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saqarTelos semiotikis

sazogadoeba

semiotikis

kvlevis

centri

cira barbaqaZe

poeziis
semiotika

Semiotics
of Poetry

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi 2009
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naSromSi gamokvleulia qarTuli poeturi


teqstebi kognitiuri lingvistikis farglebSi
semiotikuri meTodologiiT. gamovlenilia universaluri da individualuri poeturi konceptebi, romlebic sainteresoa rogorc qarTuli
poeturi enobrivi suraTis Sesaqmnelad, aseve individualuri poeturi samyaros dasaxatad.
wigni gankuTvnilia enaTmecnierTaTvis da
humanitaruli dargis specialistebisaTvis.

saredaqcio kolegia: guCa kvaracxelia (mTavari


redaqtori), mixeil qurdiani, izabela qobalava,
manana kvaWantiraZe, zaal kikviZe, Tamar berekaSvili, Tamar lomiZe, qeTevan genebaSvili (pasuxismgebeli mdivani).

c. barbaqaZe 2009

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2009


Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

ISBN 978-9941-12- 742-7

Sesavali

bolo aTwleulebSi samyaros enobrivi


suraTebis Seswavlisaken Semobruneba ganpirobebulia mravali samecniero dargis (filosofia, fsiqologia, eTnologia, sociologia,
lingvistika,
kulturologia...)
Rrma interesTa TanxvdomiT.
samyaroSi, mis fragmentebsa da movlenebSi, amgvari wvdomis erT-erTi saSualeba
aris ena. yoveli bunebrivi ena asaxavs samyaros konceptualizaciis gansazRvrul models. `Cemi samyaros sazRvrebs gansazRvravs Cemi enis sazRvrebi~, _ wers ludvig vitgenStaini Tavis cnobil `logikurfilosofiur
traqtatSi~.
sinamdvilis
konceptualizacia aris msoflaRqmis universaluri saSualeba, Tumca TiToeuli
enobrivi koleqtivisaTvis is specifikuri
niSnebiT xasiaTdeba. sxvadasxva enis matareblebi samyaros ramdenadme gansxvavebulad `xedaven~, yoveli ena `xatavs~ Tavis
suraTs. konceptebis sferoSi Semodis adamianic, magram ara rogorc bunebis fenomeni, aramed adamiani, rogorc kulturis,
rogorc semiotikuri urTierTobis Sedegad
Camoyalibebuli fenomeni. adamianSi wvdomis, mis mentalobaSi garkvevis, misi nacionalur-kulturuli warmodgenebis gamovlenis erTaderT saSualebad gvevlineba misi
ena. ena (metyveleba) avlens agreTve kon5

kretul adamians, mis rTul Sinagan samyaros.


kvlevis amgvari mimarTuleba axalia
qarTul humanitarul mecnierebaSi, rogorc Tavisi kompleqsuri midgomiT kvlevis obieqtisadmi, aseve Tavisi mizandasaxulobiT.
samyaros enobrivi suraTebis kvlevas
safuZvlad udevs humboldtis naSromebi
da misi swavleba sityvis Sinagan formaze,
miuleris kulturul_filologiuri Studiebi, neohumboldtianelebis Teoria, vaisgerberis naSromebi (manve Semoitana termini _ samyaros enobrivi suraTi, romelic
gamoiyena Tavis programul monografiaSi:
mSobliuri ena da sulis formireba), sepir_uorfis lingvisturi Teoria da sxva.
mniSvnelovania am mxriv ana veJbickas Sromebi.
konceptis kvleva mniSvnelovania samyaros enobrivi suraTebis Seqmnisa da Semecnebis procesSi. Aaxali codnis paradigmis
konteqstSi koncepti ganixileba, rogorc
adamianis umniSvnelovanesi saazrovno meqanizmi, romelic gansazRvravs adamianis mimarTebas sinamdvilesTan. swored am mxriv
aris saintereso CvenTvis konceptis metaforuli gaazrebis reprezentaciuli variantebi enobrivi cnobierebis struqturebSi
da, am SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli poeturi diskursis masalebis mixedviT.
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niSnis problema semiotikaSi

`niSnis istoria _ es misi


`gacnobierebis~ istoriaa.~
rolan barti

semiotika, rogorc mecniereba (SeiZleba


iTqvas, erTgvari metamecniereba) XX saukunis dasawyisSi gamoCnda. misi Seqmnis
idea erTdroulad ramdenime swavluls gauCnda. semiotikis fuZemdeblad pirsi iTvleba, romlis ideebi SemdgomSi morisma
ganaviTara, xolo sosiurma Camoayaliba semiologiis safuZvlebi `zogadi lingvistikis kursSi~.
XX saukuneSi semiotika ganviTarda
sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT. amerikul semiotikaSi Seswavlis obieqti iyo sxvadaxxva
araverbaluri simboluri sistemebi, evropa
ki gahyva sosiuris tradicias da semiotika ZiriTadad ganaviTares lingvistebma:
ielmslevma, karcevskim, iakobsonma; literaturaTmcodneebma: propma, tinianovma, eixenbaumma... ufro mogvianebiT, struqturu7

li meTodebi socialuri da kulturuli


movlenebis analizisas gamoiyenes frangma
da italielma struqturalistebma: bartma,
greimasma, levi_strosma, umberto ekom...
ratom gaxda saWiro semiotikis Camoyalibeba?
semiotikis Seswavlis sagania niSani da
niSanTa sistemebi. rodesac konkretuli
mecniereba aRwers niSans (lingvisti, fsiqologi, logikosi, kibernetikosi, literaturaTmcodne...), aseT SemTxvevaSi, mecnierebi ifarglebian niSnis gansazRvris dros
konkretuli mecnierebis masaliT, ris gamoc niSnis gansazRvra arazusti da arasakmarisia. semiotikis kvlevis mizania _ sxvadasxva mecnierebis gaerTianebiT gamoimuSaos niSnis SedarebiT zusti gansazRvra da
daadginos is kanonebi, romlebiTac niSnebi
imarTebian.
semiotika axali drois mecnierebaa,A
romelic Seiswavlis sxvadasxva niSnuri
sistemebis Seqmnis, agebisa da funqcionirebis kanonebs. igi Tavisi kvlevis obieqts
poulobs yvelgan: enaSi, maTematikaSi, literaturaSi, arqiteqturaSi, qvecnobier
procesebSi, miTSi, ritualSi, cxovelTa
da mcenareTa samyaroSi da sxvagan.
fuko wers imis Sesaxeb, rom Tanamedrove (postmodernistul) epoqaSi formirdeba azrovnebis axali stili, axali kultura. niSandoblivia, rom barti semiotikas ganixilavs Tanamedrove filosofiaSi
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postmodernistuli proeqtis realizaciis


saSualebad.
semiotikis ZiriTadi termini _ n i S a n i , sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva avtorTan gansxvavebulad ganisazRvreboda. aristotelesTan niSani aRniSnavs ara marto
niSans, aramed _ simptomsac, xolo sityvebi azris pirobiT niSnebad aris miCneuli.
pirsis mixedviT, niSani sxva araferia, Tu
ara universaluri Suamavali adamianur gonebasa da samyaros Soris. aRsaniSnTan damokidebulebis mixedviT, pirsi gamoyofda:
ikonur niSnebs, indeqsur niSnebs da simbolur niSnebs.
pirsis semiotika ganaviTara morisma.
man semiotikis erT-erTi mTavari termini
`semiozisi~ ganmarta, rogorc `procesi,
romelSic raRac funqcionirebs, rogorc
niSani~. morisma gamoyo semiozisis sami
ganzomileba: s e m a n t i k a , romelic ikvlevs niSnis damokidebulebas Tavis obieqtTan; s i n t a q t i k a _ niSnebis erTmaneTTan damokidebulebas Seiswavlis da
p r a g m a t i k a , romelic ikvlevs damokidebulebas niSansa da mis momxmarebels Soris.
sosiuri ganixilavda niSans, rogorc
bilateralurs (ormxrivi), rogorc aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis erTobas, romelsac ara aqvs TavisTavad mniSvneloba da
mxolod sistemis sxva elementebiT ganisazRvreba. sosiurs mizanSewonilad ar mi9

aCnda niSnis sinonimad simbolos gamoyeneba,


radgan niSani pirobiTia, xolo simbolo
ar SeiZleba yofiliyo bolomde pirobiTi.
benvenistma SemdgomSi daazusta, rom pirobiTia niSnis damokidebuleba realobasTan
da ara niSnis komponentebs Soris damokidebuleba. niSnebi qmnian enas, romelic gamodis yvela sxva sistemis interpretatorad (benvenisti).
karcevskim ganaviTara niSnis idea da
Semoitana asimetriuli dualizmis gageba
(aRmniSvneli da aRsaniSni mxolod wamierad ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs).
sxvadasxva skolisa da avtoris mier
niSnisa da simbolos gansxvavebulma, xolo, zog SemTxvevaSi, sinonimurma gansazRvrebebma am terminebis aRreva gamoiwvia.
pirsma niSnis gansakuTrebuli saxe aRniSna
simboloTi da terminad gamoiyena. am faqtma gamoiwvia uxerxuli omonimia. ramdenadac zogierT evropul tradiciaSi Sesabamisi sityva aRiniSneboda saerTo mniSvnelobiT _ niSani.
franguli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT,
malambergma SemogvTavaza ganvasxvaoT semiotika, romelic Seiswavlis araenobriv
niSnebs, mecnierebisagan, romelic enis simboloebs Seiswavlis.
kasireri `simbolur formebs~ miakuTvnebda enas, miTsa da xelovnebas da simbolurs da semiotikurs sinonimebad miiCnevda. msgavsi terminebis mniSvneloba rusul10

Si daefuZna dasavlur enebs, xolo mogvianebiT, rusuli simbolizmis mier Semotanil terminebs. zogierTi mecnieris mosazrebiT, niSani da simbolo ubralod, sinonimebia.
niSnis saintereso interpretacia warmoadgina rolan bartma, romlis mixedviTac, nebismieri niSani gulisxmobs sami tipis damokidebulebas. upirvelesad, Sinagani
damokidebuleba, romelic akavSirebs aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns da ori garegani
damokidebuleba: pirveli virtualuria, igi
miakuTvnebs niSans sxva niSanTa gansazRvrul sistemas, meore damokidebuleba aqtualuria, is aerTianebs niSans gamonaTqvamis sxva niSnebTan. am damokidebulebebis
mixedviT, igi gamoyofs niSnis sam ganzomilebas: simbolurs, paradigmatuls da sintagmaturs.
bartis azriT, terminTa aRrevas iwvevs
is faqti, rom TiToeuli mkvlevari, TiToeuli skola cdilobs Tavisi analizi daafuZnos niSnis mxolod erT romelime ganzomilebaze da terminebis amosavalic es
damokidebulebaa.
niSnisa da simbolos sxvadasxva gansazRvrebebis Sejerebis safuZvelze Cven unda
vaRiaroT semiotikis terminTa ierarqiaSi
niSani, rogorc ZiTiTadi termini, romlis
mniSvneloba gacilebiT ufro farToa, vidre simbolosi. simbolo niSnis saxea, romelsac Tavisi maxasiaTeblebi aqvs da mxo11

lod zog SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos niSnis


sinonimi.
mesame aTaswleulSi mecniereba Tavisi
ganviTarebis axal safexurze gadadis. Seicvala samyaro da is informaciuli veli,
romelic am samyaros akravs. Sesabamisad,
xdeba mecnierebis gadawyoba axal meTodologiebze, romlebic ukeT axsnian samyaros
da adamians. swored aseTi mecnierebaa semiotika.
semiologebi leqsikonebs `mniSvnelobaTa sasaflaos~ uwodeben. semiotikas ar
ainteresebs sityvis myari (saleqsikono)
mniSvneloba. igi orientirebulia ara imdenad niSnis denotatiur, ramdenadac konotaciur mniSvnelobaze, anu im mniSvnelobaze, romelsac sityva iZens teqstSi (konteqstSi). semiozisis procesi praqtikulad
usasruloa, radgan gansxvavebulia is konteqstebi, romlebSic niSani funqcionirebs.
umberto ekos azriT, niSnis arsi ixsneba
SemousazRvrav semiozisSi, rac imaSi gamoixateba, rom mniSvneloba arasdros ar qmnis
Caketil sistemas, ramdenadac niSanTa samyaro komunikaciis procesSi mudmiv moZraobaSia.
semiotikuri
gagebiT,
niSani,
amave
dros, aris simptomi (medicinaSi simptomi
ganimarteba, rogorc raime daavadebis damaxasiaTebeli niSani), ramdenadac misi axsna
aris garkveul azrze miniSneba, anu, semiotikuri niSani niSani_miniSnebaa erTsa da
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imave dros. Aamgvari gageba devs yvelaze


ufro primitiul niSnebSi. magaliTad,
mwvane feri gadasasvlelze ara mxolod
mwvane feria, aramed miniSneba: moZraoba nebadarTulia!
arsebobs ufro rTuli agebulebis niSnebi, roca mkvlevari Tavad axdens kodebis
meSveobiT axsnas, amgvari interpretaciebi
yovelTvis riskTan aris dakavSirebuli,
radgan arsebobs subieqturi gaazrebebis
didi albaToba.
dReisaTvis semiotika warmoadgens sakmaod ganviTarebul Teorias, romlis meTodebi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavaanalizoT
adamianis Semoqmedebis sruliad gansxvavebuli sferoebi. arsebobs literaturis semiotika (barti, derida, rusuli formalisturi skola...), politikuri semiotika
(barti, jgufi `tel-kel~...), masobrivi komunikaciebis semiotika (greimasi...), xelovnebis semiotika (kristeva, eko, lotmani...),
kinosemiotika (metci, pazolini), Teatris
semiotika (pavi), zoosemiotika (sebeoki),
fsiqoanalitikuri da pedagogiuri semiotika (lakani, piaJe...) da sxva.
semiotikis TvalTaxedviT, samyaro SeiZleba warmovidginoT, rogorc iseTi niSanTa sistema, romelic Tavis TavSi uamrav
gansxvavebul qvesistemas moicavs, Tanac am
mikrosistemebis `ena~ sruliad gansxvavebulia erTmaneTisagan. SeiZleba Tu ara, arsebobdes gansxvavebul sistemaTa `saerTo
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ena~? riT gansxvavdeba da ra aqvs saerTo


erTi sistemis niSans meore sistemis niSanTan? ratom mouyara Tavi semiotikam yvela
gansxvavebul niSans? arsebobs Tu ara universaluri niSnebi? ra principiT unda aigos axali `babilonis godoli~ ise, rom
ar daingres?
ras niSnavs bartis sityvebi: `niSnis
istoria _ misi gacnobierebis istoriaa~?
es aris mecnierebis damokidebuleba niSnis
mimarT misi yvelaze zedapiruli Seswavlidan siRrmiseuli Seswavlisken. rogorc
davinaxeT, barti sam Sres gamoyofs niSanSi. SesaZloa, momavalSi mecnierebma sxva
ganzomilebebic aRmoaCinon. Tu adamiansac
ganvixilavT, rogorc niSan-simbolos, misi
Secnoba-amocnobis procesic xom mravalganzomilebiania da arasodes bolomde amoxsnili. saintereso paradoqsia, rom mecnieri swavlobs adamians (anu sakuTar Tavs),
rogorc niSan-simbolos.

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semiotika da poezia

kiTxvaze: ra aris semiotika? tradiciuli pasuxi, rom es aris mecniereba niSnebze da niSanTa sistemebze, _ axals aRarafers gveubneba, radgan `niSnebi~, rogorc
aseTi, samyaros gaCenidan arsebobs da iarsebebs yovelTvis, vidre sicocxle iqneba
dedamiwaze, maTi axsnis mcdelobac mudam
eqneba adamians.
`pirvelad iyo sityva...~, logosi, da
mere danawevrda samyaro, yvelafers Tavisi
saxeli daerqva, azri iqca materiad, funqcia SeiZines sagnebma, xolo Tavad azri ki
gaxda dafaruli, Sefaruli, gadafaruli...anu SeiniRba sxvadasxva SinaarsiT. ra
unda qnas mkvlevarma, romelic ar yofila
qmnadobis mowme? Ddaiwyo svla piriqiT _
materiidan (anu sagnis funqciidan, daniSnulebidan, Sinaarsidan) ideisken, azris
amocnobisken. iq, sadac Cndeba moTxovna,
rom gaiSifros niSani, Cndeba da aqtiurdeba semiotika, rogorc erTgvari universaluri metamecniereba niSanTa Sesaxeb.
samyaro iqca ara mxolod teqstad, aramed Zalian rTul teqstad, saWiro gaxda
am teqstis `wakiTxva, interpretacia. Aaq
ki saSiSroeba yovelTvis iarsebebs, radgan
`gageba~ arc ise ioli aRmoCnda, rogorc
es erTi SexedviT SeiZleba Candes. Aar arsebobs erTi anbani, romliTac yvela
teqsts wavikiTxavdiT, radgan yvelafers
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Tavisi `ena~ aqvs, yvela struqtura gansakuTrebuli warmonaqmnia... cxovelebsa da


frinvelebs warmodgenac ara aqvT semiotikaze, magram mSvenivrad urTierToben da
agebineben erTmaneTs. Aadamians ki ufro meti unda, vidre Cveulebrivi gagebinebaa, mas
surs, gaaRwios saganTa miRma da amoicnos
maTi arsebobis azri, gaarkvios samyaro da
sakuTari Tavi am samyaroSi.
semiotika swored am perspeqtivas gvTavazobs... is eZebs kanonzomierebebs niSnur
sistemebSi, ikvlevs niSnis bunebas da am
yvelafers erT xedvaSi aerTianebs imis gamo, rom niSani yvelgan pirobiTia, swored
amitom sosiuri semiologiis sagnad Tvlida sistemaTa erTobliobas, dafuZnebuls
niSnis pirobiTobaze. imis miuxedavad, rom
niSani motivirebulia (romlis kvali zogjer Cans da zogjer _ ara niSanSi), es
xels ar uSlis mas, rom moqmedebisas iyos
pirobiTi. MmagaliTad: roca vambob, rom _
vRelav... me ar vfiqrob, rom es sityva
enobrivi metaforaa da Cems cnobierebaSi
am sityvis gamoyenebisas ar Cndeba `zRvis
Relva~. Mmxatvrul metaforebSi ufro
rTuladaa saqme. Aam SemTxvevaSi ena masalaa `axali enis~ asaSeneblad. rogor da
ratom iqmneba da ibadeba metafora? Aamaze
pasuxi poetebsac ara aqvT, albaT gamouTqmelis gamosaTqmelad, gancdaTa zRvarze...
erTxel galaktions gadaekidnen Turme: ras
gulisxmobT ama da am metaforaSio? Ppoe16

ti ki gulwrfelad Cioda: ise mekiTxebian,


TiTqos vicode da ar veubnebodeo.
ras niSnavs: `ivlisisferi yinvis Tasebi?... ra Sinaarsia am metaforaSi da poetis romeli gancdis niSania? rTulia individualuri saxeebis kvleva, magram imgvari saxeebic arsebobs, universalur, poetur saxe_simboloebad rom SeiZleba CaiTvalos...

17

semiozisi poeziaSi

semiozisis idea gamoxatavs niSansa da


garesamyaros Soris damokidebulebas; es
aris niSnis interpretaciis dinamikuri
procesi. semiozisi gansakuTrebiT saintereso movlenaa poetur metyvelebaSi, radgan poezia enis SemoqmedebiTi bunebis gamovlenis erTgvari scenaa, sadac sxvadasxva
ganzomilebis niSnebi mudmiv moZraobaSi
arian. poetur teqstSi harmonias qmnis
ritmis, riTmis, emociis, bgerweris, tropebis... feierverki. swored maTi harmoniuli SexamebiT gamoixateba azri, romelic
`cocxalia~ da ase uSualod moqmedebs
mkiTxvelze. Aamgvari niSnebis Seqmnaze werda maleviCi: `niSnis Seqmna saidumloa, niSani ki _ saidumlos realuri saxe~.
SemoqmedebiTi
metyveleba
mudmivad
gvTavazobs axal, moulodnel saxeebs... poezia yvelaze ufro Rrmad aRwevs enis arsSi, roca SegviZlia gavimeoroT haidegeris
cnobili Tqma: ara ena CvenSi, aramed
Cven_enaSi! xolo roca ena gamodis scenaze
da is iwyebs `laparaks~, am dros cocxldeba postmodernistuli metafora `avtori mokvda~, poeti xdeba RvTaebrivi azris gamtari, mediumi... es aris namdvili
dialogi adamianur da RvTaebriv cnobierebas Soris. swored amitom xdeba saWiro,
rom aixsnas adamianis mier Seqmnili... sxva
SemTxvevaSi yvelaferi cxadi iqneboda, anu
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avtors yovelTvis gacnobierebuli eqneboda mxatvruli saxeebi da, Sesabamisad, aRar


iqneboda saWiro kvleva. vasil friaufi amgvari komunikaciis Sesaxeb wers: `vin azrovnebs komunikaciis procesSi? Kkidev erTi paradoqsuli pasuxi: azrovnebs viRac
sxva... ara is, vinc `demonstrirebuli urTierTobis farul TamaSSia~.
es `WkuismiRmuri~ ena ver egueba
Stamps da mudmivad ngreva-Senebis procesSia... rac imas niSnavs, rom sityvebs, ra
Tqma unda, aqvT ZiriTadi, saleqsikono
mniSvnelobebi (amis gareSe saerTod SeuZlebeli iqneboda konotaciuri mniSvnelobebis gaCena), magram Cveulebrivi metyvelebis kanonebisagan gansxvavebiT sruliad
sxva ganzomilebis kanonebSi arseboben. sabolood, mniSvnelovania ara Tavad niSani,
aramed is gancda, romelic niSnis meSveobiT miiRweva, anu Secnobis procesi. `saganTa Secnoba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre maTi aRmniSvneli niSnebi~ (wminda avgustine
1999:330).
poeziaSi niSania mTeli leqsi... sxva danarCeni: sintagmebi, frazebi, tropebi... unda ganvixiloT mxolod mTeli leqsis azrTan mimarTebiT; amisaTvis ki aucilebelia
jer sworad gavSifroT leqsis idea, azri.
amitom aris saxifaTo leqsis axsna... aq
moqmedebs subieqtur interpretaciaTa mTeli jaWvi. amgvari damokidebulebaa gamoxatuli muxran maWavarianis Semdeg leqsSi:
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`sxvas rom ar esmis Seni leqsi,


Sen rogorc gesmis! _
sisulelea, _
amis gamo ukeTu borgav:
sisulelea, _
vinaidan,
aramcTu leqsi,
sityvac ki erTi
erTnairad ar esmis or kacs.~
sinamdvileSi ki poetur teqstSi yvelaferi maTematikurad zustia... leqsi makrokosmosia, romelic kosmoss, garkveul
wesrigs imeorebs. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca
leqsi erTgvari qaosis gamomxatvelia, am
drosac ki is aris `mowesrigebuli qaosi~,
anu qaossac Tavisi kanonebi aqvs da swored am wesrigSi moiazreba uwesrigoba. yvela SemTxvevaSi poezia mowesrigebuli metyvelebaa. sakvlevia, ra Tqma unda, is, rom
arsebobs sruliad gansxvavebuli wesrigis
sistemebi. Cven ar SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom
verlibri tradiciul leqsTan mimarTebiT
mouwesrigebeli metyvelebaa. Uufro zusti
iqneba Tqma: rom arsebobs gansxvavebuli
wesrigis sistemebi, romlebsac Tavisi kanonebi aqvs. erTi leqsis gansxvavebuli aRqmac imaze metyvelebs, rom poeturi teqsti mravalganzomilebiania da mkiTxveli
aRiqvams ara gansxvavebulad, aramed sxvadasva ganzomilebas.
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semiozisi da avangardi

ras niSnavs poeziaSi niSnis `ganuleba~?


vTqvaT, leqsikuri semantikis SemTxvevaSi,
roca sityva ar aRniSnavs imas, rasac leqsikonebSi. leqsemis desemantizaciis dros
iwyeba metaforizaciis procesi, radgan ar
arsebobs bunebaSi niSani, romelic arafers
ar aRniSnavs. Llevi strosi Tavis cnobil
`velur gonebaSi~ gveubeba: rom wvrilmani
nivTi, xelosnis an moyvarulis mier gamogonebuli sagani, TavisTavad, Zieba da sagnisTvis azris boZebaa... marTalia, es msjeloba sagnebs Seexeba, magram absoluturad
vrceldeba sityvebzec... poetic qmnis da
igonebs da axal azrs sZens sityvebs. sainteresoa rolan bartis erTi statia _
`saganTa semantika~, aq rasac barti sagnebze ambobs, rogorc niSnebze, SegviZlia gavavrceloT sityvebzec, rogorc niSnebze:
`sagani emsaxureba adamians, raTa gavlena
moaxdinos samyaroze, gardaqmnas igi, iyos
aqtiuri, igi aris mediatori qmedebasa da
adamians Soris. SeiZleboda aqve aRgveniSna,
rom ar arsebobs, ase vTqvaT, sagani arafrisTvis... paradoqsi, risi miniSnebac msurs,
isaa, rom sagnebs, saerTo jamSi, yovelTvis
aqvT funqcia, utilitaruloba da gamoyenebiToba. Cven gvjera, rom maT aqvT wmindad
instrumentuli daniSnuleba, maSin, roca
sinamdvileSi sxva datvirTvac aqvT, sxva
ramesac warmoadgenen: azrs atareben~.
21

miT umetes, poeziaSi ar arsebobs zedmeti sityvebi, sityvebi arafrisTvis, maSinac ki, roca es sityvebi kargaven mniSvnelobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi ar iarsebebda avangardistuli poezia. Aavangardistebma moaxdines mxatvruli niSnis transformacia,
rac gamoixateboda tradiciuli kodebis
rRvevasa da axlis SeqmnaSi. Aavangardma
ara marto Secvala mxatvruli niSnis agebis wesebi, aramed Tavad niSnis gagebac, misi statusi. `aRniSnuli eZebs Tavis aRsaniSns (grigari 2007:9). Mmxatvruli
niSnis amgvari radikaluri transformacia
msoflmxedvelobis Rrma cvlilebis Sedegi
iyo.
maSasadame, poeziis labirinTebSi Sesvlisas Cven sruliad gansxvavebul gzebze
vxvdebiT da vmogzaurobT da zogjer amgvari mogzaurobis xibli swored labirinTebSi semiotikuri dakargvaa.

