA (top) and ULA (bottom). Sources at (15,50) and (20,60) for UCA. Sources at 50 and 60

for ULA.

8 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Group Delay and MUSIC-Group delay Spectrum : ULA and UCA

x 10

30

MUSICGroup Delay

20

10

0

100

50

Ele()

1

20

60

40

80

100

120

140

180

160

0.5

0

0

2

0

100

50

Ele() 0

1

20

40

80

60

100

120

180

160

140

Azimuth()

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

0

0

90

10

20

30

40

Azi()

Azi()

(a)

(b)

50

60

70

80

90

(a) Standard group delay spectrum of MUSIC for UCA (top) and ULA (bottom) (b) MUSIC-Group

delay spectrum for UCA (top) and ULA (bottom).

2

Kumar, L.; Tripathy, A.; Hegde, R.M., "Robust Multi-Source Localization Over Planar Arrays Using MUSICGroup Delay Spectrum," Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.62, no.17, pp.4627,4636, Sept.1, 2014 doi:

10.1109/TSP.2014.2337271

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

9 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Application in DSR

Z

Estimate

DOA

Compute

TDOA

DSR

S1 (40,19)

T60

T60

Methods CTM

(150ms) (250ms)

MGD

12.98

23.96

MONC MUSIC

9.2 14.21

26.01

BS-MUSIC

15.02

27.99

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

Train

FSB

10 / 28

S2 (30,15)

T60

T60

(150ms) (250ms)

11.99

23.58

13.78

25.56

15.22

27.32

WISSAP 2015

Spherical Microphone Array (SMA)

I The position vector of ith microphone is given as ri = (ra, i) where ra is

radius of the spherical array ands i = (i, i).

Far-field

Near-field

(a)

(b)

(a) Spherical microphone array : Eigenmike system (b)Near-field and far-field region around

spherical microphone array. The ith microphone is positioned at ri and lth source at rl .

3

Kumar, L.; Singhal, K.; Hegde, R.M., "Robust source localization and tracking using MUSIC-Group delay spectrum

over spherical arrays," CAMSAP 2013, vol., no., pp.304,307, 15-18 Dec. 2013

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spatial Domain

|ri rl |

,

c

sl (ti (l ))

|ri rl |

with i(l ) =

pi(t) =

L

X

sl (t i(l ))

|ri rl |

l=1

(6)

+ ni(t).

pi(fq ) =

L

X

ej2fq i(l)

l=1

|ri rl |

(7)

Kumar, L.; Singhal, K.; Hegde, R.M., "Near-field source localization using spherical microphone array," HSCMA 2014,

vol., no., pp.82,86, 12-14 May 2014

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spatial Domain

I Dropping q, the Equation 7 can be re-written in wavenumber domain as

pi(k) =

L

X

ejk|rirl|

l=1

|ri rl |

(8)

sl (k) + ni(k).

I In matrix form, the final near-field data model in spatial domain can be written as

p(k) = V()s(k) + n(k)

(9)

I The steering matrix V() is

(10)

ejk|r1rl|

ejk|rI rl| T

v(l ) = [

,...,

]

|r1 rl |

|rI rl |

13 / 28

(11)

WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spherical Harmonics Domain

I Monochromatic spherical wave solution for wave equation

written in spherical coordinates as

ejk|rirl|

|ri rl |

X

n

X

ejk|ri rl |

,

|ri rl |

can be

(12)

n=0 m=n

mode strength bn(k, ra) as bn(k, ra, rl ) = j (n1)kbn(k, ra)hn(krl ).