22

poeziis labirinTebSi

`ena gzebis labirinTia. erTi


mxridan modixar da agneb gzas;
meore mxridan modixar imave
adgilas da _ ukve veRar agneb~.
ludvig vitgenStaini

poezia sulis xarisxia, xolo poeti _


mediumi, romelic grZnobaTa samyaros ritmebs saganTa enaze Targmnis da RvTaebrivi
hangebiT elaparakeba adamians. zemoqmedeba
sworedac rom Zaldautanebelia, iseTi,
pol valeri rom aRwers: `... yvela icnobs
am Tavisebur TrTolvas, romelic im mdgomareobas gvagonebs, roca garkveul garemoebaTa wyalobiT, Cven vgrZnobT, rom aRgznebulni,
monusxulni,
mojadoebulni
varT. es mdgomareoba araviTar konkretul
obieqtze ar aris damokidebuli. is bunebrivad da TviTneburad iRebs dasabams Cveni
Sinagani, fizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri ganwyobilebisa da Cveni SemZvreli garemoebebis
Tanaxmierebisagan.
(pol
valeri
23

1994:71). amitom aris, rom STagonebuli


msmeneli(mkiTxveli) sityvas ver poulobs
im gancdis gamosaTqmelad, romelsac WeSmariti xelovneba hgvris. poetis mier Seqmnili realoba ise ipyrobs adamians, rom
misi cnobiereba pulsirebs im ganzomilebaSi, romelSic poeti leqsis Seqmnisas imyofeboda da saidanac sityvebiTa da sityvaTa
uCveulo kavSirebiT da kanonebiT moitana
raRac sxva, yoveldRiuri cxovrebisagan
gansxvavebuli ritmebi. poeziis kvleva gulisxmobs `sityviT marTuli mgrZnobelobis mTeli sferos kvlevas, es kvleva SeiZleba alalbedze, xelis faTuriT ganxorcieldes. Cveulebriv, asec xdeba, magram
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom mis ganxorcielebas, erTxelac iqneba, Tavisi meTodi daeZebnos~ (pol valeri 199:70), xolo Tu
kristevas daveTanxmebiT, rodesac is semanalizze(semiotikuri koncefcia, romelic
kristevam daamuSava, rogorc sosiuris semiologiis alternativa da rogorc fsiqoanalitikuri ideebis `Targmnis~ forma
lingvistikisa da semiotikis enaze, kristevas ar ainteresebs `mniSvneloba~, romelic sistemaSi aqvs niSans, semanalizs
Tvlis igi erTgvar riskad da eqsperimentad, raTa gamoavlinos sxvadaxva diskursSi niSnis mniSvnelobebi) saubrobs, miuTiTebs, rom: kvlevis obieqtisaTvis ixsneba
axali sivrce, ekrani, romelzec proecirdeba teqstis dafaruli siRrmiseuli
24

struqtura. teqsti ar aris lingvisturi


fenomeni, is warmoadgens enis Semoqmedebis
produqts. semanalizi uars ambobs struqturis aRweris aucileblobaze da, samagierod, teqstis fenomenis kvlevas tovebs
Rias nebismieri mniSvnelobisaTvis. SeiZleba Tu ara, semiotika gaxdes is sarkmeli,
romelSic poeziis kvleva axal peizaJebs
warmoSobs da saganTa imgvar wyobas SemogvTavazebs, romelTa `wakiTxva~ teqstis
mxatvrulobis
kanonebs
aRmogvaCeninebs?...amaze pasuxi mogvianebiT gveqneba...
samyaroSi yvelaferi SeiZleba ganvixiloT,
rogorc niSani, xolo poeziaSi nebismieri
niSani_gansakuTrebuli niSania, imis CaTvliT, rom Tavad poeti_mediumi, sakuTari
pirovnebisagan damoukideblad, aris simbolo, romelic Zalian xSirad Tavisi Tavisagan gaucnobierebel movlenebze gvelaparakeba. amitom ambobs poeti: muza mewvia,
STagonebuli var da a.S... maleviCi poetis
Sesaxeb wers: `is, rogorc forma, aris saSualeba, romlis meSveobiTac laparakobs
RmerTi an eSmaki... poetis xiluli forma
aris iseTive niSani, rogorc bgera, noti...
da mxolod...~ (maleviCi 1998:525).
poeturi teqsti erTianad zemoqmedebs
mkiTxvelze da Zalian xSirad zustad ver
ambobs mkvlevari, konkretulad ra moqmedebs da ratom? ra Tqma unda, saxeebi da
metafora, magram xom arsebobs usaxeebo
poeziac, aseT SemTxvevaSi iakobsoni it25

yvis, rom gramatikasac aqvs Tavisi poezia


da arsebobs gramatikis tropulobac. am
niSniT ganixilavs igi puSkinis cnobil
leqss `me Tqven miyvardiT...~. iqneb arc
Rirdes poeturi teqstis amgvari danawevreba, magram sadme xom unda iyos gasaRebi?
poeziis SemTxvevaSi yvela detals Tavisi Rrma semiotika aqvs _ bgeras, sityvas, riTmas, ritms, metrs, frazas... leqsi
iseve pulsirebs, rogorc adamianis guli
da is an Zlieria, an susti, an ritmuli,
an ariTmiuli... pulsaciis sixSirec, Tavis
mxriv, sxvagan gvagzavnis, sxva dro_sivrcisken, an sulac_udroobisken da maradiulobisken da sabolood, ramdeni ram unda
avxsnaT imisaTvis, rom davadginoT is kanonzomiereba, romelic namdvili poeziis
niSani iqneba. cocxali ena mudmiv qmnadobaSia, arasdros ar aris dasrulebuli procesi, miT umetes, es iTqmis poetur enaze,
romelic qmnis gansakuTrebul semiotikur
sistemas, romlis anbani da wakiTxvis meTodebi sruliad gansxvavebulia Cveulebrivi, praqtikuli enisagan.

26

`Sin~ da `gareT~ poetur diskursSi

poetisaTvis mze yovelTvis mze ar aris,


mTvare_mTvare da varskvlavebi_varskvlavebi...
maleviCi
sityva_yofierebis Semoqmedeba_CvenSi
ganagrZobs cxovrebas, rogorc metafora.
andrei beli

`didi ambebi xdeboda gareT, erTi amindi cvlida meores...~ _ wers oTar WilaZe
(xazgasma Cemia_c.b.), es striqonebi `Sinagan adamians~ ekuTvnis, romelic TiTqos
aviTarebs (an adasturebs) baxtinis Temas:
`adamiani sarkesTan~. `gareT~ yovelTvis
raRac xdeba, iseve, rogorc `SigniT~, sagnebi da movlenebi poetisaTvis iqcevian
gancdaTa metaforizaciis obieqtebad, simbolizdebian da simboloTa Sinaarss isev
mxolod poetis Semoqmedebidan Tu avxsniT.
samyaro gadaewyoba Semoqmedis kalmiT da
ena iqceva sulis moZraobad, romelic Tavisebur kardiogramas qmnis. mkvlevris
27

funqcia sulis am kardiogramis sworad


gaSifvraa. zogjer poetur teqstSi zedapirzea gasaRebi, xolo zogjer_teqstSi
ufro Rrma mogzaurobaa saWiro imisaTvis,
rom raRac axsna. terenti granelis poezia
gaxda gasaRebi erTi Zalian saintereso
movlenisa, romelic yovelgvari lirikisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. ras gulisxmobs poeti, roca is bunebis movlenebs
aRwers? romeli da rogori gancdebi metaforizdeba qarSi, wvimaSi, TovlSi...? poeti
paralelurad aRwers leqsSi `Sina~ (anu
ra xdeba poetis sulSi) da `gare~ (ra
xdeba bunebaSi) movlenebs da amiT TiTqos
pirvelyofil saxeldebas axorcielebs da
da suls aerTebs xorcTan (anu sityvasTan). sabolood xom sityva sulis moZraobis gamomxatvelia, miT umetes, poeturi
sityva.
`dReTa simZime Cems suls aCnia
da vxedav foTlebs, qarSi dafenils.~
dReebiT damZimebuli poeti qarSi dafenil foTlebTan igivdeba. asea umravlesad
terentis SemoqmedebaSi, Sinagani sulieri
gancda bunebaSi ixsneba da saintereso is
aris, rom `Sina~ da ~gare~ monacvleobiT
mihyveba striqonebs.
`damagvianda, morCa, ar moval,
Cans gulis landi da raRac meti.
28

ha, Semodgomis yru saRamoa,


daRamda nela, wvims ganuwyvetliv...~
an:
`guli miwuxs da sulia vrceli,
qarisagan iRupeba toti.~
anda:
`me ra vqna, sikvdils Tu ver avcdebi,
qarma xes toti gadauzniqa.~
isec xdeba, rom poeti kargavs adamianis
formas da ukve bunebaSi ki ar eZebs gancdaTa analogias, aramed Tavad xdeba bunebis nawili:
`modis zamTari, Tovli da yinva,
Tovlis da yinvis cisferi wveTi,
sneuli saxe_sikvdilis win var,
sikvdilis win var me, rogorc gedi.
davdivar RamiT da me var Tovli,
da me var nisli, da me var wvima,
da suls cecxlisken mivyavar TrTolviT,
ise var, rogorc viyavi winaT~.
terenti graneli isev Tavad adaturebs
Sinagani gancdebisa da bunebis movlenebis
analogias: `aqac gaismis qaris godeba, qaria gareT, qaria sulSi~ (xazgasma Cemia _
c.b.). da roca igi wers, rom: `vucdi sxva
aminds...~, bunebrivia, is ar gulisxmobs meteorologiur cvlilebas, xolo roca Sinagani ganwyoba Seecvleba, bunebac gadaewyoba da bunebis movlenebi erT SemTxvevaSi
29

rom sevda-wuxilis gamomxatveli iyo, sixarulsa da aRfrTovanebasac daitevs. Sinagani adamiani mTavaria aseT SemTxvevaSi,
xolo saxeldeba _ pirobiTi. Tumca garkveuli kanonzomiereba mainc iqmneba. terenti, bunebis movlenebs Tu SevadarebT, mainc
`qaris poetia~ da ufro metad mwuxarebis,
sevdisa da tkivilis matarebeli.
`axlac qarSi var, Tavs ver vuSvele~;
`didi xania, rom vcxovrob qarSi~;
`Cemi cxovreba qariSxalia~;
`vici, qariSxals ver davewevi...~;
`dRes Cemi bedi qariSxals misdevs...~
da sxva.
terenti granelis poeziaSi gamovlenili bunebisa da Sinagani adamianis analogiebi SeiZleba dagvexmaros sxva poetTa wakiTxvisas, romelTa SemoqmedebaSi ase zedapirze gamotanili ar aris bunebisa da sulis kavSiri, magram udavod igulisxmeba.

30

me-s semiotika
ena samyaros modelia. TiToeuli adamianis metyveleba ki _ mikromodeli. haidegerma adamiani ase gansazRvra: `me var is,
rasac vlaparakob.~ ufro adre rusTavelma
es azri ase Camoayaliba: `kokasa Sigan raca
sdgas, igive warmosdindebiso.~
ena cxovrobs adamianSi. es azri paradoqsuladac SeiZleba gamoiTqvas: adamiani
enaSi cxovrobs! barti malarmes gavleniT
ityvis, rom `laparakobs ara avtori, aramed ena, rogorc aseTi.~ `egocentruli
sityvebi gvTavazoben imgvar models, romelSic metyvelebis centrSi imyofeba Tavad molaparake~(ivanovi 1999:560).
egocentruli sityvebis, Sifterebis semantikisa da, Sesabamisad, maTi komunikaciuri statusis dadgena moiTxovs am sityvaTa religiuri, filosofiuri, fsiqologiuri da literaturuli aspeqtebis gaTvaliswinebas.
m e da S e n Sifterebs ara aqvT erTxel da samudamod Camoyalibebuli semantika. Cven mxolod maTi gramatikuli mniSvnelobebi viciT zustad. pirveli piria
31

moubari ubnobis momentSi da meore piri,


visac es moubari mimarTavs.
gamonaTqvami, romelic Seicavs me-s,
enis imgvar moduss miekuTvneba, romelsac
Carlz morisma uwoda p r a g m a t i k u l i
da romelic enas ganixilavs molaparakesTan erTad(benvenisti 1974:286). ra Tqma
unda, molaparakes `marto ver davtovebT~,
radgan igi TavisTavad gulisxmobs meore
pirs, visac mosaubre mimarTavs.
mimarTvis obieqti SeiZleba iyos realuri da SesaZloa iyos warmosaxviTi, magram yovelTvis arsebobs, Tundac abstraqtulad. SesaZloa, adamiani Tavis meore
me-s esaubrebodes, am SemTxvevaSi meore me
iqceva meore pirad Sen-ad.
baxtinma filosofiur-anTropologiuri
midgomis safuZvelze rom Seiswavla es sakiTxi, daaskvna: es movlena azrovnebis dialogur stilTan aris dakavSirebulio. yovelgvari metyveleba _ zepiri Tu werilobiTi, ra Tqma unda, azrovnebiT procesebTanaa dakavSirebuli da amdenad, Tu vikvlevT ena-metyvelebas, vikvlevT metyvelebis stilsac.E
me da Sen Sifterebis religiuri semantikaEsainteresod warmoCnda bibliis teqstSi, sadac pirveli piris nacvalsaxeliT
me- aRiniSneba ufali, xolo meore piriTadamiani. RmerTi esaubreba adamians, enis
umartivesi sityvebiT yalibdeba RvTaebrivi
azri. me nacvalsaxelis ontologiuri sa32

fuZveli, Cveni azriT, kargad ixsneba ioanes


saxarebis VIII TavSi, sadac ioane ambobs: `me
var sinaTle am qveynierebisa: mama da Ze.~
RmerTi elaparakeba adamians xan-pirdapir,
xanac-iesos meSveobiT. ieso qristes sityvac
uflis sityvaa, roca igi mociqulebs miavlens, etyvis: `vinaidan Tqven ki ar ilaparakebT, aramed Tqveni mamis suli ilaparakebs
TqvenSi.~ ufali laparakobs iesoSi, ieso-mociqulebSi, Sesabamisad, ufali laparakobs
mociqulebSi. `vinc Tqven gRebulobT, me
mRebulobs, xolo vinc me mRebulobs, Cems
momvlinebels Rebulobs.~
me-s filosofiuri semantika SeiZleba
ganisazRvros misi transcendenturobiT.
adamiani Seicnobs Tavis Tavs mxolod II
piris meSveobiT. `me varsebob, ramdenadac
me Cems Tavs gavcem~ (sartri 2000:386). am
azrs isev rusTavelis sityvebiT gavamyarebdi: `rasaca gascem, Senia.~
sakuTari Tavis gacnobiereba mxolod
dapirispirebisas aris SesaZlebeli. me vambob me-s mxolod vinmesTan urTierTobisas,
romelic iqneba Sen.
bulgakovi wignSi `saxelTa filosofia~ me-s `enis Zirs~ uwodebs, xolo Sen
nacvalsaxels gansazRvravs, rogorc meore
mes. filosofosis azriT, nacvalsaxelSi
me `ar aris araviTari idea, araviTari sityva, is mxolod adasturebs yofierebas. is
aris ontologiuri Jesti, romelSic vlin-

33

deba `sityvis ontologiuri realoba


(bulgakovi 1999:49).
sainteresoa martin buberis mosazreba,
igi piris nacvalsaxelebs _ me da Sen _
uwodebs ZiriTad sityvebs, ramdenadac es
sityvebi aRniSnaven ara raRac sagnebs, aramed-damokidebulebas, mimarTebas.
me da Sen Sifterebi ayalibeben agreTve
egocentrul da dialogur konteqstebs.
ramdenadac me egoa, (Tumca es ego gansxvavebuli TvisebebiT SeiZleba warmogvidges
sxvadasxva diskursSi), xolo meore piri
pirvelTan erTad ukve dialogs gulisxmobs. Tumca SesaZloa, es dialogi fiqtiuri iyos. Zalze mravalferovani SinaarsebiT itvirTeba me da Sen Sifterebi poeziis enaSi. poetur metyvelebaSi me ZiriTadad sulieri mea. xSirad poetis lirikul
egos Semohyavs II piri, romelsac miawers
sakuTar azrebs da sulier mdgomareobas
da qmnis opozicias: me-Sen, romelic kontrastulobis gamo saintereso poetikas
qmnis. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT mdidaria tariel Wanturias Semoqmedeba:
`Sen dRemudam iTvli fuls!
me dRemudam viTvli pulss!
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rac me miyvars _ is Sen gZuls,
rac Sen giyvars _ is me mZuls!
Sen mxolod erTs _ uvli xorcs,
me mxolod erTs _ vuvli suls!~
(gv.277)
34

`Sen visac eli, me iqneb ar var...


me visac veZeb, Sen iqneb ar xar...~
(gv.440)
`cudi var, Sen mainc Semaqe,
kargi xar? me kargze gimRereb.
me moval, me moval uTuod,
Sen saxli datove karRia.~ (gv.125)
`maSin Sen wnavdi Cems TmebSi iebs,
maSin me vklavdi Sens wvivze koRos,
maSin me yvela meZaxda `biWos~,
maSin Sen yvela geZaxda `gogos~.
(gv.124)
`Sen xom uZlebdi sakuTar tkivils,
me ki, Zvirfaso, Senic mtkioda.~
(S. niSnianiZe, gv.36)
`Sen xar mindia, ar xar meSurne,
me isic vici, visac edrebi.~
(j. Carkviani, gv.206)
`Sen Cemi wili xar saqarTvelo,
me Seni wvivis var sakvarTuli.~
(gv.264)
`salams getyvi salamze,
me yovelTvis _ mtyuani,
Sen _ yovelTvis marTali.~ (gv.271)
`Sen vaSli samoTxisa,
me ki _ vaSlis naTali.~ (gv.271)

35

`Sen hyvaodi, viTa vardi,


mec getrfodi, viT bulbuli!~
(akaki, gv.189)
poeti xSirad identificirdeba saqarTvelosTan, mis gmirebTan, mis warsulTan
da momavalTan. is atarebs sakuTar TavSi
arqetipebs.
`dRisiT _ Tmogvis mecixovne,
RamiT _ fanaskerteli var!
xval rom qva var sagoravi,
zeg armazis kedeli var!
visma sisxlmac, wveT-wveTobiT
is mwvervali aaTava:
lomi-cotne,
lomi-daviT
da bokveri-paata var!
me-viyavi!
me-viqnebi,
me-maradis vmeordebi.~
(t. Wanturia, gv.128)
ar SeiZleba aq ar gagvaxsendes: `marad
da yvelgan, saqarTvelov, me var SenTana, me
varo Seni Tanamdevi, ukvdavi suli, SenTa
SvilT sisxliT guli srulad gardamebana,
am gulSi me maqvs Seni awmyo, Seni-warsuli.~
igive semantikaa jansuR Carkvianis Semdeg striqonebSi:
36

`eg satevari me vapriale,


fxas vusinjavdi me am xelebiT,
droSebi caSi me vafriale,
poetis leqsiT me gamxnevebdiT.~ (gv.94)
m e uflis nawilia, Semoqmedi, romelmac Seqmna samyaro:
`me-moazrovne patara matli,
var monawile samyaros Seqmnis~.
(S. niSnianiZe, gv.457)
`me Cavuyene Sens lamaz qedebs,
lomis zozini, vefxvis sizante,
Sens cas pirvelad me Semovbede,
davixure da gamovizamTre.~
(j. Carkviani, gv.76)
poeziasa da prozaSi personaJis samyaros individualobis gadmocema SesaZlebelia Sinagani metyvelebiT, romelic Tavad
adamians miemarTeba; am gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi molaparake da msmeneli emTxveva
erTmaneTs. samagierod, icvleba metyvelebis
forma. adamianis Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinare, metyvelebaSi ikargeba gramatikuli
mniSvnelobebi.
vigotski Sinagani metyvelebis warmoSobis sakiTxs rom ikvlevda, gamoTqva mosazreba _ Sinagani metyvelebis egocentruli
metyvelebidan warmoSobis Sesaxeb. bavSvebi
rodesac erTmaneTs esaubrebian, TiToeuli
37

laparakobs Tavisas, TiTqos isini `xmamaRla fiqroben~, magram maT amisTvis sWirdebaT meore. rogorc piaJem daadgina, garkveul asakSi egocentruli metyveleba qreba.
vigotskis Tanaxmad, am dros yalibdeba Sinagani metyveleba (vigotski 1982:105).
poeziaSi zogjer poetis ramdenime me
xmiandeba. xolo zogjer II piri-Sen agreTve me-s nawilia. magaliTad, galaktioni
wers:
`vican, galaktion, SenSi akteoni _
Sen gsjis yovelive, rogorc siyvaruli.~
murman lebaniZe ki ase mimarTavs Tavis
Tavs:
`Sen ki wer Sensas,
Sen Seni gaxsovs, _
yels ar moiRer axlis saTqmelad,
wer, rac gaxrCobda da dResac gaxrCobs,
da suls aCnia ZaRlis nakbenad!~
warmodgenil konteqstebSi II pirs Tavisuflad SeiZleba Caenacvlos I piri. magram, rogorc Cans, garkveuli ierarqia mainc arsebobs. am SemTxvevaSi I piri, romelic sakuTar Tavs, rogorc meore pirs,
mimarTavs, ierarqiulad ufro maRla dgas,
radgan igi gansjis, aanalizebs, alagebs.
swored amitom sruli identifikacia gamoricxulia.
38

viaCeslav ivanovi adamianis miswrafebas,


ufali Sen Semoiyvanos Tavis me-Si, Tvlis
seriozul pirobad imisa, rom Tanamedrove
sulma igrZnos makrokosmosisa da mikrokosmosis harmonia da adamianis mikrokosmosi gaixsnas RvTaebriv makrokosmosSi(ivanovi 1979:268).
lotmanis azriT ki, me-s struqtura
kulturis erT-erTi ZiriTadi maCvenebelia(lotmani 2004:127).
d a s k v n i s T v i s:
me-s semantika sxvadasxva poetTan gansxvavebulia
sixSiriT
da
azrobrivi
struqturiT.
me-s semantika ganisazRvreba
misi gamoyenebis xasiaTiT.

teqstSi

me-s Sinaarsi ganisazRvreba mravali


faqtoriT, maT Soris _ poetis msoflmxedvelobiT (gansxvavebulia me-s Sinaarsi simbolistebTan, sxvadasxva literaturuli dajgufebis warmomadgenlebTan).
me-s semantikuri struqturis dadgena
agvixsnis epoqis suls, gamoavlens calkeul poetTa individualobas, sainteresod
gveCveneba misi Seswavla literaturuli
mimdinareobebis, epoqebis, kulturebis mixedviT.
39

SorisdebulTa semantika
galaktion tabiZis poezia
Sorisdebuli adamianis Sinagan gancdaTa
gamomxatvelia. es Taviseburi enaa, romlis
meSveobiTac gamoiTqmeba siyvaruli, sixaruli, siZulvili, tkivili, aRfrTovaneba, gaoceba, gakvirveba da sxva. zogierTi Sorisdebuli imdenadaa damaxasiTebeli ama Tu im
xalxisTvis, erisTvis, kuTxisTvis, rom misi warmoTqmisTanave mosaubrisaTvis cxadi
xdeba, vin laparakobs. magaliTad, idiSis
enisTvis yvelaze metad damaxasiTebelia
Sorisdebulis _ oy vay-s gamoyeneba. aRniSnuli Sorisdebuli enobrivi simptomia am
enaze molaparake ebraeli eris tanjvisa
da mwuxarebisa (veJbicka 1999:646).
mxatvruli metyvelebis stilostatistikur gamokvlevebSi sul ufro xSirad
gvxvdeba dakvirvebebi ara marto leqsikur
jgufebze, aramed metyvelebis nawilebzec.
arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, romlis Tanaxmad,
avtoris stilis Taviseburebebi unda veZioT nawilakebis, SorisdebulTa, windebul40

Ta da sxvaTa statistikur ganawilebaSi,


radgan enis am elementebs yvelaze naklebad aqceven yuradRebas mwerlebi da avtoris individualoba uneburad swored maT
gamoyenebaSi vlindeba. is, rac leqsikis zedapirzea da TvalSisacemia, SeiZleba kvlevisTvis xelsayrelia, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi, ar aris arsebiTi Semoqmedis individualobis dasadgenad.
rogorc fuqsi aRniSnavs, ar aris, magaliTad, damajerebeli, bibliuri teqstebis leqsikis maragisa da sityvaTa saerTo
raodenobis logariTmis mixedviT miRebuli
daskvnebi (herdanisa da greistonis cdebi),
angariSgasawevia SemCneuli faqti, rom teqstis gayalbebis an imitaciis SemTxvevaSi
yvelaze advilia leqsikuri mimsgavseba, maSin, roca latenturi sintaqsuri maxasiaTeblebis imitacia SeuZlebelia maTi faruli bunebis gamo (kvaracxelia 1995:161).
ramdenadac
Sorisdebuli
adamianis
Rrmad Sinagani gancdis amoZaxilia, amdenad
sainteresod gveCveneba am movlenis Seswavla poeziis enaSi. rogorc akaki SaniZe ganmartavs: `Sorisdebuli adamians aRmoxdeba
piridan bunebis ama Tu im movlenis Tu sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa romelime konkretuli viTarebis gancdis gamo, rogorc
mokle, swrafi da uSualo gamoZaxili am
gancdisa~ (SaniZe 1980:621).
maRali sixSiruli maCvenebliT gamorCeuli esa Tu is Sorisdebuli poetis enaSi
41

SeiZleba CaiTvalos poetis individualuri


stilis erT-erT maxasiaTeblad.
galakton tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi gamokvleuli teqstebis safuZvelze Semdegi suraTi miviReT: sixSiris mixedviT pirvel
adgilze aRmoCnda Sorisdebuli o (da misi
varianti oh). es Sorisdebulebi gamokvleul SorisdebulTa 98%-s Seadgens. ra
Tqma unda, es procenti sakmaod damajerebelia imisTvis, rom davaskvaT: galaktion
tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi o/oh SorisdebulTa
moxmareba stiluri xasiaTisaa da poetis
emociuri individualobis maxasiaTebelia.
sainteresod gveCveneba erTi paraleli:
anTroposofiaSi xmovnebi xasiaTdebian, rogorc sulieri gancdebis gamomxatvelebi,
TiToeuli xmovani Tavisi gansakuTrebuli
xasiaTiT gamoirCeva, maT Soris, o xmovani,
romlis dasaxasiaTeblad gamoyenebulia erTi sityva: `yovlismomcveloba~ (Staineri
1994:81; titmani 1979:37).
oOxmovnis es xasiaTi SorisdebulebSi
SeiZleba amovicnoT galaktion tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi. o/oh SorisdebuliT gamoixateba yovlismomcveli aRfrTovaneba an tkivili, sixaruli an mwuxareba... ambivalentur grZnobaTa da emociaTa erTi SorisdebuliT gamoxatva damaxasiaTebelia agreTve
galaktion tabiZis poeziisaTvis.
dadebiTi emociebis gamoxatva o/oh SorisdebuliT:
42

o, rogor momwyurdi...
o, me ar vici, ras Segadaro?
o, qveyniuro samoTxev!
oh, ramdenia sicocxleSi aseTi wami...
oh, arasdros ar Sobila mTvare, ase nazi...
o, aseTi sixaruli ar migrZvnia me Cems
dReSi! D
da ase Semdeg...
uaryofiTi emociebis
SorisdebuliT:

gamoxatva

o/oh

o, vin gaigebs gaugebar dards...


o, Zvirfaso, jvarze macves!
o, ramdeni mwuxareba amitania...
oh, ar velodi, qalbatono, me Tqvengan
Ralats!
oh, sicocxle, uecari qaria!
o, yoveldRe mzeebi qimerebSi vardeba! D
da ase Semdeg...

43

SorisdebulTa arseboba enaSi dakavSirebulia enis eqspresiul funqciasTan. poetur metyvelebaSi poeti irCevs Tqvas:
o/oh, nacvlad frazebisa: me ganvicdi aRfrTovanebas, me vgrZnob tkivils, me
vgrZnob mwuxarebas, me ganvicdi monatrebas
da ase Semdeg.
gamonaTqvamis pirveli tipi (o/oh SorisdebulebiT grZnobebisa da emociebis gamoTqma) dakavSirebulia enis eqspresiul
funqciasTan, xolo meore: enis simbolistur funqciasTan (veJbicka 1999:616).
zog SemTxvevaSi poeti enis orive funqcias `aformebs~: `o, aseTi sixaruli ar
migrZvnia me Cems dReSi~... sxva SemTvevaSi
gancdaTa amocnoba SesaZlebelia konteqstiT: `o, me ar vici, ras Segadaro?~ _
cxadia, poeti aq aRfrTovanebulia.
cnobili frangi semiologi rolan barti wers: eniT sargeblobis dros, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Cven ganwirulebi varT,
`gaviTamaSoT~ emociebi enobriv scenaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cven ki ar vsargeblobT
eniT, aramed ena sargeblobs CveniT, gvimorCilebs raRac idumali da Zlieri scenariT. saidumlo didi xania gaxsnilia da
igi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom `uSualoba~ SeuZlebelia enis meSveobiT gamoiTqvas, radgan Tavisi bunebiT ena yovelTvis gamaSualebel rols TamaSobs: mas ar SeuZlia rame `gamoxatos~, tkivilis an sixarulis
gamoTqma SesaZlebelia mxolod instinqtu44

ri yviriliT, anda, uares SemTxvevaSi, SorisdebulebiT... nebismieri realoba gardaisaxeba


am
realobis
niSanSi
(barti
1989:25).
Sorisdebulebs, rogorc sxva enobriv
elementebs, aqvT Tavisi mniSvneloba, amitom saWiroa, SevimuSavoT zusti semantikuri formulebi, romlebic agvixsnian SorisdebulTa gamoyenebis sferos da agreTve, aRweren gansxvavebebs sxvadasxva SorisdebulTa moxmarebisas.
o/oh SorisdebulTa maRali sixSiruli
xasiaTi galaktion tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi
SeiZleba CaiTvalos poetis individualuri
stilis maxasiaTeblad da agreTve poetis
emociuri bunebis ZiriTad `simptomad~.
rogorc veJbicka wers: Cven SegviZlia
daviwyoT universalur da kulturul-specifikur TemaTa Seswavla SorisdebulTa
semantikisa da maT Soris damokidebulebaTa kvleviT.

45

sityva azris ZiebaSi anu


`varskvlavebis poetika~
ana kalandaZis poezia

poezia, garda imisa, rom metyvelebis


faqtad rCeba, igi, amave dros, mis sazRvrebs gareTac iWreba...
enis stiqiis moZraobaSi Cafluli,
misi nawilakebis gadaadgilebiT garTuli poeti, an TviTon irCevs sityvebs,
an sityvebi irCeven poets.
oqtavio pasi
...pirvelad iyo sityva... samyaro warmogvidgeba, rogorc sityva, qmnadobis
aqti ki _ rogorc niSnis Seqmna.
lotmani

enaSi arsebuli nebismieri sityva poetur metyvelebaSi SeiZleba iqces imgvar


metaforebad, romelTa srulad aRwera SeuZlebeli iqneba. `mwerali amravlebs mniSvnelobebs da tovebs maT daumTavrebels
da Rias. enis meSveobiT is qmnis aRmniSvnelebiT gajerebul samyaros da verasodes
46

ver iRebs saboloo aRsaniSns~ (barti


1989:284).
Tavis droze xlebnikovma kruCenixTan
erTad wamoayena Tezisi, romlis Tanaxmadac, mxatvruli nawarmoebi SeiZleboda,
rom mxolod erTi sityvisgan Semdgariyo.
maTi azriT, es iyo ara mxolod avangarduli proeqti, aramed Tavad sityvis saxeobrivi bunebis lingvisturad ganpirobebuli
rekonstruqcia. Tavad sityva ukve patara
nawarmoebia,_acxadebdnen isini. amaze miuTiTebs mixeil epSteini, roca wers: aforizmi iTvleba yvelaze mcire literaturul
Janrad,_erT winadadebaSia azri SekumSuli... magram arsebobs kidev ufro mcire
Janri_mxolod sityva. swored sityva warmodgeba, rogorc dasrulebuli nawarmoebi,
rogorc sityvaSemoqmedebis damoukidebeli
rezultati. epSteini xazs usvams sityvas,
ara rogorc enis erTeuls da enaTmecnierebis sagans, aramed rogorc literaturul Janrs, romelSic aris plastika,
idea, saxe, TamaSi, kolizia da siuJeti.
erTsityvianoba_erTi sityvis xelovneba,
romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs axal ideas,
an suraTs,_maqsimumi azri minimum enobriv
erTeulSi!
me gavagrZelebdi epSteinis azrs da davamatebdi, rom amgvar `literaturul Janrad~ da damoukidebel mxatvrul nawarmoebad sityva SeiZleba iqces amave dros, sxva
sityvebTan urTierTobis Sedegad. enis bu47

nebaSi Cadebuli metaforuloba mxatvrul


saazrovno sivrceSi kidev ufro aqtualizdeba da amouwurav qmnadobas gvTavazobs.
`yoveli sityva uamrav potenciur mniSvnelobas Seicavs. roca sityva sityvebs ukavSirdeba da iqmneba fraza, im mraval mniSvnelobaTagan erT-erTi aqtiurdeba da mTavar mniSvnelobad iqceva~(oqtavio pasi).
enaSi devs mniSvnelobadqmnadobis imgvari
potenciali, romelic praqtikulad amouwuravia.
calkeul avtorTa poetur SemoqmedebaSi gamoiyofa iseTi `sityva_nawarmoebebi~,
`sityva_konceptebi~, romelTa garSemo SeiZleba gadaewyos poetis enobrivi samyaro.
imisaTvis, rom amgvari sityva_konceptebi,
semantemebi, gamovlindes, ramdenime piroba
unda dakmayofildes:
a) teqstSi semantemis gamoyenebis maRali sixSire, markireba;
b) aRniSnuli semantemis metaforulobis maRali xarisxi, rac gamoixateba axal
mniSvnelobaTa warmoqmnaSi;
g) poetis Semoqmedebis koncepti Tavisi
funqcionirebiT teqstSi gamoxatavs avtoris ideas.
Cveni kvlevis obieqts am mimarTulebiT
warmoadgenda ana kalandaZis poezia. poeturi nawarmoebSi aris iseTi simboloebi,
romlebic iTxoven interpretacias Tavad
avtorisaTvis
(mamardaSvili
2000:127).
48

kvlevis Sedegad poetis SemoqmedebaSi gamoikveTa sityva-koncepti `varskvlavi~.


SeiZleba iTqvas, rom semantema `varskvlavi~ met-naklebi sixSiriT TiTqmis
yvela poetis SemoqmedebaSi gvxvdeba, magram ana kalandaZis `varskvlavi~ namdvilad
gansakuTrebulia. ratom maincdamainc es
sityva? kiTxvaze pasuxi martivia da poetis individualobidan momdinareobs. rogorc Cans, am sityviT gamoxatuli azri
yvelaze metad enaTesaveba poetis suls. am
sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobidan dawyebuli mis yvelaze ufro dausazRvrav mniSvnelobamde, TiTqmis yvelafers Tavi mouyria
ana kalandaZis SemoqmedebaSi. oTar WilaZisa ar iyos:
`Zvirfaso, sityvas aqvs Tavis fasi,
zoma da wona, suni da feri
da isic yvela Cvenganis msgavsad
icinis, tiris, ocnebobs, mReris...~
da ara mxolod...
vfiqrob, varskvlavebTan dakavSirebuli
suliskveTeba da poetis Semoqmedebis arsi
kargad gamoixata anas Semdeg striqonebSi:
`var marad varskvlavTa mWvreteli
da cecxliT vivsebi imaTebr...
`o, RmerTo, o, RmerTo, sabaoT,
sinaTle, sinaTle, sinaTle...~
49

ra azria gamoTqmuli striqonSi: `var


marad varskvlavTa mWvreteli~? ra Tqma
unda, es ar aris mxolod pirdapiri mniSvneloba _ rom warmovidginoT, poeti rogor aCerebia Rameul varskvlavebian cas.
pasuxi amave striqonebSia: sinaTle! ar SevcdebiT, Tu vityviT, rom rom ana kalandaZe sinaTlis poetia, rac swored `varskvlavTmWvretelobaSi~ da imaTebr `cecxliT avsebaSi~ metaforulad gamoxata avtorma. ratom daunaTesavda poetis suli
varsvlavs? im Tvisebebis gamo, romelsac
varskvlavi atarebs _ siSore, sinaTle,
idumaleba, siCume...
Tomas strenz elioti erT eseiSi wers:
`ra sityvebic unda gamoiyenos mweralma,
ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, sargeblobs am
sityvaTa istoriis codniT, imis codniT,
Tu rogor gamouyenebiaT es sityvebi. amgvari codna exmareba mis amocanas, mianiWos
sityvas axali sicocxle da enas ki axali
idiomi Sehmatos. arsebiTi tradicia aseTia: miwvde, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia,
mTel mniSvnelobas enis istoriisa, rac
sityvis miRmaa~ (elioti, 2007, 159).
aseT SemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia
sityvis saxarebiseuli gagebac. `roca ieso
daibada iudeis beTlemSi, mefe herodes
dReebSi, ierusalimSi movidnen varskvlavTmricxvelni aRmosavleTidan da Tqves: sad
aris, iudevelTa mefe rom daibada? vinaidan vixileT misi varskvlavi aRmosavleTSi
50

da movediT, raTa Tayvani vceT mas (maTe,


2.1; 2.2); agreTve: `maT mousmines ra mefes,
wavidnen. Dda ai, varskvlavi, romelic maT
aRmosavleTSi ixiles, win uZRoda maT,
vidre mividoda da gaCerdeboda im adgilze, sadac yrma iyo (maTe, 2.9). am mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, arsebobs iseTi idiomebi, rogorebicaa: bedis varskvlavi, varskvlavi aenTo (adamiani daibada), varskvlavi Caqra (adamiani mokvda)...
varskvlavi anasTvis agreTve uflis
macnea:
RamiT, iq, zemoT, varskvlavs aanTebs
viRacis xeli,
gaTenebamde sanTeliviT rom
iwvis da RvenTavs...
Torem aq vis ra gaaZlebinebs,
kldeT ufskrulebSi,
uamvarskvlavod? Uuamsxivod?
uSvelos RmerTma...
bedis varskvlavis mniSvnelobiT aris
gamoyenebuli semantema varskvlavi Semdeg
konteqstebSi:
aciskrovndeba gulSi edemi!
naTobs varskvlavi Cveni bedisa...
rad vSfoTavT Cven mis gamoCenamde?
anda:

51

damexsen srbas: igi dameweva


iis konebiT, _
varskvlavi Cemi varskvlavTSoris
maradis mrwemi, _
da sixaruliT amaRldeba
sauflo Cemi.
ara mxolod adamians, qveyanasac Tavisi
bedis varskvlavi dahyveba:
miwav, usasod damcirebulo,
gamarjvebisas Sen isev Sesvam:
modis varskvlavi gabrwyinebuli,
rom dagvibrunos dideba ese!
bibliaSi vkiTxulobT: `Tqva RmerTma:
iyos mnaTobebi cis myarze dRisa da Ramis
gasayrelad, droJamis aRmniSvnelad... dasxa
isini RmerTma cis myarze, rom gaenaTebina
miwa, gaeyaraT naTeli da bneli...~ sibnele_sinaTlis, keTilisa da borotis kontrastulobas isev varskvlavebiT (bibliuri mniSvnelobiT) warmoadgens poeti:
varskvlavi igi sixarulisa
Cems wil maradis
aRavlens cials,
rac ufro Rame
Camodis bneli,
igi ufrore
elavs da brwyinavs!
an:
52

gakrTes naTeli Sinagan bnelTa,


viT kvali varskvlavT mimosvlaTani...
adamiani_varskvlavi aseve ar aris ucxo
mniSvneloba da metaforuloba da anas poeziaSi am mniSvnelobasac vxvdebiT. rCeuli
adamiani `Suqurvarskvlavia~ da misi gardacvalebisas poeti ityvis: `cas moswyda
Suqurvarskvlavi~, patriot jariskacebs ki
varskvlavebs adarebs: `midixarT mtvriani,
mtvriani
CeqmebiT
da
varskvlavebiviT
brwyinavT~.
9 aprils daRupulebi uflis varskvlavebia:
axloa Jami SuaRamisa,
caze varskvlavi uflisa krTeba...
kvdeba sruliad saqarTvelosTvis,_
locviT,
galobiT,
vinc axla kvdeba.
SeiZleba aq gagvaxsendes oTaraanT
qvrivis giorgi, romelic satrfos mimarTavs: `sad Sen da sad _ me... sad mogwvdebodi caSi varskvlavs...~ (adamiani_varskvlavi).
bunebrivia, rom varskvlavi siwmindesTan, brwyinvalebasTan asocirdeba poetisaTvis, amitom Cndeba amgvari saxeebi:

53

varskvlavi brwyinavs ase saamod,


Tu wminda mamebs unTiaT zeTi?
.....................................................................
angelosi daeTxova miwis SvilTa,
Sors gafrinda varskvlavebis SaravandiT.
..............................................................................
brwyinva kandelTa
hgavda brwyinvas varskvlavT miriadT...
...............................................................................
Sen Semodixar ucxod morTuli
da varskvlavebiT TavdanamSveni.
poeturi metyveleba arsebiTad dialogia, rogori monologuri formiTac ar unda iyos gamoxatuli. Ppoeti yovelTvis viRacas (raRacas) mimarTavs, elaparakeba.
sxvagvarad saerTod SeuZlebeli iqneboda
gamoxatva. `ena erTmaneTTan akavSirebs sam
elements: `me~, `Sen~ da `is~, anu sagani.
viRaca viRacas raRacaze esaubreba~ (pol
valeri 1994:87).
mimarTvis obieqti poeziaSi SeiZleba
usulo iyos, amas arca aqvs arsebiTi mniSvneloba arc poetisaTvis da arc poeziisaTvis.
ana kalandaZes xSirad aqvs dialogi
varskvlavebTan.
da gaqrnen sadRac...
cis siRrmeSi krToda varskvlavi,
ratom moswydio? _
manac mkiTxa,_
54

sauflos Sensa?
.........................................................
ras gadmomyureb banzeiT,
Se lurj varskvlavTa cialo? D
da sxva.
identifikacia varskvlavTan niSneulia
anas poeziisaTvis. brwyinva, anTeba, Caqroba
_ es is leqsikaa, romelic varskvlavTan
uSualo kavSirSia, misi maxasiaTebelia. raki Cven aRmovaCineT poetis identoba mnaTobTan, Sesabamisad, varskvlavis leqsika
bunebrivad gadadis poetze, amitom is ambobs:
me avmaRldebi Sens lurj caze,
SenTvis vibrwyineb,
aRvinTebi da davSrtebi Senda!
eWvi ar aris, rom am SemTxvevaSi `poeti_varskvlavi~ laparakobs.
poetis identifikacia varskvlavebis
Cum samyarosTan kargad gamoixata Semdeg
striqonebSi:
dums varskvlavebis
Cumi samyaro...
mas SehRaRadebs
miwa codvili...
gamoiRviZe,
miusafaro,
55

o, sulo Cemo,
geyo lodini, _
gafrindi cisken!
Tu ca varskvlavebiT Tvals daxuWavs,
ixuWeba poetis gulis Tvalic da es identifikaciis kidev erTi mSvenieri dasturia:
daxuWa Tvali caman cxovelman
da... daixuWa `gulisa Tvalic~...
zogjer cxovrebisagan ganridebis mosurne poeti varskvlavad yofnas eswrafvis, radgan yofiereba savsea cru da amao
xmebiT, rac axSobs da Trgunavs lirikul
mes. varskvlaviviT Sors yofna _ identifikaciis Semdegi safexuria:
ar minda da, _
vambob...
ar minda da, _
vismen...
im varskvlavis msgavsad
Sors mamyofa
ise...
arsaidan xmai
ar mwvdebodes
casa...
o, mamyofa
ise,
im varskvlavis msgavsad!
56

poetis identifikacia varskvlavTan


isev ana kalandaZis striqonebiT unda avxsnaT. kiTxvaze: ratom varskvlavebTan?
anas pasuxi aseTia:
magram me mainc, o, me mainc
sixaruls vesav...
esityvebian varskvlavebi
gulisTqmas Cemsas
uSiSrad da daufaravad...
am stiqonebSi anas winapris _ nikoloz
baraTaSvilis striqonebic xmiandeba: `mxolod varskvlavTa, TanamavalTa, vamcno gulisa me saidumlo...~; varskvlavi yovelTvis `Tanamavalia~, sadac midixar, mogyveba, swored amitom is aris avTandilis megobaric, satrfos moSorebuli, mnaTobebs
rom esaubreba.
`ra SeuRamdis, varskvlavTa amosvla
eamebodis,
mas amsgavsebdis, ilxendis,
uWvretdis, eubnebodis~.
sxvaTa Soris, aqve unda aRvniSnoT,
rusTavelisa da ana kalandaZis lirikuli
gmiris sulieri naTesaoba, roca isini mnaTobebs mimarTaven sulis sanugeSod. avTandili mimarTavs zuals:

57

mo, zualo, momimate cremli cremlsa,


Wiri Wirsa,
guli Savad SemiRebe, sibnelesa mimec
xSirsa,
Semomyare kaeSnisa tvirTi mZime,
viTa virsa,
mas uTxar, Tu: `nu gaswirav, Senia da
SenTvis tirsa~.
ana kalandaZe mimarTavs zuals:
aRmekra pirsa me mwuxareba:
sixarulisgan damcala zeman
da vardiani Cemi karavi
wyvdiaidisaTvis daagdo mzeman...
SemomeZarcva Saravandedi
daunjebuli da idumali...
ganqarda Cemi xati iisa
da... Cems karavze dgaxar, zualo!
aRmekra pirsa me mwuxareba.
am or teqsts Soris saerTo mwuxarebaa, gansxvavebuli enobrivi formebiT gamoxatuli, magram erTi saTqmeli. Aam saTqmels zuali ganapirobebs. axla sxva mnaTobisadmi mimarTvac vnaxoT:
modi, marixo, uwyalod damWer
laxvriTa SeniTa,
Se-ca-mRebe da Semsvare wiTlad
sisxliTa deniTa,
58

mas uTxren Cemni patiJni, mas gaagonen


eniTa,
ragvar gasrulvar, Sen ici, gulia aRar
lxeniTa.
ana kalandaZe:
o, marss ar vkadre me sayveduri,
arca wuxilis cremlebi vkadre:
moiRo cecxli man RvTaebrivi,
gadamafara ciuri madli...
momarTva Tvisi maRali taxti,
damarqva TuRi Tvisi mefuri...
ganmaZliera me SiSsa zeda...
o, marss ar vkadre me sayveduri:
Zalumi iyo wyaloba misi!
avTandili aspirozs mimarTavs:
modi, aspiroz, marge ra, man damwva
cecxlTa dagiTa,
vin margalitsa gareSe moscavs Zowisa
bagiTa;
Sen daamSveneb keklucTa damSvenebiTa
magiTa,
visme, glax, Cemebr daagdeb, gaxdi
cnobiTa SmagiTa.
ana kalandaZe:

59

da brwyinavs, brwyinavs, brZeni aspiroz,


qvabebis Tavze amayad mdgari,
da dauSretis idumalebiT
kvlav nugeSsa scems am SemogarenT.
am uneburi analogiiT Cven vadasturebT
Semoqmedi sulebis kavSirs mnaTobebTan.
isini sxvadasxa droSi da gansxvavebul situaciebSi miemarTebian ciur sxeulebs,
magram faqtia, rom `Tvali cisken uWiravT~_pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiTac. amgvar teqstebSi minimum ormagi kodirebaa, erTi fizikuri samyarosaTvis, xolo meore_miRmuri samyarosaTvis daniSnuli.
kiTxvebi, romlebic kvlevisas miCndeba
da romelzedac pasuxebs vpoulob, uecrad
aRmoCndeba, rom ana kalandaZe romelime
leqsiT midasturebs, ase moxda amjeradac
poetis Semdegi striqonebiT:
aq salamuriT atirdeba
patara mwyemsi,
ra aRonebs pawia biWsa?
brwyinavs varskvlavi:
cas imisi gulisTqma esmis,
cas uuSoress, Seucnobels,
grZneuls da misans.
Tu CavTvliT, rom patara mwyemsi zogadad maZiebeli adamianis simboloa, gabrwyi-

60

nebuli varskvlavebi
ufals esmis misi...

adastureben,

rom

miuRweveli (anu ufali) varskvlavis


bunebisaa (anda, piriqiT), brwyinvalea, amitom: `gamomibrwyindi, miuRwevelo, aw ucnauri meqmen sacnaur...~ _ wers poeti da
am gamobrwyinebaSi WeSmaritebis gaelvebas
gulisxmobs.
ra Tqma unda, varskvlavis pirdapiri
mniSvnelobiT gamoyeneba Sesabamis gancdaTa
gadmosacemad bunebrivia anasTvis.
varskvlavi brwyinavs,
o, varskvlavi,
krTis sasiamo
da mTvare aris kvlav
sxivTa mTovar...
an:
da mSvidTa caTa amoenTeba
varskvlavi kideT,
daubrundebaT Tvisi feri
didebul naZvebs...
satrfos ki ise aRar elis poeti, rogorc xaverdovani Ramis wyvdiadi varskvlavs:
o, aRar veli mas,
rogorc varskvlavs _
xaverdovani
Ramis wyvdiadi...
61

namiani balaxic ki avtorisTvis `varskvlavebis laRi bibinia~... da ase Semdeg...


vfiqrobT, srulad ver SevZeliT warmogvedgina yvela is konotaciuri mniSvneloba,
romelsac varskvlavi aCens anas poeziaSi.
`sityva~, rogorc realoba, ganuyofelia mTqmelisagan, imisgan, visTvisac es
metyvelebaa daniSnuli da agreTve im situaciisagan, romelSic es sityva warmoiTqmis (gaseti 2000:665). ra Tqma unda,
sxvagvarad sityva mxolod abstraqciaa.
aseTive abstaraqciaa sityva `varskvlavi~, romlis saleqsikono mniSvnelobaa _
cis sxeuli, romelic sakuTari SuqiT naTobs; Sori manZilis gamo varskvlavi cis
kamaraze Cans, rogorc yovelmxriv sworxazovnad sxivebis gamomcemi mnaTobi wertili (qegl-i, 1955:30).
qarTul saliteraturo enaSi leqsema
`varskvlavma~ myari Sesityvebebic warmoSva, aseTebia: kudiani varskvlavi (kometa),
varskvlavi mowyda (meteorma gaielva),
mowyvetili varskvlavi (meteori), ciT
mowyvetili varskvlavi (Zalian lamazi),
varskvlavebs epotineba (miuwvdomlisken miiswrafvis), varskvlavebs eTamaSeba (lamazia), bedis varskvlavi, bednier varskvlavze dabadebuli... gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT
varskvlavi aRniSnavs agreTve beds, gangebas, mizans. ( mag.: `Cven unda vsdioT axla
sxva varskvlavs...~(ilia).
62

rogorc davinaxeT, sityva `varskvlavs~


enis sistemaSi sakmao potencia moepoveba
imisaTvs, rom gaagrZelos `mniSvnelobaTqmnadobis~ procesi poetur metyvelebaSi...
ana kalandaZis poeturi teqstebis mixedviT, sityva `varskvlavis~ saboloo azri uflisken midis, varskvlavi uflis
erT_erTi epiTetia, saboloo aRsaniSni
RmerTia, romelic Tavad dausazRvravia da
dausazRvravia is semantemac, romelic misi
aRmniSvneli xdeba. am konteqstSi CvenTvis
sainteresoa Sua saukuneebis xedva. Suasaukuneebis simbolizmis kosmologiuri universalizmi dakavSirebulia `ukanaskneli~
aRsaniSnis gagebasTan. wminda avgustinesTan
realurad yovel sagans SeuZlia aRniSnos
meore sagani, anu gamovides aRmniSvnelis
rolSi... am perspeqtivaSi erTaderTi sagani, romelic ar SeiZleba aRsaniSnis rolSi gamovides, aris RmerTi. Ggarkveuli azriT, aq gaTanabrebulia `referentis~ semiotikuri gageba da `pirvelmizezis~ metafizikuri gageba.
signifikaciuri damokidebulebis saboloo polusebia: RmerTi_sityva: `sufTa
aRsaniSni~ da `sufTa aRmniSvneli~, sadac
materialuroba fiqsirebulia sityvis polusze, xolo spiritualoba _ referentis
polusze.
sityvis mTavari azri, idea yovelTvis
SeniRbulia Ria teqstiT, anu im teqstiT,
63

romelic uSualod aris Cven winaSe. metaforuloba zogadad SeiZleba ganvixiloT,


rogorc garegan metyvelebaSi teqstis,
sityvis Sinagani azris gamovlenis faqti.
TavisTavad metafora ukve SeniRbuli azria. Mmetaforulad es azri SeiZleba ase
warmovadginoT: `zRva(an okeane), romelic
Tavis TavSi aerTianebs zedapirs da siRrmes (zedapiri _ Ria teqstia, xolo siRrme _ dafaruli teqsti, qveteqsti), rogor SeiZleba siRrmis gamokvleva? siRrmeSi CasvliT an zedapirze amotivtivebuli
raime niSnis axsniT. axla warmovidginoT,
rom zedapirze amotivtivebuli sagani _ es
Ria teqstSi qveteqstidan (siRrmidan) `SemoWrili~ tropebia, romelTa axsniT da
analiziT vSifravT siRrmes, anu azrs, ideas. siRrmis gamokvleva siRrmeSi CasvliTac
SeiZleba _ magram am SemTxvevaSi ena
wyvets arsebobas idumalSi gadasvlis gamo~ (barbaqaZe 2003:50).
rogorc vnaxeT, ana kalandaZis poeziaSi sainteresod warmoCnda `varskvlavebis
poetika~. feSenko wers: `Tu davuSvebT,
rom semiotikas aqvs Tavisi ganviTarebis
siuJeti, maSin am ganviTarebis kulminacia
is wertilia, romelSic semiotika xvdeba
poetikas~ (feSenko 2006:62).
maS, raze gadis gza azridan sityvisken da piriqiT, sityvidan azrisken? amaze
vigotski gvipasuxebda: `...azri ar emTxveva
64

araTu sityvebs, aramed arc maT mniSvnelobebs, romlebiTac is gamoiTqmeba. gza azridan sityvisken mniSvnelobaze gadis. Cvens
metyvelebaSi yovelTvis aris dafaruli
qveteqsti. am winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad
iqmneba axali gza azridan sityvisken sityvaTa axali mniSvnelobebis gavliT~ (vigotski 1999:331). swored aseT axal mniSvnelobebs gvTavazobs poeturi metyveleba.
iqneb arc ise axalia dReisTvis is azri,
romelic Tavis droze kantma gamoxata agreTve metaforulad: ori ram maocebs amqveynad_varskvlavebiani ca Cem zemoT da
moraluri kanoni CemSi! _ moraluri kanoni Tu uflismieria (da namdvilad aris
uflismieri), masTan varskvlavebiani cis
dakavSireba sulac ar aris SemTxveviTi da
amasve adasturebs kantis am azris ana kalandaZiseuli reinterpretacia. iqneb samyaro sul ramdenime metaforis (re)interpretaciaa?