I The far-field mode strength for open sphere (virtual sphere) and rigid sphere

[1] is given by

bn(k, r) = 4j njn(kr), open sphere

0

j

n (kra )

n

= 4j jn(kr) 0

hn(kr) , rigid sphere.

hn(kra)

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

14 / 28

WISSAP 2015

(13)

(14)

Near-field Criterion for SMA

50

Magnitude(dB)

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

50

n=4

100

Nearfield

Farfield

150

200

250 1

10

10

10

Kmax

Far-field and near-field mode strength for Eigenmike system. Near-field source is at rl = 1m and

order is varied from n = 0 (top) to n = 4 (bottom)

I The near-field criteria for spherical array is presented based on similarity of near-field mode strength (|bn(k, ra, rl )|) and far-field mode strength

(|bn(k, ra)|).

I The two functions start behaving in similar way at krl N , for array of

order N as shown in the Figure.

I Hence, near-field condition for spherical array turns out to be rN F

ra rl N

[2].

k

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

N

k

and

Spherical Harmonics

I Ynm represents spherical harmonic of order n and degree m given by

s

Ynm(, )

Pnm(cos)ejm.

4(n + m)!

0 n N, n m n

I Spherical harmonics plot : Y00, Y10, Y11

16 / 28

WISSAP 2015

(15)

Spherical Fourier Transform

I Assuming continuous distribution of pressure, the spherical Fourier transform (SFT) of received pressure pc(k, r, , ) at (r, , ), is given as [3]

Z

pnm(k, r) =

0

(16)

pnm(k, r)

=

I

X

aipi(k, r, i)[Ynm(i)]

(17)

i=1

pnm(k, r) = YH ()p(k, r, )

(18)

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spherical Harmonics Domain

I Substituting the expression for pressure from Equation 12 in Equation 11,

the steering matrix in Equation 10 can be written as

V() = Y()[B(r1)yH (1), , B(rL)yH (L)]

(19)

y(i) = [Y00(i), Y11(i), Y10(i), Y11(i), . . . , YNN (i)].

(20)

B(rl ) = diag(b0(k, ra, rl ), b1(k, ra, rl ), b1(k, ra, rl ), b1(k, ra, rl ), .., bN (k, ra, rl ))

(21)

18 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Data Model in Spherical Harmonics Domain

I Substituting (19) in (9), multiplying both side by YH () and utilizing Equation 17, the data model becomes

pnm(k, r) = YH ()Y()[B(r1)yH (1), , B(rL)yH (L)]s(k) + nnm(k)

(22)

I Orthogonality of spherical harmonics under spatial sampling suggests [4],

YH ()Y()

= I.

I The data model in spherical harmonics domain turns out to be

pnm(k) = [B(r1)yH (1), , B(rL)yH (L)]s(k) + nnm(k).

(23)

(24)

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

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WISSAP 2015

SH-MUSIC, SH-MGD, SH-MVDR

I The near-field spherical harmonics MUSIC spectrum can now be written as

PSHM U SIC (rs, s) =

(25)

PSHM GD (rs, s) = (

U

X

|arg(vnmH .qu)|2).PM M

(26)

u=1

PM V DR(rs, s) =

(27)

20 / 28

WISSAP 2015

x : 60

Y : 0.06

z : 0.66

0.5

0

0.1

x : 55

Y : 0.08

z:1

0.5

0

0.1

0.08

20

0.04 0

40

Elevation( )

60

0.08

0.06

Range(m)

20

0.04 0

60

40

80

0.06

Range(m)

Elevation( )

SHMGD

0.5

0.5

20

0 0

40

20

Elevation()

60

x : 60

Y : 30

z : 0.96

0.5

0

80

80

60

80

x : 55

Y : 40

z:1

x : 60

Y : 30

z : 0.8

0

80

20

0.04 0

60

40

Elevation( )

(c)

x : 55

Y : 40

z:1

1

x : 60

Y : 30

z : 0.71

40

Azimuth()

0.08

(b)

x : 55

Y : 40

z:1

x : 60

Y : 0.06

z : 0.96

0

0.1

80

(a)

1

x : 55

Y : 0.08

z:1

0.5

SHMVDR

Range(m) 0.06

SHMUSIC

x : 60

Y : 0.06

z : 0.71

SHMVDR

x : 55

Y : 0.08

z:1

SHMGD

SHMUSIC

80

(d)