65

lirikuli subieqtis identifikacia


anu koncepti s i s x l i muxran
maWavarianis poeziaSi
koncepti* `sisxli~

:
,


`_ ici, ram mogiyvana, babua?
_ ara! _ upasuxa SviliSvilma.
_ me getyvi, aba: sisxlma mogiyvana, babua,
saswaulia sisxli. . . . . . mxolod sisxli
laparakobda da fiqrobda, xolo ras laparakobda da fiqrobda sisxli, _ RmerTma
uwyis! ~
nodar dumbaZe `sisxli~
*

termin koncepts ganvixilavT kognitiuri lingvistikis farglebSi, romlis mixedviTac, koncepti samyaros
enobrivi suraTis safuZveli, `mravalganzomilebiani
warmonaqmnia, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs ara mxolod denotaciur, aramed konotaciur mniSvnelobaTa
mTel speqtrs.

66

`sisxli~ arqetipuli simboloa, romelTanac erTdroulad aris dakavSirebuli


rogorc dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi konotaciebi. mniSvnelobaTa abmivalenturoba
aris konceptis erT_erTi damaxasiaTebeli
niSani (gansxvavebiT sityvisagan).
unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli enis
frazeologiaSi
sisxlTan
dakavSirebiT
uaryofiTi Sinaarsis konotaciebi sWarbobs. aseTebia: sisxli aemRvra (brazi moeria), sisxli moawva (boRma axrCobs), sisxli gaeyina (elda eca, SeeSinda), sisxli
gauSra (gaitanja), sisxli TavSi auvarda
(metismetad gabrazda), sisxli marTebs
(vinme hyavs mokluli), sisxls eZebs (vinmes mosaklavad dasdevs) da ase Semdeg.


, , .
, ,
, _ ,
_ , -
... (uilraiti 1990:99).
sisxli aris simbolo sicocxlis, sikvdilisa da siyvarulis; dakavSirebulia
dabadebasan, qorwinebasTan, omTan... koncepti `daatarebs~ bibliur codvasac, rac ase
gamoxata ana kalandaZem leqsSi: `da Tqva
ufalman...~

67

da Tqva ufalman kaenis mimarT:


sad aris abel, Zmai Seni...
kaen, sad aris, abel?
sisxlis ikvreba rkali... (xazgasma Cemia_c.b.)
sxvisas... ar iRebs zeca,
sakuTars iTxovs, kaen!
sisxli qristianuli simbolocaa: iesom
`aiRo sasmisi, madli Seswira, misca maT da
uTxra: yvelam SesviT aqedan, vinaidan es
aris Cemi sisxli axali aRTqmisa, mravalTaTvis daRvrili codvaTa misateveblad~
(maTe, 26, 27-28).
`sisxlis yivili~ _ es metafora dakavSirebulia yovelive mSobliurTan, romelic ganuyofelia adamianis `me~_sgan. Aamitom, Tu adamiani tovebs samSoblos, is
tovebs sakuTar Tavsac, garkveuli azriT,
radganac adamiani koleqtiur_istoriuli
sxeulis, samSoblos nawilia.
vaJa_fSavela `aluda qeTelaurSi~ sisxlis aRebis wess ase aprotestebs:
visac mteroba maswyurdes,
gaaRos saxlis karia,
sisxl daigubos keraSi,
TviTonac Sigve mdgaria.
Rvinodac imas dahlevdes,
puradac mosaxmaria.
pirjvari daiwerodis,
miTam saydarSi aria.
68

sisxlSia hqondes qorwili,


iq daiweros jvaria,
daipatiJos stumrebi,
daamwkriodes jaria.
sisxlSi daigos logini,
gverds daiwvinos calia,
bevri iyolos Svilebi,
bevri vaJi da qalia;
iqve saflavi gaTxaros,
iq daimarxos mkvdaria.
Sen ro sxva mahkla,
Senc mogkvlen,
mkvlels ar SaarCens gvaria.
warmodgenil nawyvetSi mtrobis mosurne da SurismaZiebeli adamianis mTeli
cxovreba sisxlis foniT aris warmodgenili da naCvenebia cxovrebis am wesis Seuqcevadi xasiaTi. Kkonceptis amgvari gaazreba, ra Tqma unda, uaryofiT konotaciebs
qmnis.
sisxli
iTxovs
sisxls,
sisxli
wyvets... zogjer is adamianze metia... aleqsandre yazbegis `xevisberi goCa~ SeiZleba
davimowmoT am konteqstiT: `moZmeT sisxli
caSi RmerTs SesCuxCuxebs da samarTals
iTxovs, gadaswyvite, Temo!~
qarTul poeziaSi sisxlis sxva mniSvnelobebic gvxvdeba. sainteresoa, ilia WavWavaZis mier poeziis ganmarteba: `poezia niWia, madlia, romelic eZleva kacTa, mxo69

lod RvTiv rCeulTa, madlia, magram, amasTanave, tvirTic aris, radganac igi movlenilia, raTa Wrilobidan sisxlis Seuwyveteli dena kacTa sicocxles Seuyenos!~
poeziis sisxlTan dakavSireba saintereso
saxes qmnis. erTi mxriv, sisxldena mtkivneuli procesia da, meore mxriv, leqsis dabadeba _ didi sixaruli. amgvar ambivalentur konotacias qmnis sisxli tician tabiZis eseninisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi:
gdioda leqsi, Sen rogorc sisxli,
mourCeneli gulis iara,
Tavis sikvdiliT Tavs ver daixsni
da sisxli mxolod sisxls eziara.
`sisxlis sisxlTan ziareba~ _ es aris
poeziis, rogorc sisxlis, da fizikuri
sisxlis urTierTSerevis mistikuri aqti.
garkveuli azriT, yoveli civilizaciis
kulturuli stereotipebis sistema wesrigdeba im enis meSveobiT, romliTac mocemuli civilizacia gamoixateba... ena _ sepiris mixedviT _ es aris `socialuri sinamdvilis~ gzamkvlevi. adamianebi cxovroben
ara mxolod materialur da socialur
samyaroSi, rogorc es miRebulia vifiqroT,
mniSvnelovani xarisxiT yvela isini imyofebian konkretuli enis gavlenaSi.... SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom enaTmecnierebas aqvs
xelmZRvanelis roli kulturis `fsiqo70

logiuri geografiis~ SeqmnaSi (sepiri


2003:130).
`adamiani samyaros Seicnobs umTavresad
Tavisi fizikuri gamocdilebis safuZvelze.
es gamocdileba Cvens xuT grZnobas emyareba.Bbunebrivi enis semantikaze sinamdvilis
proecirebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba `proecirebuli samyaro~, romlis realurisagan
gansxvaveba ganpirobebulia adamianis TaviseburebebiTa da konkretul kulturaTa
specifikiT~ (gamyreliZe 2003:465).
vfiqrobT, rom calkeul poetTa SemoqmedebaSi konceptebis gamovlena_analizi
dagvexmareba agreTve poeziis `fsiqologiuri geografiis~ SeqmnaSi.

71

koncepti s i s x l i muxran
maWavarianis poeziaSi
poeziiT yofierebis dafuZneba
`RmerTis miniSnebebs~ ukavSideba
da, amave dros, poeturi sityva
gadmocemaa `eris xmisa~.
martin haidegeri
holderlini da poeziis arsi
o, ra Tqma unda, cxedrebi mudam
sdumano, magram sisxli mwardeba,
sisxli iZaxis: mkvleli, iuda!
sisxli arasdros ar dawynardeba!
Ggalaktioni

teqstTan dakavSirebiT identifikaciis


gansxvavebuli formebi arsebobs, ramdenadac teqsti dinamikur damokidebulebaSia
avtorTan da mkiTxvelTan. baxtini ori tipis avtors ganasxvavebs. erTi, romelic
teqsts qmnis da meore, romelsac teqsti
aRadgens, anu warmosaxviTi (lirikuli subieqti). mkiTxveli Zalian xSirad namdvil
avtorTan aigivebs lirikul subieqts.
Bbaxtinis mixedviT ki, lirikuli me ar
SeiZleba gavaigivoT avtoris me_sTan, radgan avtori yovelTvis `TamaSobs~ da xSirad emijneba kidec warmosaxviT avtors,
zog SemTxvevaSi, amisTvis is irCevs fsevdonimebs da axdens mistifikacias...
SesaZloa, rom baxtinis es Sexeduleba
sxvagvaradac gaviazroT. xSirad poeziiT
Seqmnili dro_sivrce arsebiTad gansxvave72

bulia realuri dro_sivrcisagan, amitom


SeiZleba gaCndes iluzia, rom warmosaxviTi avtori realurs ar SeiZleba emTxveodes, magram amgvari damTxveva_daumTxvevlobac mxolod pirobiTia. Tu poezia `sxva
droa~ an, ufro zustad, sxva ganzomileba,
romelSic dros sxva siCqare aqvs, an saerTod ara aqvs siCqare, maSin realuri avtori, romelic realur drosa da sivrceSi
cxovrobs, SeiZleba warmovidginoT im Semoqmedad, romelic axal_axal samyaroebs
qmnis da amravlebs (anawevrebs) sakuTar
Tavs... aris Tu ara, warmosaxviTi avtori
`simulakri~, romelsac `dedani~ ara aqvs,
es sxva msjelobis sagania.
rogorc barti ityoda edgar pos erTi
teqstis analizisas, kvlevis mizania ara
nawarmoebis mTeli stuqturis aRwera, aramed moZravi struqturebis aRmoCena, romlebic icvleba mkiTxvelidan mkiTxvelamde
istoriis manZilze; mTavaria, nawarmoebis
azrobriv sivrceSi SeRweva, semiozisSi
wvdoma. `Cveni amocanaa _ wers barti, movixelToT ara yovelgvari azri teqstisa
(es SeuZlebelic iqneboda, ramdenadac teqsti usazRvrod gaxsnilia usazRvroebaSi:
aranair mkiTxvels, aranair subieqts, arcerT mecnierebas ar Seswevs Zala, gaaCeros teqstis moZraoba), aramed is formebi,
is kodebi, romelTa meSveobiTac warmoiSoba teqstis azri~ (barti 1989:425).
73

am miznisa da amocanebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ganvixilavT lirikuli subieqtis


identifikacias poetis SemoqmedebaSi individualuri konceptebis gamokvlevis gziT.
albaT, qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis ar iqneba
moulodneli, Tu vityviT, rom muxran maWavarianis poeziis erT_erTi mTavari koncepti sisxlia. Aam tipis kvlevis Sedegad,
ana kalandaZe varskvlavebis poetia, terenti graneli_qaris da a. S...
ganvixiloT muxran maWavarianis leqsi:
`Sen, sisxlo Cemo~, romelSic
sisxli _ saqarTveloa / saqarTvelo _
poeti / sisxli = poeti
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _ sad ar daRvrilo...
Sen _
sad ar gxvrepda Savi yorani...
vin gagakvirvos,
ram gagakvirvos,_
nadidgorali,
naSamqorali.
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
Seni Rvawlia,
ramac aqamdec ki moaRwia:
sveticxoveli,
xanZTa,
varZia
74

da isic, _
rac mters warutacnia.
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
Seni dineba
vefxistyaosniT xSirad migrZvnia...
sityva,
romelic geCoTireba _
vcdilob _ gaSoro, _
rac SemoZlia,
Sen _
sisxlo Cemo _
sisxlo xniero,
daucxromelo da ucnauro...
sabednierod,
sabednierod, _
hai, hai, rom
kidev xmaurob.
leqsSi
identifikaciis
saintereso
formaa: poeti identificirebulia saqarTvelosTan, xolo, Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelo sisxlia, romelic poetis sisxlZarRvebSi Cqefs. Llirikuli gmiri II piris
nacvalsaxeliT mimarTavs sakuTar (saqarTvelos) sisxls: `Sen, sisxlo Cemo!~
sisxlis metaforizaciis maRali xarisxi mravali faqtoriT SeiZleba aixsnas: is
aris mTavari mkvebavi gulisTvis da adamianis (qveynis) sicocxlis wyaro (sisxlis
75

gaSroba adamianis sikvdilia), Txevadia, denadi, wiTeli feris, genetikuri kodis (informaciis) matarebeli...
yvelaferi sisxlis damsaxurebaa, ramac
aqamde moaRwia... xolo poetisTvis `vefxistyaosniT~ misi dineba kidev ufro sagrZnobi xdeba.
saqarTvelo erTi mTliani, cocxali
organizmia, romelSic qarTvelebis `daRvrili~ da `dasaRvreli~ sisxlia...
daRvrili sisxli _
`Sen, sisxlo Cemo,
sad ar daRvrilo~.
`xmiTa uxmoTi SebRavis zecas
sisxli, _ ZeTaTvis daRvrili ZeTa.~
`mamuli sisxliT gaajeres imdenad
mtrebma, _
wvimas ver itans...
drodadro cremli ise wveTavs
sabas wveridan...~
`unda daRvaro ramdeni sisxli...
kaci rom gaxde kuTvnilis Rirsi~.
`Txeva sisxlisa maTisa _
Rvari wvimisa viTa...~

dasaRvreli sisxli _
`magram, jer kidev,
76

RvTiT, SemogvrCa sisxli imdeni, _


kvlav rom davRvaroT,
dasWirdeba samSoblos Tuki!~
`sisxlze godeben sxvebi daRvrilze,
me dasaRvreli medardvis sisxli~.
koncepti sisxli muxran maWavarianTan,
ZiriTadad, daRvril da dasaRvrel sisxlTan, raimes sisxliT mopovebasTan aris
asocirebuli, romliTac SeiZleba aixsnas
qarTvelTa eTnokulturuli Taviseburebani.
sisxli informaciis matarebelia, sisxlis fasic icis poetma:
namyo me ar meeWveba,
sisxlis vici Cemis fasi;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ris beWedi! ra beWedi! _
mTavaria, sisxli! sisxli!..
namyo me ar meeWveba,
sxvaTaSoris, arc mermisi.
cnobilia, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi yvela socialuri fenis warmomadgenels Tavisi `sisxlis fasi~ hqonda (aqedan _ cisferi sisxli _ yvelaze maRali fasis mqone).
magaliTad, vaxtangis `samarTalSi~ TavadTa
sami xarisxis sisxli arsebobda. `didebuli Tavadis~ sisxli 1536 Tumans udrida,
77

`Sua Tavadisa~ _ orjer naklebs, `mesame


xarisxis Tavadisa~ ki _ oTxjer naklebs.
aznaurebic sam xarisxad iyofodnen, vaWrebis, msaxurTa da glexTa sisxlis fasic
gansazRvruli iyo.
roca poeti ambobs, rom: `sisxlis vici, Cemis fasi!~ _ misi sisxli yvelaze
ufro Zvir fasTan identificirdeba, radgan
metaforulad igi mxolod gmirebisa da
samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebuli adamianebis
sisxls daatarebs, romelTa sisxli fasdaudebelia. vin arian isini, romelTa sisxlic poetis sisxlSi `bolTas scems?~
davimowmoT isev muxranis leqsi:
SenSi uTuod scems bolTas sisxli,
SoTa rom iyo,
rusTveli,
misi.
SenSi uTuod scems bolTas sisxli,
saba rom iyo,
sulxani,
misi.
sxvaTani SenSi sisxli Cqefs visi, _
arca msurs codna
da arca vici.
kidev vin `mimodis~ poetis sisxlSi? am
kiTxvaze pasuxi isev leqsSi unda amovikiTxoT:
78

yvelaze uwin vinc gasxla vazi,


qva sxvaze uwin vinc dasva qvaze,
vinc sxvaze uwin gasWeda rkina,
vinc sxvaze uwin ixmara ina,
qristes Sobamde vinc Seqmna wigni, _
sisxlad mimodis
dRes
CemSi
igi.
moipoveba ra! _Qqveyanaze!
moipoveba ra! _ Tugind caSi!
rom CemTan igi ar iyos bavSvi
da sisxlis Cemis rom iyos fasi?!
(xazgasma leqsebSi yvelgan Cemia_c.b.)
sisxli yvelafers imaxsovrebs, sisxlma
yvelaferi icis... poeti qmnis sakuTar
asls (Tu dedans) poeziis saxiT, romelSic iseve xmaurobs sisxli, rogorc fizikur sxeulSi:
samagierod, _
odes xorci mieca miwas,
odes leqsSiRa xmaurobda poetis
sisxli, _
qveyana SeZra sikvdilma misma...
raki, leqsebSi sisxli moZraobs da xmaurobs, qarTul lirikaSi Cndeba imgvari
metaforuli saxe, rogoricaa `sulis kardiograma~.
79

sisxlia Semoqmedi, zRvasaviT boboqari:


Zal_Rone
sisxlsac zRvasaviT erCis,
zRvasaviT
brdRvinavs xandaxan isic:
viT zRva qviSidan akeTebs kenWebs,
sityvebs
akeTebs fiqridan sisxli.
sabolood, sisxli wyvets:
rom ara xorci iyo,
aramed
iyo uxorco sicocxlis Rirsi! _
veravin getyvis,
aravin icis, _
Tvinier sisxlis, _
Senive sisxlis!
sisxli uwyvet cikls qmnis _warsulidan modis awmyoSi da gadaedineba momavalSi. Esisxlis uwyvetoba (qarTuli genis
ukvdavebis metafora) kargad gamoixata
muxran
maWavarianis
leqsSi:
`viTarca
mtkvari...~
viTarca Rvino _ qvevridan xapSi _
xapidan doqSi _ doqidan jamSi _
qarTuli sisxli, qarTuli suli,
qarTuli sityva, qarTuli guli
gadadioda kacidan kacSi...
80

gzadagza svamdnen, amRvrevdnen,


Rvridnen,
uRmerTod hryvnidnen, ugulod hyiddnen.
da . . . miuxedavad amisa,
mainc, _
gamoiara rusTvelis guli,
gamoiara vaxtangis guli,
gamoiara Tamaris guli,
gamoiara sulxanis guli...
da dRes _
SoTais naqoni sisxliT,
da dRes _
vaxtangis naqoni sisxliT,
da dRes sulxanis naqoni sisxliT _
Tbilisis farTo quCebSi dadis:
leila, londa, naTia, nani,
eliso, vaJa, giorgi, givi
da...
iaron! iaron! iaron!
amin!
warmodgenili leqsi erTgvari locva
da sagalobelia qarTuli genisa. Aam simZafres avtori swored sisxlis poetikiT
aRwevs. `kacidan kacSi~ sisxlis gadasvla
`Tasidan TasSi~ gadasvlasTan asocirebuli, erTgvarad mistikur rituals emsgavseba da `graalis Tasis~ simbolikasac
gvaxsenebs. M
muxran maWavarianis am ganwyobas enaTesaveba osip mandelStamis leqsi batiuSkovisadmi miZRvnili:
81

! ,
, ,
, ,
.
maradiuli sizmrebi asocirebulia isev
sisxlTan. `Wiqidan WiqaSi~ gadasxma ki im
tipis metaforaa, rogoric `kacidan kacSi~
da `Tasidan TasSi~. Aam SemTxvevaSi mTavaria `gadasxma~, rogorc uwyvetobis, ciklurobis simbolo. Tavad batiuSkovis poeziisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia `gadasxmis~ da
`Tasidan Sesmis~ poetika. magaliTad:
! ,
, ?
,
... ( )
mirza gelovani erT leqsSi wers:
Tqven Rvinos nu svamT sxva Tasidan,
uari Tasebs!
uari yvelas... siyvaruli erTs aTasidan.
vinc ukvdavebas, rogorc xviTos,
qveynad afasebs,
dalieT Rvino Cemi Tasidan.
vulkanis tkivils siyvaruli
vinc Seavedros,
visac surs, Ramis naoWebSi cam
gauRimos,
dalieT sisxli am Tasidan ualaverdod,
Cemi Tasidan dalieT Rvino.
82

mirza gelovanis damowmebul leqsSi


sisxli da Rvino sinonimebia. `dalieT sisxli am Tasidan~ bibliuri aluziaa. kidev
erTxel davimowmebT zemomotanil citatas:
iesom `aiRo sasmisi, madli Seswira, misca
maT da uTxra: `yvelam SesviT aqedan, vinaidan es aris Cemi sisxli axali aRTqmisa,
mravalTaTvis daRvrili codvaTa misateveblad~ (maTe, 26, 27_28).
ratom maincdamainc sisxlis metaforizaciiT gadmoicema sulis ukvdavebis idea?
am movlenis asaxsnelad SeiZleba mivmarToT isev sisxlis bibliur gagebas. magaliTad, bibliaSi vkiTxulobT: `radgan sisxlSia xorcielis suli...~ (levianni, 17:11)
anda: `radgan suli yoveli xorcielisa misi sisxlia, mis sulSia igi...~ (levianni,
17:14). am gagebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba
ukeT aixsnas ilia WavWavaZis gamonaTqvami:
poezia movlenilia, `raTa Wrilobidan sisxlis Seuwyveteli dena kacTa sicocxles
Seuyenos!~. maSasadame, poezia `sisxlis gadasxmaa~, Tan gamudmebuli gadasxma... ratom
sisxlis? radgan sisxlSia suli! (bibliuri gageba).
sisxlis gansakuTrebulobasa da Zalaze
metyvelebs Zvel saqarTveloSi Zmadnaficobis sisxlis SereviT ganmtkicebis tradiciac.

83

zemomoyvanili asociaciebi gamoiwvia


swored muxran maWavarianis leqsma: `viTarca mtkvari~.
Tanamedrove poezia winamorbedebisagan
estafetasaviT iRebs da svams RvTaebriv
siTxes poeziis Tasidan im faqtis aRsaniSnavad, rom axla masSi moedineba rusTavelis, Tamaris, vaxtangis... galaktionis,
anas, muxranis... sisxli. Aam mxriv, sainteresod gveCveneba axalgazrda poetis, rezo
geTiaSvilis leqsi _ `mkvdrebis manifesti~, romelic poeturi (da ara mxolod)
sisxlis erTgvari reinterpretaciaa da
romelSic ismis muxranis: `me dasaRvreli
medardvis sisxli~_s gacilebiT mZafri paToisi. ai, fragmenti am leqsidan:
modiT, davxocoT erTmaneTi, Tavisufleba,
sisxlis duRili, sisxlis madlma,
Tvalebs dasicxuls,
sisxlis aRebis, sisxlis wesiT, sisxlis
sufrebad,
Sen, sisxlo Cemo, sisxlo sxviso,
zogadad, sisxlo.
vinc gadarCeba, Caibarebs sul yvelas codvas,
Cveni sulebis saukunod gansasveneblad,
Cven ukve mzad varT vemsaxuroT samSoblos,
hoda,
vaSa, am axal saqarTvelos, vaSa, Senebas!
muxran maWavarianis poeziaSi sisxli
RmerTis sinonimadac ki gamoiyeneba. roca
84

cxovrebisgan daRlil poets uneburad aRmoxdeba:


aRarc sisxli mwams,
aRarc grZnoba
da aRarc alRo...
RmerTmani, vera gavige ra
me am cxovrebis:
me Senze ufro aravisTan
vyofilvar axlo,
yvelaze ufro
me mainc Sen meucxovebi.
`aRarc sisxli mwams~ gamonaTqvamiT Canacvlebulia `aRarc RmerTi mwams~ gamonaTqvami. warmodgenili konteqstic gansazRvravs sisxlis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas poetisaTvis.
P. S.

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom arsebobs


qarTuli sisxli da poeturi sisxli, maSin muxran maWavariani, metaforulad rom
vTqvaT, `cisfersisxliani~ poetia!~ Dda kidev erTxel davimowmebT martin haidegers:
`poeziiT yofierebis dafuZneba `RmerTis
miniSnebebs~ ukavSideba da, amave dros, poeturi sityva gadmocemaa `eris xmisa~. holderlinis poeziis gamo naTqvami ase morgebuli aRmoCnda muxran maWavarianis poeziisTvisac!

85

d a s k v n i s T v i s:
samyaros qarTuli enobrivi suraTis
`dasaxatad~ mniSvnelovania qarTuli poeziis enobrivi suraTi, romelic, Tavis
mxriv, gulisxmobs calkeul poetTa enobrivi suraTebis Seqmnas. individualuri
konceptebis gamovlena-analizi Cveni kvlevis erT-erTi amocanaa. aRmoCnda, rom Tu
ana kalandaZe `varskvlavebis~ poetia, terenti graneli _ `qaris~... muxran maWavarianis poeziis mTavari koncepti sisxlia.
koncepti sisxli poetis SemoqmedebaSi avlens ara mxolod ZiriTad saleqsikono da
metaforul mniSvnelobebs, aramed individualuri poetikis mTel speqtrs, rac, sabolood, nasazrdoebia am sityvis arqetipuli, bibliuri Tu miTologiuri SinaarsebiT.
unda aRiniSnos agreTve erTi detali,
romelic kvlevisas gamoikveTa: Tu sisxli
qarTul frazeologiaSi umetesad uaryofiT konotaciebs aCens, muxran maWavarianis
poeziaSi piriqiT, dadebiTi konotaciebis
siWarbea.
amdenad, koncepti sisxli gvevlineba im
metaforul baded, romlis qsova ar damTavrebula da arc arasodes damTavrdeba,
sanam ena cocxalia da agrZelebs qmnadobas.
ZiriTadi azri ki muxran maWavarianis sisxlisa, es aris poetis saqarTvelosTan da
saqarTvelos sisxlTan identifikacia, rom86

lidanac logikurad gamomdinareobs _ poetis sisxlTan identifikacia. Ees is sisxlicaa, romelic, rogorc ilia ityoda,
`kacTa sicocxlis gasaxangrZliveblad~
aris movlenili.

87

Tovlis semantika

adamianis cnobiereba warmoadgens


`sufTa dafas~, romelzec buneba,
samyaro aRbeWdavs Tavis niSnebs...
merab mamardaSvili

semiotikaSi mniSvnelovania niSnis problema, xolo niSnis kvlevisas sityvis semantikis gansazRvra umTavresia. leqsemis
mniSvneloba SeiZleba gamovikvlioT enis
(rogorc sistemis) farglebSi da metyvelebis farglebSi. Ppirvel SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs saleqsikono mniSvnelobasTan, xolo meore SemTxveva sityvis semantikis dasadgenad ufro rTulia, radgan mniSvnelobas SeviswavliT enis gamoyenebisas sxvadasxva diskursis farglebSi(oficialur-saqmiani, sagazeTo-publicisturi, samecniero,
sasaubro, mxatvruli da sxva). Sesabamisad,
sityvis mniSvneloba SeiZleba romelime
metyvelebaSi amave sityvis saleqsikono
mniSvnelobis asimetriulic ki iyos, an gauCndes uamravi konotaciuri mniSvneloba.
88

poeturi diskursi am mxriv yvelaze ufro


rTuli da mravalganzomilebiani sivrcea,
ramdenadac ena Tavis SesaZleblobebs yvelaze metad poeziaSi avlens. radgan ena
azris gaformebis saSualebaa, nebismieri
enobrivi erTeuli (sityva, fraza, gamonaTqvami...) ganxiluli unda iyos konteqstSi.
Cveni kvlevis mizania, gamovavlinoT aqtualizebuli enobrivi erTeulebi (romlebsac
amave dros aqvT universaluri xasiaTi)
poetur metyvelebaSi da davadginoT maTi
semantikuri sazRvrebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi
konceptis `birTvi~ iqneba saleqsikono
mniSvneloba da Semdeg yvela is konotaciuri, maT Soris, gadataniTi mniSvnelobebi,
romelsac aCens esa Tu is leqsema garkveul konteqstSi. Aam meTodiT enis aRwera
gamoavlens qarTuli enis potencialsa da
siRrmeebs da, amave dros, sxva enebis Sesabamis masalasTan Sedareba saSualebas mogvcems gamovavlinoT universaluri da specifikuri saxe_simboloebi poetur metyvelebaSi.
ras aRniSnaven poeziaSi bunebis movlenebi? Ppoetis romeli da rogori gancdis
metaforebi arian? am mxriv, qarTuli poezia mdidar masalas iZleva. mirza gelovanis leqsSi `Tovli~ sityva Tovli mravalgvar konteqstSia warmodgenili da semantikuri mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva.
89

Tovli
Tovli movida, o, ara TeTri,
sul sxvanairi Tovli movida.
mgonia moxval, Sen moxval erTi
da Tovlis spetak kubos momitan.
dammarxe TovlSi, dammarxe qarSi,
Torem mombezrda miwa boroti,
iCqare, vidre TovliviT wavSli
Senze fiqrebs da Senze molodins.
waxvedi rodis, hbrundebi rodis _
damwvari Tovlis msubuqi boli,
Cemken, o, Cqara, gzac aqeT modis,
Tovli, Tovli, Tovli.
maTovda wuxel, avad var axla
da Tvalzec bindi Camorxeula,
amdeni vneba, amdeni daRla,
sad daitios Cvilma sxeulma.
Tovli mosula, romel mxareSi,
sad giRamdeba dRe Tovlnarevi,
davrCi mzisa da Tovlis gareSe,
am Tovlze ufro namtiralevi.
waxvedi rodis, hbrundebi rodis _
damwvari Tovlis msubuqi boli,
wamodi CemTan, gzac aqeT modis,
Tovli, Tovli, Tovli.
mirza gelovani, 1944 weli, fronti
90

pirvel strofSi gvaqvs aseTi opozicia: TeTri Tovli _ sxvanairi Tovli.


sxvanairi Tovli miTiTebaa ara ferze, aramed raRac garkveul Sinaarsze. Semdeg
striqonSi ki gvaqvs amgvari sintagma: Tovlis spetaki kubo, romelic satrfom unda
miutanos poets, es metafora erTdroulad
aRniSnavs sicivisa da sispetakis gancdas.
meore strofSi aris poetis mowodeba:
`dammarxe TovlSi, dammarxe qarSi...~, avtori aqve ganmartavs, ratom TovlSi? `radgan mombezrda miwa boroti. Aam konteqstidan gamomdinare: miwa _ borotia, Tovli _ keTili... esec poeturi Tovlis kidev erTi semantikuri niuansi. amave
strofSia sintagma: `TovliviT wavSli~...
poeti satrfos mimarTavs: `iCqare, Torem
TovliviT wavSli Senze fiqrebs da Senze
molodins~ (Tovli roca dneba, ukvalod
midis).
mesame strofSi satrfo Sedarebulia
`damwvari Tovlis msubuq bolTan~, radgan
satrfo aris Sors, radgan poeti frontzea (sadac yvelaferi iwvis, maT Soris,
Tovlic...), xolo boli sinazis simboloa.
Semdegi saxe TovlTan dakavSirebuli aris
gza, romelic iseve midis poetisken, rogorc Tovli, amitom satrfos am gzisken
mianiSnebs.
meoTxe strofSi striqoni: `maTovda
wuxel, avad var axla~ unda gaviazroT
pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT. xolo momdevno
91

strofSi gamoTqmuli gancda: `davrCi mzisa


da Tovlis gareSe, am Tovlze ufro namtiralevi im realobis aRniSvnaa, rom poetisTvis ucxo mxareSi mze da Tovli igive
ar aris, rac mSobliur mxareSi... miT umetes, rom is omSia da yoveldRe sikvdils
elodeba... swored amitom is `Tovlze ufro namtiralevia~ (anu Tovli tiris, roca
dneba...). GgancdaTa zRvarze Tovlis kidev
erTi mSvenieri metafora daibada.
rodesac Tovlis saxe_simboloebze da
semantikur niuansebze vsaubrobT, SeuZlebelia galaktionis `iisferi Tovli~ ar
gavixsenoT. rogorc zemoganxilul leqsSi,
aqac Tovli satrfos saxes ukavSirdeba.
TovlTan iisferis dakavSireba ufro mistiurs xdis narativs. Tova Sedarebulia
qalwulebis `xididan fenasTan~ (rac siwmindis asociacias aCens). Tovlis saxes
ukavSirdeba agreTve `mwuxare grZnoba civi
sisovlis~ da, rac mTavaria, am striqonebiT metaforizebulia poetis Sinagani gancda _ `siyvarulis moTmena~.
avtoris sevdiani gancdis gamoxatulebaa `Zvirfaso, suli mevseba TovliT~. sevdas Tan erTvis sispetakis, sinazisa da dinamikurobis gancdac.
galaktionisTvis
satrfos
xelebic
`TovliviT mkrTalia~, romelic uRonod
daxrila `TovlTa dafnaSi~. Tova, poetis
TqmiT, es aris `mwuxare grZnoba qrolvis,
92

mimovlis~ (anu isev dinamikasTan, moZraobasTan dakavSireba).


Tovli `lurji da daRaluli sizmaricaa~:
`Tovs! Aamnair dRis xarebam lurji
da daRaluli sizmriT damTova,
rogorme zamTars Tu gadavurCi,
rogorme qarma Tu mimatova...~
aseTia galaktionis erTi leqsis `Tovlismetyveleba~. Aamave paTosis gagrZelebaa
da satrfo TovlTanaa dakavSirebuli irakli abaSiZis leqsSi: `pirveli Tovlis simRera~, aseTivea oTar WilaZis `marinas
Tovli~:
marinas Tovli
`Tovli movida, marina, Tovli.
arc ise mkacri yofila RmerTi.
dedofaliviT sufTas da movlils,
CemTvis agzavnis da mxolod CemTvis.
me Tovls velodi Zalian didxans,
cisken garboda Tvali TavisiT.
da ai, isic, mova da mkiTxavs...
Tumca, ras mkiTxavs Tovli, ra vici.
marina, Tovli Seni sulia!
da gangebaa gamogzavnili,
rom amirios gzebi sruliad
da gzis napiras damsvas mgzavriviT.
93

viTom mivdivar, Torem namdvilad


ki ar mivdivar, Sen gelodebi.
da TeTri sivrce fiqrs miadvilebs,
morTuli naZvis mwvane totebiT.
da Tovli, civi qurqiT SefuTvnils,
Tavze mevleba qaluri TrTolviT,
magram me vici, rom Sen gekuTvni,
garemoculic amxela TovliT.
warmodgenili konteqstebi ar aris
sruli, magram SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom
umTavresad, qarTul poeziaSi Tovli (Tova) dakavSirebulia satrfos saxesTan.
Tovli aris: satrfo, dedofali, suli,
qali, gangeba, bediswera...
TovlTan dakavSirebulia atributebi:
Soreuli, idumali, monatrebuli, TeTri,
sufTa, spetaki, keTili...
Tovli qmnis sintagmebs: TovliviT waSla, iisferi Tovli, TovlSi damarxva,
sxvanairi Tovli, Tovlis spetaki kubo,
damwvari Tovli, Tovlnarevi dRe, Tovlze
ufro namtiralevi, sulis TovliT avseba...

94

ca da miwa - sulisa da xorcis


metafora

.

adamianis Seqmnis bibliuri faqti, rom


ufalma igi Seqmna Tixisgan da Cahbera suli, anu simbolurad miwa da ca, miwieri
da zeciuri gaaerTiana masSi, es `faqti~
poeziaSi Sesabamisad aRiniSna da bevri Zebna ar damWirvebia, rom am azris Semcveli
`sinonimuri striqonebi~ amomekiTxa qarTul poeziaSi sxvadasxva avtorTan...
ilia WavWavaZe
`me ca mniSnavs da eri mzrdis,
miwieri zeciersa..~
akaki wereTeli
`Tqven rom ggoniaT, is ar var,
sxvebs rom hgoniaT, arc isa!
Suakaci var ubralo,
xan miwisa var, xan _ cisa!~
galaktion tabiZe
`magram mainc SedarebiT
cis da miwis Sezaveba,
95

mogonebis netarebiT
Cems guls enaTesaveba.~
giorgi leoniZe
`miwa viyav da cai Seviqen.~
terenti graneli
`ar vici, vina var,
ar vici, sada var,
me TiTqos iqa var,
me TiTqos aqa var...~
muxran maWavariani
`xorci masesxa miwam,
suli masesxa zecam,
TxemiT terfamde sesxma,_
ra unda gavce sesxad.~
jansuR Carkviani
`erTiani ca da miwa
vis upyria xelSi...~
SoTa niSnianiZe
`Tu mimzidveli eg cxovreba
legendad iqca,
miziduloba wesia da
kanoni brZnuli,
da raki srulad ekuTvnoda
casa da miwas,
miwam sxeuli miizida
da zecam _ suli.~
96

tariel Wanturia
`xar suli da xorci _
xar miwis da xar cis...
me rom vfiqrob _ arc es...
sxva rom fiqrobs _ arc is...
xan ise gZuls Tavi,
xanac gavxar narciss!
xar, cxadia, miwis,
magram ufro _ xar cis...~ da a. S.
TiTqos poeti `pirveli adamiania~, qmnadobis Sedegi da amave dros, axali qmnadobis Semoqmedi, radgan poezia `sityvebiT~
axali samyaros Seqmnaa da es sityvebi ubralo, yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi informaciis gadasacemad gamoyenebuli leqsikuri
erTeulebi ki ara, aramed Rrma azris gamomxatveli niSnebia, romlebsac poetis Sinagani samyarodan sruliad Seucnobeli
sivrceebi `amoaqvT~, amitom poeturi teqsti, iseve rogorc niSani poeziaSi, mravalganzomilebiania...
erTi azri sruliad sxvadasxva SinaarsiT, gansxvavebuli sintaqsiTa da leqsikiT
SeiZleba gaformdes sxvadasxva avtorTan.
azris Zala mis gansxvavebul gamovlinebaSia. magram amgvari prezentaciis drosac ki
garkveuli kanonzomiereba ikveTeba. swored
niSnis es buneba unda amoicnos semiotikis
mkvlevarma. Ddainaxos sistemebs Soris niSnis moZraobis universaluri modeli. imis
miuxedavad, rom es niSani erT SemTxvevaSi
97

SeiZleba iyos verbaluri, sxva SemTxvevaSi


_ vizualuri...
gza ideidan materiisken da sagnidan azrisken niSanSi ikveTeba. sityva kvdeba, roca mas enaSi aRar gamoiyeneben, roca is
funqcias kargavs. Sesabamisad, sagani roca
funqcias kargavs, kargavs azrsac. mxolod
funqcia, daniSnuleba amoZravebT niSnebs da
sZens maT azrs.
adamianic niSania, Taviseburi simbolo
da roca is ambobs, rom `azri SeiZina misma
cxovrebam~, niSnavs: rom funqcia ipova,
romliTac is garkveuli azris, ideis msaxuri iqneba.
am msjelobaSi niSnis erTi universaluri buneba gamoikveTa, imisaTvis, rom niSanma iarsebos, aucilebelia funqcia. samyaroSi SemTxveviT arc araferi Cndeba da arc
araferi kvdeba.
merab mamardaSvili Tavisi cnobili `azrovnebis esTetikis~ saleqcio kursSi erTgan ambobs: `tradiciulad adamianis cnobiereba warmoadgens `sufTa dafas~, romelzec buneba, samyaro aRbeWdavs Tavis
niSnebs, es niSnebi wesrigdeba raRac asociaciuri kavSirebiT, Segedad ki Cven vigebT: ase igeba ena... ase igeba xelovneba da
sxva~ (mamardaSvili 2000:166).
samwuxarod, adamianuri cnobiereba Tavisi aparatiT SezRudulia aRiqvas, dainaxos da Seimecnos samyaroSi yvelaferi,
98

rac xdeba, radgan Cven mxolod imas da imdens vxedavT, ganvicdiT da aRviqvamT, ramdenic es SeuZlia adamianur cnobierebas.
sinamdvileSi Cveni xedva Zalian SezRuduli da nawilobrivia, radgan Tavad varT
subieqtebic da obieqtebic, roca vcdilobT, SeviswavloT da gamovikvlioT sakuTari Tavi.
semiotika _ erTgvari mozaikuri mecnierebaa, mcdelobaa, ufro meti sistemis
meSveobiT axsnas samyaro da adamiani.

99

enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia


da nislis semiotika
poezia da magia

ai, Cven winaSea teqsti. igi obieqti ki araa, aramed ruka _ geografiuli azriT, an qartia _ konstituciurad.Ees rukaa, romelsac sakuTari gzebi da uxilavi ganStoebebi, miwisqveSa bilikebi aqvs.
JakDderida

enaTmecnierebaSi kargad aris cnobili


enis komunikaciuri modelebi, romelTac
safuZvlad udevs iakobsonis funqciuri
sistema. aRniSnuli sistema enisa da metyvelebis funqciaTa Soris fideistur (magiur) funqciasac ganixilavs.
komunikaciis TeoriaSi nebismieri urTierTobis situacia xasiaTdeba Semdegi komponentebiT:
adresanti _ e. i. molaparake an mwerali;
adresati _ msmeneli an mkiTxveli;
100

urTierTobis mizani: adresatze zemoqmedeba, an TviTgamoxatva, an `sufTa~ informireba, an _ sxva;


urTierTobis situacia _ farTo gagebiT, komunikaciis konteqsti;
urTierTobis Sinaarsi _ gadasacemi informacia;
urTierTobis arxi da kodi _ zepiri,
werilobiTi, satelefono, kompiuteruli;
simRera, Jesti, mimika; urTierTobis ena da
stili da sxva (iakobsoni 1975:193).
iakobsonma komunikaciis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT gansazRvra enisa da metyvelebis
funqciebis sistema. man gamoyo sami universaluri funqcia nebismieri enisTvis nebismier istoriul epoqaSi. esenia: Setyobinebis (urTierTobis) funqcia, eqspresiulemociuri funqcia da maregulirebeli funqcia. iakobsoni maregulirebeli funqciis
kerZo SemTxvevad ganixilavs enis(metyvelebis) fideistur(magiur) funqcias, ramdenadac sityvieri magiis adresati_Tanamosaubre, gramatikuli II piri ki ar aris, aramed uxilavi III piri, SesaZloa es aris
umaRlesi Zala.
enis fideistur(magiur) funqcias avlens Selocvebis ena, romelic gansakuTrebuli semiotikuri sistemaa. enobrivi niSani aq amJRavnebs arakonvenciur xasiaTs,
rac imas niSnavs, rom sityva sagnis pirobiTi aRmniSvneli ki ar aris, aramed misi
101

uSualo nawilia. elene blavatskaia amis


Sesaxeb Tavis `saidumlo doqtrinaSi~ miuTiTebs: niSani gamoxatavs sagans, sagani
(faruli an okulturi) aris niSnis Tviseba. sityvis warmoTqma niSnavs, gamoixmo azri da gaxado igi arsebuli. okultur samyaroSi adamianis metyvelebis potenciuri
magnetizmi aris yovelgvari gamovlinebis
sawyisi. sagani CvenTvis aris is, radac
sityva qmnis mas, rodesac asaxelebs. sityva (zmna) an TiToeuli adamianis metyveleba, maTTvis sruliad gaucnobiereblad,
warmoadgens gandidebas an SeCvenebas. diax,
sityvebi an keTilSemoqmedni arian, an _
boroteulni, an _ momwamlavi, an _ janmrTelobis momtanni (blavatskaia 1998:
129).
rogorc aRvniSneT, Selocvebis ena avlens magiur funqcias. Aaq niSani upiroboa.
`niSnis arakonvenciuroba cnobierebis Tavdapirvel fideizmSi ki ar devs, aramed
adamianis fsiqikaSi samyaros asaxvis pirvelad sinkretizmSi. es aris logikur_azrovnebamdeli azrovnebis fundamenturi maxasiaTebeli. aseTi iyo pirvelyofili adamianis azrovneba~ (meCkovskaia 1998:42).
sityvis arakonvenciuri gageba damaxasiaTebelia bavSvTa fsiqologiisaTvis _
`sityva igivdeba saganTan~ (Cukovski). magaliTad, pirvelklaselma SeiZleba CaTvalos, rom winadadebaSi: `aq dgas ori skami
da erTi magida~ _ sul sami sityvaa, an
102

rom sityva `kanfeti~ _ tkbilia. maSasadame, niSnis arakonvenciuroba niSnisa da aRsaniSnis, sityvisa da sagnis, sagnis saxelisa da sagnis arsis igiveobrioba yofila.
rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, jadosnuri da wminda sityvebis rwmena dakavSirebulia Tavis tvinis marjvena naxevarsferos muSaobasTan, gansxvavebiT marcxena
naxevarsferos meqanizmebisagan, romelic
ganapirobebs inteleqtualur-logikuri da
abstraqtuli informaciebis miRebas da gadacemas. marjvena naxevarsfero pasuxs
agebs
adamianis
fsiqikuri
cxovrebis
grZnobiT-emociur mxareze. Tavis tvinis
marjvena naxevarsferoSia agreTve `moTavsebuli~ aracnobieri da gaucnobierebeli
procesebi. aseT viTarebaSi niSnis arakonvenciurobis fenomeni gvevlineba ZiriTad
fsiqologiur-semiotikur meqanizmad, romelic qmnis enasTan fideisturi damokidebulebis SesaZleblobas. es is marcvalia,
romlidanac amoizrdeba rwmena jadosnuri
da wminda sityvebisadmi. Eenobrivi niSnis
upiroboba ama Tu im formiT gansazRvravs
enis damokidebulebas miTologiur_religiur cnobierebasTan.
iakobsoni enis magiur funqcias `anaTesavebs~ enis esTetikur (poetur) funqciasTan. garkveuli azriT, es marTlac asea.
enis poeturi funqcia ar aris orientire103

buli teqstis Sinaarsze. poezia msmenels


(mkiTxvels)
ganacdevinebs
amaRlebul
grZnobas. zegavlena miiRweva ritmis, riTmis, sityvaTa gansakuTrebuli rigis, metaforulobis da a. S. meSveobiT. magaliTad,
galaktionis `qari qris, qari qris, qari
qris, foTlebi miqrian qardaqar... xeTa
rigs, xeTa jars rkalad xris... sada xar,
sada xar, sada xar?~ _ msmenelze zemoqmedebs ara mxolod Sinaarsis meSveobiT,
mniSvnelovania agreTve musikaloba, bgerwera, ritmi, striqonebis Sinagani vibracia...
magiur sityvasa (Selocvebi) da poetur metyvelebas saerTo aqvs kidev erTi
niSani: adresatze fascinaciuri zemoqmedeba, rac gulisxmobs darwmunebis maRal xarisxs, STagonebas, `mojadoebas~, magram poezia, Cemi azriT, amas akeTebs Zaldautaneblad, bunebrivad, SemoqmedebiTad, adresatis
winaswari momzadebis gareSe, maSin, roca
Selocvebis ena ZiriTadad avtomatizebuli
teqstia da ara SemoqmedebiTi, savsea kliSeebiT, gabundovanebuli sityvebiTa da gamoTqmebiT _ abrakadabrebiT; Selocvebis
enis mxatvruloba banaluria, gansxvavebulia komunikaciuri situaciis konteqstic.
Selocvebis dros adresati (e. w. SemkveTi)
mzad aris `STagonebisaTvis~ da SesaZloa,
Semlocvelze metad sjera Selocvis sityvebis azrisa (amis modelia Tanamedrove
fsiqoTerapiis praqtika), amitom gamoloc104

vis teqstis bundovaneba da abrakadabrebis


tipis gamonaTqvami misTvis mxolod saSualebaa sasurveli mdgomareobis misaRebad;
rac Seexeba poetur metyvelebas, mas praqtikuli mizani ara aqvs. maSasadame, poeziasa da magias Soris gansxvaveba aRemateba
maT Soris naTesaobas.
Tumca poezias Tavisi mistika aqvs, gansxvavebuli `praqtikuli magiisagan, radgan
poezia ar aris cnobierebis Cveulebrivi
mdgomareoba da, Sesabamisad, misi aRqmac
moiTxovs gadayvanas Semoqmedis, poetis
mdgomareobaSi, raTa moxdes avtorisa da
mkiTxvelis Sexvedra.
ra xerxebiTa da saSualebebiT aRwevs
amas mxatvruli sityva, SeuZlia Tu ara
mkvlevars im idumali kanonebis moxelTeba,
romlebic namdvilad arsebobs teqstSi,
magram ar devs zedapirze da SeumCnevelia,
rogor unda gaizomos leqsis zemoqmedebis
xarisxi, misi energia...? _ es is kiTxvebia,
romlebzedac pasuxs veZebT.
rodesac poeturi teqsti metaforulia, mxatvruli saxeebiT datvirTuli, maSin vambobT, rom zegavlenas axdens swored amgvari mxatvruloba, magram rodesac
teqsti daclilia metaforulobisagan da
mxolod ubralo sityvaTa sinTezia, maSin?
aseT SemTxvevaSi iakobsoni saubrobs gramatikis poeziaze, rodesac aqtualizdeba
gramatikuli kategoriebi da qmnis garkve105

ul tropulobas..., Tumca amgvari mtkicebulebac SeiZleba sadavo gaxdes.