60

Azimuth()

40

20

0 0

(e)

20

40

Elevation()

60

80

60

40

Azimuth()

20

0 0

20

(f)

21 / 28

WISSAP 2015

60

40

Elevation()

80

55.3

49.8

0.063

44.3

Range(m)

0.062

38.8

0.061

33.3

X : 60

Y : 30X:Y: 6030

Z: 0.06

Z : 0.06

0.06

27.8

0.059

22.3

0.058

33

16.7

32

11.2

31

30

Azimuth()

29

28

27

57

58

22 / 28

59

60

Elevation()

61

62

63

5.72

0.2

WISSAP 2015

Cramr-Rao Bound Analysis

I The unknown parameter vector is = [r T T T ]T with r = [r1 rL]T =

[1 L]T and = [1 L]T .

I Based on Cramr-Rao bound (CRB) expression for far-field case5, CRB expression for near-field case, can be obtained using following Fisher information matrix (FIM) elements

H

H R1V

nm )

Fr = 2Re (RsVnm

Rp1VnmRs)T (V

nmr p

1

T

H

H

1

+ (RsVnmRp Vnmr ) (RsVnmRp Vnm )

H

nm )

H R1V

Rp1VnmRs)T (V

F = 2Re (RsVnm

nm

p

H

nm )

nm )T (RsVH R1V

Rp1V

+ (RsVnm

p

nm

(28)

(29)

5

Kumar, L.; Hegde, R.M., "Stochastic Cramr-Rao Bound Analysis for DOA Estimation in Spherical Harmonics Domain," Signal Processing Letters, IEEE , vol.22, no.8, pp.1030-1034, Aug. 2015 doi: 10.1109/LSP.2014.2381361

Speech Source Localization over Spherical Microphone Array

23 / 28

WISSAP 2015

6

x 10

CRB(r)

CRB()

CRB()

CRB

1.5

0.5

0

10

7.5

2.5

0

SNR (dB)

24 / 28

2.5

7.5

10

WISSAP 2015

I RMSE was found for sources at (0.06,30,45) and (0.08,40,50) for 100 iteration.

Comparison of the RMSE in (r, ) at known .

SNR (dB) S

S1

-10

S2

S1

-5

S2

S1

0

S2

SH-MGD

(0.001,0.4)

(0,0.4243)

(4.47e-04,0)

(4.9e-04,0)

(0,0)

(0,0)

SH-MUSIC

(0.001,0.2449)

(0.001,0.2)

(2.0e-04,0)

(0,0.1414)

(0,0)

(0,0)

25 / 28

SH-MVDR

(0.013,2.97)

(0.007,2.05)

(0.0028,1.0)

(0.0018,0.7071)

(0.001,0)

(4.0e-04,0)

WISSAP 2015

Conclusion

I MUSIC-Group delay based source localization has been presented for ULA,

UCA and SMA.

I Near-field source localization for simultaneous estimation of range and bearing, has been utilized for the fist time.

I Experiments on source localization is presented as RMSE.

I Near-field array processing using sparse recovery technique in SH domain,

will be dealt with in future.

26 / 28

WISSAP 2015

References

[1] E. G. Williams, Fourier acoustics: sound radiation and nearfield acoustical

holography. Access Online via Elsevier, 1999. 14

[2] E. Fisher and B. Rafaely, Near-field spherical microphone array processing with radial filtering, Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE

Transactions on, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 256265, 2011. 15

[3] J. R. Driscoll and D. M. Healy, Computing fourier transforms and convolutions on the 2-sphere, Advances in applied mathematics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp.

202250, 1994. 17

[4] B. Rafaely, Analysis and design of spherical microphone arrays, Speech

and Audio Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 135143,

2005. 19

27 / 28

WISSAP 2015

Thank You

Lalan Kumar

lalank@iitk.ac.in

http://home.iitk.ac.in/~lalank/

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