poezia `mignebuli sityvis~ xelovnebaa,
magram ras niSnavs `mignebuli sityva da
rogor vzomavT am mignebulobas? Cven mxolod droSi da droiT Sefasebuli mxatvruli teqstebi viciT, Tumca aseT SemTxvevaSic zegavlenis meqanizmi Bbundovani
rCeba.
enis esTetikuri (poeturi) funqcia
orientirebulia aRqmis mTlianobaze, anu
zemoqmedebas axdens enis ara erTi romelime, aramed mTeli misi komunikaciuri SesaZleblobebi. aseT niSans umberto eko, morisis msgavsad, uwodebs `ikonur niSans~
(eko, 2004:89). misi azriT, poeziaSi lingvisturi niSani iqceva erTgavr `stimulTa
velad~, esTetikuri veli ki imgvaradaa
struqturirebuli, rom mis asaxsnelad
sakmarisi ar aris ubralo moqmedebebi,
romlebic, magaliTad, referenciuli Setyobinebis aRqmisTvis iqneboda sakmarisi.
Sesabamisad, poeturi enis aRqmis amgvari rTuli meqanizmi, teqstis wakiTxvis
mraval SesaZleblobas aCens, radganac aRqma subieqturi procesia da ganpirobebulia mravali faqtoriT, maT Soris, aRmqmelis Sinagani mdgomareobiT da sxva.
erTi da igive niSani poetur teqstSi
da Cveulebriv, pragmatul metyvelebaSi
mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebulia. enis esTeti106

kuri funqcia enis SemoqmedebiTi potencialis gamovlenaa da im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac poetur teqstSi ar aris metafora,
sityva, rogorc ikonuri niSani, araviTar
SemTxvevaSi ar igivdeba lingvistur niSanTan, romelic sxva diskursebSi gamoiyeneba
(magaliTad, bunebis movlenebi: wvima, Tovli, qari, nisli.... poeziaSi da meteorologiur prognozebSi saerTod gansxvavebul
konteqstebSia).
rogorc aRvniSneT, enis esteTikuri
funqcia gulisxmobs `mistikur~ da `magiur~ doneebsac da rac ufro maRalmxatvrulia nawarmoebi, miT ufro izrdeba amgvari zemoqmedebis xarisxi. amitom aris,
rom kargi leqsis mosmenisas msmenels eufleba dumili da sityvebiT emocias ver gamoxatavs garkveuli periodi. Aambobs, rom
am striqonebma `gaabrua~, `gaTiSa~, `Tavbru
daaxvia~, `daamunja~, `ena waarTva~ da sxva.
am mdgomareobas mistikis enaze `waSla~
hqvia, anu Cveulebrivi cnobierebis erTgvari `dabindva~, `dacarieleba~.... anu, Cveulebriv enaze: esTetikuri siamovnebis miReba.
poezia _ es aris sityvebis gziT da
sityvebis meSveobiT `dumilis~ mopoveba.
WeSmariti poezia is aris, romelic dumils badebs. `poeti _ aris mistikosi wamierad, xolo mistikosi _ poeti maradiulad~ (oSo rajniSi).
107

nislis poetika
SemomxedeT, me mze var da
gadavwie nislis farda,
axal gazafxulad movel,
rom vaxaro uflis yana.
jalal ed_din rumi

poetur leqsikaSi SeiZleba gamovyoT


imgvari saxe-simboloebi, romlebic ufro
metad atareben `mistikurobis~ da `magiurobis~ semantikas. erTi aseTi sityva_konceptia nisli, romelsac sulxan-saba ase
ganmartavs: `mzis simxurvale wyalTa qveyanaTa notioTagan orTqlsa ahkrefs da Seiqmnebis nisli, ukeTu mravali aRiRo misgan,
iqmnebis wvimani da Tuca mciredi aRiRo,
mananad Seiqmnebis, xolo nislica esreT
ganiyofebian: mciresa da Txelsa nislsa
ewodebis foSfoSi, xmelsa da mtvris
msgavssa nislsa _ boriayi, xolo notiosa
nislsa bori da nislsa monaTovsa bueri
da nislsa zrqelsa da Zlierad mqrolelsa, romeli Sekrbebis mTaTa zeda, armuri~.
simboloTa leqsikonebis mixedviT: nisli _ simboloa nacrisferi zonisa realursa da ararealurs Soris. Zveli kelturi miTis mixedviT, is faravs dedamiwis
Crdilo-dasavleTs amqveyniuri samyarosa
da imqveyniuris sazRvarze, is aris agreTve
simbolo adamianisTvis miuwvdomeli sferoebisa...
108

aRmosavlur-aziur
lirikaSi
nisli
aris umTavresad Semodgomis da aforiaqebuli gancdebis, agreTve avi sulebis simbolo... evropul zRaprebSi nisli simboloa xSirad adamianisaTvis momavlis da imqveyniuris Caketilobisa, rac mxolod sinaTliT SeiZleba gaixsnas.
mxatvrul literaturaSi nisli aqtualizebuli saxe-simboloa, romelic gansxvavebul konteqstebSi gansxvavebul semantikur da emociur konotaciebs aCens. nisli
bindSi xvevs sagnebsa da movlenebs, aferxebs moZraobas, badebs gaurkvevlobis SegrZnebas... Sesabamisad, gzaze mimavali mgzavri Cerdeba, ferxdeba.... an agrZelebs gzas
da ikargeba... nisli qaosis mdgomareobaa,
romlidanac
Semoqmedi(mwerali)
qmnis
`axal wesrigs~... nisli feriscvalebis wina etapia, masSi ibadebian monstrebi, demonebi, urCxulebi da nislidan ibadeba angelozi, RvTismSobeli.... mistikuri religiebi nislis simbolizms mimarTaven iniciaciis dros. sulma unda gaiaros sibnelisa da
nislis mdgomareoba da gasxivosndes, gavides sicxadeSi. sainteresoa qarTul enaSi
arsebuli iseTi frazeologizmebi, rogorebicaa: Tvalebze nisli gadamekra, goneba
damebinda, nislSi wavedi, nisli gadamefara... da sxva, romlebic cnobierebis Cveulebrivi mdgomareobis dakargvas aRniSnaven,
rodesac adamiani Sordeba realobas da
droebiT `ikargeba.
109

ori ukiduresobis karg nimuSs gvaZlevs amerikeli mwerali fantastikisa da


mistikis JanrSi: stiven kingi(igive riCard
baxmani) prozaul nawarmoebSi: nisli (The
Mist) da brazilieli mwerali paulo koelio romanSi: rio piedras napirze Camovjeqi da avtirdi (By the River Piedra I Sat
Down and Wept).
erT SemTxvevaSi patara, provinciul
qalaqSi TiTqos arsaidan mosuli nisli
ipyrobs quCebsa da saxlebs, nislidan ibadeba mravalsaxovani sikvdili, romelic
nTqavs da anadgurebs adamianebs... xolo paulo koelios nawarmoebSi nislidan ibadeba, gamodis qalRmerTi... `Cven garSemo nisli TiTqos gamococxlda, SeiZina Tavisi
sakuTari yofiereba, gardaiqmna erTgvar
wminda substanciad... (rio piedras napirze Camovjeqi da avtirdi).
nislis saintereso, ambivalenturi semantikaa frangi mwerlis boris vianis moTxrobaSi `siyvaruli brmaa~ (l'amour est
aveugle). sqel nislSi TandaTan CaZirul
qalaqSi adamianebi veRar xedaven erTmaneTs,
amitom Tavs uflebas aZleven, rom miZinebul vnebebs gasaqani miscen, ris Sedegadac
yvela bednierad grZnobs Tavs. `SesaZleblis sazRvrebi farTovdeba, roca ar geSinia, rom sinaTle ainTeba~. da ai, radio
acxadebs, rom nisli ifanteba da qalaqis
mosaxleobamac gamosavali monaxa: yvelam
110

daiTxara Tvalebi, raTa gaegrZelebinaT


bednierad cxovreba.
qarTuli prozidanac araerTi nimuSis
damowmeba SeiZleba. magaliTad, konstantine
gamsaxurdias `dionisos Rimilidan~: `...nisli Tavs dasxmia qalaqs, mTeli quCebi nisliT dagubula. ixrCoba qalaqi nislis
warRvnaSi. nisli dgas karebTan, nisli kedlebTan atuzula da kankalebs...
...Talxi landebi dalaslaseben nislSi
CaZirul qalaqis quCebSi...
...zafxuli momkvdara da es uSvelebeli,
adamianebis landebis procesia TavCaqindruli mihyveba ukan am saarako yeenobas...
...nisli amdgara yinulovan okeanedan,
nisli amdgara zRvebis fskerebidan da amboxebula...
...CrdiloeTidan mosula qurdulad, fexakrefiT, zamTris sunTqva da Cemi guli
ikumSebeba varamisagan...
...me marad minda viyialo am qveyanaze,
Tu Cems suls gaToSavs CrdiloeTis nisli, saqarTveloSi ki bevria mze da cis naWeri...~
amgvari magaliTebi msoflio literaturaSi mravladaa da niSandoblivia, rom
nisli erTsa da imave dros aris sikvdilisa da sicocxlis, keTilisa da borotis,
dadebiTisa da uaryofiTis aRmniSvneli. is
aris koncepti, romelic mravalinterpretaciis saSualebas iZleva.
111

nislis gza qarTul poeziaSi

saintereso poetikas qmnis nisli qarTul poeziaSi:


nisli dabrkolebaa, gaurkvevlobaa:
mTao, gadmiSvi, maRalo,
ras nisli mogixvevia,
mTas iqiT Cemi lamazi
sxvas vismes Cauxvevia. (xalxuri)
da vifiqre: `Cemi satrfo sad ari?
nisli hburavs, Tu dRe udgas sadari?~
(akaki wereTeli, aRmarT_aRmarT)
dRem moitana alazanamde,
nislis Savi zRva rom gadaTela;
dReo, netavi aRar daRamde,
Tu daRamdebi, ar gagaTena.
(tician tabiZe, alaverdoba)
TiTqos nislia, arafers vxedav
da TiTqos mqonda Savi niRabi.
(terenti graneli, sizmari)
nisli adamianiviT sulieria, amitom poeti mimarTavs mas, rogorc Tavisi sulis
Tanaziars, an, ufro sworad, identifikacias axdens masTan, rogorc vaJa_fSavela,
rodesac ambobs: `nisli fiqria mTebisa~ an
usvams sakuTari TavisTvis dasasmel kiTxvebs:

112

ras fiqrob, nislo tialo,


Semjdaro goris fxazeda?
gana Senc rame gawuxebs
am oxer qveyanazeda?
(arCil kitoSvili, nisli)
gabriel jabuSanuri ki pirdapir ambobs:
me var: gorze rom loculobs nisli,
Ramis siCume Cemi fiqria,
wyaroa Cemi cremli da sisxli,
Tma aris, kldes rom quCi mihkvria.
zogjer ki nisli satrfoa:
vaJao, dilis mzis sxivo,
xan mTebze nislTa dinebav...
an:
nislauro, nisli xaro,
gamiqrebi: mzisi xaro...
me aragvze davrCebodi,
magram, ra vqna, sxvisi xaro...
(ana kalandaZe)
sxvagan ki ana wers, rom unda ise ganuyofeli iyos satrfosgan, rogorc nisli
da mTebi:

113

movediT samadlos xevTan...


nislebSi danTqmula isic...
me minda, sul viyo SenTan,
rogorc es mTebi da nisli!
tariel Wanturias lirikuli gmirebi
leqsSi: golgoTa, zRvis donidan 7500
metris simaRleze, Seyvarebulebi, TokiT
gadabmulebi, miiweven nislSi mwvervalisken, rac metaforulad gamoxatavs iesos
gzas:
Sekrulebs erTi TokiT da rwmeniT _
orves bneli ufskruli gvimzers...
aq ar arsebobs sando da Zveli
gza.... nislebs nisli usxltebaT qimze.
..................................................................................
bedia: zogi aRwevs RrublebTan...
da ufskrulebis weraa zogi!
me ar gemduri... gqonda ufleba,
rom gadageWra sikvdilis Toki....
poet guCa kvaracxelias lirikuli gmirisTvis siyvaruli satrfosgan Seqmnili
nisli da burusia:
me SeniT Seqmnil burusSi vcxovrobdi.
Cven amas siyvaruls veZaxdiT. Tumca
arasodes giTqvams, ras grZnobdi,
roca Cemi nestoebis sunTqva gesmoda.
Cems wertils veZebdi Sens
koordinatTa sistemaSi.......
(guCa kvaracxelia, nu daynosav yayaCoras)
114

nislis saintereso saxes gvTavazobs agreTve poeti rati amaRlobeli, roca mas
satrfos TvalebTan da feriscvalebasTan
akavSirebs:
Tvalebi Seni, Cemi Tvalebis nisli,
Seni Tvalebis nisli,
feriscvaleba mTvaris,
feriscvaleba sizmris.....
sxva SemTxvevaSi poeti TeTri nisliT
saganTa WeSmarit bunebas swvdeba:
TeTri feriT, mkveTri feriT
daifara yvelaferi.
TrTviliT, TovliT, TeTri nisliT
gamovlinda feri misi.
(rati amaRlobeli, TeTreuli)
nislidan ibadebian galaktionis usasrulobisaken da Seucnoblisaken mswrafi
`lurja cxenebi~, romelzec ana kalandaZe
dawers:
TeTri nisli nislebs irevs _
es xom `lurja cxenebia~,
Svidi zeca gadirbines,
arsad SeusvenebiaT...
manamde ki Tavad galaktioni aRiarebs,
rom `lurja cxenebi~ mxolod `nislis TareSSi~ dahqrian:
115

mxolod nislis TareSSi, samudamo


mxareSi,
zeviT Tu samareSi, wyevliT SenaCvenebi,
rogorc zRvis xetiali, rogorc bedis
triali,
Cqari grgvinva_grialiT qrian lurja
cxenebi!
da radgan nisli Seucnoblis metaforacaa, is yvela `mogzauris~ Tanamdevia da
qrolva usasrulobisken, dausabamobisken,
Seucnoblisken da, sabolood, uflisken _
nislSi mogzaurobaa. Nniko samadaSvilis
leqsSi: `dausabamobis xilva~ _ personaJi
nislSia gaxveuli...
me mivqrolavdi, rogorc udabno,
cxedarze ufro dauzarebliv...
da msofliodan isev meZaxdnen
cadakarguli xSiri zarebi.
sityvebs vugdebdi Sexvedril Saras:
terfebs foTlebiT ver damiameb,
monastris zemoT vxedavdi Savad
sivrceSi gakrul adamianebs.
nislis svetebi idgnen garSemo,
nislebs SuadRec ver aTenebda.
guli iwvoda da lurji kvamli
msxvilad mdioda bnel Tvalebidan...
..............................................................................

116

`nislis gza~ rCeulTa gzaa, amitom poetebi `avad arian~ nisliT, rogorc `msoflio sevdiT~. Ees azri kargad aqvs gamoxatuli nikolai gumiliovs leqsSi `nisli~:






terenti granelis leqsSi `eqskursia


cisken~ `nisliani usazRvro sivrce~ agreTve Seucnobelis simboloa:
isev siSoris cecxli mizidavs,
ar minda guli samares mivce,
me xom mindoda gasvla miwidan,
me xom mindoda gafrena cisken.
iq uxilavi mxare micdida
da nisliani usazRvro sivrce...
nislisa da mgzavris semantikaa dakavSirebuli niko samadaSvilis am striqonebSi:
saRamo modis, nisli zedaSes
svamen da daiss mTebi kenkaven.
Cemo liaxvo, albaT me da Sen
saqarTvelodan gamogvrekaven.

117

ra vuyoT mere, viRaca mgzavri


gahyveba stveniT gznebis molaRurs,
da Seadarebs gakmendil zarebs
mwyemsis ubeSi moklul salamurs.
aleqsandre abaSeli ki sikvdilis win
daweril leqsSi erTgvarad ajamebs ganvlil `nislian gzas~ da afasebs, rogorc
mogzauri, romelic amaod daSvra:
xandaxan fiqri damburavs,
vwevar da ar meZineba.
vityvi cxovrebis samduravs
da cremli damedineba.
gzas rom gavxedav nislians,
Cavqrebi, CaviSritebi:
gzaze rom yria, visia,
frTamotexili Citebi?
........................................................
verafers gavxdi mzisaken
mudam xelebis aSveriT,
rac guls undoda, isa vqmen,
magram amaod davSveri!
rogorc vxedavT, qarTul poeziaSic
nisls Tavisi gza aqvs, Tavisi poetika da
Tavisi uRrmesi semiotika. is qmnis sakuTar
zRapars da sakuTar siuJets. Nnisli damogzaurobs poetidan poetSi, striqonidan
striqonSi, teqstidan teqstSi... is gaivlis Semoqmed gulebs da sulebs... anda, samudamod rCeba maTSi. nisli TviTon wyvets,
118

saiT wavides da es Tviseba mas daaqvs poeziaSic. is ar aris yvela poetis stumari,
yvelas ar wyalobs, mxolod rCeulebs da
rCeulTagan mxolod erTeulebi aRweven
Tavs da ai, swored maSin dgeba sulis mistikuri gasxivosneba _ iniciacia...
nislis arsi da idea kargad aqvs gaxsnili erT Tanamedrove avtors, nika jorjanels, leqsSi `mgzavroba nislSi~, romlis srul variantsac aqve gTavazobT:
`naRvliani sivrce Ria./ bardnis.Ddazrnen ekal-bardni./ Zveli drois TeTri
dRea./ Zveli drois cidan bardnis./ Tvali
nislSi lamis gadnes,/ veRarafris mWvreti.
TviTon/ nisli velze zantad gadis./ eSiniaT Rrublebs cidan/ ucnauri Camovardnis./
winaT TeTrze rboda Savi./ axla ukve TeTris ronins/ vxedav Savze, gaiSala/ usagnobis mTqmeli foni./ waiSalnen midamoni./
gaqrnen kvamlni, sakvamurni./ gaTanabrda
yvela done./ alalbedad gakvalulma/ gzam,
romelic marTmevs Rones,/ veRarasgziT moarida/ Tavi nisls da gaqra isev./ yvelaferi momxdaridan/ erTi raRac rCeba _ nisli./ magram mainc, magram visi/ anda risi
bolo aris/ is? ra cxadis dasawyisi?/ vin
wers am, vTqvaT, memuarebs?/ neba risi asaxvisa/ aRarafrad agdebs fiqrs da/ aigivebs
sivrces amgvar/ landTan, jvars ki, RmerTo, _ iqsTan?/ uceb `me Tu meZeb, aq var~/
119

mesmis xvalis. Mmesmis, magram/ is ar unda


yofiliyo/ aq. vWvret masSi Wmunvis sagans:/
gacrecili profiliRa/ damrCenia saxisagan./ nisls SignT var. Cem SigniT ki/ nislis msgavsi aris raRac./ sinamdvilev, Semirigdi,/ minaxule zogjer aqac./ Sens kedelze fermkrTal laqas/ warmovadgen xvalis Suqze./ nu ifiqreb, rom dro gamyavs./
nu ifiqreb, radgan ukve/ xval arafers namdvils ar hgavs/ dRe, romelSic vsunTqav
jerac./ imdenad xar sinamdvile,/ ramdenadac Cemi gjera./ naxav: nislSi vinadireb/
kurdRlis msgavsad mxtom da mcire/ gasasvlelze gareT _ SenSi./ magram vici, avacileb/ yvela tyvias da Sen SegSlis/ Cemi
srola sasacilo,/ Cemi xvalis sveli cecxli./ ...xvaleSi var. is ki TiTqos/ ver gebulobs, rad viqeci,/ moxvedrili masSi.
midgas,/ fiqrobs suli da aRmiTqvams/ Tavissave bolos keTils./ meaTased misvams
kiTxvas, Tu ra garsi gavikeTe./ miRimis da
pasuxs iTxovs.../ gzebi, gzebi, gamirbian./
erTaderTis gayolebiT/ oriv mxares xramebia./ nela-nela, daRonebiT,/ SeferxebiT,
dayovnebiT,/ uxalisod, ara nebiT/ msresen
nislis vagonebi.../ vmadlob xvales, Tu iqneba/ da cocxali vegonebi.~
am striqonebSi mTavri personaJi nislia, avtori ki nislsSerTuli xmaa, romlis nebeloba gadafaruli da dakargulia...
yvelaferi waSlilia, gaTanabrebuli... are120

ulia droc... avtori `xvale~-dan moTqvams,


iq aris... Tumca is xvalec arafers namdvils ar hgavs... daxatulia qaosi, daaxloebiT `Canasaxis~ mdgomareoba, romlidanac wuTi wuTze unda moxdes dabadeba...
dabadeba axal garsSi, axal cnobierebaSi...
ra daibadeba am qaosidan? axali nisli da
gaurkvevloba, Tu sicxade da sinamdvile....
es jer ar Cans, Tumca garkveuli miniSnebebi ismis `Canasaxis~ xmaSi: `fiqrobs suli da aRmiTqvams Tavissave bolos keTils~.
warmodgenili kvlevidan SegviZlia nislis semiotikuri modeli gamoviyvanoT siuJetis saxiT:
moqmedebis adgili: nisli
moqmedebis dro: gaurkvevelia
moqmedebis mizani: swrafva srulyofilebisken, uflisken;
moqmedi piri: avtori satrfosTan erTad;
mTavari gza: siyvarulisa da harmoniis;
nislis gza: ugzooba;
sxva personaJebi: SiSi, martooba, nislis urCxulebi, nislis `lurja cxenebi~...
sulebi...
metafora mniSvnelovani movlenaa samyaros Semecnebis procesSi. axali codnis paradigmis konteqstSi metafora ganixileba,
121

rogorc adamianis umniSvnelovanesi saazrovno meqanizmi, romelic gansazRvravs


adamianis mimarTebas sinamdvilesTan. swored am mxriv aris saintereso CvenTvis bunebis movlenaTa konceptebis metaforuli
gaazrebis
reprezentaciuli
variantebi
enobrivi cnobierebis struqturebSi da am
SemTxvevaSi qarTuli poeturi diskursis
masalebis mixedviT.
bunebis movlenebis konceptebidan nisli
erT-erTi yvelaze ufro aqtualizebuli
semantemaa, romelic poetur diskursSi gamoirCeva metaforizaciis maRali xarisxiT.
qarTul poeziaSi nisli qmnis saintereso
poetikas, rac gamoixateba ara mxolod metaforul da simbolur semantikaSi, aramed
emociuri mniSvenlobebis mravalferovnebaSic. Nnisli erTsa da imave dros aris rogorc dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi emociebis
aRmniSvneli, Tumca sakvlev masalaSi procentulad dadebiTi emociebis siWarbe aRiniSna.Nnisli poetebis `msoflio sevdis~
simbolocaa, romliTac poetebi `avad arian~ da romlidanac maT ar undaT gamosvla... nisliT gamowveuli gaurkvevloba
asocirebulia idumalebasTan, idumaleba ki
RvTaebrivis niSania.

122

semiotikuri esei `dumilis


nakrZalebSi~
(guCa kvaracxelias verlibri)

is gamoCndes,
visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi
Seesvleba.
guCa kvaracxelia

sxva ver gaigebs, sxva ver igrZnobs,


sxva ver axsnis, Tumca poeziis enas axsna
sulac ar sWirdeba, is Tavad axsnis bevr
rames, roca adamianSi SeaRwevs... roca...
manmade ki poeziis Widan wylis amoReba
unda viswavloT mTvaris sxivebiT, mere am
wylis dagemovneba _ neba-neba, mzis Tu
mTvaris sxivebis TanxlebiT Sesma ise, rom
wyurvilis yvela nervi gacocxldes da
datkbes RvTiuri siTxiT. Cvens aCqarebul
samyaroSi ki wyalic ise swrafad amogvaqvs
Widan, rom naxevarze meti gzaSi gveqceva,
123

xan_mTvaris sxivebic gviwydeba, Wis kedlebidan Camoyrili xavsi uRimRamod dayrila


saTlis fskerze... aba, aseT wyals ra gemos
gaugeb?!..
leqsic im wyaliviTaa, gnebavT, RvinosaviT, romelic kargad unda daigemovnoT!
kargad unda SeigrZnoT... TiToeul striqons xom Tavisi gansakuTrebuli feri, gemo, aromati aqvs.
is gamoCndes,
visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi
Seesvleba.
bevrs ifiqrebT _ SegesvlebaT Tu ara...
nu ifiqrebT, Tqven igrZnobT... metafora
mxolod imitom ar arsebobs, lamazi samkauliviT daamSvenos leqsi. metafora usasrulobisaken gvityuebs, `kanonebis samyaros~ angrevs, daukavSirebels akavSirebs
da axal realobas gvaziarebs. aba, wesiT
da rigiT, ra saerTo aqvs `dumils~ `nakrZalebTan?~ ise, poetisa ar iyos, ras ar
wamoedebi, `roca sakuTar TavSi sakuTar
Tavs eZeb~ (`ucnauri ambavi~).
aq SexvdebiT `wvimiT gaJeJil Crdilebs, Suqi rom qsaqsavda~ (`ariTmia~).
sityvis mniSvnelobaTa jamiT am saxes ver
axsniT. marTali arian semiologebi, roca
leqsikons `mniSvnelobaTa sasaflaos~ uwodeben. sityva cocxldeba winadadebaSi,
124

frazaSi da aTasgvar niuanss iZens. `wvimiT


gaJeJili Crdilebis~ aRqmisas ki cnobierebaSi vizualuri xatic Cndeba, erTgvari
ferweruli tilo, swored amaSia am sityvebis Zalac, rasac, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs
poetis vizualuri azrovnebis cxovelmyofeloba. rusi fsiqologi zinCenko vizualur azrovnebas gansazRvravda, rogorc
adamianTa imgvar Semoqmedebas, romelic
warmoSobs axal xats, axal vizualur
formebs, romlebic mniSvnelobas xilvads
qmnian.
aba, es suraTi Tu ginaxavT odesme, Tu
ara, aucileblad dainaxavT am striqonebis
wakiTxvis (ara, SegrZnobis) Semdeg:
nigvzis sqel foTlebSi
RiRvela bartyiviT
farTxalebs sxivi _
fexs ver ikidebs rtoze,
saidan sad mosuli,
aq ar Camovardes, sawyali!
(`aRwera trafaretuli stilistikiT~)
am saxem axlaxan wakiTxuli paruir sevakis leqsis fragmenti gamaxsena:
mzis sxivebs mwvane WinWrianSic
undaT SeRweva,
magram cvivian aqeT_iqiT _
dasusxulebi.
(Targmna givi Sahnazarma)
125

sivrcesa da droSi daSorebul SemoqmedTa Soris yovelTvis arsebobs idumali


ram kavSiri.
guCa kvaracxelias metaforuli azrovneba uamravi axali gancdis, SegrZnebis wyaroa da, rac mTavaria, misi poezia ukidegano, dausazRvrav sivrces gvTavazobs. poetis SemoqmedebaSi arcerTi tropi ar iqceva imgvar simbolod, erTi, erTaderTi mniSvneloba rom hqondes.
andrei tarkovski erT-erT interviuSi
aRniSnavda: xSirad meubnebian, Tqvens filmebSi uamravi simboloao da aravis sjera,
rom iq erTi simboloc rom ar aris... ra
aris simbolo? es aris Sifri, kodirebuli
idea, cneba, romelic SeiZleba erTmniSvnelovnad gaiSifros. roca ki mWvreteli mas
Sifravs, yvelaferi damTavrebulia, usasrulobis iluzia banalobad, gacveTil saxed, truizmad iqceva. qreba saidumlo da
mTlianobis gancda.
arc guCa kvaracxelias am saxes minda
movparo saidumlo:
batknis cxviriviT
notion nisli
Caimuxlebs aseT mindorze
da miwas kocnis.
(`bukolikuri~)

126

ramxela sinazesa da sifaqizes matebs


batknis cxviris sinotive im nisls, miwas
rom kocnis.
ase yofila Turme:
roca sakuTar TavSi
sakuTar Tavs eZeb,
maSin wamoedebi xolme
manamade SeumCnevels.
gvian, magram mainc amCnev, rom
uTqmeloba,
vici, uTqmeloba
gvaSoriSorebda...
(`qali~)
`upasuxobis
koncxebma~
daamsxvria
`usityvo xomaldebi~... qalis saflavs ki
amasobaSi `bamba daaTovs~. nuTu? ... aiSleba
safiqrali... sainteresoa, xan Tqma aSorebT,
xan _ uTqmeloba adamianebs, es TiTqos
isec ici, magram poeziiT gancdili mainc
sxva dasturia.
is movides,
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis.
aseTia `xalxis moTxovna mitingze~ vin?
vin icis wvimis saidumlo? an aseTi ra saidumlo aqvs wvimas? poetma icis, gveubneba
kidec _ oRond sxvagvarad, okrobokrod,
mixveul-moxveulad, orazrovnad, ai, ase:
127

cocxlebi tyuian,
daimowmeT mkvdrebi!
xlebnikovi adamianis mier enis gamoyenebas bavSvebis TojinebiT TamaSs adarebs. is
wers: TojinebiT TamaSis dros bavSvma SeiZleba gulwrfelad itiros, roca misi
`naWris gunda~ avadaa an kvdeba. TamaSisas
es `naWris gundebi~ cocxali, namdvili
adamianebi arian _ Tavisi guliTa da
grZnobebiT.
ena `aSualebs~ adamianis Sinagan emociebsa da grZnobebs, magram albaT `TamaSis
xarisxzea~ damokidebuli, ramdenad zustad
gamoxatavs `niSani~ (ena) poetis saTqmels,
ramdenad gulwrfelad TamaSobs Semoqmedi
sityvebiT, rogorc naWris TojinebiT.
Tqven dainaxavT `sityvebis momReral
siluetebs~,
roca
guCa
kvaracxelias
leqss: `visac Cveni saxelebi gerqmevaT~_
CaikiTxavT. raze mRerian `sityvis siluetebi~, romlebic `Tqveni xmebis grZel derefnebSi~ Casaxlebulan? aqvea pasuxic:
Cveni sityvebi Casaxldebian Tqvens xmebSi,
rom mogiTxron,
rogor gavediT mexuTe mxares
da davcineT nacradqcevis SiSs;
gaswavlian foTlis morcxvobas,
rtoebis rokvas menuetis mokle nabijiT,
Tavis dakvriT da reveransebiT...
128

guCa kvaracxelias leqsebis kiTxvisas,


misive Tqmis ar iyos, `bevr rames wamoedebiT, manamde SeumCnevels~, iqneb Zalisxmevac ar geyoT, leqsi bolomde CaikiTxoT,
radgan poetis rTuli sintaqsi, azrovneba,
datvirTuli asociaciebiT, romelic erT
winadadebaSi daaxvavebs CarTulebs, detaluri aRweris manera ki imdenad vrcels
xdis winadadebas, rom zog SemTxvevaSi
wertils mxolod leqsis bolos dainaxavT... manmade ki, sakmaod Rrmad unda CaisunTqoT, rom Zala geyoT, aRiqvaT da gaigoT _ jer sad mTavrdeba winadadeba, mere
_ romelia mTavari winadadeba, ... Semdeg _
azri, qveteqsti, miniSneba da a. S. riTac
mdidaria guCa kvaracxelias poeturi teqstebi, magram damerwmuneT, Tu bolomde CaikiTxavT leqsebs, Tqven mas meored da mesamed aucileblad miubrundebiT.
Tanamedrove mkiTxveli _ Tavbrudamxvevi ritmebis samyaros mkvidri, moangariSe
goneba, lirizmisagan daclili, magram lirikis TeoriiT datvirTuli... erTi sityviT... mkiTxvelTa umravlesobas, iolze,
martivze, adviladaRsaqmelze rom aris
orientirebuli, ra Tqma unda, guCa kvaracxelias leqsebis wakiTxva gauWirdeba.
poetis azrovneba, iseve rogorc misi
Sesabamisi weris stilistika, paradigmulia. is paralelurad uamrav miZinebul
azrs da fiqrs aRviZebs, grZnobas giforiaqebs, SegrZnebebs gixalisebs, emociebs gi129

cocxlebs, warmosaxvasa da fantaziebs


agiSlis da bolos, yvelafers erT mTlianobaSi Sekravs Semoqmedi, sakuTar sulSi
(da mkiTxvelis sulSic) moixelTebs da
risTvis sWirdeba es yvelaferi? misi leqsebis kiTxvisas refreniviT Cagesmis sokrateseuli: `Seican Tavi Seni~, amas poetic
ar gvimalavs:
roca sakuTar TavSi
sakuTar Tavs eZeb,
maSin wamoedebi xolme
manmade SeumCnevels.
frazaSi uamravi azris Catevis maneriT
guCa kvaracxelias Semoqmedeba ponJs magonebs, saganTa Sinagan arss maTTan identifikaciiT rom gamoxatavda. ponJi erTgan
wers, rom adamians wonasworobisaTvis
sityva sWirdeba (Semoqmeds, miT ufro), gamoTqmuli sityviT axali realobis kars
vaRebTo. marTlac, romel Semoqmeds ar aRmouCenia, rom werisas, azri rom yalibdeba
da formdeba, CvenTvisve ucxo dagvinaxavs
im enis meSveobiT, Cven rom gamogvTqva da
gamogvxata.
ase xdeba nebismieri kargi leqsis wakiTxvis Semdegac. zogjer ki qreba sityvebiT gamoxatuli Sinaarsi da isev `ucxo
karibWesTan~ aRmovCndebiT, manmade ucnobi
SegrZneba dagvipyrobs da iqneb sul es
aris, rasac WeSmaritma Semoqmedebam unda
130

gvaziaros. maSin, vikmaroT poetis am striqonebis miRma Tu TanxlebiT gacocxlebuli unazesi sevda-tkivili:
...roca erTxelac,
Sens maRal totebs,
varskvlavebs rom iWeren axla,
metyeve moswvdeba,
gagaxsendes:
me viyavi, me,
gzaabneuli da caluRela,
sxiviviT rom dagtrialebdi...
(`qali~)
guCa kvaracxelias verlibri erT did
mdinares magonebs uamravi SenakadiT _ es
Senakadebi gansxvavebulia siTbo-siciviT,
sigrZe-simokliT, siCqariT, feriT, gemoTi...
zogi mTidan Camorbis kisrismtvreviT, zogi baridan uerTdeba dinji xmauriT, zogs
damdnari Tovli moaqvs, zogs _ ayvavebuli
atmis rto, zogs _ Semodgomis foTlebi...
is didi mdinare Tavad poetis sulia,
striqonebiT rom sxvadaxsva Senakadis xmas
gvasmeninebs, zogi Senakadi Cavlilia, zogi
_ Casavleli da zogic _ Cauvlelad gubdeba...
mainc kargad icnob
Cavlilsac da Cauvlelsac
TavianTi saxelebiT,
dabadebis adgilebiTa da TariRebiT.
131

Zalian Zveli da mkvidri ki,


romlis amosacnobi
arcerTi niSani ar ici,
im siRrmeSia usxeulod Cafenili,
romlis apki usasrulobas atarebs,
ori siRrme erTmaneTs ereva
da kidev ufro wyviaddeba
erTmaneTSi gazavebuli...
(`ucnauri ambavi~)
da bolos, patrik ziuskindis `literaturuli amnezia~ rom dagvemarTos guCa
kvaracxelias poeziaze, waiSalos yvela
teqsti Tavisi SinaarsiT, gaqres yovelgvari azri, erTi xom mainc gadarCeba:
is movides,
vinc wvimis saidumlo icis...
da davamatebdi: guCa kvaracxelias leqsebic man waikiTxos:
visac mkacri dumilis
nakrZalovan sivrceSi Seesvleba,
rom wvimis saTqmeli
gafiltros da gareT gamoitanos...

132

mzis semiotika poeziaSi


ori mze
mikrokosmosi - makrokosmosi

`msuris qeba da dideba naTlisa


warualisa,
mzeTa-mzis vaxSi Tavs maZes, mmarTebs
gardaxda valisa,
Wirs sacnauris mzisaca swored
gamarTva Tvalisa,
aramc-Tu ucnaurisa cnoba gzisa da
kvalisa~.
daviT guramiSvili
`jer saWiroa, movipovoT Wvretis
organo, romelic msgavsi da analogiuria TviT Wvretis obieqtisa. Tvali
verasdros dainaxavda mzes, jer TviTon rom ar mieRo mzis forma.~
plotini
War nicht das Auge sonnenhaft,
Wie konnten wir das Licht erblicken?
,
?

( .. )

133

ori mze _ sacnauri da ucnauri! _ ase


ganmartavs mas daviT guramiSvili. erTi
mze _ astronomiuli planeta da meore
mze _ uflis metafora. sacnauri mzisTvis
Tvalis gasworebac ki Wirs, xolo ucnauri mzis (uflis) gza-kvalis cnoba kidev
ufro rTulia: `o! RmerTis simdidreTa, da
sibrZnisa da Semecnebis siRrme! rogor Cauwvdomelni arian misni samarTalni da miukvlevelni misi gzebi!~ (romaelTa,12, 33).
sainteresoa marina cvetaevas `ori
mzec~: erTi _ caze romelic anTia da meore _ mkerdSi...
, !
, .

poeti TiTqos mikrokosmosia da samyaros analogia... poetisTvis garesamyaro da


iq arsebuli movlenebi yovelTvis Sinagan
gancdaTa metaforebia.
m z e _ erT-erTi universaluri koncepti da saxe-simboloa, romelic uamrav konotaciur mniSvnelobas aCens. maT Soris
aris: bibliuri, arqetipuli, miTosuri, astronomiuli, asociaciuri, poeturi da
sxva mniSvnelobebi.Mmainc ras aRniSnavs
mze? Mastronomiulad: mze irmis naxtomis
galaqtikaSi, mzis sistemis centrSi, yviTeli varskvlavia, romlis garSemo, orbitaze, moZraoben sxva ciuri sxeulebi da, maT
134

Soris, dedamiwac. is aris sinaTlisa da


siTbos wyaro...
mze gavlenas axdens adamiansa da bunebaze imiT, rom is gansxvavebuli siCqaris
energiebs asxivebs... sinaTle da magnetizmi
qmnis miwier formebs.
mze umaRlesi kosmiuri Zalis simboloa, yvelganmWvreti RvTaebaa, miuxedavad
imisa, rom samyaros uZvelesi suraTebi geocentrulia, mze aris simboluri centri,
kosmosis guli, yofierebis centri; is
aris agreTve simbolo intuiciuri codnisa, gonisa, gasxivosnebisa, didebisa da didebulebis, meufebis... mze samyaros Tvalia, RvTaebrivis xiluli xati, sinaTlis
transcendentuli arqetipi; mze `samyaros
karia~ codnasa da ukvdavebaSi Sesasvleli.
bevr tradiciaSi mze aris mamakacuri
sawyisi, zog kulturaSi _ qaluri. qarTuli folkloruli tardiciis mixedviT:
`mze _ dedaa Cemi, mTvare _ mamaCemi, bRuja-bRuja varskvlavebi _ da da Zmaa Cemi!~
mze _ uZravad myofi caze _ drois
miRmaa. Ees aris mudmivi `axla~.
alqimikosebisaTvis: mze gonebaa, Sol et
Luna _ oqro da vercxli, mefe da dedofali, suli da sxeuli...
`mzis Tavgadasavali~ (rogorc Tavad
avtori uwodebs mas) dawvrilebiT aqvs gamokvleuli viqtor nozaZes `vefxistyaosnis mzismetyvelebaSi~. Aam Tavgadasavlis
gamokvleva mas sWirdeba imisaTvis, rom Ta135

visi adgili miuCinos am istoriaSi `vefxistyaosnis mzes~. Cven ki vixsenebT am


Tavgadasavals imisaTvis, rom davinaxoT
rogor anaTebs qarTuli `poeturi mze~,
ras aRniSnavs, poetis romel gancdaTa simboloa, risi metaforaa, ras adareben mzes
qarTveli poetebi da sxva.
`vefxistyaosanSi~ mze aris personaJebis metafora, anu: mze_adamiania... es gamomdinareobs ufro didi metaforidan: mze
uflis xiluli saxea; gavixsenoT avTandilis mimarTva mzisadmi: `ityvis: he, mzeo,
vin xatad gTqves mzianisa Ramisad, erT-arsebisa erTisa, mis uJamosa Jamisad~... adamiani Seqmnilia RmerTis saxed da xatad, amitom aris is `mzis wili~ anu: `uflis wili~; miT ufro, es iTqmis Seyvarebul adamianze (RmerTi siyvaruli ars). swored
amitom: qajeTis cixeSi gamoketili nestani
satrfos wers: `mze uSenod ver iqmnebis,
radgan Sen xar misi wili~.
aqac ori mze: mze _ ufali da mze _
adamiani.

136

`mze _ Tvali~ _ universaluri


semantikuri formula qarTuli enis
leqsikaSi
"
,
: ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , , , ,
- , .
, ,
,
,
, , , . - (..
) , , , ,
,
".
""

mzis erT-erTi gavrcelebuli metaforaa `mze_Tvali~. Aam wyvils Soris arsebuli semantikuri kanonis mixedviT, es mimarTeba aris mimarTeba: mikrokosmosi-makrokosmosi, anu adamianis grZnobis organo137

ebs samyaroSi daeZebneba analogi.Bbevr enasa da kulturaSi es mimarTeba aisaxeba ara


mxolod leqsikaSi, aramed miTebSi, gamosaxulebebSi, poeziaSi...
sainteresoa am mxriv qarTuli enis masala.Mmze_Tvalis metaforuli mimarTeba
yvelaze kargad Cans sawyisSi `mzera~. qarTvel enaTmecnierTa sarwmuno mtkicebiT:
mzera-Si swored mz-Ziri (anu mze) dasturdeba. (mz-er-a; amave tipisaa warmoebis
TvalsazrisiT Zg-er-a). maSasadame, Tvalis
funqcia yureba, cqera aRiniSneba leqsemiT,
romelic semantikurad mzes ukavSirdeba,
rac Zalian saintereso da mniSvnelovani
movlenaa da rac adasturebs am universaluri mimarTebis (mze_Tvali) qarTul enaSi arsebobas.
mzeras sulxan-saba ase ganmartavs:
Wvreta. Mmzeraca esreT ganiyofebian: xedva
ars ra TvaliT keTilad xedvides; Cena ars
ra akldes da mcired xedvides; mzera ars
ra SoriT xedvides; Wvreta ars ra xangrZliT dakvirvebiT umzerdes rasme; cqera
ars garCeviT xilvisaTvis axlore dacqeriT Tvali daapyras; Wviroba ars ra sarkmliT gare gamoixedvides.
mze arqetipi saerToqarTveluri fuZeenis donisTvis aRadgina giorgi klimovma.
qarT: mze
megr: mJa/bJa
laz. mJa/bJa
svan. miJ/mgJ
138

mze, rogorc arqetipuli fuZe, saintereso sityvawarmoebas qmnis qarTulSi.


iwarmoeba atributebi: mziuri, mzegrZeli, mzebneli, mzedakruli, mzedaleuli,
mzedasanbelebeli, mzeTunaxavi, mzeCamqrali, mzisdari, enamze da sxva. sawyisi: mzeoba; zmna: amzianebs, mzeobs (`mze veRar
mzeobs CvenTana, dari ar darobs darulad
(SoTa).
adamianis saxelebi: mzia, mzisa, qalTamze, mzeqala, mzevinari, mzeWabuki;
frinvelis saxeli: mzewvia;
yvavili: pirimze, mzesumzira, mziura;
sofeli: mzeTamzia;
adgili: mzisyuri, samzeo;
sagalobeli: mzeSina da sxva;
`mz~ Ziria agreTve mziralSi, mzirSi,
mzveravSi;
mziri qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi ganmartebulia: Zv. damzveravi, moTvalTvale; mstovari, jaSuSi. (`mun axlos
wyaro dioda, masTan tye iyo xSirado, iq
mogveparnen, dagvisxdnen TxuTmeti kaci
mzirado~ (d.g)).
mzirali _ vinc an rac umzers, _ macqerali, mayurebeli, mWvreteli;
Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sityva zvari
momdinareobs Zveli formidan: mzvare, mzvari, rac niSnavs mzian, uCrdilo adgils
(pir-mziTebi anu mzvareebi, male Sreba, iq
male iRebs Tovls (vaJa) (qegli, t. V);
139

gamzirSi agreTve mzir _ Ziria, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mz-idan iwarmoeba. sainteresoa agreTve mweveli forma, romelic
momdinareobs mzevelidan, da romelSic
mz Ziri dasturdeba. (aRniSnuli forma
dasturdeba sulxan-sabasTan, mzeveli _
mweveli, momwevi).
Zvel qarTulSi mzis-Tuali mzes, mzis
diskos aRniSnavda (`gananaTlos yoveli queyanai ufrois mzis-Tualisa~ _ m. sw. 212,
13 _ ilia abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis
leqsikoni). am leqsemaSi mze da Tvali erTad aris warmdgenili, rac Tvalisa da
mzis universalur funqciur kavSirze miuTiTebs.
mze qmnis qarTulSi idiomebsa da frazeologizmebs: mze amosdis, mze daubnelda,
mzem Sexeda, mze miyurebs, mzem Tvali daxuWa, mzem Tvali gaaxila, mze gauqra, mzis
sinaTleze gamoitana, mze moekida, mzis
dakvra, mzis guli, mzeTa-mze... idiomebsa
da frazeologizmebze dakvirveba aRmogvaCeninebs Tvali_mzis metaforul urTierTkavSirs, rodesac Tvalis funqcia gadatanilia mzeze da piriqiT, mzis funqcia Tvalze. magaliTad: Tvalebi gaubrwyinda, Tvalis sinaTle, Tvalebi gaunaTda, Tvalebis
cecxli _ yvelgan mzis funqcia _ naTeba,
brwyinva, wva _ aris gadatanili.
mze Sedis ficis formulebSic, magaliTad: Cemma mzem, Senma mzem, Cems mzes vfi140

cav... `Senman mzeman, uSenosa vervis mihxvdes mTvare Seni...~ (SoTa); da sxva.
sepiris mixedviT: adamianebi cxovroben
ara mxolod saganTa obieqtur da sazogadoebrivi Semoqmedebis samyaroSi, isini
mniSvnelovanwilad imyofebian konkretuli
enis gavlenaSi; im enisa, romelic mocemuli sazogadoebis urTierTobis saSualebaa.
Secdoma iqneboda gvefiqra, rom Cven
SegviZlia enis gareSe srulad gavacnobieroT realoba; ena aris damxmare saSualeba
azrovnebisa da urTierTobis zogierTi
problemis gadasawyvetad. `realuri samyaro~ mniSvnelovanwilad igeba mocemuli
jgufis enobrivi normebis safuZvelze.
Cven vxedavT, gvesmis da viRebT ama Tu
im faqtsa da movlenas ase Tu ise imis
SemweobiT, rom Cveni sazogadoebis enobrivi normebi gvTavazobs mocemul formebs
(sepiri 1993:181).

141

qarTuli poeturi mze


`vardTa da nexvTa vineTgan
mze sworad moefinebis~
SoTa rusTaveli

mze _ RvTaeba, ufali, uzenaesia da amitom poetisaTvis mze aris orientiri, marad Seucnobeli, mzisken svla _ mTavari
gza!
`mzisken mimafrens faskunji,
faskunjs ufskrulis aqvs kuWi,
mena sagzali var misi,
magram veyofi?!_
ar vici!~;
(muxran maWavariani)
`Sen ki, samefo visac gepyra
usazRvrod vrceli,
Senc _
ofli visac gaRvrevina
monis uRelma, _
aRar xar, _
radgan mzis xelTaa
sikvdilis celi!
aRar xar, _
radgan sulerTia mzisTvis suyvela!~;
`fexze macvia irmis tyaviT Sekruli xamli,
vaRmerTeb mzesa, vanTeb cecxlsa,
da mzisken midis rZisferi kvamli...
142

vaRmerTeb mzesa, vanTeb cecxlsa


da vwirav msxverplsa...~;
(ana kalandaZe)
`es simReraa mzis sasalamo,
martispiruli.....~;
`Tavs movikazmav
siraqlemas lamazi frTebiT
da mzes vumRereb
okeaniT mimavals mZimed~;
`mze mTis wveridan amobrialda
da miriadi Caqra varskvlavi...
swored masaviT daiwye brwyinva
Cems karvis karTan...
o, rogor hgavdi Sen im Zvel RmerTebs,
rom dagyurebdnen mTebidan, cidan,
Sen Zirs dauSvi grZneuli mSvildi,
mzeT udideso!
madli mivage didebul mzesa,
rom dagnaToda yornisfer Tmebze~;
`aq daibada `suliko~,
mzisken gafrinda `merani~...
`miwas swydebian verxvebi maSin
da goliaTur mxrebis SerxeviT
mzisken midian zRapruli raSiT
Cemi verxvebi...~;
`ha, laJvardebi mcxunvare mziTa,
kvlav Sens TaRebSi avardna minda,
usazRvroebav!...~...
143

mze, rogorc ufali, yvelgan da yvelaferSia:


`iqneb mze Camovarda babilonis godlidan,
Camoimsxvra daxlebze da Rvinod gadmodinda?
anda, devma sazamTro daagora zRapridan
da kldis Ziras miafSvna mtkvris elvare
napirTan?
mziT daxoxbda tyeebi, zvrebic mziT moiCiTa,
mze moJonavs leRvidan, mze mowveTavs
fiWidan,
mzes yidian doqebiT, woniTa da calobiT,
yelamdea es miwa mzis madliT da wyalobiT.
mzea xmaSi, sityvaSi, mzea gamoxedvaSi,
mzea, Semodgomis mze da surneli zedaSis...~;
(SoTa niSnianiZe)
da roca mze Tavdeba sulSi, mTavrdeba
yvelaferi...
`exla Sens sulSi yvavilisTvis
mze aRar aris,
mze aRar aris da ar aris araraime!~
(galaktioni)
`mzis sadRegrZelos maradi WiqiT
vsvam, mixaria cecxlis kdemani...~;
`miuwvdomelo, Sen dageZeb xeliscecebiT,
sxivi xar mzisa...~
(jansuR Carkviani)
144

`Tu patroni mzes ugalobs,


saqarTvelos ra moklavso!~;
`mzisken mivdevdiT gafrenil mernebs!~;
`mwvane foTlebi, tuCebrZiani,
yviTldebian da mzisken midian...~
`is aTamaSebs burTiviT miwas,
ugzavnis wvimas, Takara sicxes,
puriT da wyaliT Worflavs da winwklavs
da caze xatavs droTa aRmricxvels.
ex, Cveni barali, Sen rom ar gvyavde,
ra gveSveleba, mzeo, maRalo,
iganTiada, nuSi ayvavda,
me kidev Senze fiqrma damRala~;
`he, mzeo, mzeo, xelebgawvdili
me vdgever Sen win...~;
`me vgrZnob, Zvirfaso, mzisa misarqmels,
rogor mivyavar sinaTlisaken...~;
`sul mzisken hqondaT gaWrili kari...~;
(oTar WilaZe)
`mzeo, nurasdros nu waxval Cvengan.
mze yvelas unda da yvelas uWirs
misi gayofa da darigeba,
radgan yvelafers advilad vitanT,
roca sxeuli mziTaa savse~;
145

mze _ adamiani
metaforuli
kavSiri
`mze_adamiani~
qarTul poeziaSi damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa
da raki mze sulieriviT, adamianiviT ganicdeba poetebis mier, amitom mzes axasiaTebs
adamianis Tvisebebi:
`mze icinis, vardfurclobis daria~;
(ana kalandaZe)
`mzis Rimili aRaCina caman~;
`Sen mismen ise, viT mze usmens okeaneebs~;
`mze iyo civi da mSvidi~
`dacemula riyis qvaze,
mzeo, maxsovs Seni sisxli...
Wrilobaze TuTuns gayri,
perangs vxev da gixvev frTxilad,
silaSi ki, rogorc balRi,
aTinaTi amoTxvrila.~
(jansuR Carkviani)
`Tumca gvelebma veli moSxames
da mzis xelebi moigeries...~,
(lado asaTiani)
`mze monadire megona,
saxudars mofarebuli~;
`mze ki kuTxeSi mimjdara mileul dedaberiviT,
abrunebs oqros TiTistars biisfrad
gadaferili~;
(SoTa niSnianiZe)
146

mze _ satrfo (mze _ siyvaruli)


`Sen Camoxvedi, etyoba, mzidan,
rom wamsve cecxlis damwvdnen Rvarebi,
gaqrnen qalebi _ prospeqtze darCi,
daginaxe da gtace Tvalebi...~;
(murman lebaniZe)
`vaJao, dilis mzis sxivo~;
(ana kalandaZe)
`irgvliv mzis naTeli dasdgomia mTebsa,
caSi gafrenilan nislisni mTebi,
mzei SeniT mzeobs,
mzed enTebi, zeobr...
Cemi gulis Zaxils,
o, RaRadiss Cemsas,
Sen arsaiT ismen?....~;
`rac ufro Sors xar, miT ufro vtkbebi,
me SenSi miyvars ocneba Cemi,
xeluxlebeli, rogorc mzis sxivi...~;
(galaktioni )
`wavida, gaqra... ver SevekiTxe,
risTvis gamSorda, risTvis wavida...
gamiqra sulis ocneba wminda...
iluleba mze, iZarcveba tye~;
`usiyvarulod mze ar sufevs cis kamaraze~;

147

`dRes yvelgan mzea, exla am baRebs


da myinvars, maRal zraxvaTa mefes,
maisi aliT aazambaxebs,
viT Seyvarebuls da meocnebes~;
`rac ca umzeod _ dedamiwac dRes igivea...
gemic uSenod igivea, rac ca _ umzeod~;
`TiTqos Sens sxeulSi mzea momwyvdeuli...~;
(SoTa niSnianiZe)
`Sen amodixar zRvidan mzesaviT _
Tavisufali da moTenTili~;
(oTar WilaZe)
`Seni xeliviT Tbili da mSvidi
Cems sulSi wveba mzis anarekli~;
`Soridan gimzer mzesaviT daRlils~;
(jansuR Carkviani)

148

mze _ dro, adgili, individualoba


mzis erT-erTi mTavari funqcia drois
aRniSvnaa... metaforulad mze saaTia, amqveynad yvelaferi droSi da droiT cxovrobs... yvelafers Tavisi dro aqvs... TiToeul adamians cxovrebis garkveuli, Tavisi
wili, Tavisi saaTi, poetebi ki ityvian:
rom Tavisi mze aqvs... is dro, romelic
mziT aRiricxeba, aris sicocxle, amitom
aseT SemTxvevaSi mze _ droa da es udris
sicocxles. swored es semantika Cans ficis formulebSi: Sens mzes vficav... rac
niSnavs: Sens sicocxles vficav...
ara marto adamians aqvs Tavisi dro, anu
mze... aramed yvela dRes, Tves, faqtebsa da
movlenebs, awmyos, warsulsa da momavals...
yvelafers aqvs Tavisi mze (anu sicocxle),
Tavisi `sakuTari mze aqvs agreTve adgilsac... mze erTia, romelic dedamiwas anaTebs
da aTbobs, magram igi sxvadasxva mxareSi
sruliad gansxvavebulad ganicdeba da aRiqmeba, miT umetes, poetebis mier. Aamitom
erTi mze SeiZleba bevric iyos, gaaCnia, ras
gulisxmobs poeti. magaliTad, galaktioni
wers: `magram Tvalma daTvala bevri mze da
cxraTvala... oh, mziT gadanacxaro, cxra
muxa da cxra wyaro!~
`ymawvilqalobam waiRo
mzeebi, oqromfinarni,
neta ki vinme momgondes,
rom umisoba vinano~;
(ana kalandaZe)
149

`garindebulxar aprilis mzeze...~;


`oqtombris mzeSi
aSoltili verxvebis rigis
da RvTaebrivi askilis xati
dgas gulsa Sigan...~;
`oh, rogor midis axalgazrdoba,
daundobeli survili lomis
da yovelive rogor nazdeba,
roca axloa mze Semodgomis~;
(galaktioni)
`magram Seni mze sibneles gaxevs
da daadgeba Subls naTeliviT...~;
`mzeo, TibaTvisa, mzeo, TibaTvisa,
locvad muxlmoyrili
graals Sevedrebi...~;
`o, yoveldRe mzeebi qimerebSi vardeba,
qaravani dReebis mZimed miemarTeba;
`Tu gazafxulis mziTa var mTvrali~;
(oTar WilaZe)
`icinis gogo da miabijebs sakuTar mzeSi,
sakuTar mzeSi da puris mtverSi~;
`Cemi wili mtkvari daSra,
Cemi wili mze Cavida...~;
150

`mamam cecxli damabara,


var Cemi mzis anabara...~;
(jansuR Carkviani)
`Tqveni mzisa var, Tqveni tyisa var~;
`Turme garbodnen lamazi wlebi,
Cven rom gvegona gavrbodiT mzisken~;
`unda gavuZlo dRis garindebas,
qarTlis cxeli mzis naamborebTa...~;
`da xmaSi udgas Tbilisuri mze da yirmizi~;
`Cven isev zeviT mivdivarT
Seni mzis mosagoneblad...~;
`mze aqauri miduRs me sisxlSi~;
(muxran maWavariani)
`ra Seedreba am Cvens mxaresa?!
am Cvens mzesa da am Cvens mTvaresa?!~;
`xval diliT sxva mze amova...~;
(lado asaTiani)
`Sen Cemi wigni saxsovrad gqondes, _
me mzis qarTulis miTqvams sicxovle...~
(murman lebaniZe)

151

mze _ saqarTvelo
`Sors ki, mTis Ziras,
sadac mzea, sadac vazia......
mcire defisad Casdgomia did evr-azias _
erTi patara, pawawina saqarTveloa~;
(murman lebaniZe)

`saqarTvelo _ es zRapruli mzea,


ukeTesis bedisaa Rirsi!~;
(galaktioni)
`Sen, romelic marad mzeebr gvinaT,
ara guSin gaCndi Tvalis Cinad,
aramed mziT amoenTe brwyinvad _
ocdaeqvsi saukunis winaT...~;
`sxva mze ara mwams, Seni mze
sxeulSi gavinawile...~;
(jansuR Carkviani)
`raic mTavaria, Cveni mze davicvaT,
RmerTo, moumarTe xeli saqarTvelos~;

152

mze _ sasmeli
`xonCiT mzis sxivi mogarTvi,
mzis sxivis Camonawuri~;
(jansuR Carkviani)
`bevri mziT vavseb sulis fialas
da vsvam brZolebis did sadRegrZelos;
`Tu gazafxulis mziTa var mTvrali...~
(oTar WilaZe)

153

mze _ sicocxlis simbolo


mzeo, daude sazRvari mwuxare
fiqrTa qrolasa,
_mzeo, amodi, amodi, nu efarebi
gorasa!
galaktioni

sainteresoa mzis metafora folklorul teqstebSi. kerZod, `xmiT natirlebSi~. motiralisaTvis saaqao da saiqio
cxovreba moTqmis dros upirispideba erTmaneTs. Tu cocxalTaTvis saaqao cxovreba, es qveyana, erTaderTi realobaa, sikvdiliT gamowveuli mwuxareba adamians im
cxovrebis _ saiqios siaxlovesac ganacdevinebs. motiralis azrovneba ZiriTadad
kontrastebze igeba da Sesabamisi enobrivi
gamoxatulebiTac formdeba. saaqao_saiqios
axali sinonimebi uCndeba `xmiT natirlebis~ teqstebSi. saaqaos, amqveynis sinonimebia: samzeo, mzis qveyana:
`Tuki gvaCuqe e qalai,
rad ar didi dRe dauwese,
raad maswyvite samzeosa?!
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`Zmao, mamgone geqneboda,
mamgone, Zmao, samzeosa~;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`gamamacxade samzeosao,
Sen amaZraxe samzeurTao~;
154

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`Zmao, samzeos gaTaulo,
Zmao, samzeos daleulo~.
xolo saiqios, im qveynis sinonimebia
suleTi da SaveTi:
`suleTis RmerTo, madliano,
mame nebai saubrisao~;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`SaveTis kari gamiRodi,
ukven aravin damabrunos~;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`netavi gaumarjvos, RmerTsa,
SaveTsac misca, SaveTs, kari~.... D
da sxva.
motirali xSirad Sestiris mzes, rogorc sicocxles, misTvis xom es qveyana
samzeoa, mzis qveyanaa:
`mzes ver Savxeneb uSenodao,
mzes, uSenobiT daCrdilulsao~;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`mzeo, dadeg da Camoxeneo,
mova ymawvili umzeurTao~;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`cocxalT ra gviWirs, mzes vxedavT,
daRamdeba da gaTendeba,
bralia, visac dauRamda,
visTvisac aRar gaTendeba!~
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155

`dReo, raira gamzianebs,


mzeo, raira gecineba?~
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
`daica, mzeo, ar dabrZande,
RamiT me versa gavarigeb~;
da ase Semdeg...
sikvdils sicocxle, mze upirispirdeba,
SaveTs _ samzeo, dRes _ Rame... adamiani
kvdeba, sicocxle grZeldeba: isev Tendeba
da amodis mze, Tumca motirali ityvis:
`mwuxarebis mze~ varo.
leqsemebis: mzisa da sikvdilis aqtualizeba `xmiT natirlebis~ teqstebSi albaT yvelaze ukeT xsnis motiralis kontrastebze agebul azrovnebas (barbaqaZe
2003:200).

156

mzis individualuri poetika

mzis universaluri poetikis gamokvlevis Semdeg sainteresod gveCveneba mzis individualuri poetika erTi poetis poeziis
mixedviT. Aam niSniT sainteresod gvesaxeba
SoTa niSnianiZis poezia.
`ficxobda, sxioda mzis cxeli daira,
sicxe ZunZulebda mTlad daTvisnairad~;
`klanWiani agvistos mze miminosebr cerze
mizis~;
`mze ki ZnasaviT CaSlili,
mTel saqarTvelos Svenoda~;
`mze ki kuTxeSi mimjdara mileul
dedaberiviT~;
`Saib, sayvarelo, mzis oqros maxvili,
mec winapariviT qudze kacs gavyviri~;
`mze sayeloSi xels Camavlebda
da gamiyvanda gakveTilidan~;
`mze mxarze gaido ToxiviT
da mTvare namglad moRuna~;
`gaiRviZa, gaizmora... daixura mzis CaCqani~;
`da mze exveva zebrasaviT yviTel silaSi~;
157

`mze ki torebs scems arabuli


bedauriviT~;
`da mze hgavda cxenis floqviT
axrColebul Radars~;
`Cemi mzerisgan mzec yioda yalyze Semdgari~;
monRolTa sisxlSi mze Wixvinebs
udabnoebis~;
`Semodgomis uRels mze xariviT ubia~;
`Toxispirebze gamoukravs mze sagzaliviT
da mindor_mindor saToxarSi midis aprili~;
`sarze mamalma xma Caiwminda,
mze gadaylapa Toxlo kvercxiviT~;
`iqneba Rames es mze CaxCaxa,
uCinmaCinis qudad exura?~
mze, mze, Camobardne, mzian butkoebad~;
`mze aRdgomis kvercxs Sevadare...~;
`es mze, es miTi damxureT qudad~;
`mzis sviringebiT moxatulxar Wreli
gveliviT~;
`mze am gorakebs svaviviT kortnis,
158

mziT CaJangula papis saZvale~;


`da mzec meomar mamaliviT igrZelebs
kisers~;
`mze, rogorc didi, wiTeli buSti~;
`sityva macvia jaWvis perangad,
muxis foToli, mze da mtevani~;
`mze gamaZRari glexkaciviT mTlad
gazarmacda~;
`jer ki adrea... mze venaxs wamlavs~;
`samxreTis tilo, mziT adRvebili,
laJvardebiT da mziT ixateba~;
mzis individualuri poetika SoTa niSnianiZesTan kargad xatavs im samyaros, romelSic poeti cxovrobs sulierad. Mmze
SoTa niSnianiZisaTvis aris: daTvi, mimino,
Zna, dedaberi, mamali, svavi, Toxi, qudi,
zebra, bedauri, xari, sagzali, Toxlo
kvercxi, aRdgomis kvercxi, wiTeli buSti,
samosi, glexkaci, mevenaxe da sxva...
aRniSnuli metaforebiT, SedarebebiT,
hiperbolebiT da sxva mxatvruli xerxebiT
kargad ixateba soflis garemo, romelic
kvebavs poetis fantazias... mze poetisaTvis
yvelagan da yvelaferSia... sulier da usulo sagnebSic.
159

d a s k v n i s T v i s:
maSasadame, qarTuli poeturi mze aris:
ufali, RvTaeba, sicocxle, adamiani, satrfo, saqarTvelo... is axdens adgilisa da
drois metaforizebas; qarTul poeziaSi
mze aris erTaderTi, rogorc ufali da
amave dros, bevri, rogorc adamiani... yvelas da yvelafers aqvs Tavisi wili mze,
anu sicocxle samzeoSi, anu dedamiwaze,
mzis samyofelSi; mze yvelgan da yvelaferSia, rogorc RmerTi...
mze, rogorc sicocxlis, sinaTlisa da
siTbos wyaro poeziaSi xdeba Semdeg gancdaTa da grZnobaTa aRmniSvneli: siyvaruli, sixaruli, bedniereba, imedi, nugeSi...
Tumca, rodesac avtors naRvliani gancda
gadaaqvs mzeze, maSin is SeiZleba iyos
`mkvdris mze~, `daRaluli mze~, `sapyari
mze~ (`Rrubelo Savo, mzeo sapyaro~ (ana);
mzis zemowarmodgenili metaforuli da
simboluri mniSvnelobebi qarTul poeziaSi
universaluri xasiaTisaa, magram am mniSvnelobebis garda TiToeuli poeti sakuTari
`mzis poetikiT~ gamorCeva, rac poetis individualobis Sesaswavlad saintereso meTodia.
sakvlev masalaze dakvirvebam gviCvena,
rom qarTveli poetebi SegviZlia asec da160

vaxasiaToT: mzis poeti, qaris poeti, nislis poeti, mTvaris poeti, sisxlis poeti,
wvimis poeti, Tovlis poeti... zogjer ki
ramdenime koncepti Tanabradaa erTi poetis
SemoqmedebaSi.
Tanamedrove qarTul poeziaSi gamorCeulad mzis poetebi arian galaktioni da ana
kalandaZe (Tumca anasTan varskvlavebi da
qaric aqtualuria).

161

Semiotics of Poetry
Renovation of the world languge picture
study over the past few decades is challanged by
interests of different sciences (philosophy, psychology, ethnology, linguistics, culturology...).
The worlds events and extracts are revealed
due to the language. Each natural language
reflects the certain model of the world conception My world is determined by my language frontiers writes Ludvig Vitgenstain in
his famous work Logical-philosophical
Trealties. Conceptualisation of reality is the
universal remedy of the world perception, however, special signs exist in each language
community. The world seems to be rather
different for various languages while drawing their pictures. Concept scope considers
the human, the establishment of semiotical
relationship, as a cultural phenomenon rather
than natural one. Just the language (speech)
reveals the humans inner scope, mental and
national-cultural points of view as well.
The directions of
complex researching
objects as well as targets are novelties in
Georgian humanitarian science.
The concept appears to be essential in the
world perceptive process. The new knowledge
paradigms consider the concept as mental
significant mekhanism defining the humans
relation with reality. We are concerned about
representative varieties of consepts metaphorizations in language cognitive structures due to
Georgian poetry discourse.
162

Researches of the world language pictures


consideres Humboldts works, Mullers culturalphilological studies, Neohumboltians theory,
Vaisgerbers works (he founded the term the
world language picture in his program monograph The Native Language and the Soul
Formation), Sepir-Worf linguistic theory and
etc. A.Vezhbitskas work appears to be significant in this point of view as well.

163

Sign Phenomenon in the Poetry Discourse


The sign problem is tremendous in semiotics
while researching the sign determination of the
word semantics is essential. Lexem meaning is
researched according to the language system
dealing with dictionary meaning and speech that
is rather difficult to identify semantics.
Consequently, the word meaning, that is
studied due to various discourses while language
functioning accordingly the style, appears to
represent different meanings or forms lots of
connotations.
Poetry discourse in this approach is rather
difficult and has huge range of space as the
language performs various possibilities in the
poetry language as well. Language forms the
idea, however, each language unit envisages the
context. We target to reveal actual language
units in poetry and establish semantic margins
that indicates the Georgian language opportunities and thoroughness.

164

Semiotics of I
Discourse of poetry is very special semiotic
system. Anything should be considered as a sign
in the world, however, any sign of poetry is
more complex. Semiotics is the way, that leads
to new landscapes of poetry. Scanning of
things with new approach discovers the rules of
the artistic text. Each detail has got expanded
semiotics in the poetry discourse scope sound,
word, rime, metre, rhythm, strophe, the whole
rhyme
The snow, the wind, the sun are not only
the natural events for the poet, it is loaded by
another type of semiotics. Interesting results are
achieved while researching the universal poetry
concepts due to Georgian and other language
materials.
Terenty Granelys poetry exposes identification authors inner and outer world and
metaphorization of the natural events.
Researching I semantics according to
modern poetry has demonstrated such principles
as:
The semantics of I varies due to mental
structure and frequency with different poets.
I semantics in a text is determined by the
usage according to the poets vision. The
conception of I is different with symbolists
and various representatives of literary groups.
Identification of the I structure explains the
epoch spirit, indicates poets individuality. We
find exciting to study it due to literary schools,
epoches and cultures.
165

The Word Related to Researching of


Conception or Poetics of Stars in Anna
Kalandadzes Poetry
Metaphority existed in the nature of the
language is more activated and offers continual
creation as it deals with artistic space of thinking. Each word contains plenty of potential
meanings. The word forming the phrase with
other words activates one key sense from the
diversity of concepts (Octavio Pass). The language consists of practically incomplited creational capacity that forms variety of meanings.
Word-derivatives and Word-concepts
representing the poets language scope are
revealed with various authors. The mentioned
word-concepts, semantems are exposed by:
a) the frequency of using semantem in the
text, marking;
b) the
high
grade
of
semantem
metaphorization forming the new sense;
c) the concept of poetry indicating the
authors idea, due to its functioning in the text.
While researching Anna Kalandadzes poetry the star appeared to be the word-concept.
Almost each poet applies the semantem
star with different frequency in their poetry,
but Anna Kalandadzes star is really special,
forming exciting poetics of stars. Why just this
word? The response is very simple as it is based
on the poets individuality. The sense of this
word seems dealing with the authors soul. Anna
Kalandadzes poetry exposes all types of
166

concepts of this word from literal meaning to


idiomatic one as well.
According to Anna Kalandadzes poetry the
conclusive sense of the star as one of the
metaphors aspires towards God. Eventual
denotative is God that is indefinite as the
expedient designating semantem.

167

The Identification of a Lyrical Figure or


the Concept Blood in Mukhran
Machavarianis Poetry
In order to draw the Georgian linguistic
picture of the world, the linguistic picture of
Georgian poetry is essential, which, in its turn,
implies the construction of linguistic pictures of
individual poets. The identification and analyses
of individual concepts have been one of the
objects of our research. It has become salient,
that while Ana Kalandadze is a poet of Stars,
and Terenti Graneli is of Wind, the central
concept of Mukhran Machavarianis poetry is
Blood. In the poets writings, the concept Blood
reveals not only principal lexical and metaphorical meanings, but the whole spectrum of
individual poetics, being ultimately generated by
archetipical,
biblical
and
mythological
implications of the word.
The study has uncovered another detail:
while in Georgian phraseology Blood reveals
mostly negative connotations, Mukhran Machavarianis poetry, on the contrary, demonstrates
the abundance of positive connotations.
Thus, the concept Blood acts as a metaphoric
grid, the knitting of which has not been completed and will never be unless the language is
alive and proceedes creation. The subject matter
of Mukhran Machavarianis Blood is the poets
identification with Georgia and
Georgian
blood,
logically
following
the
poets
identification with blood. This is the blood,
which comes in order to prolong humans lives
according to Ilia Chavchavadze.
168

Fascinating Function of Language and


Fog Semiotics
The metaphor tends to be the most important
event in the world cognition process. Due to
paradigm of new knowledge the metaphor is
considered as a humans essential mental mechanism determining the persons relation with
reality. According to this point of view we are
concerned about metaphorical comprehension
representative items of natural concepts dealing
with language conscious structures in the Georgian poetry discourse.
Fog appears to be one of the most activated
semantems among natural concepts representing
certain high grade of metaphorization in the
poetry discourse.
Fog forms very special poetics considering
the emotional meanings as well as metaphorical
and symbolical systems in the Georgian poetry.
While demonstrating negative and dominant
positive emotions, fog is a concern to be a
symbol of The World Sadness suffering the
poet with Illness.
Fog challenging the illegibility is associated
as the mystery, that is supposed to be a divine
sigh.

169

The Sun Semiotics in Poetry


Davit Guramishvili assumes the existence of
two suns-cognitive and odd! The astronomical
planet as well as God metaphor is considered.
The conscious sun is out of sight while the odd
one (God) is more inaccessible: Oh! God of
wealth and wisdom and cognition depth! How
mysterious are his justice and ways! (To
Romans,12,33).
Marina Tsvetaeva represents two special
images of the sun-shining in the sky and lit up in
humans breast.
The poet is microspace and exists by analogy
with the world...Eternal events always represent
metaphors of inner feelings senced by the poet.
The sun-universal concept and symbolreveals lots of connotations-biblical, archetypical, mythological, astronomical, associational,
poetical, and etc. And what does the sun denote?
Astronomical meaning: the sun is the yellow star
in Milky Way and in the centre of Solar System.
Celestial objects, even the earth, continuously
move around the sun, that is the source of light
and warmth...
The sun influences people as well as the
nature while emanating energy of various
speed... Light and magnetism establish the earth
forms.
The sun appears to be the symbol of the
space essential contemplating power. However,
ancient pictures of the universe are geocentric,
the sun is the centre of symbols, the space and
existence as well as the symbol of intuitive
170

knowledge, intelligence, illumination, glory and


majesty, sovereignty...Overall, the sun is an
eye of the universe contemplating the image of
divinity, transcendental archetype of light, besides this, demonstrates the door of the universe leading to the entrance of knowledge and
immortality.
The sun is considered as masculine initiation
in many traditions, while some cultures represent
it as feminine phenomenon. Due tu Georgian
folklore: the sun is my mother, the moon-father,
flock of stars are my sisters and brothers!
The still sun, that is in the sky, is not concerned about the time while it is eternal now.
Alchemists consider the sun in accordance
with mind, _ Sol et Luna_ gold and silver, the
king and the queen, soul and body...
The sun adventure (due to the author) is
researched in The Sun in The Knight in the
Panthers Skin by Victor Nozadze establishing
the sun according to the poem in this history.
Mentioning this adventure we are concerned
about the Georgian poetic sun with the scope
of symbols, metaphors and etc.
The sun appears to be characters metaphorthe sun is the human...in The Knight in the
Panthers Skin. This point of view is formed in
accordance with metaphor that the sun is Gods
visible image.
The human is reflection of Gods image, that
is the part of the sun or Gods part
especially the human in love (God is love).We
deal with two suns-the sun God and the sunhuman.
171

Researching materials reveal the sun as:


God, pagan, deity, life, human, time, beloved,
plant, animal, motherland, Georgia...
Some poets promote individual poetics of
the sun representing their individual language
space.

172

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179

Sinaarsi
Sesavali .....................................................5
niSnis problema semiotikaSi ..............7
semiotika da poezia................................15
semiozisi poeziaSi.................................18
semiozisi da avangardi.........................21
poeziis labirinTebSi ..........................23
`Sin~ da `gareT~ poetur diskursSi.....27
me-s semiotika ...........................................31
SorisdebulTa semantika ......................40
sityva azris ZiebaSi anu
varskvlavebis poetika
(ana kalandaZis poezia) ..........................46
lirikuli gmiris identifikacia
anu koncepti sisxli (muxran
maWavarianis poezia)................................66
koncepti sisxli ......................................66
koncepti sisixli muxran maWavarianis
poeziaSi.....................................................72
Tovlis semantika ....................................88
ca da miwa _ sulisa da xorcis
metafora...................................................95
enis fascinaciuri (magiuri) funqcia
da nislis semiotika...............................100
180

poezia da magia .........................................100


nislis poetika.........................................108
nislis gza qarTul poeziaSi...............112
semiotikuri esse `dumilis
nakrZalebSi~ (guCa kvaracxelias
verlibri) .................................................123
mzis semiotika poeziaSi ........................133
ori mze - mikrokosmosi-makrokosmosi .....................................................133
`mze-Tvali~ - universaluri semantikuri formula qarTuli enis
leqsikaSi ...................................................137
qarTuli poeturi mze............................142
mze - RvTaeba, ufali, uzenaesi..............142
mze - adamiani ............................................146
mze - satrfo (mze _ siyvaruli) ............147
mze - dro, adgili,
individualoba........................................149
mze - saqarTvelo ....................................152
mze - sasmeli .............................................153
mze - sicocxlis simbolo (`xmiT
natirlebi~) ...............................................154
mzis individualuri poetika...............157
reziume inglisur enaze ........................162
bibliografia .........................................173
181

dakabadoneba da
garekanis dizaini

TinaTin berberaSvili

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

182